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Sample records for wall crossing formula

  1. A WALL CROSSING FORMULA OF DONALDSON-THOMAS INVARIANTS WITHOUT CHERN-SIMONS FUNCTIONAL

    E-print Network

    Kiem, Young-Hoon

    A WALL CROSSING FORMULA OF DONALDSON-THOMAS INVARIANTS WITHOUT CHERN-SIMONS FUNCTIONAL YOUNG-HOON KIEM AND JUN LI Abstract. We prove a wall crossing formula of Donaldson-Thomas type in- variants; the degree of its virtual fundamental class defines the Donaldson-Thomas invariant of S. In [10, Thm. 5

  2. Ab Initio Wall-Crossing

    E-print Network

    Heeyeon Kim; Jaemo Park; Zhaolong Wang; Piljin Yi

    2011-09-05

    We derive supersymmetric quantum mechanics of n BPS objects with 3n position degrees of freedom and 4n fermionic partners with SO(4) R-symmetry. The potential terms, essential and sufficient for the index problem for non-threshold BPS states, are universal, and 2(n-1) dimensional classical moduli spaces M_n emerge from zero locus of the potential energy. We emphasize that there is no natural reduction of the quantum mechanics to M_n, contrary to the conventional wisdom. Nevertheless, via an index-preserving deformation that breaks supersymmetry partially, we derive a Dirac index on M_n as the fundamental state counting quantity. This rigorously fills a missing link in the "Coulomb phase" wall-crossing formula in literature. We then impose Bose/Fermi statistics of identical centers, and derive the general wall-crossing formula, applicable to both BPS black holes and BPS dyons. Also explained dynamically is how the rational invariant ~\\Omega(\\beta)/p^2, appearing repeatedly in wall-crossing formulae, can be understood as the universal multiplicative factor due to p identical, coincident, yet unbound, BPS particles of charge \\beta. Along the way, we also clarify relationships between field theory state countings and quantum mechanical indices.

  3. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Masahito Yamazaki

    2011-03-25

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  4. Joyce-Song wall-crossing as an asymptotic expansion

    E-print Network

    Stoppa, Jacopo

    2011-01-01

    We conjecture that the Joyce-Song wall-crossing formula for Donaldson-Thomas invariants arises naturally from an asymptotic expansion in the field theoretic work of Gaiotto, Moore and Neitzke. This would also give a new perspective on how the formulae of Joyce-Song and Kontsevich-Soibelman are related. We check the conjecture in many examples.

  5. Classical wall formula and quantal one-body dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, J. J.; Dworzecka, M.

    1986-07-01

    Within the quantal, self-consistent RPA description of the dissipation of nuclear collective energy, a specific set of assumptions is shown to reduce the RPA system to a vibrating potential model which, with the stipulation of certain additional assumptions, yields precisely the dissipation rate given by the Swiatecki wall formula. This correspondence is utilized to explore the explicit and the implicit assumptions of the wall model. Various implications emerge, the most important of which is the fact that, for finite nucleonic binding energy, the true one-body dissipation rate of giant resonance states is reduced by about an order of magnitude from the wall formula value. The wall formula overestimate is due mostly to the fiction it assumes ab initio that all particles are totally reflected at the wall, whereas realistically only bound particles can be totally reflected. In addition, the self-consistency of the quantal description implies that no dissipation occurs to the bound one-particle one-hole subspace from which the RPA phonon is constructed, imposing an absolute prohibition of one-body dissipation for phonon energies less than the nucleonic binding energy. Finally, the quantal dissipation rate exhibits an explicit, but relatively weak, dependence upon the collective phonon energy, ??. The result is that the wall formula yields a gross overestimate of the quantal one-body dissipation rate over the whole range of realistic nuclear situations.

  6. Wall Crossing, Discrete Attractor Flow and Borcherds Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2008-10-01

    The appearance of a generalized (or Borcherds-) Kac-Moody algebra in the spectrum of BPS dyons in N=4, d=4 string theory is elucidated. From the low-energy supergravity analysis, we identify its root lattice as the lattice of the T-duality invariants of the dyonic charges, the symmetry group of the root system as the extended S-duality group PGL(2,Z) of the theory, and the walls of Weyl chambers as the walls of marginal stability for the relevant two-centered solutions. This leads to an interpretation for the Weyl group as the group of wall-crossing, or the group of discrete attractor flows. Furthermore we propose an equivalence between a ''second-quantized multiplicity'' of a charge- and moduli-dependent highest weight vector and the dyon degeneracy, and show that the wall-crossing formula following from our proposal agrees with the wall-crossing formula obtained from the supergravity analysis. This can be thought of as providing! a microscopic derivation of the wall-crossing formula of this theory.

  7. Wall crossing from Boltzmann black hole halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manschot, Jan; Pioline, Boris; Sen, Ashoke

    2011-07-01

    A key question in the study of mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric string or field theories is to understand the decay of BPS bound states across walls of marginal stability in the space of parameters or vacua. By representing the potentially unstable bound states as multi-centered black hole solutions in mathcal{N} = 2 supergravity, we provide two fully general and explicit formulæ for the change in the (refined) index across the wall. The first, "Higgs branch" formula relies on Reineke's results for invariants of quivers without oriented loops, specialized to the Abelian case. The second, "Coulomb branch" formula results from evaluating the symplectic volume of the classical phase space of multi-centered solutions by localization. We provide extensive evidence that these new formulæ agree with each other and with the mathematical results of Kontsevich and Soibelman (KS) and Joyce and Song (JS). The main physical insight behind our results is that the Bose-Fermi statistics of individual black holes participating in the bound state can be traded for Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, provided the (integer) index ?( ?) of the internal degrees of freedom carried by each black hole is replaced by an effective (rational) index bar{? }left( ? right) = sumnolimits_{left. m right|? } {{{{? left( {{{? } left/ {m} right.}} right)}} left/ {{{m^2}}} right.}} similar map also exists for the refined index. This observation provides a physical rationale for the appearance of the rational Donaldson-Thomas invariant bar{? }left( ? right) in the works of KS and JS.

  8. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  9. Optimizing cross-flow-filtration efficacy using variable wall permeabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herterich, James; Griffiths, Ian; Field, Robert; Vella, Dominic

    2013-11-01

    Water filtration systems typically involve flow along a channel with permeable walls and suction applied across the wall. In this ``cross-flow'' arrangement, clean water leaves the channel while impurities remain within it. A limiting factor for the operation of cross-flow devices is the build-up of a high concentration of particles near the wall due to the induced flow. Termed concentration polarization (CP), this effect ultimately leads to the blocking of pores within the permeable wall and the deposition of a ``cake'' on the wall surface. Here we show that, through strategic choices in the spatial variations of the channel-wall permeability, we may reduce the effects of CP by allowing diffusion to smear out any build up of particles that may occur. We demonstrate that, for certain classes of variable permeability, there exist optimal choices that maximize the flux of clean water out of a device.

  10. Analytic continuation of a parametric polytope and wall-crossing

    E-print Network

    Vergne, Michèle

    in a mirage introduced by Varchenko. We determine the set-theoretic variation when crossing a wall arrangement of hyperplanes µi , y = bi so obtained is called a mirage in [20]). Our main construction

  11. Integral formula for elliptic SOS models with domain walls and a reflecting end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, Jules

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we extend previous work of Galleas and the author to elliptic SOS models. We demonstrate that the dynamical reflection algebra can be exploited to obtain a functional equation characterizing the partition function of an elliptic SOS model with domain-wall boundaries and one reflecting end. Special attention is paid to the structure of the functional equation. Through this approach we find a novel multiple-integral formula for that partition function.

  12. 8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  13. A new simple formula for fusion cross-sections of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing Z.; Wei, Qing M.; Liu, Bin

    2008-12-01

    The recent ENDF/B VII.0 data are compared with the fitting formula (NRL handbook—Plasma Formulary). The differences between experimental data and the fitting formula for three major fusion cross-sections reveal the need for a replacement to the old 5-parameter fitting formula. The new formula in this paper has only 3 parameters, but its fit with the experimental data is greatly improved because the energy dependence of the incident-channel (deuteron) width is taken explicitly into account through a penetrability function of the Mott form.

  14. Empirical formula on (n,(3)He) reaction cross sections at 14.6MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Yi?it, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The systematic behavior of the cross sections of (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions has been studied by various researches at neutron energy of 14.6MeV. A new empirical formula based on the Q-value dependence of the cross sections of the investigated reaction has been proposed. The cross sections obtained from the new formula are compared with the other proposed formulae results and the experimental data. It seems that the present formula based on the Q-value dependence provides the good description for cross sections of neutron-induced (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions at 14.6MeV. PMID:26218596

  15. Domain wall formation from level crossing in the axiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-09-01

    We point out that domain wall formation is a more common phenomenon in the axiverse than previously thought. Level crossing could take place if there is a mixing between axions, and if some of the axions acquire a nonzero mass through nonperturbative effects as the corresponding gauge interactions become strong. The axion potential changes significantly during the level crossing, which affects the axion dynamics in various ways. We find that, if there is a mild hierarchy in the decay constants, the axion starts to run along the valley of the potential, passing through many crests and troughs, until it gets trapped in one of the minima: the axion roulette. The axion dynamics exhibits a chaotic behavior during the oscillations, and which minimum the axion is finally stabilized is highly sensitive to the initial misalignment angle. Therefore, the axion roulette is considered to be accompanied by domain wall formation. The cosmological domain wall problem can be avoided by introducing a small bias between the vacua. We discuss cosmological implications of the domain wall annihilation for baryogenesis and future gravitational wave experiments.

  16. Wall-crossing holomorphic anomaly and mock modularity of multiple M5-branes

    E-print Network

    Alim, Murad; Hecht, Michael; Klemm, Albrecht; Rauch, Marco; Wotschke, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Using wall-crossing formulae and the theory of mock modular forms we derive a holomorphic anomaly equation for the modified elliptic genus of two M5-branes wrapping a rigid divisor inside a Calabi-Yau manifold. The anomaly originates from restoring modularity of an indefinite theta-function capturing the wall-crossing of BPS invariants associated to D4-D2-D0 brane systems. We show the compatibility of this equation with anomaly equations previously observed in the context of N=4 topological Yang-Mills theory on P^2 and E-strings obtained from wrapping M5-branes on a del Pezzo surface. The non-holomorphic part is related to the contribution originating from bound-states of singly wrapped M5-branes on the divisor. We show in examples that the information provided by the anomaly is enough to compute the BPS degeneracies for certain charges. We further speculate on a natural extension of the anomaly to higher D4-brane charge.

  17. Wall-Crossing Holomorphic Anomaly and Mock Modularity of Multiple M5-Branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Murad; Haghighat, Babak; Hecht, Michael; Klemm, Albrecht; Rauch, Marco; Wotschke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Using wall-crossing formulae and the theory of mock modular forms we derive a holomorphic anomaly equation for the modified elliptic genus of two M5-branes wrapping a rigid divisor inside a Calabi-Yau manifold. The anomaly originates from restoring modularity of an indefinite theta-function capturing the wall-crossing of BPS invariants associated to D4-D2-D0 brane systems. We show the compatibility of this equation with anomaly equations previously observed in the context of topological Yang-Mills theory on and E-strings obtained from wrapping M5-branes on a del Pezzo surface. The non-holomorphic part is related to the contribution originating from bound-states of singly wrapped M5-branes on the divisor. We show in examples that the information provided by the anomaly is enough to compute the BPS degeneracies for certain charges. We further speculate on a natural extension of the anomaly to higher D4-brane charge.

  18. Microwave Absorption of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Soluble Cross-Linked Polyurethane Composites

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    (EMI) shielding and radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications with both commercial and defenseMicrowave Absorption of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Soluble Cross-Linked Polyurethane Composites composites of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with soluble cross-linked polyurethane (SCPU) were

  19. Examination of fusion cross sections and fusion oscillations with a generalized Wong formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, N.; Hagino, K.

    2015-04-01

    We re-examine the well-known Wong formula for heavy-ion fusion cross sections. Although this celebrated formula yields almost-exact results for single-channel calculations for relatively heavy systems such as 16O+144Sm , it tends to overestimate the cross section for light systems such as 12C+12C . We generalize the formula to take account of the energy dependence of the barrier parameters and show that the energy-dependent version gives results practically indistinguishable from a full quantal calculation. We then examine the deviations arising from the discrete nature of the intervening angular momenta, whose effect can lead to an oscillatory contribution to the excitation function. We recall some compact, analytic expressions for these oscillations and highlight the important physical parameters that give rise to them. Oscillations in symmetric systems are discussed, as are systems where the target and projectile identities can be exchanged via a strong transfer channel.

  20. (p,?) Reaction Cross Sections Calculations of Fe and Ni Target Nuclei Using New Developed Semi-empirical Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Akca, S.; Kara, A.; Yi?it, M.; Ayd?n, A.

    2013-10-01

    Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) are important fusion structural materials in reactor technology. The gas production in the metallic structure arising from many different types of nuclear reactions has been a significant damage mechanism in structural components of fusion reactors. The hydrogen and its isotopes at high temperatures leave out of the metallic lattice but the alpha (?) particles that remain in the lattice generate helium (He) gas bubbles. In other words, the ? particles can cause serious changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the fusion structural materials. In this study, the excitation functions of 54,57Fe(p,?) and 58,60,61,64Ni(p,?) reactions have been investigated in the incident proton energy range of 10-40 MeV to estimate the radiation damage effects on fusion structural materials used in the construction of the first walls and core of the reactor. The calculations of (p,?) reaction cross sections on 54,57Fe and 58,60,61,64Ni have been made by using PCROSS code and CEM95 code. The full exciton and cascade exciton model (CEM95) for pre-equilibrium calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing model for equilibrium calculations are used. Besides, the semi-empirical cross section formula with new coefficient obtained by Tel et al. (Pramana J Phys 74:931-943, 2010) has been applied for (p,?) reactions at 17.9 MeV proton incident energy.

  1. New formulas for the (-2 ) moment of the photoabsorption cross section, ?-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orce, J. N.

    2015-06-01

    Two new formulas for the (-2 ) moment of the photoabsorption cross section, ?-2, have been determined, respectively, from the 1988 photoneutron evaluation of Dietrich and Berman and a mass-dependent symmetry energy coefficient, asym(A ) . The data for A ?50 follow, with a RMS deviation of 6%, the power law ?-2=2.4 A5 /3? b /MeV , which is in agreement with Migdal's calculation of ?-2=2.25 A5 /3? b /MeV based on the hydrodynamic model and the ?-2 sum rule. The additional inclusion of asym(A ) provides a deeper insight into the nuclear polarization of A ?10 nuclei.

  2. Wall-crossing of D4-branes using flow trees

    E-print Network

    Jan Manschot

    2010-03-08

    The moduli dependence of D4-branes on a Calabi-Yau manifold is studied using attractor flow trees, in the large volume limit of the Kahler cone. One of the moduli dependent existence criteria of flow trees is the positivity of the flow parameters along its edges. It is shown that the sign of the flow parameters can be determined iteratively as function of the initial moduli, without explicit calculation of the flow of the moduli in the tree. Using this result, an indefinite quadratic form, which appears in the expression for the D4-D2-D0 BPS mass in the large volume limit, is proven to be positive definite for flow trees with 3 or less endpoints. The contribution of these flow trees to the BPS partition function is therefore convergent. From non-primitive wall-crossing is deduced that the S-duality invariant partition function must be a generating function of rational, multi-covering invariants instead of integer invariants.

  3. Wall Crossing Invariants: from quantum mechanics to knots

    E-print Network

    Galakhov, D; Morozov, A

    2014-01-01

    We offer a pedestrian level review of the wall-crossing invariants. The story begins from the scattering theory in quantum mechanics where the spectrum reshuffling can be related to permutations of S-matrices. In non-trivial situations, starting from spin chains and matrix models, the S-matrices are operator-valued and their algebra is described in terms of R- and mixing (Racah) U-matrices. Then, the Kontsevich-Soibelman invariants are nothing but the standard knot invariants made out of these data within the Reshetikhin-Turaev-Witten approach. The R- and Racah matrices acquire a relatively universal form in the quasiclassical limit, where the basic reshufflings with the change of moduli are those of the Stokes line. Natural from this point of view are matrices provided by the modular transformations of conformal blocks (with the usual identification R=T and U=S), and in the simplest case of the first degenerate field (2,1), when the conformal blocks satisfy a second order Shroedinger-like equation, the invar...

  4. In-vitro fermentability of cell walls as influenced by lignin composition and cross-linking.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed how diverse modifications in lignin composition and reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking influence the degradability of cell walls. Cell walls from nonlignified maize cell suspensions were artificially lignified with varying ratios of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alco...

  5. Tensile Properties of Arabidopsis Cell Walls Depend on Both a Xyloglucan Cross-Linked Microfibrillar

    E-print Network

    Reiter, Wolf-Dieter

    Tensile Properties of Arabidopsis Cell Walls Depend on Both a Xyloglucan Cross.-D.R.) The mechanical properties of plant organs depend upon anatomical structure, cell-cell adhesion, cell turgidity, and the mechanical properties of their cell walls. By testing the mechanical responses of Arabidopsis mutants

  6. Anaphylaxis in a milk-allergic child after ingestion of soy formula cross-contaminated with cow's milk protein.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael E; Motala, Cassim; Lopata, Andreas L

    2005-11-01

    In this report we describe a 9-month-old boy with severe persistent asthma and documented cow's milk allergy (presented with eczema and severe systemic reactions) who had an anaphylactic reaction to a soy formula contaminated with cow's milk protein. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed trace quantities of beta-lactoglobulin in the offending soy formula as well as the dry powder. The patient did not demonstrate clinical reactivity to soy protein (negative challenge, tolerated pure soy formula well). Cross-contamination of the offending soy formula was presumed to have occurred during food manufacturing. This case demonstrates that trace quantities of cow's milk protein can elicit severe systemic reactions in highly milk-allergic individuals. This infant ingested the equivalent of 0.4 mL of cow's milk from the soy formula as documented by an immunoassay for beta-lactoglobulin. This highlights the ease with which cross-contamination can occur during food processing and reinforces the need for better quality control. PMID:16264012

  7. MODEL STUDIES OF FERULATE-CONIFERYL ALCOHOL CROSS PRODUCT FORMATION IN PRIMARY MAIZE WALLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR LIGNIFICATION IN GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulate and diferulates mediate cell wall cross-linking in grasses but little is known about their cross-coupling reactions with monolignols and their role in lignin formation in primary cell walls. Feruloylated primary walls of maize were artificially lignified and then saponified to release ferul...

  8. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.

  9. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.

  10. Wall shear rates and stagnation mass transfer on a plate in axisymmetric and cross impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meslem, A.; Kristiawan, M.; Nastase, I.; Sobolik, V.

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a study on the wall shear rate and mass transfer of impinging jets on a flat plate in the vicinity of stagnation point. The performance of a cross-shaped orifice nozzle was compared with a reference convergent circular nozzle having similar equivalent diameter. An array of electrodiffusion micro probes inserted into the plate was used for wall shear rates measurements. Mass transfer in the impinging region was calculated from the measured wall shear rates for a Reynolds number around 5500 and over a range of streamwise distances between the nozzle and the impinging plane within 1 to 5 nozzle equivalent diameters. The most important observation in the present investigation is that the wall shear rates and the mass transfer in the impingement region of the cross-shaped orifice nozzle are up to 175% and 40%, respectively, higher than that of the convergent nozzle. The performance of the cross-shaped orifice jet is probably related to its particular vortex dynamics characteristic of the near exit region. All the results confirm that the jet passive control enhance the mass transfer.

  11. Cell wall fermentation kinetics impacted more by lignin content and cross-linking than by diverse shifts in lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how lignification and diverse shifts in lignin cross-linking and composition influence cell wall fermentation. Primary cell walls from nonlignified maize cell suspensions were artificially lignified with varying ratios of normal monolignols (coniferyl a...

  12. Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...

  13. Skyrme-force dependence of fusion cross-sections using Wong formula in semiclassical formalism

    E-print Network

    Raj Kumar; Raj K Gupta

    2010-10-06

    we use the nuclear proximity potential obtained recently for the Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction in the semiclassical extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approach using Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF) under frozen-density (sudden-without-exchange) approximation, and $\\Phi$=0$^0$. This method allows the barrier modifications by using different Skyrme forces, since a different Skyrme force would mean different barrier characteristics, and possibly a different force for different reaction cross-section.

  14. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  15. A simple formula for the third integral of motion of disk-crossing stars in the galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier E-mail: javier@ufscar.br

    2014-05-01

    We present a simple analytical formula for an approximated third integral of motion associated with nearly equatorial orbits in the Galaxy: I{sub 3}=Z?{sub I}{sup 1/3}, where Z(R) is the vertical amplitude of the orbit at galactocentric distance R and ? {sub I}(R) is the integrated dynamical surface mass density of the disk, a quantity which has recently become measurable. We also suggest that this relation is valid for disk-crossing orbits in a wide variety of axially symmetric galactic models, which range from razor-thin disks to disks with non-negligible thickness, whether or not the system includes bulges and halos. We apply our formalism to a Miyamoto-Nagai model and to a realistic model for the Milky Way. In both cases, the results provide fits for the shape of nearly equatorial orbits which are better than the corresponding curves obtained by the usual adiabatic approximation when the orbits have vertical amplitudes comparable to the disk's scale height. We also discuss the role of this approximate third integral of motion in modified theories of gravity.

  16. A Simple Formula for the Third Integral of Motion of Disk-crossing Stars in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier

    2014-05-01

    We present a simple analytical formula for an approximated third integral of motion associated with nearly equatorial orbits in the Galaxy: I_{3}=Z\\Sigma _{I}^{1/3}, where Z(R) is the vertical amplitude of the orbit at galactocentric distance R and ? I (R) is the integrated dynamical surface mass density of the disk, a quantity which has recently become measurable. We also suggest that this relation is valid for disk-crossing orbits in a wide variety of axially symmetric galactic models, which range from razor-thin disks to disks with non-negligible thickness, whether or not the system includes bulges and halos. We apply our formalism to a Miyamoto-Nagai model and to a realistic model for the Milky Way. In both cases, the results provide fits for the shape of nearly equatorial orbits which are better than the corresponding curves obtained by the usual adiabatic approximation when the orbits have vertical amplitudes comparable to the disk's scale height. We also discuss the role of this approximate third integral of motion in modified theories of gravity.

  17. Cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with energies up to 1 GeV: Analytical formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bote, David; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander; Powell, Cedric J.

    2009-11-01

    Analytical formulas are presented for the easy calculation of cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of neutral atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. Each formula contains a number of parameters that are characteristic of the element, the active electron shell and the projectile particle. The values of these parameters were determined by fitting the cross section values in an extensive database that was calculated recently by means of a composite algorithm that combines the distorted-wave and plane-wave Born approximations. Tables of parameter values are given for all elements, from hydrogen (Z=1) to einsteinium (Z=99). The proposed analytical expressions yield ionization cross sections that agree with those in the numerical database to within about 1%, except for projectiles with near-threshold energies.

  18. Cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with energies up to 1 GeV: Analytical formulas

    SciTech Connect

    Bote, David; Salvat, Francesc Jablonski, Aleksander

    2009-11-15

    Analytical formulas are presented for the easy calculation of cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of neutral atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. Each formula contains a number of parameters that are characteristic of the element, the active electron shell and the projectile particle. The values of these parameters were determined by fitting the cross section values in an extensive database that was calculated recently by means of a composite algorithm that combines the distorted-wave and plane-wave Born approximations. Tables of parameter values are given for all elements, from hydrogen (Z=1) to einsteinium (Z=99). The proposed analytical expressions yield ionization cross sections that agree with those in the numerical database to within about 1%, except for projectiles with near-threshold energies.

  19. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic study of cross-tie wall structures in Co91Nb6Zr3 amorphous thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, S.; Pan, G.; Mapps, D. J.; Clegg, W. W.; Heydon, G.; Rainforth, W. M.; Davies, H. A.; Bishop, J. E. L.; Tucker, J. W.; Gibbs, M. R. J.

    2000-02-01

    High resolution images of cross-tie domain wall structures have been obtained by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) for a 37.5 nm Co91Nb6Zr3 film using a NiFe thin film coated tip. Between successive cross ties, the main or spinal wall was found to be consistently subdivided unequally into pairs of oppositely oriented Néel wall sections separated by circular Bloch lines. Main and wing walls intersect at cross Bloch lines. A reversed-contrast MFM image of the same uneven cross-tie wall structure was obtained after reversing the tip magnetization. MFM images reflect only the field from the divergence of the underlying magnetization M and contain no direct information on curl M. Accordingly they are best interpreted by comparison with the magnetization pattern of a similar cross-tie structure obtained by micromagnetic computation. This enables the cross and circular Bloch line singularities to be distinguished in the MFM images of the cross-tie structure. By combining repeated observations made with opposite tip magnetizations, disturbance of the main and wing wall structures by the tip was extracted from the MFM signal which was then compared with the signal computed for a two-dimensional model wall. The main wall was found to be an asymmetric Néel wall with a weak S shaped magnetic structure. The wing walls were found to be Néel walls of acute angle, decreasing with distance from the spine.

  20. Wall paintings studied using Raman spectroscopy: a comparative study between various assays of cross sections and external layers.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Robador, Maria Dolores; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Siguenza, Belinda; Duran, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study between in situ applications of portable Raman spectroscopy and direct laboratory measurements using micro-Raman spectroscopy on the surface of small samples and of cross sections. The study was performed using wall paintings from different sites of the Alcazar of Seville. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer due to the presence of an acrylic polymer, calcium oxalate, calcite and gypsum that was formed or deposited on the surface. The pigments responsible for different colours, except cinnabar, were not detected by the micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the surface of small samples taken from the wall paintings due to the presence of surface contaminants. The pigments and plaster were characterised using cross sections. The black colour consisted of carbon black. The red layers were formed by cinnabar and white lead or by iron oxides. The green and white colours were composed of green emerald or atacamite and calcite, respectively. Pb3O4 has also been characterised. The white layers (plaster) located under the colour layers consisted of calcite, quartz and feldspars. The fresco technique was used to create the wall paintings. A wall painting located on a gypsum layer was also studied. The Naples yellow in this wall painting was not characterised due to the presence of glue and oils. This study showed the advantage of studying cross sections to completely characterise the pigments and plaster in the studied wall paintings. PMID:24216251

  1. Analysis and Parametric Investigation of Active Open Cross Section Thin Wall Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, James

    The static behaviour of active Open Cross Section Thin Wall Beams (OCSTWB) with embedded Active/Macro Fibre Composites (AFCs/MFCs) has been investigated for the purpose of advancing the fundamental theory needed in the development of advanced smart structures. An efficient code that can analyze active OCSTWB using analytical equations has been studied. Various beam examples have been investigated in order to verify this recently developed analytical active OCSTWB analysis tool. The cross sectional stiffness constants and induced force, moments and bimoment predicted by this analytical code have been compared with those predicted by the 2-D finite element beam cross section analysis codes called the Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional (VABS) analysis and the University of Michigan VABS (UM/VABS). Good agreement was observed between the results obtained from the analytical tool and VABS. The calculated cross sectional stiffness constants and induced force/moments, the constitutive relation and the six intrinstic static equilibrium equations for OCSTWB were all used together in a first-order accurate forward difference scheme in order to determine the average twist and deflections along the beam span. In order to further verify the analytical code, the static behaviour of a number of beam examples was investigated using 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA). For a particular cross section, the rigid body twist and displacements were minimized with the displacements of all the nodes in the 3-D FEA model that compose the cross section. This was done for a number of cross sections along the beam span in order to recover the global beam twist and displacement profiles from the 3-D FEA results. The global twist and deflections predicted by the analytical code agreed closely with those predicted by UM/VABS and 3-D FEA. The study was completed by a parametric investigation to determine the boundary conditions and the composite ply lay-ups of the active and passive plies that produce the greatest twist in an active I-beam spar using an induced bimoment. It was found that greater twist could be produced by distributing the active plies near the outer flange edges and towards the warping restrained beam root.

  2. IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS

    SciTech Connect

    de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

    2013-10-16

    DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties. Currently, the genes underlying AX feruloylation have not been identified and the isolation of such genes could be of great importance in manipulating ferulates accretion to the wall. Mutation of the feruloyl transferase gene(s) should lead to less ferulates secreted to the cell wall and reduced ferulate cross-linking. Our current research is based on the hypothesis that controlling the level of total feruloylation will have a direct impact on the level of cross-linking and in turn impact biomass utility for forage and biofuel production. Our results/accomplishments for this project so far include: 1. Mutagenised Brachypodium population. We have developed EMS mutagenized populations of model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. EMS populations have been developed from over 28,000 mutagenized seeds generating 5,184 M2 families. A total of 20,793 plants have been screened and 1,233 were originally selected. 2. Selected Brachypodium mutants: Potential mutants on their levels of cell wall ferulates and cell wall AX ? have been selected from 708 M2 families. A total of 303 back-crosses to no-mutagenized parental stock have been done, followed by selfing selected genotypes in order to confirm heritability of traits and to remove extraneous mutations generated by EMS mutagenesis. We are currently growing 12 F5 and F6 populations in order to assess CW composition. If low level of ferulates are confirmed in the candidate lines selected the mutation could be altered in different in one or several kinds of genes such as genes encoding an AX feruloyl transferase; genes encoding the arabinosyl transferase; genes encoding the synthesis of the xylan backbone; genes encoding enzymes of the monolignol pathway affecting FA formation or genes encoding transcription factors that control feruloylation. So it will require further investigations to confirm if we have a mutation on the ferulloyltransferase gene(s). We have also identified severe phenotypes which showed a significant change in the level of cell wall ferulates and sugars and have not survived. As this genotype did not reach flowering stage there was no seed production and so further analysis could not be done. 3. Candidate Gene Approach: Because of the likely long time expected to generate and identify candidate with mutation(s) on the feruloyltransferase gene, from our screening, we have in addition taken a bioinformatics approach in order to try to identify candidates gene(s) involved in feruloylation. Homologues of the rice feruloyl transferase genes belonging to Pfam PF02458 family were identified in Brachypodium distachyon by blasting EST sequences of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes against Brachypodium and homologous sequences identified were tested for their expression level in Brachypodium. Sequences of the two Brachypodium genes, which showed highest expression and similarity to rice sequences, were used to design primers for construction of RNAi and over-expression vectors. These were transformed into Brachypodium using Agrobacterium transformation and plants generated have been analyzed for levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates over generations T0 to T2 or T3. Our data shows a significant reduction if ferulates monomers and dimers from plants generated from RNAi::BdAT2 over 2-3 generations indicating that this gene might be a positive candidate for feruloylation in Brachypodium. However when BdAT2 was up regulated there was not much increase in the level of ferulates as would be expected. This lack of effect on the level of cell wall ferulates could be due to the CaMV::35S promoter used to drive the expression of the putative BdAT2 gene. We have shown previously that Aspergillus FAEA expression in tall fescue under CaMV::35S resulted in 1.9 fold decrease in activity compared to ac

  3. Bubble Formation from Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross-Flow Under Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Two-phase flows present a wide variety of applications for spacecraft thermal control systems design. Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter, the gas flow rate, and the liquid cross-flow velocity. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle.

  4. A Transglutaminase Immunologically Related to Tissue Transglutaminase Catalyzes Cross-Linking of Cell Wall Proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Kusch, Thomas; Woessner, Jeffrey Paul

    1999-01-01

    The addition of primary amines to the growth medium of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupts cell wall assembly in both vegetative and zygotic cells. Primary amines are competitive inhibitors of the protein-cross-linking activity of transglutaminases. Two independent assays for transglutaminase confirmed a burst of extracellular activity during the early stages of cell wall formation in both vegetative cells and zygotes. When non-inhibiting levels of a radioactive primary amine (14C-putrescine) were added to the growth medium, both cell types were labeled in a reaction catalyzed by extracellular transglutaminase. The radioactive label was found specifically in the cell wall proteins of both cell types, and acid hydrolysis of the labeled material released unmodified 14C-putrescine. Western blots of the proteins secreted at the times of maximal transglutaminase activity in both cell types revealed a single highly cross-reactive 72-kD band when screened with antibodies to guinea pig tissue transglutaminase. Furthermore, the proteins immunoprecipitated by this antiserum in vivo exhibited transglutaminase activity. We propose that this transglutaminase is responsible for an early cell wall protein cross-linking event that temporally precedes the oxidative cross-linking mediated by extracellular peroxidases. PMID:10557250

  5. Infant Formula

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...

  6. Cross Talk between the Cell Wall Integrity and Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A Pathways in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Donlin, Maureen J.; Upadhya, Rajendra; Gerik, Kimberly J.; Lam, Woei; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Specht, Charles A.; Sharma, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen of immunocompromised people that causes fatal meningitis. The fungal cell wall is essential to viability and pathogenesis of C. neoformans, and biosynthesis and repair of the wall is primarily controlled by the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. Previous work has shown that deletion of genes encoding the four major kinases in the CWI signaling pathway, namely, PKC1, BCK1, MKK2, and MPK1 results in severe cell wall phenotypes, sensitivity to a variety of cell wall stressors, and for Mpk1, reduced virulence in a mouse model. Here, we examined the global transcriptional responses to gene deletions of BCK1, MKK2, and MPK1 compared to wild-type cells. We found that over 1,000 genes were differentially expressed in one or more of the deletion strains, with 115 genes differentially expressed in all three strains, many of which have been identified as genes regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Biochemical measurements of cAMP levels in the kinase deletion strains revealed significantly less cAMP in all of the deletion strains compared to the wild-type strain. The deletion strains also produced significantly smaller capsules than the wild-type KN99 strain did under capsule-inducing conditions, although the levels of capsule they shed were similar to those shed by the wild type. Finally, addition of exogenous cAMP led to reduced sensitivity to cell wall stress and restored surface capsule to levels near those of wild type. Thus, we have direct evidence of cross talk between the CWI and cAMP/PKA pathways that may have important implications for regulation of cell wall and capsule homeostasis. PMID:25118241

  7. LytN, a Murein Hydrolase in the Cross-wall Compartment of Staphylococcus aureus, Is Involved in Proper Bacterial Growth

    E-print Network

    LytN, a Murein Hydrolase in the Cross-wall Compartment of Staphylococcus aureus, Is Involved of the staphylococcal cell cycle. Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections, sepsis

  8. FIBER DEPOSITION ALONG AIRWAY WALLS: EFFECTS OF FIBER CROSS-SECTION ON ROTATIONAL INTERCEPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne fibers present a threat to human health. athematical model of fiber motion is presented which suggests that significant rotational deposition occurs along airway walls downstream of human lung bifurcations. he predictions are validated by cited experimental data. oth pro...

  9. Theoretical analyses of aerosol aging on a substrate without wall-effects by a cross-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cowin, James P.; Yang, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Iedema, Martin J.

    2011-12-12

    Long time ({approx}1 day) aging or reactions of aerosol is typically studied using either large aerosol chambers (> 10 m3) or particles supported on a substrate to minimize wall effects. To avoid wall effects in the latter, it is often essential that the wall reactivity be extremely small (<< 10-5 reactions per encounter) and that the particle loadings be very small (< 1 pg/cm2) to eliminate transport-limited trace gas depletion near the particles and substrate. We evaluate here a cross-flow approach, which greatly reduces these constraints. Particles are to be supported on a micromesh ({approx}50% or more open area) through which the reactive gas is drawn at around a few hundred cm/s. The analysis shows how the competitions between flow and diffusion establishes a 'zone of isolation' several microns wide around each reactive particle, outside of which the reactivity of other particles or the substrate are irrelevant to the local reactions. This cross-flow approach reduces the effects of substrate and collective particle reactivity typically orders of magnitude, and will facilitate aging studies of supported aerosols.

  10. Cross-sectional Analysis of Anisotropic, Thin-Walled, Closed-Section Beams

    E-print Network

    Patil, Mayuresh

    the theories are displacement-based and give only the classical (extension, bending and torsion) stiffnesses-plane warping and reduction in torsional rigidity. Analysis that include shell bending effects increase and the actuation strain measures. The theory is based on thin-walled assumption and thus shell bending strains

  11. Bubble Formation on a Wall in Cross-Flowing Liquid and Surrounding Fluid Motion,With and Without Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhunia, Avijit; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Nahra, Henry K.

    2000-01-01

    Application of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems for space-based thermal management and for the HEDS program demands a precise control of bubble size distribution in liquid. The necessity of bulk liquid motion for controlling bubble size and frequency in the space environment has been suggested by recent studies on pool, forced convection boiling and bubble formation in flowing liquid. The present work, consisting of two parts, explores bubble generation at wall in a cross-flowing liquid, i.e., in a forced convection boiling configuration. A schematic is shown. The first part looks into the bubble formation process under isothermal conditions in a reduced gravity environment, by injecting gas through a hole in the wall of a flowing liquid channel. In the latter part with channel wall heating, flow and temperature fields near a single bubble are studied under normal (1-g) and micro-gravity (mu-g) conditions. The objective of the isothermal experiments is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter (D(sub N)), the gas flow rate (Q(sub g)), and the liquid cross-flow velocity (U(sub L)). The reduced gravity data are shown. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle. With wall heating, liquid motion around an air bubble in cross-flowing 2cs silicone oil is experimentally investigated in 1-g. A spectral element based steady 2D numerical model is also developed. The traces of particles from experimental flow visualization and the corresponding computed streamlines are shown. At the upstream side of the bubble facing the cross-flow, thermocapillary and forced convection create liquid motion away from the wall, up along the surface. At the downstream side, a competing interaction between the two creates a recirculation cell, causing the bulk liquid to stagnate on the surface and separate thereafter. The important dimensionless parameters are - Surface tension and local cross-flow Reynolds numbers R(sub sigma)(U(sub ref)a/v) and Re(sub loc)(U(sub L)a/v), respectively based on reference thermocapillary U(sub ref)(sigma(sub T)Delta.T/mu, Delta T=T(sub wall)-T(sub liquid)) and local cross-flow velocity U(sub L), Prandtl number P(sub r) and Grashoff number Gr(rho.g.beta.DeltaTa(sup 3)/mu.v). Variation of the stagnation point with R(sub sigma) and Re(sub loc) is shown. Also shown are good agreement between experimental and numerical results in 1-g. The computational model is extended to mu-g condition to investigate temperature and velocity on the bubble surface, stagnation and reattachment points of the recirculation cell and wall heat transfer. It is observed that wall heating significantly alters the flow field around the bubble and thus the forces acting on the bubble, which control its detachment. Thus a combination of heating and liquid cross-flow can be utilized to precisely control bubble formation in a mu-g environment.

  12. Catheter ultrasound for cross-sectional imaging and drug delivery to vessel wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossack, John A.

    2015-05-01

    Current methods for delivery of an anti-restenosis drug to an arterial vessel wall post-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement are limited in terms of drug choice, dosing level, and ability to assure drug coverage between the struts of a drug eluting stent. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides real-time, radiation-free, imaging and assessment of atherosclerotic disease in terms of anatomical, functional and molecular information. In this presentation, the design of a dual imaging / therapy IVUS catheter is described and results documenting gene and drug delivery reported. Microbubbles and drug / gene (shell associated or co-injected) are dispensed from the catheter tip. Using this approach, it becomes possible to address the need for complete vessel wall coverage and achieve delivery in regions poorly addressed using conventional stent-based approaches. A range of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo results are presented. Our most recent results involve a demonstration in a pig model of coronary balloon angioplasty that produced a 33% reduction in neointima formation versus a drug plus microbubble, but no ultrasound, control.

  13. The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; O'Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.

    1999-11-01

    The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.

  14. Silylesterification of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling between carboxylic and hydrosilane functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2014-06-01

    Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.

  15. The Wall Interference of a Wind Tunnel of Elliptic Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tani, Itiro; Sanuki, Matao

    1944-01-01

    The wall interference is obtained for a wind tunnel of elliptic section for the two cases of closed and open working sections. The approximate and exact methods used gave results in practically good agreement. Corresponding to the result given by Glauert for the case of the closed rectangular section, the interference is found to be a minimum for a ratio of minor to major axis of 1:square root of 6 This, however, is true only for the case where the span of the airfoil is small in comparison with the width of the tunnel. For a longer airfoil the favorable ellipse is flatter. In the case of the open working section the circular shape gives the minimum interference.

  16. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming. PMID:25619118

  17. Prediction of Bubble Diameter at Detachment from a Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross Flow Under Reduced and Normal Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two-phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to theoretically investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate embodied in the momentum flux force, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. A two-dimensional one-stage theoretical model based on a global force balance on the bubble evolving from a wall orifice in a cross liquid flow is presented in this work. In this model, relevant forces acting on the evolving bubble are expressed in terms of the bubble center of mass coordinates and solved simultaneously. Relevant forces in low gravity included the momentum flux, shear-lift, surface tension, drag and inertia forces. Under normal gravity conditions, the buoyancy force, which is dominant under such conditions, can be added to the force balance. Two detachment criteria were applicable depending on the gas to liquid momentum force ratio. For low ratios, the time when the bubble acceleration in the direction of the detachment angle is greater or equal to zero is calculated from the bubble x and y coordinates. This time is taken as the time at which all the detaching forces that are acting on the bubble are greater or equal to the attaching forces. For high gas to liquid momentum force ratios, the time at which the y coordinate less the bubble radius equals zero is calculated. The bubble diameter is evaluated at this time as the diameter at detachment from the fact that the bubble volume is simply given by the product of the gas flow rate and time elapsed. Comparison of the model s predictions was also made with predictions from a two-dimensional normal gravity model based on Kumar-Kuloor formulation and such a comparison is presented in this work.

  18. Vortex Partition Functions, Wall Crossing and Equivariant Gromov-Witten Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we identify the problem of equivariant vortex counting in a (2,2) supersymmetric two dimensional quiver gauged linear sigma model with that of computing the equivariant Gromov-Witten invariants of the GIT quotient target space determined by the quiver. We provide new contour integral formulae for the and -functions encoding the equivariant quantum cohomology of the target space. Its chamber structure is shown to be encoded in the analytical properties of the integrand. This is explained both via general arguments and by checking several key cases. We show how several results in equivariant Gromov-Witten theory follow just by deforming the integration contour. In particular, we apply our formalism to compute Gromov-Witten invariants of the orbifold, of the Uhlembeck (partial) compactification of the moduli space of instantons on , and of A n and D n singularities both in the orbifold and resolved phases. Moreover, we analyse dualities of quantum cohomology rings of holomorphic vector bundles over Grassmannians, which are relevant to BPS Wilson loop algebrae.

  19. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-11-01

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.

  20. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Schnoor, Michael; Alcaide, Pilar; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers. PMID:26568666

  1. Formula Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the mathematical formula devised by George O. Weber on budgeting for physical plants of colleges and universities. Uses four functions of administration, maintenance (operational), housekeeping/custodial, and grounds as a base. (Author/MLF)

  2. Infant formulas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk. Infant formulas vary in nutrients, calorie count, taste, ... and normal infant feeding based on human breast milk are available from the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  3. A Cross Structured Light Sensor and Stripe Segmentation Method for Visual Tracking of a Wall Climbing Robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liguo; Sun, Jianguo; Yin, Guisheng; Zhao, Jing; Han, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal welds, weld line tracking is usually performed outdoors, where the structured light sources are always disturbed by various noises, such as sunlight, shadows, and reflections from the weld line surface. In this paper, we design a cross structured light (CSL) to detect the weld line and propose a robust laser stripe segmentation algorithm to overcome the noises in structured light images. An adaptive monochromatic space is applied to preprocess the image with ambient noises. In the monochromatic image, the laser stripe obtained is recovered as a multichannel signal by minimum entropy deconvolution. Lastly, the stripe centre points are extracted from the image. In experiments, the CSL sensor and the proposed algorithm are applied to guide a wall climbing robot inspecting the weld line of a wind power tower. The experimental results show that the CSL sensor can capture the 3D information of the welds with high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm contributes to the weld line inspection and the robot navigation. PMID:26110403

  4. A Cross Structured Light Sensor and Stripe Segmentation Method for Visual Tracking of a Wall Climbing Robot

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liguo; Sun, Jianguo; Yin, Guisheng; Zhao, Jing; Han, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal welds, weld line tracking is usually performed outdoors, where the structured light sources are always disturbed by various noises, such as sunlight, shadows, and reflections from the weld line surface. In this paper, we design a cross structured light (CSL) to detect the weld line and propose a robust laser stripe segmentation algorithm to overcome the noises in structured light images. An adaptive monochromatic space is applied to preprocess the image with ambient noises. In the monochromatic image, the laser stripe obtained is recovered as a multichannel signal by minimum entropy deconvolution. Lastly, the stripe centre points are extracted from the image. In experiments, the CSL sensor and the proposed algorithm are applied to guide a wall climbing robot inspecting the weld line of a wind power tower. The experimental results show that the CSL sensor can capture the 3D information of the welds with high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm contributes to the weld line inspection and the robot navigation. PMID:26110403

  5. Finite-element modelling of low-temperature autofrettage of thick-walled tubes of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 L: Part II. Thick-walled tube with cross-bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H.; Donth, B.; Mughrabi, H.

    1998-01-01

    In part I, the autofrettage of a smooth thick-walled tube of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 L was studied by finite-element (FE) modelling. It was shown that low- temperature autofrettage is more efficient than autofrettage at room temperature, since it produces a larger beneficial compressive residual tangential (hoop) stress at the inner bore of the tube and hence permits a more significant enhancement of the fatigue resistance against pulsating internal pressure. The objective of the present study (part II) was to investigate the technically more relevant case of a thick-walled tube with a cross-bore made of the same steel. For this purpose, three-dimensional FE calculations were performed in order to characterize the influences of the autofrettage pressure and temperature on the stress and strain changes, in particular at the site of the cross-bore, also taking into account the effects of work hardening and reverse yielding. The results indicate that low-temperature autofrettage can also be applied advantageously in the case of thick-walled tubes with a cross-bore by virtue of the significantly larger residual compressive stresses, compared to room temperature autofrettage. From the quantitative FE calculations, the optimal combination of autofrettage temperature and pressure were concluded to lie in the range of 0965-0393/6/1/007/img1 to 0965-0393/6/1/007/img2, respectively. The calculated results were found to be in fair agreement with the measured values.

  6. Fishy Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)

  7. Comparison of cross-sectional renal function measurements in African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and of primary formulas to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J; Agodoa, L; Cheek, D; Greene, T; Middleton, J; O'Connor, D; Ojo, A; Phillips, R; Sika, M; Wright, J

    2001-10-01

    Renal function measurements were obtained in 1,703 African Americans with presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis who were screened for entry into the African-American Study of Hypertension and Kidney Disease (AASK). We examined the effect of race on relationships involving renal variables by comparing African Americans enrolled into the AASK with non-African Americans enrolled into the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. We examined the effect of gender on renal variables by comparing African American men and women. We compared various methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with iodine 125-labeled ((125)I)-iothalamate GFR. AASK data were also used to derive a new formula for estimating GFR in African Americans. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline GFR, African American patients on the AASK study were heavier and had larger body surface areas and body mass indices than either MDRD African Americans or non-African Americans. African Americans had greater serum creatinine levels and urinary creatinine excretions for any given level of GFR. Mean GFR was greater in African American men than African American women (59.7 versus 51.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), although serum creatinine levels were also greater in men (1.91 versus 1.73 mg/dL). Seventy-eight percent of women with serum creatinine levels between 1.2 and 1.5 mg/dL had GFRs less than 65 mL/min/1.73 m(2). For African Americans in the AASK, GFR was overestimated by the 24-hour creatinine clearance and underestimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. A prediction formula developed in the MDRD study more accurately predicted GFR in AASK patients than these measurements. AASK data were also used to derive a new five-term formula for estimating GFR that was slightly more accurate in the African Americans in the AASK than the MDRD formula (median percentage of error, 12.4% for the MDRD formula versus 12.1% for the AASK formula). Important differences exist in renal variables between African Americans and non-African Americans and between African American men and African American women. Formulas using demographic data and readily measured serum values estimate (125)I-iothalamate GFR. PMID:11576877

  8. Cross-hole radar scanning of two vertical, permeable, reactive-iron walls at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Savoie, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted by the U.S. Army National Guard (USANG) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to assess the use of a hydraulic-fracturing method to create vertical, permeable walls of zero-valent iron to passively remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The study was conducted near the source area of the Chemical Spill-10 (CS-10) plume, a plume containing chlorinated solvents that underlies the MMR. Ground-water contamination near the source area extends from about 24 m (meters) to 35 m below land surface. The USANG designed two reactive-iron walls to be 12 m long and positioned 24 to 37 m below land surface to intersect and remediate part of the CS-10 plume.Because iron, as an electrical conductor, absorbs electromagnetic energy, the US Geological Survey used a cross-hole common-depth, radar scanning method to assess the continuity and to estimate the lateral and vertical extent of the two reactive-iron walls. The cross-hole radar surveys were conducted in boreholes on opposite sides of the iron injection zones using electric-dipole antennas with dominant center frequencies of 100 and 250 MHz. Significant decreases in the radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans that traversed the injection zones were interpreted by comparing field data to results of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical models and laboratory-scale physical models.The numerical and physical models simulate a wall of perfectly conducting material embedded in saturated sand. Results from the numerical and physical models show that the amplitude of the radar pulse transmitted across the edge of a conductive wall is about 43 percent of the amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted across background material. The amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted through a hole in a conductive wall increases as the aperture of the hole increases. The modeling results indicate that holes with an aperture of less than 40 percent of the dominant wavelength of the radar pulse are not likely to be detected.Based on the results of the numerical and physical modeling, the decreases in radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans traversing the injection zones are interpreted as electrically conductive zones that outline the distribution of iron. The area interpreted as iron in the northern A-wall contains two zones -- an upper zone about 10 m wide, extending from about 25 to 31 m below land surface, and a lower zone about 8 m wide, extending from 31.5 to 34.5 m below land surface. The area interpreted as iron in the southern B-wall is about 9 m wide, extending from about 27 to 34.5 m below land surface. No discrete holes were interpreted in either the A- or B-wall zones.The interpretation of the field data suggests that (1) the hydraulic-fracturing method introduced iron into the subsurface, but not in the dimensions originally proposed; (2) the iron within the treatment zones is distributed in a generally continuous manner; and (3) excluding the discontinuity in the A-wall, holes within the iron treatment zone, if any, exist at scales smaller than about 10 cm, the resolution limit of the radar antennas and acquisition geometry used for this study. The cross-hole radar method appears to have been an effective method for delineating the distribution of iron in the two walls; however, the veracity of the results cannot be ascertained without excavation or drilling into the treatment zone.

  9. Study by micro-Raman spectroscopy of wall paints (external parts and cross-sections) from reales alcazares of Seville (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, José Luis; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Robador, María Dolores; Siguenza, Belinda; Durán, Adrián

    2013-04-01

    The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla was originally builded by the Arabic in the year 913. The Mudejar Palace was built by Christian King Pedro I between 1364 and 1366. At the end of XV century the Catholic Kings, Isabel and Fernando made important transformations especially in the Mudejar Palace. Recently, wall paints from Catholic Kings periods were found during works of conservations in the first floor of the Palace. The study of these paints by non-destructive techniques was considered of great interest in order to determine the technology of manufacture and the originality of the artwork. The main objective of this work was to apply the Raman spectroscopy technique on the surface of the wall and on the different layers of the cross-sections prepared in order to characterize the pigments and the plaster present in these wall paints. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer. In this case the dispersive integrated Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRaman HR800 system was employed. Small samples of black, red, yellow, white and green colour were taken from the artwork. The surface of the samples were directly studed by the Raman spectroscopy instrument using red (785 nm) and green (522 nm) lasers, similarly to non-invasive experimental technique. This technique showed the presence of gypsum (SO4Ca.2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) in all the studied samples However, the pigments responsible of different colours were not detected. The surface of these wall paints was covered with gypsum and calcite due to contamination. These mineras were also characterized by XRD and SEM-EDX. The presence of these compounds and the heterogeneous surface did not permit the characterization of the pigments responsible of the colour. In order to better characterization of the pigments and plaster used the study was carried out on cross-sections. The black colour was performed using carbon black. Two different red layers were detected one constituted by cinnabar and lead carbonate and the other one by iron oxides. The green and white colours were constituted by atacamite and calcite, respectively. In addition lead white was detected in green colour. The white layers (plaster) located under the colour layers were constituted by calcite, quartz and feldspars. These data confirm the use of fresco technique. The study of the surface (external part) by micro-Raman spectroscopy limited the characterization of the pigments present in these wall pains, due to the presence of a layer of gypsum deposited on the surface. By other hand, the study by Raman spectroscopy of the cross-sections allowed the characterization of different pigments and support used in the manufacture of these wall paints.

  10. Roles of Tyrosine-Rich Precursor Glycoproteins and Dityrosine- and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Mediated Protein Cross-Linking in Development of the Oocyst Wall in the Coccidian Parasite Eimeria maxima

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Sabina I.; Wallach, Michael G.; Luxford, Catherine; Davies, Michael J.; Smith, Nicholas C.

    2003-01-01

    The oocyst wall of apicomplexan parasites protects them from the harsh external environment, preserving their survival prior to transmission to the next host. If oocyst wall formation could be disrupted, then logically, the cycle of disease transmission could be stopped, and strategies to control infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage (macrogamete) of Eimeria maxima are proteolytically processed into smaller glycoproteins, which are then incorporated into the developing oocyst wall. The identification of high concentrations of dityrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in oocyst extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography, together with the detection of a UV autofluorescence in intact oocysts, implicates dityrosine- and possibly DOPA-protein cross-links in oocyst wall hardening. In addition, the identification of peroxidase activity in the wall-forming bodies of macrogametes supports the hypothesis that dityrosine- and DOPA-mediated cross-linking might be an enzyme-catalyzed event. As such, the mechanism of oocyst wall formation in Eimeria, is analogous to the underlying mechanisms involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrices in a number of organisms, widely distributed in nature, including insect resilin, nematode cuticles, yeast cell walls, mussel byssal threads, and sea urchin fertilization membranes. PMID:12796290

  11. Cross-Machine Comparison of Resonant Field Amplification and Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) Stabilization by Plasma Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimerdes, H.

    2005-10-01

    Dedicated experiments in the DIII-D and JET tokamaks and the NSTX spherical torus reveal an aspect ratio A and safety factor q dependence of the stabilizing effect of plasma rotation on the RWM, which is used to discriminate among theories and improve stabilization strategies in future devices including ITER. Despite the different distance of the DIII-D and JET walls, the critical rotation for RWM stabilization normalized to the inverse Alfven time is the same. Similar NSTX plasmas at lower A, however, yield a significantly higher critical rotation. A decrease of the critical rotation with increasing q95 in DIII-D and JET is consistent with the 1/q^2 dependence observed in NSTX. This increase of rotational stabilization with increasing q is predicted by a kinetic damping model [Bondeson, Phys. Plasmas 3 (1996) 3013] and can be derived from a viscous damping model [Fitzpatrick, Phys. Plasmas 9 (2002) 3459] when taking into account neoclassical viscosity [Shaing, Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 5525]. The observed A dependence of the critical rotation follows from this theory. In each device the weakly damped n=1 mode manifests itself in resonant field amplification (RFA) above the no-wall stability limit. Applying n=1 fields in similar DIII-D and JET plasmas yields the same amplification confirming that the damping process is independent of the wall properties. The RFA is well described by a single weakly damped mode and can be used to infer the RWM damping rate and rotation frequency. Measurements of RFA induced rotation damping in DIII-D will be compared to NSTX observations that agree with neoclassical toroidal viscosity induced drag. 0.5em In collaboration with the DIII-D Team, JET-EFDA contributors and the NSTX Team.

  12. Reflections on Online Learning Designs and Cross-Institutional Research Collaborations: Revisiting "Classrooms without Walls" in Two Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Dolene; van Rensburg, Henriette; Clark, Damien; Harreveld, R. E.; Beer, Colin; Danaher, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article on which this paper reflects ["Exploring a Cross-Institutional Research Collaboration and Innovation: Deploying Social Software and Web 2.0 Technologies to Investigate Online Learning Designs and Interactions in Two Australian Universities"] presented elements of a research project investigating learning interactions in…

  13. The Strength of Thin-wall Cylinders of D Cross Section in Combined Pure Bending and Torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, A W

    1943-01-01

    The results of tests of 56 cylinders of D cross section conducted in the Aeronautical Laboratory of the University of Maryland are presented in this report. These cylinders were subjected to pure bending and torsional moments of varying proportions to give the strength under combined loading conditions. The average buckling stress of these cylinders has been related to that of circumscribing circular cylinders for conditions of pure torsion and pure bending and the equation of the interaction curve has been determined for conditions of combined loading.

  14. Improved Jänecke mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ?10 and proton number Z ?6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.

  15. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  16. On the Goedel's formula

    E-print Network

    Jailton C. Ferreira

    2008-01-15

    This article examines the formula G (of Goedel). We demonstrated that the Goedel's number of the formula G is not a finite number if (i) G is comprehended as a self-referential statement or (ii) there is an infinite set S of well-formed formulae such that the elements of S are theorems or antitheorems in T.

  17. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  18. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  19. [The formula book. The pharmacies' own formulas].

    PubMed

    Loldrup, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    During the 19th century and part of the 20th, a book of formulas was a useful tool for many Danish pharmacists in their daily work in the pharmacy laboratory. These books were handwritten and contained formulas that supplemented the official formula books, e.g. the pharmacopoeias. They originated from many different sources such as colleagues, the pharmaceutical press, local doctors, veterinarians and dentists. The book of formulas could be a pharmacist's personal document, or it could belong to a pharmacy for general use in the laboratory. The formulas included many drugs, but a number of the products were intended for daily domestic life: ingredients for food and spirits, cosmetics, cleaning and maintenance, etc. Other products were for use by the local hairdresser or photographer, for example. The article provides an overview of 52 formula books in a wide variety of shapes and sizes with instructions for a total of 8,000-10,000 compositions. Part of this large body of practical knowledge by individual pharmacists was collected and published in books in order to be available to all pharmacists. Some of this knowledge was also printed in booklets written for the general public under such pseudonyms as "An old Pharmacist". In the mid-20th century, Sven Holm enjoyed a prominent career as a well-known pharmacist giving advice on the radio and TV and in newspapers and magazines. The need for these formula books declined as pharmacies gradually stopped making up their own medicines towards the end of 20th century and finally ceased altogether in 1990. PMID:21879531

  20. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  1. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  2. Transcript Profiling of Two Alfalfa Genotypes with Contrasting Cell Wall Composition in Stems Using a Cross-Species Platform: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem cell walls of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa] genotype 252 have high cellulose and lignin concentrations, while stem cell walls of genotype 1283 have low cellulose and lignin concentrations. The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable pla...

  3. Cottingham formula and nucleon polarizabilities

    E-print Network

    J. Gasser; M. Hoferichter; H. Leutwyler; A. Rusetsky

    2015-07-27

    The difference between the electromagnetic self-energies of proton and neutron can be calculated with the Cottingham formula, which expresses the self-energies as an integral over the electroproduction cross sections---provided the nucleon matrix elements of the current commutator do not contain a fixed pole. We show that, under the same proviso, the subtraction function occurring in the dispersive representation of the virtual Compton forward scattering amplitude is determined by the cross sections. The representation in particular leads to a parameter-free sum rule for the nucleon polarizabilities. We evaluate the sum rule for the difference between the electric polarizabilities of proton and neutron by means of the available parameterizations of the data and compare the result with experiment.

  4. Measuring the deviation from the Rutherford formula

    E-print Network

    E. A. Kuraev; M. Shatnev; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson

    2009-06-25

    Modern experiments with heavy ion-leptons collisions open the possibility to measure the deviation of cross section of small angles electron(positron)-ion elastic scattering from the Rutherford formula due to multiple virtual photons exchange. The charge asymmetry and the polarization of the scattered leptons are calculated and numerical predictions are given. A generalization to elastic proton-nucleus scattering is discussed.

  5. Analytic form of transverse head-to-head domain walls in thin cylindrical wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Riccardo; Kákay, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The static problem of a one-dimensional, transverse head-to-head domain wall structure in a thin soft-magnetic nanowire with circular cross-section is treated within the framework of micromagnetic theory. An analytic form of the domain wall profile is derived, which yields that the domain wall profile depends on the wire radius. The analysis is performed by decomposing the magnetostatic energy into a monopolar and a dipolar term. We present a model in which the dipolar term of the magnetostatic energy resulting from the transverse magnetization in the center of the domain wall is calculated with Osborn's formulas for homogeneously magnetized ellipsoids [Phys. Rev. 67 (1945) 351] [22]. The analytic results agree almost perfectly with simulation data as long as the wire diameter is sufficiently small to prevent inhomogeneities of the magnetization along the cross-section. Owing to the recently demonstrated negligible Döring mass of these walls, our results should also apply to the dynamic case, where domain walls are driven by spin-transfer toque effects and/or an axial magnetic field.

  6. Simple nuclear mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, A.

    2014-12-01

    A simple formula for ground state nuclear masses based on the microscopic-macroscopic approach is proposed. Considering a set of 2353 nuclei with Z ?8 and N ?8 , the formula yields an rms deviation of just 266 keV. A few applications, including the loosely bound proton rich nuclei, superheavy nuclei, and cluster emitters, are presented and discussed, establishing the reliability of the proposed formula. The present investigation has a major advantage: it allows one to reliably parametrize the fluctuating part of the ground state energy. This result is very interesting and important, since the fluctuating part of the energy is related directly to the trace formula, which in turn encodes the interaction itself.

  7. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest option for both mom and ... There are very few health problems that make breastfeeding not possible. There are other reasons women are ...

  8. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & ... for you and your baby. Continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  9. Great Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Steve; Moore, Tim

    1996-01-01

    Explains why installing a well-designed indoor climbing wall can draw new users to an athletic facility. Climbing-wall design elements and gear are discussed and a checklist for working with contractors is provided.(GR)

  10. Algebraic Yuzvinski Formula

    E-print Network

    Bruno, Anna Giordano

    2011-01-01

    In 1965 Adler, Konheim and McAndrew defined the topological entropy for continuous self-maps of compact spaces. Topological entropy is very well-understood for endomorphisms of compact Abelian groups. A fundamental result in this context is the so-called Yuzvinski Formula, showing that the value of the topological entropy of a full solenoidal automorphism coincides with the Mahler measure of its characteristic polynomial. In two papers of 1979 and 1981 Peters gave a completely different definition of entropy for automorphisms of locally compact Abelian groups. This notion has been appropriately modified forendomorphisms in two recent papers, where it is called algebraic entropy. The goal of this paper is to prove a perfect analog of the Yuzvinski Formula for the algebraic entropy, namely, the Algebraic Yuzvinski Formula, giving the value of the algebraic entropy of an endomorphism of a finite-dimensional rational vector space as the Mahler measure of its characteristic polynomial. Finally, several application...

  11. Microscopic mass formulas

    SciTech Connect

    Duflo, J.; Zuker, A.

    1995-07-01

    By assuming the existence of a pseudopotential smooth enough to do Hartree-Fock variations and good enough to describe nuclear structure, we construct mass formulas that rely on general scaling arguments and on a schematic reading of shell model calculations. Fits to 1751 known binding energies for {ital N},{ital Z}{ge}8 lead to rms errors of 375 keV with 28 parameters. Tests of the extrapolation properties are passed successfully. The Bethe-Weizsaecker formula is shown to be the asymptotic limit of the present one(s). The surface energy of nuclear matter turns out to be probably smaller than currently accepted.

  12. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  13. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  14. Formula Based Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Doug; Picus, Lawrence O.

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing that traditional salary bargaining is divisive and that teacher salaries should remain competitive, Temple City (California) Unified School District has been experimenting with formula-based compensation for the past four years. Primary benefits are lack of conflict over salary increases, which are determined before negotiating other…

  15. KOSHLIAKOV'S FORMULA AND GUINAND'S FORMULA IN RAMANUJAN'S LOST NOTEBOOK

    E-print Network

    Berndt, Bruce C.

    KOSHLIAKOV'S FORMULA AND GUINAND'S FORMULA IN RAMANUJAN'S LOST NOTEBOOK BRUCE C. BERNDT1 , YOONBOK LEE, and JAEBUM SOHN2 Abstract. On two pages in his lost notebook, Ramanujan recorded several theorems by these authors several years after Ramanujan's death. Other formulas, including one by K. Soni and two

  16. Experimental and modal verification of an integral equation solution for a thin-walled dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L. W.; Stanton, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    In order to add the capability of an X-band uplink onto the 70-m antenna, a new dichroic plate is needed to replace the Pyle-guide-shaped dichroic plate currently in use. The replacement dichroic plate must exhibit an additional passband at the new uplink frequency of 7.165 GHz, while still maintaining a passband at the existing downlink frequency of 8.425 GHz. Because of the wide frequency separation of these two passbands, conventional methods of designing air-filled dichroic plates exhibit grating lobe problems. A new method of solving this problem by using a dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes is presented and verified experimentally. Two checks of the integral equation solution are described. One is the comparison to a modal analysis for the limiting cross shape of a square hole. As a final check, a prototype dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes was built and measured.

  17. New precession formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    First we modified J.G. Williams' formulation of precession/nutation by using the 3-1-3-1 rotation matrix as NP = R1( -? -??) R1( -? -??) R1(?) R1(?). Next we determined the polynomial formulas of the modified planetary precession angles numerically from the non-linear harmonic analysis of DE405. Then we estimated those of the modified luni-solar precession angles from their corrections converted from the VLBI pole offset observations during 1979-2000 by adopting the above planetary precession formulas and a recent theory of nutation SF2001. The results in the rotational sense are ?R = +0.04126 +10.55378 t +0.49318 t2 ?R = 84381.41461 -46.81325 t +0.04843 t2 ?R = -0.04305 +5038.47776 t +1.55835 t2 ?R = 84381.40955 -46.83607 t -0.00017 t2 +0.00200 t3 and the differences between the rotational and inertial senses are ?R - ?I = +0.09366 +0.00060 t ?R - ?I = +0.00334 -0.00060 t ?R - ?I = -0.00001 -0.00035 t ?R - ?I = +0.00334 -0.00148 t. These consitute a new set of precession formulas referred to ICRF.

  18. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

  19. A Comparative SEM Investigation of Smear Layer Remaining on Dentinal Walls by Three Rotary NiTi Files with Different Cross Sectional Designs in Moderately Curved Canals

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Pooja; Vats, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the smear layer formed on root canal walls during canal preparation of extracted human teeth by Twisted, Mtwo, and ProTaper rotary nickel titanium instruments. Materials and Methods: Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth with root curvature <250 were selected and randomly divided into three Groups (n= 20 teeth per Group). Three types of rotary nickel titanium instruments were used, Twisted (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) according to manufacturer’s instructions to instrument the root canals. Irrigation for all groups was performed after each instrument change with 3ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by Glyde (File Prep, Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) as chelator paste and lubricant. Three different areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds) of the root canal were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The canal wall of each sample was assessed and compared using a predefined scale for the presence or absence of smear layer. Data were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD test Results: All three groups showed statistically significant more smear layer in the apical thirds of the canal as compared to the coronal and middle thirds (p<0.001). Mtwo rotary file system produced significantly less smear layer (p<0.001) compared to Twisted and ProTaper rotary instruments in the apical portion. Twisted Files resulted in less smear layer formation in the apical thirds of the canal compared to ProTaper rotary instruments but were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Completely clean root canals were not found after instrumentation with any of the three instruments. Under the confines of this study Mtwo instruments produced significantly cleaner dentin wall surfaces throughout the canal length in comparison to Twisted and ProTaper rotary files. Twisted Files proved to be comparable to ProTaper rotary instruments with respect to canal cleanliness in the apical thirds of the root canal. PMID:25954704

  20. Four ways across the wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioline, Boris

    2012-02-01

    An important question in the study of Script N = 2 supersymmetric string or field theories is to compute the jump of the BPS spectrum across walls of marginal stability in the space of parameters or vacua. I survey four apparently different answers for this problem, two of which are based on the mathematics of generalized Donaldson-Thomas invariants (the Kontsevich-Soibelman and the Joyce-Song formulae), while the other two are based on the physics of multi-centered black hole solutions (the Coulomb branch and the Higgs branch formulae, discovered in joint work with Jan Manschot and Ashoke Sen [1]). Explicit computations indicate that these formulae are equivalent, though a combinatorial proof is currently lacking.

  1. Cave Walls

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A cave wall showing several cave formations, or speleothems. The larger formations at the bottom formed submerged in water, whereas the smaller formations at the top were exposed to air when they formed....

  2. Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that removing several innermost walls causes even more drastic cross-sectional polygonization of the MWCNTs. The predicted cross-sectional configurations agree with prior experimental observations. We attribute the radial corrugations to the compressive stresses induced by the excessive inter-wall vdW energy release of the MWCNTs. The stable cross-sectional configurations provide fundamental guidance to the design of single MWCNT-based devices and shed lights on the mechanical control of electrical properties.

  3. Formula vs. Fractured Formula in Contest Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Christina L.

    In the past decade, contest persuasive speaking has become a product that student competitors produce and perform. A perversion of the contest formula has removed the element of persuasion from the formula. Competition rules suggest that a student's purposes in participating in forensics events should include inspiring, reinforcing, or changing…

  4. Generalized gas gain formula for proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Takahiko

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical consideration of gas amplification in proportional counters has indicated that ?/ N, the ratio of the first Townsend coefficient to the gas density, is generally expressed in the form, ?/ N = KSmexp(- L/ S1- m), where S = E/ N is the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas density, and K, L and m (0 ? m ? 1) are constants characteristic of the gas. When m = 0 the ?/ N formula reduces to the analytical form used by Williams and Sara, and when m = 1 it reduces to that assumed by Diethorn. A gas gain formula derived from the ?/ N formula fitted the experimental gas gain data by Charles for a mixture of Ar + 10% CH 4 and by Hendricks for a mixture of Xe + 5% CO 2 when m = {1}/{2} was assumed. Theoretical justification for m = {1}/{2} was confirmed from the data of the total cross section for electrons in these gases and the characteristic energy of electrons in an electric field.

  5. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  6. Reading Expectancy and Regression Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert M.; Byrd, Carol C.

    To determine the most accurate means of estimating the expected grade or reading level of 61 sixth grade students, three expectancy formulas were compared to a custom regression equation from a user friendly microcomputer program. The expectancy formulas, based in part on student I.Q. and chronological age, and the regression equations were…

  7. The Remainder in Taylor's Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffald, Esteban I.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a mean-value theorem that generalizes the Taylor-Lagrange formula. Discussed is the asymptotic behavior of the remainder term of the formula. Several numerical schemes are derived to approximate the solution to initial-valued first order differential equations. (KR)

  8. Reconstructing the flow in the wall region from wall sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvin, Bérengère; Lumley, John

    1998-05-01

    In this paper we examine how the flow in the wall region can be predicted from realistic (partial) measurements. The underlying motivation of this study is the improvement of control schemes for near-wall flows. We propose a method based on the proper orthogonal decomposition which provides estimated amplitudes for the coherent structures (i.e., the large scales) of the flow from wall measurements. The method is tested for the direct numerical simulation of a minimal flow unit. The large scales obtained by reconstruction from wall data are compared to those of the velocity field in the wall layer. The dominant structures—the streamwise streaks—are well recovered, the cross-stream motions less so since they are associated with higher-order structures unaccounted for in our truncation. We defined "rescaled" eigenfunctions to try to improve the representation of the cross-stream components of the flow. Aliasing effects due to realistic (large) sensor spacings were examined. We find that the spanwise spacing is the limiting factor for the estimation, so that a realistic grid will affect the reconstruction by at least 20% compared to full wall information.

  9. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  10. Uniform flow formulas for irregular sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, E.; Tucciarelli, T.; Sinagra, M.; Sammartano, V.; Corato, G.

    2015-02-01

    Two new methods for uniform flow discharge computation are presented, validated and compared with other available formulas. The first method derives from the well-known Huthoff algorithm, which is first shown to be dependent on the way the river cross-section is discretized into several sub-sections. The second method assumes the vertically averaged longitudinal velocity to be a function only of the friction factor and of the so-called "local hydraulic radius", computed as the ratio between the integral of the elementary areas around a given vertical and the integral of the elementary solid boundaries around the same vertical. Both integrals are weighted with a linear shape function, equal to zero at a distance from the integration variable which is proportional to the water depth according to an empirical coefficient ?. Both formulas are validated against (1) laboratory experimental data, (2) discharge hydrographs measured in a real site, where the friction factor is estimated from an unsteady-state analysis of water levels recorded in two different river cross sections, (3) the 3-D solution obtained using the commercial ANSYS CFX code, computing the steady state uniform flow in a short reach of a prismatic channel, with known water level in the downstream section.

  11. Trace Formulas and Bogomolny's Transfer Operator

    E-print Network

    Oleg Zaitsev; R. Narevich; R. E. Prange

    1999-02-23

    The trace formulas commonly used in discussing spectral properties of quantum or wave systems are derived simply and directly from the Bogomolny transfer operator. Special cases are the Gutzwiller formula, the Berry-Tabor formula, and the perturbed Berry-Tabor formula. A comment is made about interpolation formulas proposed in the latter case.

  12. ANTIGAUSSIAN QUADRATURE FORMULAS DIRK P. LAURIE

    E-print Network

    Laurie, Dirk

    the results obtained from the two formulas. We show that an anti­ Gaussian formula has positive weights formula. Similar results for Gaussian formulas with respect to a positive weight are given, except to compute as the n + 1­point Gaussian formula. 1. Introduction Let w be a given weight function over

  13. Torsional stresses in box beams with cross sections partially restrained against warping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, Hans

    1934-01-01

    The present report gives a method for computing the torsion of boxes with thin shear-resistant or simply tension-resistant walls under any torsional load, support and dimension. The final stress condition is developed from that of a principal system with unconstrained sectional warping corresponding to Bredt's formula and an additional stress condition due to constrained cross-sectional warping. This is computed by means of the deflection condition of the principal system from a statically indeterminate calculation. Conformably, the torsional rigidity of the final system is derived from that of the principal system with unconstrained sectional buckling.

  14. Generalized Klein-Nishina formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, K.; Cajiao Vélez, F.; Kami?ski, J. Z.

    2015-06-01

    The generalized Klein-Nishina formula for Compton scattering of charged particles by a finite train of pulses is derived in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. The formula also applies to classical Thomson scattering provided that frequencies of generated radiation are smaller that the cutoff frequency. The validity of the formula for incident pulses of different durations is illustrated by numerical examples. The positions of the well-resolved Compton peaks, with the clear labeling by integer orders, opens up the possibility of the precise diagnostics of properties of relativistically intense, short laser pulses. This includes their peak intensity, the carrier-envelope phase, and their polarization properties.

  15. A Salary Formula for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)

  16. Formulae and Flow-Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, William Wynne

    1977-01-01

    The author recommends the use of flow charting to help students understand the manipulation of algebraic formulae. He identifies some problems with flow charts and suggests an alternative method of constructing flow diagrams. (SD)

  17. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  18. A formula for charmonium suppression

    E-print Network

    C. Pena; D. Blaschke

    2011-08-21

    In this work a formula for charmonium suppression obtained by Matsui in 1989 is analytically generalized for the case of complex c-cbar potential described by a 3-dimensional and isotropic time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO). It is suggested that under certain conditions the formula can be applied to describe J/\\psi suppression in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SPS, RHIC, and LHC with the advantage of analytical tractability.

  19. Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas

    E-print Network

    B. Georgeot; O. Giraud

    2008-01-30

    We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.

  20. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  1. Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.

  2. 27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...first obtain approval of the formula by which it is to be made, except that no formula is required for distilling material or vinegar stock. The formula is filed as provided by § 24.80. Any change in the formula will be approved in advance as...

  3. 27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...first obtain approval of the formula by which it is to be made, except that no formula is required for distilling material or vinegar stock. The formula is filed as provided by § 24.80. Any change in the formula will be approved in advance as...

  4. Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... formula in a cool, dry place with a plastic lid on top. DO NOT use outdated formula. Always wash your hands and the top of the formula container before handling. Use a clean cup to measure the water. Make the formula as ...

  5. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  6. Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Arthur V.

    Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

  7. Anomalous Transport from Kubo Formulae

    E-print Network

    Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Chiral anomalies have profound impact on the transport properties of relativistic fluids. In four dimensions there are different types of anomalies, pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies. They give rise to two new non-dissipative transport coefficients, the chiral magnetic conductivity and the chiral vortical conductivity. They can be calculated from the microscopic degrees of freedom with the help of Kubo formulae. We review the calculation of the anomalous transport coefficients via Kubo formulae with a particular emphasis on the contribution of the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly.

  8. Anomalous Transport from Kubo Formulae

    E-print Network

    Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez

    2012-08-08

    Chiral anomalies have profound impact on the transport properties of relativistic fluids. In four dimensions there are different types of anomalies, pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies. They give rise to two new non-dissipative transport coefficients, the chiral magnetic conductivity and the chiral vortical conductivity. They can be calculated from the microscopic degrees of freedom with the help of Kubo formulae. We review the calculation of the anomalous transport coefficients via Kubo formulae with a particular emphasis on the contribution of the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly.

  9. Wall to Wall Optimal Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Gregory P.; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Doering, Charles R.

    2013-11-01

    How much heat can be transported between impermeable fixed-temperature walls by incompressible flows with a given amount of kinetic energy or enstrophy? What do the optimal velocity fields look like? We employ variational calculus to address these questions in the context of steady 2D flows. The resulting nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations are solved numerically, and in some cases analytically, to find the maximum possible Nusselt number Nu as a function of the Péclect number Pe , a measure of the flow's energy or enstrophy. We find that in the fixed-energy problem Nu ~ Pe , while in the fixed-enstrophy problem Nu ~ Pe 10 / 17 . In both cases, the optimal flow consists of an array of convection cells with aspect ratio ? (Pe) . Interpreting our results in terms of the Rayleigh number Ra for relevant buoyancy-driven problems, we find Nu <= 1 + 0 . 035 Ra and ? ~ Ra - 1 / 2 for porous medium convection (which occurs with fixed energy), and Nu <= 1 + 0 . 115 Ra 5 / 12 and ? ~ Ra - 1 / 4 for Rayleigh-Bénard convection (which occurs with fixed enstrophy and for free-slip walls). This work was supported by NSF awards PHY-0855335, DMS-0927587, and PHY-1205219 (CRD) and DMS-0928098 (GPC). Much of this work was completed at the 2012 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) Program at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

  10. OCT assessment of aortic wall degradation for surgical guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, E.; Val-Bernal, J. F.; Pontón, A.; Calvo Díez, M.; Mayorga, M.; Revuelta, J. M.; López-Higuera, J. M.; Conde, O. M.

    2014-05-01

    The degradation of the wall in large cardiovascular vessels, such as the aorta artery, induces weakness in the vessel that can lead to the formation of aneurysms and the rupture of the vessel. Characterization of the wall integrity is assessed by OCT for future intraoperative assistance in aneurysm graft surgery interventions. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides cross sectional images of the wall of the aortic media layer. Wall degradations appear as spatial anomalies in the reflectivity profile through the wall thickness. Wall degradation assessment is proposed by automatic identification and dimensioning of these anomalies within the homogeneous surrounding tissue.

  11. Business Formulas as Cartesian Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppel, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that students gain much greater insight into routine calculations with business formulas when such work is viewed in the light of graphing concepts. Ten problems are presented that illustrate how three specific objectives in a unit on graphing in a business mathematics course have been met. (MP)

  12. Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…

  13. Formula for Allocating Matriculation Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Tuma, John E.

    In spring 1990, the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges convened the Matriculation Funding Task Force to review the standards used to estimate matriculation costs and the formula used to allocate state funds among districts. The task force expanded the scope of the matriculation services used as standards for estimating the cost of…

  14. Koide's Mass Formula for Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannen, Carl

    2006-05-01

    We derive Koide's mass formula as an eigenvector equation. We show that to within current experimental error, the square roots of the masses of the charged leptons follow the simple equation (m^-n)^0.5 = ?1(1 + ?2(?1+ 2n?/3)) where ?1 is the interesting number .22222204717(48) and ?1 is a constant. Next we generalize the Koide formula to the neutrinos by assuming that the square root of the mass of the smallest neutrino must be taken to be negative. Then masses of the simple form (m^0n)^0.5 = ?0(1 + ?2(?1+ ?/12 + 2n?/3)) where 3;?0= 3^12 ;?1, satisfy recent neutrino oscillation measurements close to the centers of the error bars. Finally, we discuss the preon model for the fermions that led to the above discovery.

  15. Composition formulas of binary eutectics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Dong, D D; Dong, C; Luo, L J; Wang, Q; Qiang, J B; Wang, Y M

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1(st)-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  16. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  17. Domain wall phase diagram and wall widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaui, M.; Laufenberg, M.; Backes, D.; Rudiger, U.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Bland, J. A. C.; Heyderman, L. J.; Nolting, F.

    2006-03-01

    The details of the spin structure of domain walls have recently become the focus of intense research due to the fundamental physical questions associated with domain walls (wall width, magnetoresistance, current-induced domain wall propagation). Using photoemission electron microscopy (XMCDPEEM) we have obtained high-resolution images of the spin structure of the domain walls, which allows us to determine the wall type and the wall width for different Co [1] and NiFe wire and ring geometries. We determine the phase transition between the different domain wall types as a function of the geometrical parameters (width, thickness) [1]. Comparison with theoretical calculations [2] and micromagnetic simulations reveals the importance of local energy minima and the geometry-dependent height of the energy barriers separating the two wall types can be derived. The energy barrier height is then directly measured by high-temperature (up to 600 K) imaging of thermally activated transitions from transverse to vortex walls. By varying the spacing between domain walls, we determine the coupling strength that leads to a shift in the phase boundary. [1] M. Klaui et al., APL 85, 5637 (2004); [2] R.D. McMichael and M.J. Donahue, IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 4167 (1997);

  18. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  19. 27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required. Before producing any special natural wine, the proprietor shall receive approval of the formula by which it is...

  20. 27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required. Before producing any special natural wine, the proprietor shall receive approval of the formula by which it is...

  1. A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Eugene H.

    1978-01-01

    Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

  2. The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…

  3. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132...

  4. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132...

  5. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132...

  6. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132...

  7. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132...

  8. Weighted Boolean Formula Games Marios Mavronicolas

    E-print Network

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Weighted Boolean Formula Games Marios Mavronicolas Burkhard Monien Klaus W. Wagner§ (August 17, 2007) Abstract We introduce a new class of succinct games, called weighted boolean formula games. Here. The payoff of a player is the weighted sum of the values of his boolean formulas. For these games, we

  9. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  10. Formulas for the Stress Analysis of Circular Rings in a Monocoque Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy A; Wood, Karl D

    1933-01-01

    The formulas given in this report provide a simplified method for the stress-analysis of fuselage bulkheads that are approximately circular rings of uniform cross section. Complicated load systems acting on a ring can usually be resolved into simplified load systems; and formulas for moment, axial force, and shear for such simplified load systems are given in this report. Illustrative examples showing the use of this method in practical stress-analysis work are also included.

  11. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  12. Infant formulas: practical answers for common questions.

    PubMed

    Tigges, B B

    1997-08-01

    The pediatric health care provider is often faced with myriad decisions related to the use of infant formula. This article compares human milk to cow's milk. It addresses the composition, classification, and use of some of the most common infant formulas manufactured for use with the term infant in the outpatient setting. Common clinical situations are discussed, including the role for low-iron, goat's milk, and follow-up formulas, and formula use for the infant with diarrhea, colic, and atopic disease. The article highlights the poor quality of research and the lack of definitive answers available to the clinician when managing the infant with atopic disease. It concludes with a review of practical aspects of infant formula feeding for use in client education and management, including guidelines for formula preparation, calculating necessary formula intake, frequency, and quantity of infant feedings, and provisions of the WIC program. PMID:9279846

  13. Inverse problem for Planck formula

    E-print Network

    A. N. Pechenkov

    2012-07-19

    Planck formula is considered as a first moment (average value) of unknown function of electromagnetic energy distribution of black body radiation. In-verse problem for the definition of the unknown function is solved for Gibbs ensemble. The solution needs of ensembles with both absolute temperatures: positive temperature and negative temperature. Such ensembles are the part of more extended class of ensembles with finite energies and finite phase vol-umes. In addition, the absence of Bohr - van Leeuwen paradox is considered for such statistical ensembles.

  14. Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.

    1996-01-01

    One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).

  15. Dynamical evolution of domain walls in an expanding universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, William H.; Ryden, Barbara S.; Spergel, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Whenever the potential of a scalar field has two or more separated, degenerate minima, domain walls form as the universe cools. The evolution of the resulting network of domain walls is calculated for the case of two potential minima in two and three dimensions, including wall annihilation, crossing, and reconnection effects. The nature of the evolution is found to be largely independent of the rate at which the universe expands. Wall annihilation and reconnection occur almost as fast as causality allows, so that the horizon volume is 'swept clean' and contains, at any time, only about one, fairly smooth, wall. Quantitative statistics are given. The total area of wall per volume decreases as the first power of time. The relative slowness of the decrease and the smoothness of the wall on the horizon scale make it impossible for walls to both generate large-scale structure and be consistent with quadrupole microwave background anisotropy limits.

  16. Melanin standard method: empirical formula.

    PubMed

    Chedekel, M R; Murr, B L; Zeise, L

    1992-09-01

    Melanin isolated from the ink sac of cuttle fish (Sepia melanin) is a proposed standard for natural eumelanin. Sepia melanin isolated by a standard protocol was submitted for both elemental analysis and quantitative amino acid analysis. The contribution of the detected amino acids to the elemental composition is subtracted from the total elemental analysis, and the resultant elemental composition reflects the composition of the Sepia melanin backbone chromophore. The assumption is made that, for eumelanins, there is only one nitrogen atom per monomeric unit, and thus, the empirical formula for the average monomeric Sepia melanin backbone chromophore was determined. Three key parameters can be determined for any melanin sample; namely, the molar C/N for the average monomeric unit, the formula weight of the average monomeric unit, and the total percent composition of amino acid residues. Three commonly used melanin preparations, namely, natural Sepia melanin, melanin prepared by the in vitro tyrosinase catalyzed polymerization of tyrosine (tyrosine-enzymatic melanin), and a polymer synthesized by the peroxide oxidative polymerization of tyrosine (tyrosine-chemical melanin), have been subjected to this standard method of characterization. Tyrosine-enzymatic and Sepia melanin are quite similar and tyrosine-chemical melanin is fundamentally different from the other two melanins. PMID:1409451

  17. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V.; Walker, Louise A.; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K.; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A. R.; Munro, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked ?-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. PMID:26220968

  18. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    PubMed Central

    Berseth, Carol Lynn; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Marunycz, John D; Vanderhoof, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120 PMID:19545360

  19. Wall shear stress in collapsed tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naili, S.; Ribreau, C.

    1999-01-01

    A small flexural wall rigidity brings unique features to cross-sectional shapes and blood flow within veins, which are characterised by a non-uniform hemodynamical environment acting upon endothelial cells. Velocity fields and related wall shear stress were numerically determined for a large number of conditions, assuming a fully developed, steady, incompressible laminar flow through an uniform smooth pipe with a constant cross-section. It was shown that the flatness greatly influences the resulting distribution of the wall shear stresses along the lumen perimeter. For instance, under a steady longitudinal pressure gradient at about 500 Pascal per meter inside a constant oval-shaped tube, with a lumen perimeter of the order of 5 × 10^{-2} meter, the maximum wall shear stress is found at about 2 Pascal where the local curvature is minimal. On the other hand, the minimal wall shear stress of the order of 1 Pascal is found where the local curvature is maximal. Clear indications have been reported showing that the hemodynamical wall shear stress does alter endothelial cell morphology and orientation. These results are being used for developing an experimental set-up in order to locally map out the characteristic shear stresses looking for endothelial shape modifications whenever a viscous fluid flow is applied.

  20. 5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) Bald ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  1. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  2. Dualizing the Poisson summation formula.

    PubMed Central

    Duffin, R J; Weinberger, H F

    1991-01-01

    If f(x) and g(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair, then the Poisson summation formula can be written as 2sumfrominfinityn = 1g(n) + g(0) = 2sumfrominfinityn = 1f(n) + f(0). The concepts of linear transformation theory lead to the following dual of this classical relation. Let phi(x) and gamma(x) = phi(1/x)/x have absolutely convergent integrals over the positive real line. Let F(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1phi(n/x)/x - integralinfinity0phi(t)dt and G(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1gamma (n/x)/x - integralinfinity0 gamma(t)dt. Then F(x) and G(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair. We term F(x) the "discrepancy" of phi because it is the error in estimating the integral phi of by its Riemann sum with the constant mesh spacing 1/x. PMID:11607208

  3. Multidimensional Datawarehouse with Combination Formula

    E-print Network

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Multidimensional in data warehouse is a compulsion and become the most important for information delivery, without multidimensional Multidimensional in data warehouse is a compulsion and become the most important for information delivery, without multidimensional datawarehouse is incomplete. Multidimensional give ability to analyze business measurement in many different ways. Multidimensional is also synonymous with online analytical processing (OLAP). By using some concepts in datawarehouse like slice-dice,drill down and roll up will increase the ability of multidimensional datawarehouse. The research question and the discussing for this paper are how much deepest the multidimensional ability from each fact table in datawarehouse. By using the statistic combination formula we try to explore the combination that can be yielded from each dimension in hypercubes, the entire of dimensi combination, minimum combination and maximum combination.

  4. Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall MHD Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm's law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm's law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities lead to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed field accelerator operation.

  5. Cosmological parallax-distance formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2015-09-01

    The standard cosmological parallax-distance formula, as found in the literature, including text-books and reference books on cosmology, requires a correction. This correction stems from the fact that in the standard text-book derivation it has been ignored that any chosen baseline in a gravitationally bound system does not partake in the cosmological expansion. Though the correction is available in the literature for some time, the text-books still continue to use the older, incorrect formula, and its full implications are not yet fully realized. Apart from providing an alternate correct, closed-form expression that is more suitable and convenient for computations for certain limiting cases of FRW () world models, we also demonstrate how one can compute parallax distance for the currently favored flat-space accelerating-universe (, ) cosmologies. Further, we show that the correction in parallax distance at large redshifts could amount to a factor of three or even more. Moreover, even in an infinite universe the parallax distance does not increase indefinitely with redshift and that even the farthest possible observable point may have a finite parallax angle, a factor that needs to be carefully taken into account when using distant objects as the background field against which the parallax of a foreground object is to be measured. Some other complications that could arise in parallax measurements of a distant source, like that due to the deflection of incoming light by the gravitation field of the Sun and other planetary bodies in the solar system, are pointed out.

  6. Reconstruction Formulas for Photoacoustic Sectional Imaging

    E-print Network

    Peter Elbau; Otmar Scherzer; Rainer Schulze

    2011-09-05

    The literature on reconstruction formulas for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is vast. The various reconstruction formulas differ by used measurement devices and geometry on which the data are sampled. In standard photoacoustic imaging (PAI), the object under investigation is illuminated uniformly. Recently, sectional photoacoustic imaging techniques, using focusing techniques for initializing and measuring the pressure along a plane, appeared in the literature. This paper surveys existing and provides novel exact reconstruction formulas for sectional photoacoustic imaging.

  7. Reconstruction Formulas for Photoacoustic Sectional Imaging

    E-print Network

    Elbau, Peter; Schulze, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The literature on reconstruction formulas for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is vast. The various reconstruction formulas differ by used measurement devices and geometry on which the data are sampled. In standard photoacoustic imaging (PAI), the object under investigation is illuminated uniformly. Recently, sectional photoacoustic imaging techniques, using focusing techniques for initializing and measuring the pressure along a plane, appeared in the literature. This paper surveys existing and provides novel exact reconstruction formulas for sectional photoacoustic imaging.

  8. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of ?1,3- and ?1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, ?1,3- and ?1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  9. Skyrmion Multi-Walls

    E-print Network

    J. Silva Lobo; R. S. Ward

    2009-10-28

    Skyrmion walls are topologically-nontrivial solutions of the Skyrme system which are periodic in two spatial directions. We report numerical investigations which show that solutions representing parallel multi-walls exist. The most stable configuration is that of the square $N$-wall, which in the $N\\to\\infty$ limit becomes the cubically-symmetric Skyrme crystal. There is also a solution resembling parallel hexagonal walls, but this is less stable.

  10. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  11. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  12. Tailoring wall permeabilities for enhanced filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herterich, J. G.; Vella, D.; Field, R. W.; Hankins, N. P.; Griffiths, I. M.

    2015-05-01

    The build-up of contaminants at the wall of cross-flow membrane filtration systems can be detrimental to the operation of such systems because of, amongst other things, the osmotic backflow it may induce. In this paper, we propose a strategy to avoid the negative effects of backflow due to osmosis by using 2D channels bounded by walls with a combination of permeable and impermeable segments. We show that preventing flow through the final portion of the channel can increase the efficiency of filtration and we determine the optimal fraction occupied by the permeable wall that maximizes efficiency. Our analysis uses a combination of numerical techniques and asymptotic analysis in the limit of low wall permeabilities. Finally, we consider how the energy cost of filtration depends on the Péclet number and show that the energy cost per unit of filtered water may be minimized by appropriately choosing both the Péclet number and the permeable-region fraction.

  13. Cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Plants exposed to abiotic stress respond to unfavorable conditions on multiple levels. One challenge under drought stress is to reduce shoot growth while maintaining root growth, a process requiring differential cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Key players in this process are the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidases, which initially cross-link phenolic compounds and glycoproteins of the cell walls causing stiffening. The function of ROS shifts after having converted all the peroxidase substrates in the cell wall. If ROS-levels remain high during prolonged stress, OH°-radicals are formed which lead to polymer cleavage. In concert with xyloglucan modifying enzymes and expansins, the resulting cell wall loosening allows further growth of stressed organs. PMID:25709610

  14. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES COMPRISING SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES, MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES AND BUCKMINSTERFULLERENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a facile method to accomplish cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and Buckminsterfullerene (C-60) using microwave (MW) irradiation. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked with SW...

  16. Electron crossElectron cross--field transportfield transport inin a miniaturized cylindrical Hall thrustera miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster

    E-print Network

    Kaganovich, Igor

    HTX Electron crossElectron cross--field transportfield transport inin a miniaturized cylindrical Hall thrustera miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster Nonlocal, Collisionless Electron Transport. Their lifetime decreases significantly due to the channel wall erosion. Cylindrical Hall thrusters that have

  17. Atomic and electronic structures of Si(1 1 1)-[Formula: see text]-Au and (6 × 6)-Au surfaces.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C H

    2015-12-01

    Si(1 1 1)-Au surfaces with around one monolayer of Au exhibit many ordered structures and structures containing disordered domain walls. Hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations presented here reveal the origin of these complex structures and tendency to form domain walls. The conjugate honeycomb chain trimer (CHCT) structure of the [Formula: see text]-Au phase contains Si atoms with non-bonding surface states which can bind Au atoms in pairs in interstices of the CHCT structure and make this surface metallic. Si adatoms adsorbed on the [Formula: see text]-Au surface induce a gapped surface through interaction with the non-bonding states. Adsorption of extra Au atoms in interstitial sites of the [Formula: see text]-Au surface is stabilized by interaction with the non-bonding orbitals and leads to higher coverage ordered structures including the [Formula: see text]-Au phase. Extra Au atoms bound in interstitial sites of the [Formula: see text]-Au surface result in top layer Si atoms with an SiAu4 butterfly wing configuration. The structure of a [Formula: see text]-Au phase, whose in-plane top atomic layer positions were previously determined by an electron holography technique (Grozea et al 1998 Surf. Sci. 418 32), is calculated using total energy minimization. The Patterson function for this structure is calculated and is in good agreement with data from an in-plane x-ray diffraction study (Dornisch et al 1991 Phys. Rev. B 44 11221). Filled and empty state scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images are calculated for domain walls and the [Formula: see text]-Au structure. The [Formula: see text]-Au phase is 2D chiral and this is evident in computed and actual STM images. [Formula: see text]-Au and domain wall structures contain the SiAu4 motif with a butterfly wing shape. Chemical bonding within the Si-Au top layers of the [Formula: see text]-Au and [Formula: see text]-Au surfaces is analyzed and an explanation for the SiAu4 motif structure is given. PMID:26459741

  18. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  19. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  20. Cauchy's formulas for random walks in bounded domains

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzolo, Alain Zoia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Cauchy's formula was originally established for random straight paths crossing a body B?R{sup n} and basically relates the average chord length through B to the ratio between the volume and the surface of the body itself. The original statement was later extended in the context of transport theory so as to cover the stochastic paths of Pearson random walks with exponentially distributed flight lengths traversing a bounded domain. Some heuristic arguments suggest that Cauchy's formula may also hold true for Pearson random walks with arbitrarily distributed flight lengths. For such a broad class of stochastic processes, we rigorously derive a generalized Cauchy's formula for the average length traveled by the walkers in the body, and show that this quantity depends indeed only on the ratio between the volume and the surface, provided that some constraints are imposed on the entrance step of the walker in B. Similar results are also obtained for the average number of collisions performed by the walker in B.

  1. Simplification of Cylindrical Algebraic Formulas Changbo Chen

    E-print Network

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    Simplification of Cylindrical Algebraic Formulas Changbo Chen , Marc Moreno Maza, Chongqing Key@csd.uwo.ca Abstract. For a set S of cells in a cylindrical algebraic decomposition of Rn , we introduce the notion of generalized cylindrical algebraic formula (GCAF) associated with S. We propose a multi-level heuristic

  2. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  3. A Choice of a New Funding Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the fiscal neutrality of three funding formulas that have been proposed to replace the current funding formula for Oklahoma's common schools in an attempt to have greater equity in the distribution of funds to the various districts. Using data from SY-03 to SY-07, calculations of state aid for the 540- districts and fiscal…

  4. 3. Plotting functions and formulas Tim Thornton

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Plotting functions and formulas Ken Rice Tim Thornton University of Washington Seattle, July, as well as illustrating analyses. Here, we wil see; · Some generic plotting commands · Making graphics files · Fine-tuning your plots (and why not to do too much of this) · The formula syntax NB more

  5. 3. Plotting functions and formulas Tim Thornton

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Plotting functions and formulas Ken Rice Tim Thornton University of Washington Seattle, July, as well as illustrating analyses. · Some generic plotting commands · Making graphics files · Fine-tuning your plots (and why not to do too much of this) · The formula syntax NB more graphics commands

  6. Emergence String and Mass Formulas of Hadrons

    E-print Network

    Yi-Fang Chang

    2011-07-19

    Assume that hadrons are formed from the emergence string. Usual string should possess two moving states: oscillation and rotation, so we propose corresponding potential and the equation of the emergence string, whose energy spectrum is namely the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. These are some relations between the string and observable experimental data.

  7. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePLUS

    ... months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . ... Here are a few ways to save money on infant formula: DO NOT buy just one type of baby bottle at first. Try a few different types to see which kind ...

  8. 27 CFR 19.452 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles Denaturation § 19.452 Formulas. Spirits shall be denatured in accordance with formulas as authorized in 27 CFR part 21 or their alternatives. Denaturing materials shall be thoroughly mixed with the spirits...

  9. Formulas for sediment porosity and settling velocity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formulas of Komura (1963) and Han et al. (1981) for the initial porosity of sediment deposits were tested using data sets collected in different countries and regions. It was found that Komura’s formula slightly underestimates the dry density for sand and gravel deposits and overestimates those ...

  10. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  11. A ``fractal'' modification of Torricelli's formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maramathas, Athanasios J.; Boudouvis, Andreas G.

    2010-03-01

    A modification is proposed of Torricelli’s (1608-1647) formula for the velocity of water discharging from a small hole at the bottom of a large tank filled with fractal solid material. The new formula takes proper account of the mechanical energy losses due to flow in the solid matrix, thus expanding the area of validity of the classical Torricelli’s formula. Moreover, it offers a convenient alternative to Darcy’s law for estimating the discharge rate from an aquifer. The new formula was derived from laboratory experiments, with a low-Reynolds number discharge flow (Darcian flow). It was tested in a natural karst aquifer where the flow is non-Darcian, at Almiros spring on the island of Crete (Greece). In both cases, the predictive capability of the modified formula is established.

  12. Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, M.

    The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.

  13. The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M.; Neto, Jose Abdala Helayeel

    2013-01-15

    We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) Circled-Times U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Elie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenboeck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.

  14. Modeling of recurrent threshold crossings due to noise with long memory 

    E-print Network

    Singh, Abhishek Narayan

    2007-04-25

    crossings from our computer simulations with theoretical results from the Rice formula. We have related the recurrence of these threshold crossings with the recurrence of natural disasters. Therefore we are providing a model to predict the recurrence of a...

  15. An arterial wall motion test phantom for the evaluation of wall motion software.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Steven J; Dineley, Judith; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2007-09-01

    Increasing cardiovascular disease has led to new ultrasound methods of assessing artery disease such as arterial wall motion measurement. To validate arterial wall motion software, we developed a mechanically-controlled wall motion test phantom with straight upper and lower agar tissue mimicking material layers that resemble an artery cross section. The wall separation, displacements and wall velocities and accelerations can be controlled within physiologically realistic levels. A user-definable displacement or one of several pre-defined displacement waveforms can be created by the user with custom-written software. The test phantom is then controlled using the defined waveform with a stepper motor controller. Accuracy assessment of the test phantom with a laser vibrometer yielded a positional accuracy of 36+/-2 microm. A typical application of the test phantom is demonstrated by assessing a tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) method for estimating the distension waveform. The TDI-based method was found to have a minimum resolvable displacement of 22.5 microm, and a measurement accuracy of +/-8% using a physiological wall motion movement with a peak displacement of 689 microm. The accuracy of the TDI method was found to decrease with decreasing wall displacement and increasing wall velocity. PMID:17587485

  16. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  17. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Castrellon, Pedro Gutierrez; Rivas, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Carlos Jimenez; Garcia, Luisa Diaz; Jimenez, Juliana Estevez; Anzo, Anahi; Hegar, Badriul; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM. PMID:24507712

  18. Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Cederblad, A.; Davidsson, L.; Sandstroem, B.

    1984-11-01

    Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using /sup 65/Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation.

  19. Cross-flow heat transfer in fixed bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongfang; Zhang, Haitao; Ying, Weiyong; Fang, Dingye

    2013-06-01

    Radial flow reactor operated at cross-flow heat transfer is focused for large scale methanol synthesis. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on the cross-flow heat transfer were investigated and results show that the temperature profile of the area in front of the heating pipe is slightly affected by all the operating conditions. The main area whose temperature profile is influenced is located behind the heating pipe. The heat transfer direction is related to the direction of the flow. In order to obtain the basic parameters for radial flow reactor designing calculation, the dimensionless number group method was used for data fitting of the bed effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient which were calculated by the mathematical model with the product of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The comparison of experimental data and calculated values shows that the calculated values fit the experimental data satisfactorily and the formulas can be used for reactor designing calculation.

  20. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  1. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  2. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  3. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  4. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  5. Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Colleen F; Brigger, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation is a useful technique in selected patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency who have a small central velopharyngeal gap. Options for augmenting this region include using posterior pharyngeal wall flaps to create bulk and implanting various materials to fill in the central deficiency. Autologous and nonautologous implant materials are available and may be implanted through an incision or directly injected into the posterior pharyngeal wall. Previously described materials for implantation include cartilage, fat, fascia, silicone, acellular dermis, polytetrafluoroethylene, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Patient evaluation and surgical techniques for posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation are described. PMID:25733235

  6. 27 CFR 26.54 - Filing and disposition of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.54 Filing and disposition of formulas. Formulas required...

  7. 27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on...

  8. 27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on...

  9. 27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on...

  10. 27 CFR 26.54 - Filing and disposition of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.54 Filing and disposition of formulas. Formulas required...

  11. 27 CFR 26.54 - Filing and disposition of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.54 Filing and disposition of formulas. Formulas required...

  12. Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.

  13. 27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...ammonia, aqueous, 27 to 30 percent by weight; 3 gallons of strong ammonia...

  14. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not to...

  15. 27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...ammonia, aqueous, 27 to 30 percent by weight; 3 gallons of strong ammonia...

  16. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  17. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  18. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not to...

  19. 27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...ammonia, aqueous, 27 to 30 percent by weight; 3 gallons of strong ammonia...

  20. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  1. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not to...

  2. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not to...

  3. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not to...

  4. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  5. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO or OL loan...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  6. 27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...ammonia, aqueous, 27 to 30 percent by weight; 3 gallons of strong ammonia...

  7. 27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add...ammonia, aqueous, 27 to 30 percent by weight; 3 gallons of strong ammonia...

  8. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The...

  9. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...

  10. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...

  11. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...

  12. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...

  14. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

  15. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

  16. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

  17. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

  18. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

  19. Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Peter G.

    1977-01-01

    Derives the general Doppler formula in a nonstatic universe using assumptions of special relativity, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Examples of applications to physical cosmology are given. (SL)

  20. 27 CFR 19.382 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles § 19... officer before denaturing spirits using an alternative formula or a different denaturant. See also §§ 21.5.... 5241) Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants...

  1. 27 CFR 19.382 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles § 19... officer before denaturing spirits using an alternative formula or a different denaturant. See also §§ 21.5.... 5241) Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants...

  2. 27 CFR 19.382 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles § 19... officer before denaturing spirits using an alternative formula or a different denaturant. See also §§ 21.5.... 5241) Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants...

  3. 27 CFR 19.382 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles § 19... officer before denaturing spirits using an alternative formula or a different denaturant. See also §§ 21.5.... 5241) Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants...

  4. Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)

  5. Six-vertex model with partial domain wall boundary conditions: Ferroelectric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleher, Pavel; Liechty, Karl

    2015-02-01

    We obtain an asymptotic formula for the partition function of the six-vertex model with partial domain wall boundary conditions in the ferroelectric phase region. The proof is based on a formula for the partition function involving the determinant of a matrix of mixed Vandermonde/Hankel type. This determinant can be expressed in terms of a system of discrete orthogonal polynomials, which can then be evaluated asymptotically by comparison with the Meixner polynomials.

  6. Collins diffraction formula studied in quantum optics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Lu, Hai-Liang

    2006-09-01

    We find that the Collins diffraction formula in cylindrical coordinates is just the transformation matrix element of a three-parameter two-mode squeezing operator in the deduced entangled state representation. This is a new tie connecting the unitary transform in quantum optics to the generalized Hankel transform in Fourier optics. The group multiplication rule of the squeezing operators maps to the Collins formula related to two successive Hankel transforms. PMID:16902639

  7. An approximation formula for the Katugampola integral

    E-print Network

    Ricardo Almeida; Nuno R. O. Bastos

    2015-11-24

    The objective of this paper is to present an approximation formula for the Katugampola fractional integral, that allows us to solve fractional problems with dependence on this type of fractional operator. The formula only depends on first-order derivatives, and thus we convert the fractional problem into a standard one. With some examples we show the accuracy of the method, and then we present the utility of the method by solving a fractional integral equation.

  8. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  9. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

  10. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  11. MYCOBACTERIAL CELL WALLS II.

    PubMed Central

    Takeya, Kenji; Hisatsune, Kazuhito; Inoue, Yasuko

    1963-01-01

    Takeya, Kenji (Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan), Kazuhito Hisatsune, and Yasuko Inoue. Mycobacterial cell walls. II. Chemical composition of the “basal layer.” J. Bacteriol. 85:24–30. 1963.—Chemical composition of the “basal layer” of the mycobacterial cell wall was determined. The layer contained 35% amino acids, 41.5% reducing sugars (mainly composed of arabinose and galactose), 13.8% amino sugars (glucosamine and muramic acid, 2:1), and 7.7% lipid. The main amino acids were alanine, glutamic acid, and diaminopimelic acid. Their molar ratio was approximately 2:2:1. The main difference in chemical composition between the cell wall and the basal layer was found in lipid content. According to the chemical composition, the basal layer resembles the walls of gram-positive bacteria, while the mycobacterial cell wall resembles the walls of gram-negative bacteria. The basal layer was thoroughly disintegrated by lysozyme digestion, and was considered to be an inner layer of the wall, conferring shape and rigidity on the mycobacterial cell wall. Images PMID:13984704

  12. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  13. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  14. Nutrient levels in infant formulas: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Cook, D A

    1989-12-01

    Technical considerations in the design, production, manufacture, process, and quality control of infant formulas are presented. Many of the criteria and systems used by manufacturers to assure the safety and adequacy of infant formulas have been codified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Product label claims represent the minimum levels of nutrient that must be present throughout product shelf life. The precise nutrient level in an infant formula at any given time may differ from the label claim because of the variability of nutrient amounts contributed by major ingredients, a decrease of certain nutrients due to heat or oxygen exposure during processing, changes during storage, nutrient levels added to account for bio-availability, and the variation in analytical results. Infant formula manufacturers use various processes and quality control systems to assure the presence of appropriate amounts of each required nutrient in each batch. Infant formula manufacturers support the review of existing upper limits and the establishment of new limits where there is a justifiable and adequate basis to do so. Where needed, new upper limits should be set with appropriate consideration of existing technical factors affecting product formulation and nutrient content. Control of upper limits can best be achieved within the framework of existing regulations and manufacturing systems to assure that only batches of formula with appropriate levels of nutrients are introduced into commercial distribution. PMID:2693634

  15. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. Fluoride content of infant formulae in Australia.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Reynolds, E C

    1996-02-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Australia and the United States of America has increased in both optimally fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. This has been attributed to an increase in the fluoride level of food and beverages through processing with fluoridated water, inadvertent ingestion of fluoride toothpaste, and the inappropriate use of dietary supplements. A major source of fluoride in infancy is considered to be infant formula which has been implicated as a risk factor for fluorosis in a number of studies. In this study the fluoride content of the infant formulae commonly used in Australia was determined. The acid diffusible fluoride of each powdered formula was isolated by microdiffusion and measured using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. The fluoride content of milk-based formulae ranged from 0.23 to 3.71 micrograms F/g and for soy-based formulae from 1.08 to 2.86 micrograms F/g. When reconstituted, according to the manufacturer's directions, with water not containing fluoride, the formulae ranged in fluoride content from 0.031 to 0.532 ppm, with the average fluoride content 0.240 ppm. Using average infant body masses and suggested volumes of formula consumption for infants 1-12 months of age, possible fluoride ingestion per kg body mass was estimated. None of the formulae, if reconstituted using water containing up to 0.1 ppm F, should provide a daily fluoride intake above the suggested threshold for fluorosis of 0.1 mg F/kg body mass. However, if reconstituted with water containing 1.0 ppm F they should all provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis with intakes up to 2-3 times the recommended upper 'optimal' limit of 0.07 mg/kg body mass. Under these conditions the water used to reconstitute the formulae would provide 65-97 percent of the fluoride ingested. These figures are likely to be overestimates due to the intake of nutrients from other sources reducing formulae consumption and also due to the lower bioavailability of fluoride from milk-based formulae. Further, it is generally believed that the maturation stage of enamel formation is the critical period for fluorosis development by chronic, above-threshold fluoride exposure. The maturation stage for the anterior permanent teeth, however, is after the first twelve months of life where fluoride intake from infant formula consumption per kg body mass is highest. The level of fluoride in the commonly used Australian formulae would suggest that infant formula consumption alone is unlikely to be a risk factor for dental fluorosis in a non-fluoridated community, but could make a major contribution to an infant's daily fluoride intake. However, prolonged consumption (beyond 12 months of age) of infant formula reconstituted with optimally-fluoridated water could result in excessive amounts of fluoride being ingested during enamel development of the anterior permanent teeth and therefore may be a risk factor for fluorosis of these teeth. PMID:8639113

  17. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G.; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light–matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important photoluminescence and photovoltaic processes. PMID:24821815

  18. Gapped Domain Walls, Gapped Boundaries, and Topological Degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Juven C.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-02-01

    Gapped domain walls, as topological line defects between (2 +1 )D topologically ordered states, are examined. We provide simple criteria to determine the existence of gapped domain walls, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. Our criteria also determine which (2 +1 )D topological orders must have gapless edge modes, namely, which (1 +1 )D global gravitational anomalies ensure gaplessness. Furthermore, we introduce a new mathematical object, the tunneling matrix W , whose entries are the fusion-space dimensions Wi a , to label different types of gapped domain walls. By studying many examples, we find evidence that the tunneling matrices are powerful quantities to classify different types of gapped domain walls. Since a gapped boundary is a gapped domain wall between a bulk topological order and the vacuum, regarded as the trivial topological order, our theory of gapped domain walls inclusively contains the theory of gapped boundaries. In addition, we derive a topological ground state degeneracy formula, applied to arbitrary orientable spatial 2-manifolds with gapped domain walls, including closed 2-manifolds and open 2-manifolds with gapped boundaries.

  19. Semi-empirical systematics of (n, He-3) cross sections for 14.6 MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Yettou, L; Belgaid, M

    2014-12-01

    A new semi-empirical formula for the calculation of the (n, He-3) cross section at 14.6MeV neutron energy is obtained. It is based on the evaporation model. The new formula with three parameters is found to give a better fit to the data than the previous comparable formulae. PMID:25103248

  20. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  1. Surveillance through nonmetallic walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Lawrence M.

    1998-12-01

    Over the past ten years, our goal has been to convert 'High Tech' DoD capabilities into cost-effective tools to help law enforcement people better do their jobs. In many field surveillance operations it is desirable to accurately map the contents of a room or area where access is denied. This presentation will discuss how uniquely crafted radar waves penetrate materials and how the user can determine what is on the other side of a non-metal wall or barrier. The objective of this new technology is to provide accurate surveillance through any non-metal wall. The accuracy and quality of the information depends on the type of wall, the distance from the radar to the wall and the type of radar wave being used. Surveillance in the clear or through interior walls can provide the best resolution and accuracy for mapping and imaging of both moving and nonmoving objects. Penetrations of more dense walls, such as wood and brick, infers longer radar waves with a corresponding reduction in angle resolution, but with good range information. Very dense walls made of reinforced concrete require even longer wave radar signals. In this case, moving target detection is very good, but with reduced range information and relatively poor angle resolution. Physical laws of each situation dictate the type of sensor that can be used and the quality of the surveillance that can be obtained.

  2. Orthogonality, Lommel integrals and cross product zeros of linear combinations of Bessel functions.

    PubMed

    Ziener, Christian H; Kurz, Felix T; Buschle, Lukas R; Kampf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cylindrical Bessel differential equation and the spherical Bessel differential equation in the interval [Formula: see text] with Neumann boundary conditions are considered. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of the Bessel function [Formula: see text] or linear combinations of the spherical Bessel functions [Formula: see text]. The orthogonality relations with analytical expressions for the normalization constant are given. Explicit expressions for the Lommel integrals in terms of Lommel functions are derived. The cross product zeros [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are considered in the complex plane for real as well as complex values of the index [Formula: see text] and approximations for the exceptional zero [Formula: see text] are obtained. A numerical scheme based on the discretization of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional Laplace operator with Neumann boundary conditions is presented. Explicit representations of the radial part of the Laplace operator in form of a tridiagonal matrix allow the simple computation of the cross product zeros. PMID:26251774

  3. BPS Spectra, Barcodes and Walls

    E-print Network

    Cirafici, Michele

    2015-01-01

    BPS spectra give important insights into the non-perturbative regimes of supersymmetric theories. Often from the study of BPS states one can infer properties of the geometrical or algebraic structures underlying such theories. In this paper we approach this problem from the perspective of persistent homology. Persistent homology is at the base of topological data analysis, which aims at extracting topological features out of a set of points. We use these techniques to investigate the topological properties which characterize the spectra of several supersymmetric models in field and string theory. We discuss how such features change upon crossing walls of marginal stability in a few examples. Then we look at the topological properties of the distributions of BPS invariants in string compactifications on compact threefolds, used to engineer black hole microstates. Finally we discuss the interplay between persistent homology and modularity by considering certain number theoretical functions used to count dyons i...

  4. The yin and yang of cell wall integrity control: brassinosteroid and FERONIA signaling.

    PubMed

    Höfte, Herman

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how developmental and environmental signals control plant cell expansion requires an intimate knowledge of the architecture of the primary cell wall and the chemo-rheological processes that underlie cell wall relaxation. In this review I discuss recent findings that reveal a more prominent role than previously suspected for covalent bonds and pectin cross-links in primary cell wall architecture. In addition, genetic studies have uncovered a role for receptor kinases in the control of cell wall homeostasis in growing cells. The emerging view is that, upon cell wall disruption, compensatory changes are induced in the cell wall through the interplay between the brassinosteroid signaling module, which positively regulates wall extensibility and receptor kinases of the CrRLKL1 family, which may act as negative regulators of cell wall stiffness. These findings lift the tip of the veil of a complex signaling network allowing normal homeostasis in walls of growing cells but also crisis management under stress conditions. PMID:25481004

  5. Monte Carlo study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube materials: The effect of different scattering models

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Nojeh, Alireza; Moscovitch, Marko

    2013-02-28

    A systematic study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials for beam energies of {approx}0.3 to 30 keV is presented based on event-by-event Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories using state-of-the-art scattering cross sections. The importance of different analytic approximations for computing the elastic and inelastic electron-scattering cross sections for MWCNTs is emphasized. We offer a simple parameterization for the total and differential elastic-scattering Mott cross section, using appropriate modifications to the Browning formula and the Thomas-Fermi screening parameter. A discrete-energy-loss approach to inelastic scattering based on dielectric theory is adopted using different descriptions of the differential cross section. The sensitivity of electron penetration and backscattering parameters to the underlying scattering models is examined. Our simulations confirm the recent experimental backscattering data on MWCNT forests and, in particular, the steep increase of the backscattering yield at sub-keV energies as well as the sidewalls escape effect at high-beam energies.

  6. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  7. Study of the metatarsal formula in patient with primary metatarsalgia?

    PubMed Central

    Arie, Eduardo Kenzo; Moreira, Norma Sueli Albino; Freire, Gilmar Soares; dos Santos, Bruno Schifer; Yi, Liu Chiao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were (i) to ascertain the prevalence of different types of metatarsal formula among patients with primary metatarsalgia; (ii) to compare the variable of “shortening of the first metatarsal in relation to the second” (I/II) between the metatarsalgia and control groups; and (iii) to analyze the intra and interobserver concordance by means of Morton's transverse line method and Hardy and Clapham's arc method. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 56 patients by means of radiographs on their 112 ft, of which 56 were in the metatarsalgia group and 56 in the control group. The evaluations were done between December 2012 and June 2013. The measurements were made by three third-year orthopedics residents with prior training in the methods used, and a template was used. Results There was no concordance between the two methods, as shown by Bland–Altman plots, although the intraclass correlation coefficients showed that the intra and interobserver reproducibility was high using the transverse line method (0.78 and 0.85) and moderate using the arc method (0.73 and 0.60). Comparison between the groups showed that there was a statistical difference (p ? 0.05) such that there was greater shortening of the first metatarsal (3.39 mm) in the control group than in the metatarsalgia group (2.14 mm). In the patients with primary metatarsalgia, the index minus metatarsal formula was more prevalent according to the transverse line method (62.5%) and the zero plus type according to the arc method (71.4%). Conclusion In the present study, it was observed that the metatarsal formula prevalences depended on the measurement method. In both groups, shortening of the first metatarsal predominated. There was no intra or interobserver concordance in either of the two proposed methods. PMID:26401502

  8. Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

  9. Great Wall Chocolate

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-04-14

    Broadcast Transcript: From fortification to fatification: A chocolate replica of the Great Wall was recently made here in China. It was created for the World Chocolate Wonderland whose sole purpose is to get the Chinese to eat more chocolate...

  10. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 38-B. 21.65 Section 21.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.65 Formula No....

  11. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 38-B. 21.65 Section 21.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.65 Formula No....

  12. 27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20...of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any finished article...

  13. 27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20...of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any finished article...

  14. 27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20...of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any finished article...

  15. 27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20...of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any finished article...

  16. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62 Section 21.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No....

  17. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62 Section 21.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No....

  18. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62 Section 21.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No....

  19. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-C. 21.37 Section 21.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C....

  20. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 3-C. 21.37 Section 21.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C....

  1. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 3-C. 21.37 Section 21.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C....

  2. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 3-C. 21.37 Section 21.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C....

  3. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 3-C. 21.37 Section 21.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C....

  4. ANTI-GAUSSIAN QUADRATURE FORMULAS DIRK P. LAURIE

    E-print Network

    Laurie, Dirk

    Gaussian formula. 1. Introduction Let w be a given weight function if the points and weights are all real. o A real formula is internal if all the points belong node. o The formula is positive if all the weights are positive. The Gaussian formulas are known

  5. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....

  6. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

  7. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

  8. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....

  9. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

  10. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....

  11. Domain wall Skyrmions

    E-print Network

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    Skyrmions of different dimensions are related by domain walls. We obtain explicit full numerical solutions of various Skyrmion configurations trapped inside a domain wall. We find for the quadratic mass-term that multi-Skyrmions are ring-shaped, and conjecture for the linear mass-term, that the lowest-energy state of multi-Skyrmions will consist of charge-2 rings accommodated in a lattice.

  12. A simplification of the Kovarik formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Ni; Du, Hong-Ke; Pang, Yong-Feng

    2007-07-01

    Let P,Q be two idempotents on a Hilbert space. Z.V. Kovarik (Z.V. Kovarik, Similarity and interpolation between projectors, Acta Sci. Math. (Szeged) 39 (1977) 341-351) showed that when P+Q-I is invertible, the formula K(P,Q)=P(P+Q-I)-2Q gives the only idempotent such that , , where and denote the nullspace and the range of a bounded linear operator T on a Hilbert space, respectively. This formula was later extended to the context of Banach algebras and used in 1983 by J. Esterle to show that two homotopic idempotents may always be connected by a polynomial idempotent valued path. In the present paper, we give a simplification of Kovarik's original formula and one natural generalization of it.

  13. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  14. Average prime-pair counting formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

    2010-04-01

    Taking r>0 , let ?_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p? x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that ?_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ?_{2r}(x)=?_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for ?(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ?_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

  15. The combinatorial formula for open gravitational descendents

    E-print Network

    Ran J. Tessler

    2015-08-31

    In recent works, [20],[21], descendent integrals on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces with boundary were defined. It was conjectured in [20] that the generating function of these integrals satisfies the open KdV equations. In this paper we develop the notions of symmetric Strebel-Jenkins differentials and of Kasteleyn orientations for graphs embedded in open surfaces. In addition we write an explicit expression for the angular form of the sum of line bundles. Using these tools we prove a formula for the descendent integrals in terms of sums over weighted graphs. Based on this formula, the conjecture of [20] was proved in [5].

  16. Miniature Laser Doppler Velocimeter for Measuring Wall Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gharib, Morteza; Modarress, Darius; Forouhar, Siamak; Fourguette, Dominique; Taugwalder, Federic; Wilson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A miniature optoelectronic instrument has been invented as a nonintrusive means of measuring a velocity gradient proportional to a shear stress in a flow near a wall. The instrument, which can be mounted flush with the wall, is a variant of a basic laser Doppler velocimeter. The laser Doppler probe volume can be located close enough to the wall (as little as 100 micron from the surface) to lie within the viscosity-dominated sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The instrument includes a diode laser, the output of which is shaped by a diffractive optical element (DOE) into two beams that have elliptical cross sections with very high aspect ratios.

  17. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  18. 38 CFR 9.12 - Reinsurance formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.12 Reinsurance formula. The allocation of... life insurance in force under the policy in proportion to the company's total life insurance in force... section based upon the corresponding in force (excluding the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance in...

  19. ULMTP/061 The Selberg trace formula

    E-print Network

    on a graph [BH03]. Very recently, in the context of quantum ergodicity Jakobson and Strohmaier [JS06 approach employing Green's functions and point­ pair invariants, and therefore complements previous work­michael.stiepan@uni­ulm.de #12; 1 Introduction Trace formulae play a prominent role in spectral geometry and in quantum chaos

  20. 25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians... ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.31 Distribution... the purpose shall be allotted pro rata in accordance with the distribution method outlined in...

  1. 25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians... ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.31 Distribution... the purpose shall be allotted pro rata in accordance with the distribution method outlined in...

  2. Capturing Shock Reflections: An improved flux formula

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    , Godunov's scheme results in an accurate and well­behaved treatment of shock waves. For gas dynamicsCapturing Shock Reflections: An improved flux formula Rosa Donat \\Lambda Antonio Marquina \\Lambda. Key Words. Nonlinear Systems of Conservation Laws, Shock Cap­ turing schemes, Shock Reflections. AMS

  3. Characterization Results for dHorn Formulas,

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    for provability. The method used in the characterization (syn­ tactic translation functions between formulas which: reflexivity (8x)P (x; x), ir­ reflexivity (8x):P (x; x) and symmetry (8xy)(P (x; y) ! P (y; x)) are all Horn

  4. Curious extensions of Ramanujan's summation formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Victor J. W.; Schlosser, Michael J.

    2007-10-01

    We deduce new q-series identities by applying inverse relations to certain identities for basic hypergeometric series. The identities obtained themselves do not belong to the hierarchy of basic hypergeometric series. We extend two of our identities, by analytic continuation, to bilateral summation formulae which contain Ramanujan's summation and a very-well-poised summation as special cases.

  5. 27 CFR 26.31 - Formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Rum Imported Into the United States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise taxes collected on rum that is imported into the United States from areas other than Puerto Rico and...

  6. 27 CFR 26.31 - Formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Rum Imported Into the United States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise taxes collected on rum that is imported into the United States from areas other than Puerto Rico and...

  7. Particle Mass-Formulae Simone Giani

    E-print Network

    authors [2], [3], [4] have proposed that particle masses are strongly correlated by a mass unit of aboutParticle Mass-Formulae Simone Giani CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 relations among some particle masses are investigated. The eta-prime / eta masses' ratio is noted

  8. A PARABOLIC ALMOST MONOTONICITY FORMULA Introduction In ...

    E-print Network

    2006-07-07

    University and the Royal Institute of Technology, respectively, and they thank the universities ... Finally, let us make a remark on the proof of the parabolic almost monotonic- ... almost monotonicity formula (Theorem III) with more features of the monotonicity ...... Also, the boundedness of both u and (???s)u alone implies.

  9. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. PMID:26471520

  10. 28 CFR 38.2 - Formula grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formula grants. 38.2 Section 38.2... grants. (a) Religious organizations are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization, to... religious character or affiliation. As used in this section, “program” refers to a grant, contract,...

  11. Contemporary Mathematics Analogues of Koshliakov's Formula

    E-print Network

    Berndt, Bruce C.

    details on its proofs, especially that of Ramanujan, see the paper by the first author, Y. Lee, and JContemporary Mathematics Analogues of Koshliakov's Formula Bruce C. Berndt, Sun Kim, and Alexandru supported by NSA grant H98230-11-1-0200. c 0000 (copyright holder) 1 #12;2 BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM

  12. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

  13. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

  14. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

  15. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

  16. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130 Section 574.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES...

  17. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... this formula: Customer Contract Rate of Delivery (CROD) today/total project CROD under contract today × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...

  18. Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…

  19. Formula management: in search of magic solutions.

    PubMed

    McConnell, C R

    1997-12-01

    Formula management is the unjustified reliance on a set of rules or prescribed behaviors--a management formula, fad, or "flavor-of-the-month"--as the answer to an organization's needs. It is the manifestation of a tendency to believe that the essence of management can be proceduralized, that the art of management can be replaced with an expanding science of management. This tendency has been repeatedly demonstrated in the application of concepts such as management by objectives (MBO) and the variants of total quality management (TQM). All of management's "formulas" have their place; however, none of them provide all of management's needed answers. To view any of the specifically delineated "kinds of management"--all of which are highly susceptible to misapplication and resistance to change both blatant and subtle--as a cure-all is fully as inappropriate as denying their value out of hand. Formula or not, organizational results will continue to depend on the practice of the art, as well as the science, of management. PMID:10174446

  20. The Economic Vitality Formula of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopnicki, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…

  1. A Formula for Inserting Point Masses

    E-print Network

    Manwah Lilian Wong

    2010-09-08

    Let mu be a probability measure on the unit circle and nu be the measure formed by adding a pure point to mu. We give a formula for the Verblunsky coefficients of the perturbed measure, based on a result of Simon.

  2. CDS Market Formulas and Models Damiano Brigo

    E-print Network

    Brigo, Damiano

    pricing measure. The seminal example is the Black and Scholes (1973) model for the equity market. Another example is the Black (1976) model for commod- ity options, used for years by market operators also a natural equivalent measure, allow pricing reference options by Black and Scholes market valuation formulas

  3. HVDC wall bushing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M.; Lux, A.E.; Howes, D.R. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes research conducted to determine the performance of HVDC wall bushings in different wetting conditions. The in-service behavior of these wall bushing on HVDC systems at voltages of {plus minus}450 kV and above is first described to establish the conditions under which flashovers have occurred. Laboratory tests made at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center confirm that wall bushings may flash over at rated operation voltage under conditions which are intended to be representative of those experienced on operating transmission systems. Methods for improving performance are discussed, and results of tests with several types of mitigation techniques are described. The major emphasis is placed on the application of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber. Clean fog is used to evaluate the characteristics of this material on post insulators. The encouraging performance of the post insulators coated with RTV is the basis for further evaluation on full scale wall bushings tested in nonuniform rain. In addition to tests on RTV coated wall bushings without pre-doposited contamination, attempts at achieving reasonable contamination layers on RV are described. By means of resistance measurements on horizontal insulators, the critical conditions which may lead to flashover on surfaces with different materials and coatings are investigated 15 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. An investigation on near wall transport characteristics in an adiabatic upward gas-liquid two-phase slug flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Donghong; Che, Defu

    2007-08-01

    The near-wall transport characteristics, inclusive of mass transfer coefficient and wall shear stress, which have a great effect on gas-liquid two-phase flow induced internal corrosion of low alloy pipelines in vertical upward oil and gas mixing transport, have been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated in this paper. Based on the analyses on the hydrodynamic characteristics of an upward slug unit, the mass transfer in the near wall can be divided into four zones, Taylor bubble nose zone, falling liquid film zone, Taylor bubble wake zone and the remaining liquid slug zone; the wall shear stress can be divided into two zones, the positive wall shear stress zone associated with the falling liquid film and the negative wall shear stress zone associated with the liquid slug. Based on the conventional mass transfer and wall shear stress characteristics formulas of single phase liquid full-pipe turbulent flow, corrected normalized mass transfer coefficient formula and wall shear stress formula are proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The shear stress and the mass transfer coefficient in the near wall zone are increased with the increase of superficial gas velocity and decreased with the increase of superficial liquid velocity. The mass transfer coefficients in the falling liquid film zone and the wake zone of leading Taylor bubble are lager than those in the Taylor bubble nose zone and the remaining liquid slug zone, and the wall shear stress associated falling liquid film is larger than that associated the liquid slug. The mass transfer coefficient is within 10-3 m/s, and the wall shear stress below 103 Pa. It can be concluded that the alternate wall shear stress due to upward gas-liquid slug flow is considered to be the major cause of the corrosion production film fatigue cracking.

  5. The Logarithmic Tail of Néel Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, Christof

    We study the multiscale problem of a parametrized planar 180° rotation of magnetization states in a thin ferromagnetic film. In an appropriate scaling and when the film thickness is comparable to the Bloch line width, the underlying variational principle has the form <FORMULA FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> where the reduced stray-field operator Q approximates (-?)1/2 as the quality factor Q tends to zero. We show that the associated Néel wall profile u exhibits a very long logarithmic tail. The proof relies on limiting elliptic regularity methods on the basis of the associated Euler-Lagrange equation and symmetrization arguments on the basis of the variational principle. Finally we study the renormalized limit behavior as Q tends to zero.

  6. Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

  7. [Chest Wall Injury].

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Masayuki; Niwa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    The thoracic wall protects the heart, great vessels, lungs, trachea, and bronchus, which are organs important for maintaining respiration/circulation, against external forces. Therefore, injury of the thoracic wall may necessitate emergency treatment. Such injury primarily consists of rib and sternal fractures. In particular, fractures of 2 or more consecutive ribs with each rib being fractured at 2 or more sites and serial rib fracture with sternal fracture lead to reverse thoracic movement involving contraction on inhalation and expansion on expiration. Such thoracic injury is termed flail chest. Injury of the thoracic wall, such as flail chest, markedly influences the prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to promptly evaluate the general condition, involving respiratory/circulatory kinetics, confirm the presence or absence of concomitant injury, such as bruises of the lungs/heart, and accurately select therapeutic strategies, including artificial respiration and surgical intervention. PMID:26197917

  8. Kinetic wall from Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Godolphin, D.

    1985-05-01

    An unusual solar mass wall is described. At the turn of a handle it can change from a solar energy collector to a heat-blocker. An appropriate name for it might be the rotating prism wall. An example of the moving wall is at work in an adobe test home in Sede Boqer. Behind a large south-facing window stand four large adobe columns that are triangular in plan. One face of each of them is painted black to absorb sunlight, a second is covered with panels of polystyrene insulation, and a third is painted to match the room decor. These columns can rotate. On winter nights, the insulated side faces the glass, keeping heat losses down. The same scheme works in summer to keep heat out of the house. Small windows provide ventilation.

  9. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m simeq 108–1013 GeV and f simeq 1013–1016 GeV . Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  10. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  11. Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: Z = - 1 to 92

    DOE PAGESBeta

    DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-11-25

    Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determinedmore »using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.« less

  12. Quantum-induced interactions in the moduli space of degenerate BPS domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Guilarte, J. Mateos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper quantum effects are investigated in a very special two-scalar field model having a moduli space of BPS topological defects. In a (1 + 1)-dimensional space-time the defects are classically degenerate in mass kinks, but in (3 + 1) dimensions the kinks become BPS domain walls, all of them sharing the same surface tension at the classical level. The heat kernel/zeta function regularization method will be used to control the divergences induced by the quantum kink and domain wall fluctuations. A generalization of the Gilkey-DeWitt-Avramidi heat kernel expansion will be developed in order to accommodate the infrared divergences due to zero modes in the spectra of the second-order kink and domain wall fluctuation operators, which are respectively N = 2 × N = 2 matrix ordinary or partial differential operators. Use of these tools in the spectral zeta function associated with the Hessian operators paves the way to obtain general formulas for the one-loop kink mass and domain wall tension shifts in any (1 + 1)- or (3 + 1)-dimensional N -component scalar field theory model. Application of these formulae to the BPS kinks or domain walls of the N = 2 model mentioned above reveals the breaking of the classical mass or surface tension degeneracy at the quantum level. Because the main parameter distinguishing each member in the BPS kink or domain wall moduli space is essentially the distance between the centers of two basic kinks or walls, the breaking of the degeneracy amounts to the surge in quantum-induced forces between the two constituent topological defects. The differences in surface tension induced by one-loop fluctuations of BPS walls give rise mainly to attractive forces between the constituent walls except if the two basic walls are very far apart. Repulsive forces between two close walls only arise if the coupling approaches the critical value from below.

  13. 'The formula that killed Wall Street': the Gaussian copula and modelling practices in investment banking.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Donald; Spears, Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Drawing on documentary sources and 114 interviews with market participants, this and a companion article discuss the development and use in finance of the Gaussian copula family of models, which are employed to estimate the probability distribution of losses on a pool of loans or bonds, and which were centrally involved in the credit crisis. This article, which explores how and why the Gaussian copula family developed in the way it did, employs the concept of 'evaluation culture', a set of practices, preferences and beliefs concerning how to determine the economic value of financial instruments that is shared by members of multiple organizations. We identify an evaluation culture, dominant within the derivatives departments of investment banks, which we call the 'culture of no-arbitrage modelling', and explore its relation to the development of Gaussian copula models. The article suggests that two themes from the science and technology studies literature on models (modelling as 'impure' bricolage, and modelling as articulating with heterogeneous objectives and constraints) help elucidate the history of Gaussian copula models in finance. PMID:25051588

  14. Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall Magnetohydrodynamic Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed-field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm s law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm s law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current-dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects, including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities leads to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed-field accelerator operation.

  15. Wall pressure fluctuations in rectangular partial enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaroli, T.; Camussi, R.

    2015-04-01

    Wall pressure fluctuations generated within rectangular partial enclosures (RPEs) have been studied experimentally for a broad range of geometrical parameters. The geometry represents a simplified version of a new generation trapped vortex combustor and consisted of a rectangular cavity connected to a neck of smaller size. Wall pressure fluctuations have been measured through wall mounted microphones providing single and multi-variate pressure statistics both in the physical space and in the Fourier domain. In order to interpret the pressure signals, aerodynamic and acoustic investigations have been carried out as well for several cavity-neck ratios. The analysis of the acoustic response of the cavity has been conducted both numerically and experimentally and a simple theoretical model has been proposed to predict the frequency of the acoustic resonances. The aerodynamic study has been carried out through PIV measurements that provided characterization in terms of the geometrical parameters of both the large-scale vortex generated within the cavity and the recirculation zone formed upstream of the neck. The use of the POD decomposition permitted us to correlate the dynamics of the recirculation with the observed pressure statistics. The aerodynamic and acoustic investigations allowed us to interpret exhaustively the wall pressure cross-statistics and to separate contributions induced by hydrodynamic and purely acoustic pressure fluctuations.

  16. New scaling for compressible wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jie; Chen, Jun; Fazle, Hussain; She, ZhenSu

    2013-09-01

    Classical Mach-number (M) scaling in compressible wall turbulence was suggested by van Driest (Van Driest E R. Turbulent boundary layers in compressible fluids. J Aerodynamics Science, 1951, 18(3): 145-160) and Huang et al. (Huang P G, Coleman G N, Bradshaw P. Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modeling. J Fluid Mech, 1995, 305: 185-218). Using a concept of velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS), defined by high correlation regions in a field of two-point cross-correlation coefficient between a velocity and a vorticity component, we have discovered a limiting VVCS as the closest streamwise vortex structure to the wall, which provides a concrete Morkovin scaling summarizing all compressibility effects. Specifically, when the height and mean velocity of the limiting VVCS are used as the units for the length scale and the velocity, all geometrical measures in the spanwise and normal directions, as well as the mean velocity and fluctuation (r.m.s) profiles become M-independent. The results are validated by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible channel flows with M up to 3. Furthermore, a quantitative model is found for the M-scaling in terms of the wall density, which is also validated by the DNS data. These findings yield a geometrical interpretation of the semi-local transformation (Huang et al., 1995), and a conclusion that the location and the thermodynamic properties associated with the limiting VVCS determine the M-effects on supersonic wall-bounded flows.

  17. Optical coherence tomography for cross-sectional imaging of neural activity.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Jou; Black, Adam J; Landowne, David; Akkin, Taner

    2015-07-01

    We report a functional optical coherence tomography cross-sectional scanner to detect neural activity using unmyelinated nerves dissected from squid. The nerves, unstained or stained with a voltage-sensitive dye, were imaged in a nerve chamber. Transient phase changes from backscattered light were detected during action potential propagation. The results show that the scanner can provide high spatiotemporal resolution cross-sectional images of neural activity ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text]). The advantage of this method compared to monitoring a single depth profile [Formula: see text] is a dramatic increase in the number of available sites that can be measured in two spatial dimensions [Formula: see text] with lateral scanning; therefore, the study demonstrates that two-dimensional monitoring of small-scale functional activity would also be feasible. PMID:26217674

  18. A School without Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Len Tai

    1994-01-01

    During the summer, selected students of Hawaiian ancestry who have completed seventh or eighth grade participate in a boarding program with outdoor activities such as pulling taro, star gazing, and camping. The activities eliminate walls of doubt and fear and nurture self-confidence, creativity, personal growth, leadership, and cultural awareness.…

  19. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  20. Wall of Winows Panorama

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Bryce Canyon's Wall of Windows, a series of sandstone arches and hoodoos in the Bryce Amphitheater. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolom...

  1. Domain walls - horizontal epilogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Aharon; Vozmediano, A. H.

    1984-06-01

    A horizontal realization of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry together with the presence of B (or B - L) global invariance allow us to solve the domain wall problem without the need for exotic fermions or extra gauge interactions. The intergenerational Yukawa structure dictated by the connectness of the manifold of degenerate vacuum states is analysed.

  2. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  3. Pressure wall patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamsen, Joel E.; Weddendorf, Bruce

    1992-10-01

    A rigid patch body for placing over a damaged portion (hole) of an external wall of a pressurized vessel, such as a space vehicle or a habitat, is discussed. The rigid patch body allows an astronaut to make temporary repairs to the pressurized vessel from the exterior of the vessel, which enables more permanent repairs to be made from the interior of the vessel. The pressure wall patch of the present invention includes a floor surrounded by four side members. Each side member includes a threaded screw for anchoring the patch body to the external wall of the pressurized vessel and a recess in its lower surface for supporting an inflatable bladder for surrounding the damaged portion (hole) of the external wall to seal the area surrounding the damaged portion. This allows the vessel to be repressurized. The floor of the rigid patch body supports a source of gas that is connected to the gas supply valve and a gas supply gauge in communication with the gas supply valve and the inflatable bladder.

  4. Pressure wall patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamsen, Joel E.; Weddendorf, Bruce C.

    1994-01-01

    A rigid patch body for placing over a damaged portion (hole) of an external wall of a pressurized vessel, such as a space vehicle or a habitat, is discussed. The rigid patch body allows an astronaut to make temporary repairs to the pressurized vessel from the exterior of the vessel, which enables more permanent repairs to be made from the interior of the vessel. The pressure wall patch of the present invention includes a floor surrounded by four side members. Each side member includes a threaded screw for anchoring the patch body to the external wall of the pressurized vessel and a recess in its lower surface for supporting an inflatable bladder for surrounding the damaged portion (hole) of the external wall to seal the area surrounding the damaged portion. This allows the vessel to be repressurized. The floor of the rigid patch body supports a source of gas that is connected to the gas supply valve and a gas supply gauge in communication with the gas supply valve and the inflatable bladder.

  5. The Wall Coverings Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

  6. Big White Wall app.

    PubMed

    2015-11-11

    For anyone struggling with anxiety or stress, the Big White Wall app offers an anonymous space to voice concerns or speak to others. Before trying the app, users need to go to www.bigwhitewall . com and answer a brief questionnaire to set up login details and a password to protect anonymity. PMID:26554985

  7. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  8. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  9. EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL OF CRUSHING MILL IN CENTER. GABLE END OF BOILING HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  10. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  12. An improved nuclear mass formula: WS3

    E-print Network

    Ning Wang; Min Liu

    2012-11-12

    We introduce a global nuclear mass formula which is based on the macroscopic-microscopic method, the Skyrme energy-density functional and the isospin symmetry in nuclear physics. The rms deviation with respect to 2149 known nuclear masses falls to 336 keV, and the rms deviations from 1988 neutron separation energies and \\alpha-decay energies of 46 super-heavy nuclei are significantly reduced to 286 and 248 keV, respectively. The predictive power of the mass formula for describing new measured masses in GSI and those in AME2011 is excellent. In addition, we introduce an efficient and powerful systematic method, radial basis function approach, for further improving the accuracy and predictive power of global nuclear mass models.

  13. A flood-flow formula for Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigwood, B.L.; Thomas, M.P.

    1955-01-01

    A study of the frequency and magnitude of floods within the Connecticut area is contained in this report. Annual flood discharges for 44 stream-gaging stations whose records range in length from l0 to 40 years are presented and a regional flood-frequency relationship developed based upon the ratios of all floods to the mean annual flood at each of these locations. Definition of this curve for floods of larger recurrence intervals is based upon historical studies of extraordinary floods which have occurred within the area. For ungaged areas, the mean annual flood value may be determined by use of a flood-flow formula based upon the topographic characteristics of drainage area and basin slope. The development of this formula also is included.

  14. Pizzetti Formulae for Stiefel Manifolds and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulembier, Kevin; Kieburg, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Pizzetti's formula explicitly shows the equivalence of the rotation invariant integration over a sphere and the action of rotation invariant differential operators. We generalize this idea to the integrals over real, complex, and quaternion Stiefel manifolds in a unifying way. In particular, we propose a new way to calculate group integrals and try to uncover some algebraic structures which manifest themselves for some well-known cases like the Harish-Chandra integral. We apply a particular case of our formula to an Itzykson-Zuber integral for the coset . This integral naturally appears in the calculation of the two-point correlation function in the transition of the statistics of the Poisson ensemble and the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble in random matrix theory.

  15. Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials

    E-print Network

    Luigi Cantini; Jan de Gier; Michael Wheeler

    2015-07-27

    We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik--Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov--Faddeev and Yang--Baxter algebras in terms of $t$-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions form a basis of the ring of polynomials in $n$ variables, whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalisations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at $q=1$.

  16. Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, Luigi; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

    2015-09-01

    We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov-Faddeev and Yang-Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1.

  17. Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.

    PubMed

    Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F

    2015-05-01

    In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications. PMID:25559642

  18. Some inversion formulas for the cone transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzioglu, Fatma

    2015-11-01

    Several novel imaging applications have lead recently to a variety of Radon type transforms, where integration is made over a family of conical surfaces. We call them cone transforms (in 2D they are also called V-line or broken ray transforms). Most prominently, they are present in the so called Compton camera imaging that arises in medical diagnostics, astronomy, and lately in homeland security applications. Several specific incarnations of the cone transform have been considered separately. In this paper, we address the most general (and overdetermined) cone transform, obtain integral relations between cone and Radon transforms in {{{R}}}n, and a variety of inversion formulas. In many applications (e.g., in homeland security), the signal to noise ratio is very low. So, if overdetermined data is collected (as in the case of Compton imaging), attempts to reduce the dimensionality might lead to essential elimination of the signal. Thus, our main concentration is on obtaining formulas involving overdetermined data.

  19. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  20. The formula for survival in resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Eldar; Morrison, Laurie; Hillman, Ken; Monsieurs, Koen; Sunde, Kjetil; Zideman, David; Eisenberg, Mickey; Sterz, Fritz; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Soar, Jasmeet; Nolan, Jerry P

    2013-11-01

    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Advisory Statement on Education and Resuscitation in 2003 included a hypothetical formula--'the formula for survival' (FfS)--whereby three interactive factors, guideline quality (science), efficient education of patient caregivers (education) and a well-functioning chain of survival at a local level (local implementation), form multiplicands in determining survival from resuscitation. In May 2006, a symposium was held to discuss the validity of the formula for survival hypothesis and to investigate the influence of each of the multiplicands on survival. This commentary combines the output from this symposium with an updated illustration of the three multiplicands in the FfS using rapid response systems (RRS) for medical science, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for local implementation, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for educational efficiency. International differences between hospital systems made it difficult to assign a precise value for the multiplicand medical science using RRS as an example. Using bystander CPR as an example for the multiplicand educational efficiency, it was also difficult to provide a precise value, mainly because of differences between compression-only and standard CPR. The local implementation multiplicand (exemplified by therapeutic hypothermia) is probably the easiest to improve, and is likely to have the most immediate improvement in observed survival outcome in most systems of care. Despite the noted weaknesses, we believe that the FfS will be useful as a mental framework when trying to improve resuscitation outcome in communities worldwide. PMID:23917078

  1. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  2. Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics and Lefschetz fixed-point formula

    E-print Network

    Si Li

    2005-11-09

    We review the explicit derivation of the Gauss-Bonet and Hirzebruch formulae by physical model and give a physical proof of the Lefschetz fixed-point formula by twisting boundary conditions for the path integral.

  3. SERIES ACCELERATION FORMULAS FOR DIRICHLET SERIES WITH PERIODIC COEFFICIENTS

    E-print Network

    Bradley, David

    SERIES ACCELERATION FORMULAS FOR DIRICHLET SERIES WITH PERIODIC COEFFICIENTS DAVID M. BRADLEY Abstract. Series acceleration formulas are obtained for Dirichlet series with periodic coefficients. Dirichlet series, acceleration of series, L­series, Riemann zeta function, Lerch zeta function, Ramanujan. 1

  4. 48 CFR 32.304-3 - Asset formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...collateral or bank deposit balances. (b) Progress payments are deducted from the asset formula. (c) The agency may relax the asset formula to an appropriate extent for the time actually necessary for contract performance, if the contractor's...

  5. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192.105 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel...

  6. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192.105 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel...

  7. Extensions of Ramanujan's two formulas for $1/\\pi$

    E-print Network

    Wei, Chuanan

    2012-01-01

    In terms of the hypergeometric method, we establish the extensions of two formulas for $1/\\pi$ due to Ramanujan [27]. Further, other five summation formulas for $1/\\pi$ with free parameters are also derived in the same way.

  8. 27 CFR 26.53 - Changes of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.53 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing a...

  9. 27 CFR 26.53 - Changes of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.53 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing a...

  10. 27 CFR 26.53 - Changes of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.53 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing a...

  11. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...received approval of a formula for that product. (2) You may, for research and development purposes (including consumer taste testing), produce a fermented product without an approved formula, but you may not sell or market this product until...

  12. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...received approval of a formula for that product. (2) You may, for research and development purposes (including consumer taste testing), produce a fermented product without an approved formula, but you may not sell or market this product until...

  13. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

  14. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

  15. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

  16. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

  17. Plotting Formula for Pearson Type III Distribution Considering Historical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh-Van; In-na, Nophadol

    1992-01-01

    Proposes a plotting position formula for the Pearson type III distribution in the analysis of historical flood information. Presents results of a numerical example using actual flood data to confirm the appropriateness of the plotting formula. (24 references) (MDH)

  18. A sum formula of multiple $L$-values

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    We show a sum formula of certain multiple L-values conjectured by Essouabri-Matsumoto-Tsumura, which generalizes the sum formula of multiple zeta-values. The proof relies on the method of partial fraction decomposition.

  19. 27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of any two or more denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N... the denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

  20. 27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of any two or more denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N... the denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

  1. 27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of any two or more denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N... the denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

  2. 27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of any two or more denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N... the denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

  3. 27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of any two or more denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N... the denaturing materials listed under Formula No. 38-B. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630...Requirements § 1065.630 1980 international gravity formula. The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g , varies depending on your...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630...Requirements § 1065.630 1980 international gravity formula. The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g , varies depending on your...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630...Requirements § 1065.630 1980 international gravity formula. The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g , varies depending on your...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630...Requirements § 1065.630 1980 international gravity formula. The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g , varies depending on your...

  8. 47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

  9. 12 CFR 324.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). 324...144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a...SSFA to determine the risk weight for a securitization...section must assign a risk weight of 1,250 percent to the...

  10. 12 CFR 3.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). 3.211...211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a...unpaid principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital...that is, an average risk weight of 100 percent represents...

  11. 12 CFR 3.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). 3.144...144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a...SSFA to determine the risk weight for a securitization...section must assign a risk weight of 1,250 percent to the...

  12. 12 CFR 324.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). 324...211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a...unpaid principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital...that is, an average risk weight of 100 percent represents...

  13. 12 CFR 217.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). 217...144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a...SSFA to determine the risk weight for a securitization...section must assign a risk weight of 1,250 percent to the...

  14. 12 CFR 217.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). 217...211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a...unpaid principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital...that is, an average risk weight of 100 percent represents...

  15. 47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...% skywave field strength values. Formula 1. Skywave field strength, 50% of the time (at SS+6): The skywave... calculation of 10% skywave field strength values. Formula 2. Skywave field strength, 10% of the time (at...

  16. 47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...% skywave field strength values. Formula 1. Skywave field strength, 50% of the time (at SS+6): The skywave... calculation of 10% skywave field strength values. Formula 2. Skywave field strength, 10% of the time (at...

  17. A general proof of Landauer-Büttiker formula

    E-print Network

    G. Nenciu

    2006-04-09

    We point out a general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-B\\"uttiker formula.

  18. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases are intended to be employed to provide information on...

  19. 27 CFR 19.187 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 19.187 Section 19...After Original Qualification § 19.187 Adoption of formulas. (a) Forms 5110.38. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms...

  20. Infant formula, past and future: opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Lo, C W; Kleinman, R E

    1996-04-01

    Infant formulas provide nutritional support to health infants that promotes growth and development equivalent to that in healthy infants fed human milk. Formula-fed infants are not as well protected against infections, and there remain infants whose health, growth, and development may not be supported optimally by either the formulas currently available or human milk. Some infants may be better supported by genetically engineered formulas that contain immunity-enhancing antibodies or antigens. Formulas that contain cytokines promoting epithelial cell growth and integrity may be protective against necrotizing enterocolitis. Formulas containing proteins with genetically excluded allergenic epitopes or formulas with tolerogenic peptides may be useful in treating allergic diseases of suppressing the development of autoimmune disorders later in life. Formulas with genetically engineered biologically active substances might increase the absorption of nutrients in infants with compromised absorption or digestion, enhance host immunity and mucosal integrity, and, potentially militate or protect against the risk of disease. PMID:8599333

  1. 47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

  2. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  3. 25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  5. Biol 458 Cell Wall p. 1 THE PLANT CELL WALL

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Biol 458 Cell Wall p. 1 1 THE PLANT CELL WALL A. Introduction. Plant cell wall: a tough coat of polysaccharides and proteins, which surrounds the plant cell external to the plasmalemma. - the "extracellular" matrix, semi-rigid, integral to cell - the major long-term sinks of fixed carbon in biosphere (cellulose

  6. Biol 458 Cell Wall p. 1 THE PLANT CELL WALL

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Biol 458 Cell Wall p. 1 1 THE PLANT CELL WALL A. Introduction - plant cell walls are the major cell external to the plasmalemma. - "extracellular" matrix, semi-rigid, integral to cell · Biological importance of the CW: - structural support (via turgor and lignin) - cell shape and development - protection

  7. 38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED WITH RANDOM WIDTH BOARDS WHICH WERE PAPERED OR PLASTERED OVER. THIS WAS TYPICAL THROUGHOUT HOUSE EXCEPT FOR WOOD PANELED WALLS - John Mark Verdier House, 801 Bay & Scott Streets, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  8. Cost-Benefit Considerations in Choosing among Cross-Validation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    There are two general methods of cross-validation: empirical estimation, and formula estimation. In choosing a specific cross-validation procedure, one should consider both costs (e.g., inefficient use of available data in estimating regression parameters) and benefits (e.g., accuracy in estimating population cross-validity). Empirical…

  9. Planar view of interior of southeast side of lock wall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of interior of southeast side of lock wall, upstream (westernmost) section of lock, propane tank in background, view towards southeast - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  10. 3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL OF INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL OF INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  11. 13. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF WEST WALL CAPSTONES, SHOWING CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF WEST WALL CAPSTONES, SHOWING CONNECTING STRAPS AND RETAINING STRAP - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  12. 6. VIEW WEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  13. 7. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, FIRST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, FIRST AND SECOND LAYER OF PLANKS (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  14. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

  15. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

  16. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

  17. 27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  18. A surgery formula for the smooth Yamabe invariant Bernd Ammann

    E-print Network

    Ammann, Bernd

    A surgery formula for the smooth Yamabe invariant Bernd Ammann (joint work with M. Dahl, E. Humbert over S1 , that (Sn-1 ~Ã?S1 ) = Y (Sn ). By Kobayashi's surgery formula [8] it is also clear. An important class of estimates can be proven with the help of surgery formulas. Let : Sk Ã? Bn-k M

  19. A surgery formula for the smooth Yamabe invariant Bernd Ammann

    E-print Network

    Ammann, Bernd

    A surgery formula for the smooth Yamabe invariant Bernd S1, that oe(Sn-1x"S1) = Y (Sn). By Kobayashi's surgery formula [8] it is also clear that the oe very helpful. An important class_of_estimates can be proven with the help of surgery formulas. Let

  20. 27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... must file a new formula (with a new formula number) for approval by TTB if you— (1) Create an entirely...) Delete ingredients from an existing formulation; (4) Change the quantity of an ingredient used from the quantity or range of usage in an approved formula; (5) Change an approved processing, filtration, or...

  1. 75 FR 33203 - Funding Formula for Grants to States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...Service 20 CFR Part 1001 RIN 1293-AA17 Funding Formula for Grants to States AGENCY...information, on issues related to the funding formula applicable to the Jobs for Veterans...38 U.S.C. 4102A(b)(5). The funding formula for these grants is governed...

  2. 27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  3. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Except for products... distilled spirits products shipped to the United States from Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...

  4. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Except for products... distilled spirits products shipped to the United States from Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...

  5. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Except for products... distilled spirits products shipped to the United States from Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...

  6. New addition formula for the little $q$-Bessel functions

    E-print Network

    Fethi Bouzeffour

    2013-10-23

    Starting from the addition formula for little $q$-Jacobi polynomials, we derive a new addition formula for the little $q$-Bessel functions. The result is obtained by the use of a limit transition. We also establish a product formula for little $q$-Bessel functions with a positive and symmetric kernel.

  7. Rice Formula for processes with jumps and applications Federico Dalmao

    E-print Network

    Rice Formula for processes with jumps and applications Federico Dalmao Ernesto Mordecki December 24, 2012 Abstract We extend Rice Formula for a process that is the sum of a smooth process and a pure jump give a generalization, to the non-stationary case, of Borovkov-Last's Rice Formula for Piecewise

  8. 27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall maintain records showing by transaction date the details of...

  9. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

  10. Acquisition of Concentrated Modification Structure from Logical Formula

    E-print Network

    by the author of this paper(Sakaki 2002). 2 Transformation from atomic formula to atomic dependency structure Figure 1: Transformation from atomic formula to atomic dependency structure Here, transformation from atomic formula to the "atomic dependency structure" is treated. P(c, f(X, Y)) p c Ra Rba Rbb fb Rb x y Ra

  11. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for fermented products. 25.55 Section 25.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.55 Formulas for fermented products. (a) For what...

  12. The Hybridization of a Formula Race Car K. W. Benson

    E-print Network

    The Hybridization of a Formula Race Car K. W. Benson D. A. Fraser S. L. Hatridge C. A. Monaco R. J works must be obtained from the IEEE. #12;The Hybridization of a Formula Race Car Keith W. Benson.R.Sullivan@dartmouth.edu Abstract--Hybrid electric vehicles are advantageous under formula racing rules, when allowed. A series

  13. Effects of Neurological Damage on Production of Formulaic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, Diana; Canterucci, Gina; Katsnelson, Dora

    2009-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous…

  14. PSpecies and the qMehler Formula Hung Quang Ngo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    of species on permutations and a weight preserving bijection relating this species to the q­Mehler formulaP­Species and the q­Mehler Formula Hung Quang Ngo #3; Abstract In this paper, we present a bijective proof of the q­Mehler formula. The proof is in the same style as Foata's proof of the Mehler

  15. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  16. 12 CFR 217.143 - Supervisory formula approach (SFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Supervisory formula approach (SFA). 217... § 217.143 Supervisory formula approach (SFA). (a...apply a 1,250 percent risk weight to an amount equal to UE ·... (d) The supervisory formula: ER11OC13.049...

  17. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  18. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  19. Shrinkage of de Morgan formulae under restriction \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Zwick, Uri

    formula a weight that takes into account not only its size but also the likelihood of further size a smaller weight, re­ flecting the fact that if this formula is obtained progress has been made, even], but with a simpler and more natural weight function. Our weight function is simply the formula size plus a supplement

  20. 12 CFR 324.143 - Supervisory formula approach (SFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Supervisory formula approach (SFA). 324... § 324.143 Supervisory formula approach (SFA). (a...apply a 1,250 percent risk weight to an amount equal to UE · TP... (d) The supervisory formula: ER10SE13.040...

  1. 12 CFR 3.143 - Supervisory formula approach (SFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Supervisory formula approach (SFA). 3.143...Exposures § 3.143 Supervisory formula approach (SFA). (a...apply a 1,250 percent risk weight to an amount equal to UE ·... (d) The supervisory formula: ER11OC13.049...

  2. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  3. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  4. 24 CFR 968.310 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... formula characteristics report. The PHA must describe the nature of the error, and provide any necessary... five percent of the total formula funds available for allocation in any FFY for the purpose of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of formula...

  5. 24 CFR 968.310 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... formula characteristics report. The PHA must describe the nature of the error, and provide any necessary... five percent of the total formula funds available for allocation in any FFY for the purpose of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of formula...

  6. 24 CFR 968.310 - Determination of formula amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... formula characteristics report. The PHA must describe the nature of the error, and provide any necessary... five percent of the total formula funds available for allocation in any FFY for the purpose of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of formula...

  7. Use of Formulaic Sequences in Monologues of Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Yan; Ding, Yanren

    2011-01-01

    The literature on formulaic language lacks sufficient research on how L2 learners make progress in native-like formulaicity of their target language. This study analyzed the use of formulaic sequences (FSs) by 56 Chinese university English majors in their prepared monologues at the beginning and end of a three-year period and compared the student…

  8. Conductor formula of Bloch Kazuya Kato and Takeshi Saito

    E-print Network

    Tokyo, University of

    Conductor formula of Bloch Kazuya Kato and Takeshi Saito April 18, 2001 Conductor is a numerical the conductor formula of Bloch. To formulate it, he defines another numerical invariant as the degree­forms of a regular proper model of the variety. The conductor formula asserts that the conductor

  9. 40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance deduction formula. 72.95 Section 72.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.95 Allowance deduction formula. The following formula shall be used to determine the...

  10. APOPLASTIC PH AND MONOLIGNOL ADDITION RATE EFFECTS ON LIGNIN FORMATION AND CELL WALL DEGRADABILITY IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of lignin structure and pH dependent lignin cross-linking on cell wall degradability were investigated by gradual end-wise or rapid bulk polymerization of coniferyl alcohol into primary maize walls suspended in pH 4 or 5.5 buffers. Based on thioacidolysis, the linear end-wise lignins h...

  11. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  12. Curtain Wall Creates Ventilation Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Curtain-wall structure proposed for removing methane and airborne coal dust from hydrojet-jaw mining machines. Channel between curtain wall and mine wall forms closed exhaust passage. Through it, gas and dust continuously removed so high concentrations of these explosive materials not build up.

  13. Ultrastructure and Composition of the Nannochloropsis gaditana Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Matthew J.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Jing, Jia; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine algae of the genus Nannochloropsis are promising producers of biofuel precursors and nutraceuticals and are also harvested commercially for aquaculture feed. We have used quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and carbohydrate analyses to characterize the architecture of the Nannochloropsis gaditana (strain CCMP 526) cell wall, whose recalcitrance presents a significant barrier to biocommodity extraction. The data indicate a bilayer structure consisting of a cellulosic inner wall (?75% of the mass balance) protected by an outer hydrophobic algaenan layer. Cellulase treatment of walls purified after cell lysis generates highly enriched algaenan preparations without using the harsh chemical treatments typically used in algaenan isolation and characterization. Nannochloropsis algaenan was determined to comprise long, straight-chain, saturated aliphatics with ether cross-links, which closely resembles the cutan of vascular plants. Chemical identification of >85% of the isolated cell wall mass is detailed, and genome analysis is used to identify candidate biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25239976

  14. Role of the plant cell wall in gravity resistance.

    PubMed

    Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Gravity resistance, mechanical resistance to the gravitational force, is a principal graviresponse in plants, comparable to gravitropism. The cell wall is responsible for the final step of gravity resistance. The gravity signal increases the rigidity of the cell wall via the accumulation of its constituents, polymerization of certain matrix polysaccharides due to the suppression of breakdown, stimulation of cross-link formation, and modifications to the wall environment, in a wide range of situations from microgravity in space to hypergravity. Plants thus develop a tough body to resist the gravitational force via an increase in cell wall rigidity and the modification of growth anisotropy. The development of gravity resistance mechanisms has played an important role in the acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses and the evolution of land plants. PMID:25236694

  15. Heterogeneity effects of stainless steel subassembly walls in FBR blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The neutron absorption in stainless steel in a fast reactor with fuel rods lumped into a hexagonal lattice surrounded by the subassembly wall, may be considerably less than that calculated from conventional homogeneous approximations. This is particularly the case for the softer neutron spectra of blanket regions. A methodology is developed to treat the heterogeneity effect of stainless steel subassembly walls in a fast reactor blanket; it is applied to the blanket in the new FBBF. Heterogeneous resonance absorption within the subassembly wall is calculated with integral transport theory for multiple scattering. In addition, the transitional self-shielding effect near the subassembly walls is evaluated with integral transport theory for a double-interface system. The calculation of transitional self-shielding leads to a difference in the capture rate in the near-wall clad as compared to the homogeneous calculation. This capture rate increment in the near-wall clad is combined with the capture rate of the subassembly wall to describe the total heterogeneity effect of the subassembly wall. Self-shielding within the subassembly wall due to major resonances reduces the VITAMIN-E cross sections for stainless steel in the subassembly wall by 3% to 65%. However, an increased transmission due to an increased self-shielding in stainless steel overcomes a decrease in the stainless steel capture rates and eventually yields larger values with increasing penetration into the blanket. The increased flux increases the U{sup 238} capture and fission rates by 6% from the conventional homogeneous values. The reaction rates in the blanket are accounted for by the flux behavior resulting from an increased transmission with increasing penetration into the blanket.

  16. Ascraeus Caldera Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the wall on one of the calderae at the summit of the large volcano, Ascraeus Mons. A caldera is a large depression formed by collapse after magma in a volcano is erupted from or withdrawn to a greater depth. After collapse, the wall of this caldera was further modified by downslope movement of debris and it was pelted by small meteors to form a scattering of small craters. This image is located near 11.6oN, 104.6oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S E

    2009-08-17

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  18. BPS Spectra, Barcodes and Walls

    E-print Network

    Michele Cirafici

    2015-11-04

    BPS spectra give important insights into the non-perturbative regimes of supersymmetric theories. Often from the study of BPS states one can infer properties of the geometrical or algebraic structures underlying such theories. In this paper we approach this problem from the perspective of persistent homology. Persistent homology is at the base of topological data analysis, which aims at extracting topological features out of a set of points. We use these techniques to investigate the topological properties which characterize the spectra of several supersymmetric models in field and string theory. We discuss how such features change upon crossing walls of marginal stability in a few examples. Then we look at the topological properties of the distributions of BPS invariants in string compactifications on compact threefolds, used to engineer black hole microstates. Finally we discuss the interplay between persistent homology and modularity by considering certain number theoretical functions used to count dyons in string compactifications and by studying equivariant elliptic genera in the context of the Mathieu moonshine.

  19. A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, P R

    1958-01-01

    A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.

  20. Wall Crossings for Double Hurwitz Numbers Renzo Cavalieri

    E-print Network

    Cavalieri, Renzo

    ) The Double Hurwitz number Hg(, -) : "number" of degree d covers E - P1 such that: E is a (connected) curve numbers (geometry) The Double Hurwitz number Hg(, -) : "number" of degree d covers E - P1 such that: E(, -) : "number" of degree d covers E - P1 such that: E is a (connected) curve of genus g. is unramified over P1

  1. Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, J. P.; And Others

    Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…

  2. An engineering study of hybrid adaptation of wind tunnel walls for three-dimensional testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clinton; Kalumuck, Kenneth; Waxman, David

    1987-01-01

    Solid wall tunnels having only upper and lower walls flexing are described. An algorithm for selecting the wall contours for both 2 and 3 dimensional wall flexure is presented and numerical experiments are used to validate its applicability to the general test case of 3 dimensional lifting aircraft models in rectangular cross section wind tunnels. The method requires an initial approximate representation of the model flow field at a given lift with wallls absent. The numerical methods utilized are derived by use of Green's source solutions obtained using the method of images; first order linearized flow theory is employed with Prandtl-Glauert compressibility transformations. Equations are derived for the flexed shape of a simple constant thickness plate wall under the influence of a finite number of jacks in an axial row along the plate centerline. The Green's source methods are developed to provide estimations of residual flow distortion (interferences) with measured wall pressures and wall flow inclinations as inputs.

  3. The Generalized Mader's Inversion Formulas for the Radon Transforms

    E-print Network

    Yuri A. Antipov; Boris Rubin

    2011-03-11

    In 1927 Philomena Mader derived elegant inversion formulas for the hyperplane Radon transform on $\\bbr^n$. These formulas differ from the original ones by Radon and seem to be forgotten. We generalize Mader's formulas to totally geodesic Radon transforms in any dimension on arbitrary constant curvature space. Another new interesting inversion formula for the $k$-plane transform was presented in the recent book "Integral geometry and Radon transform" by S. Helgason. We extend this formula to arbitrary constant curvature space. The paper combines tools of integral geometry and complex analysis.

  4. Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions

    PubMed Central

    Eilbeck, J. Chris; England, Matthew; Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus. PMID:25383018

  5. Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.

  6. Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Marble, Frank E.; Zukoski, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface.

  7. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samyn, M.; Goriely, S.; Heenen, P.-H.; Pearson, J. M.; Tondeur, F.

    2002-03-01

    In order to have more reliable predictions of nuclear masses at the neutron drip line, we here go beyond the recent mass formula HFBCS-1 and present a new mass formula, HFB-1, based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. As with the HFBCS-1 mass formula, we use a 10-parameter Skyrme force along with a 4-parameter ?-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. However, with the original HFBCS-1 Skyrme force (MSk7), the rms error becomes unacceptably large and a new force fit is required. With the isoscalar and isovector effective masses constrained to be equal, the remaining 15 degrees of freedom are fitted to the masses of all the 1754 measured nuclei with A?16, | N- Z|>2 given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation. The rms error with respect to the masses of all the 1888 measured nuclei with Z, N?8 is 0.764 MeV. A complete mass table, HFB-1 (available on the Web), has been constructed, giving all nuclei lying between the two drip lines over the range Z, N?8 and Z?120. A comparison between HFB-1 and HFBCS-1 mass tables shows that the HFBCS model is a very good approximation of the HFB theory, in particular for masses, the extrapolated masses never differing by more than 2 MeV below Z?110. We also find that the behaviour of shell gaps far away from the region of beta stability does not depend on whether the HFBCS or HFB methods are used, in particular, no quenching of astrophysical interest arises from replacing the BCS method by the Bogoliubov method.

  8. Pectate chemistry links cell expansion to wall deposition in Chara corallina.

    PubMed

    Proseus, Timothy E; Boyer, John S

    2012-11-01

    Pectate (polygalacturonic acid) acts as a chelator to bind calcium and form cross-links that hold adjacent pectate polymers and thus plant cell walls together. When under tension from turgor pressure in the cell, the cross-links appear to distort and weaken. New pectate supplied by the cytoplasm is undistorted and removes wall calcium preferentially from the weakened bonds, loosening the wall and accelerating cell expansion. The new pectate now containing the removed calcium can bind to the wall, strengthening it and linking expansion to wall deposition. But new calcium needs to be added as well to replenish the calcium lost from the vacated wall pectate.  A recent report demonstrated that growth was disrupted if new calcium was unavailable.  The present addendum highlights this conclusion by reviewing an experiment from before the chelation chemistry was understood. Using cell wall labeling, a direct link appeared between wall expansion and wall deposition. Together, these experiments support the concept that newly supplied pectate has growth activity on its way to deposition in the wall. Growth rate is thus controlled by signals affecting the rate of pectate release. After release, the coordination of expansion and deposition arises naturally from chelation chemistry when polymers are under tension from turgor pressure.  PMID:22918500

  9. Pectate chemistry links cell expansion to wall deposition in Chara corallina

    PubMed Central

    Proseus, Timothy E.; Boyer, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Pectate (polygalacturonic acid) acts as a chelator to bind calcium and form cross-links that hold adjacent pectate polymers and thus plant cell walls together. When under tension from turgor pressure in the cell, the cross-links appear to distort and weaken. New pectate supplied by the cytoplasm is undistorted and removes wall calcium preferentially from the weakened bonds, loosening the wall and accelerating cell expansion. The new pectate now containing the removed calcium can bind to the wall, strengthening it and linking expansion to wall deposition. But new calcium needs to be added as well to replenish the calcium lost from the vacated wall pectate.  A recent report demonstrated that growth was disrupted if new calcium was unavailable.  The present addendum highlights this conclusion by reviewing an experiment from before the chelation chemistry was understood. Using cell wall labeling, a direct link appeared between wall expansion and wall deposition. Together, these experiments support the concept that newly supplied pectate has growth activity on its way to deposition in the wall. Growth rate is thus controlled by signals affecting the rate of pectate release. After release, the coordination of expansion and deposition arises naturally from chelation chemistry when polymers are under tension from turgor pressure.  PMID:22918500

  10. Cartan's Magic Formula and Soap Film Structures

    E-print Network

    Jenny Harrison

    2004-01-03

    A soap film is actually a thin solid fluid bounded by two surfaces of opposite orientation. It is natural to model the film using one polyhedron for each side. Two problems are to get the polyhedra for both sides to be in the same place without canceling each other out and to model triple junctions without introducing extra boundary components. We use chainlet geometry to create dipole cells and mass cells which accomplish these goals and model faithfully all observable soap films and bubbles. We introduce a new norm on chains of these cells and prove lower semicontinuity of area. A geometric version of Cartan's magic formula provides the necessary boundary coherence.

  11. Recursive formula to compute Zernike radial polynomials.

    PubMed

    Honarvar Shakibaei, Barmak; Paramesran, Raveendran

    2013-07-15

    In optics, Zernike polynomials are widely used in testing, wavefront sensing, and aberration theory. This unique set of radial polynomials is orthogonal over the unit circle and finite on its boundary. This Letter presents a recursive formula to compute Zernike radial polynomials using a relationship between radial polynomials and Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. Unlike the previous algorithms, the derived recurrence relation depends neither on the degree nor on the azimuthal order of the radial polynomials. This leads to a reduction in the computational complexity. PMID:23939089

  12. Sonography of Abdominal Wall Masses and Masslike Lesions: Correlation With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won

    2016-01-01

    Sonography is usually regarded as a first-line imaging modality for masses and masslike lesions in the abdominal wall. A dynamic study focusing on a painful area or palpable mass and the possibility of ultrasound-guided aspiration or biopsy are the major advantages of sonography. On the other hand, cross-sectional imaging clearly shows anatomy of the abdominal wall; thereby, it is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of diseases. Cross-sectional imaging can help differentiate neoplastic lesions from non-neoplastic lesions. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of abdominal wall lesions compared with computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26657747

  13. [Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant food formulas].

    PubMed

    Proudy, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Species of the Cronobacter genus ("Enterobacter sakazakii" s. l.) are emergent food-borne pathogens that can cause rare but severe neonatal meningitis, bacteriaemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Preterm, low-birth-weight, and immuno-compromised infants exposed to these bacterial species are at particular risk. Over the last 50 years, the literature has reported, mainly in newborn children, more than one hundred cases of infection due to these pathogens. The objective of this review was to synthesize the recent advances in knowledge of species of the Cronobacter genus, in particular with regards to taxonomy, physiology, pathogenicity, clinical cases, the methods for detection, isolation, and characterization, and their presence in powdered formulae for infants and young children, which were identified as the main infection vector. Researchers and international public health authorities have explored the ways contamination occur to better control the risks of pathogen development. Appropriate analysis and control measures were implemented in areas processing powdered formulae for infants and young children, and caregivers and families were informed to undertake good hygienic practices. PMID:19483777

  14. Einstein's fluctuation formula. A historical overview

    E-print Network

    Sandor Varro

    2006-11-02

    A historical overview is given on the basic results which appeared by the year 1926 concerning Einstein's fluctuation formula of black-body radiation, in the context of light-quanta and wave-particle duality. On the basis of the original publications (from Planck's derivation of the black-body spectrum and Einstein's introduction of the photons up to the results of Born, Heisenberg and Jordan on the quantization of a continuum) a comparative study is presented on the first line of thoughts that led to the concept of quanta. The nature of the particle-like fluctuations and the wave-like fluctuations are analysed by using several approaches. With the help of the classical probability theory, it is shown that the infinite divisibility of the Bose distribution leads to the new concept of classical poissonian photo-multiplets or to the binary photo-multiplets of fermionic character. As an application, Einstein's fluctuation formula is derived as a sum of fermion type fluctuations of the binary photo-multiplets.

  15. Lovelock gravity and Weyl's tube formula

    SciTech Connect

    Willison, Steven

    2009-09-15

    In four space-time dimensions, there are good theoretical reasons for believing that general relativity is the correct geometrical theory of gravity, at least at the classical level. If one admits the possibility of extra space-time dimensions, what would we expect classical gravity to be like? It is often stated that the most natural generalization is Lovelock's theory, which shares many physical properties with general relativity. But there are also key differences and problems. A potentially serious problem is the breakdown of determinism, which can occur when the matrix of coefficients of second time derivatives of the metric degenerates. This can be avoided by imposing inequalities on the curvature. Here it is argued that such inequalities occur naturally if the Lovelock action is obtained from Weyl's formulas for the volume and surface area of a tube. Part of the purpose of this article is to give a treatment of the Weyl tube formula in terminology familiar to relativists and to give an appropriate (straightforward) generalization to a tube embedded in Minkowski space.

  16. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a...

  17. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this...

  18. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this...

  19. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a...

  20. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a...

  1. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. Link to an amendment published at...

  2. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this...

  3. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this...

  4. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a...

  5. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food...CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this...

  6. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the wall of a large impact crater in Newton Basin near 41.9oS, 158.1oW. Such gullies may have formed by downslope movement of wet debris--i.e., water. Unfortunately, because the responsible fluid (if there was one) is no longer present today, only the geomorphology of the channels and debris aprons can be used to deduce that water might have been involved. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  7. Evaluation of scoring accuracy for airway wall thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Ko, Jane P.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.

    2009-02-01

    Bronchial wall thickening is commonly observed in airway diseases. One method often used to quantitatively evaluate wall thickening in CT images is to estimate the ratio of the bronchial wall to the accompanying artery, or BWA ratio, and then assign a severity score based on the ratio. Assessment by visual inspection is unfortunately limited to airways perpendicular or parallel to the scanning plane. With high-resolution images from multi-detector CT scanners, it becomes possible to assess airways in any orientation. We selected CT scans from 20 patients with mild to severe COPD. A computer system automatically segmented each bronchial tree and measured the bronchial wall thicknesses. Next, neighboring arteries were detected and measured to determine BWA ratios. A score characterizing the extent and severity of wall thickening within each lobe was computed according to recommendations by Sheehan et al [1]. Two experienced radiologists independently scored wall thickening using visual assessment. Spearman's rank correlation showed a non-significant negative correlation (r=-0.1) between the computer and the reader average (p=0.4), while the correlation between readers was significant at r=0.65 (p=0.001). We subsequently identified 24 lobes with high discrepancies between visual and automated scoring. The readers re-examined those lobes and measured wall thickness using electronic calipers on perpendicular cross sections, rather than visual assessment. Using this more objective standard of wall thickness, the reader estimates of wall thickening increased to reach a significant positive correlation with automated scoring of r=0.65 (p=0.001). These results indicate that subjectivity is an important problem with visual evaluation, and that visual inspection may frequently underestimate disease extent and severity. Given that a manual evaluation of all airways is infeasible in routine clinical practice, we argue that automated methods should be developed and utilized.

  8. Bloch lines, cross ties, and taffy in permalloy (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, D. A., Jr.; Argyle, B. E.; Petek, B.

    1987-04-01

    Cross ties and their attendant Bloch lines have been imaged optically for the first time in permalloy films. Kerr effect images, recorded with our laser magneto-optic microscope (LAMOM), on 50-?m square films (300, 800, and 5800 Å thick), are consistent with wall types seen in large sheet films by other methods. In the 300- and 800-Å samples 180° domain walls are cross-tie type; ties do not occur in the 5800-Å sample. We observe several effects of film-edge proximity on the 180° walls not previously reported. In the thinner films, the density of ties (and Bloch lines) increases as a wall is driven closer to an edge. Magnetization sectoring occurs about the edge side of a wall when it is forced sufficiently close. For all three thicknesses, the 180° walls bow toward the nearest edge, the bow increasing with proximity. The 180° walls arise from the lowest-energy demagnetized state (Kittel configuration for a square) by applying a bias field which displaces the cluster knot formed by two intersecting 90° walls on the square's diagonals. At a threshold on the order of 10 Oe, the cluster splits, forming two triplet knots connected by the 180° wall. Following bifurcation, all walls bisect the angles between adjacent domain magnetizations. This indicates that the energies of formation for the 180° wall and the extra knot stem from magnetic charge accumulated near the walls and film edges prior to the transformation. Knot displacement and bifurcation can be reversed provided no wall makes contact with an edge. Edge contact (followed by bias reduction) nucleates complex domain structures which are not simply returned to the Kittel state. When the drive is cycled, the process is reminiscent of pulling taffy.

  9. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for <1 week or never while 32% were breastfed for at least 6 months. In the fully adjusted model, children who were only formula fed or who were combination fed for <6 months were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to children who were only breastfed (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60 and OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.69, respectively). When examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. PMID:25656729

  10. Amorphous silica between confining walls and under shear: A computer simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbach, Jürgen; Binder, Kurt

    2002-12-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations are used to investigate a silica melt confined between walls at equilibrium and in a steady-state Poisseuille flow. The walls consist of point particles forming a rigid face-centered cubic lattice and the interaction of the walls with the melt atoms is modeled such that the wall particles have only a weak bonding to those in the melt, i.e., much weaker than the covalent bonding of a Si-O unit. We observe a pronounced layering of the melt near the walls. This layering, as seen in the total density profile, has a very irregular character which can be attributed to a preferred orientational ordering of SiO4 tetrahedra near the wall. On intermediate length scales, the structure of the melt at the walls can be well distinguished from that of the bulk by means of the ring size distribution. Whereas essentially no structural changes occur in the bulk under the influence of the shear fields considered, strong structural rearrangements in the ring size distribution are present at the walls as far as there is a slip motion. For the sheared system, parabolic velocity profiles are found in the bulk region as expected from hydrodynamics and the values for the shear viscosity as extracted from those profiles are in good agreement with those obtained in pure bulk simulations from the appropriate Green-Kubo formula.

  11. Dynamic analysis of thin-walled closed-section beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proki?, A.; Luki?, D.

    2007-05-01

    The present paper considers the problem of dynamic behavior of thin-walled beams of arbitrary, closed cross-section, by means of an exact solution. Starting from Benscoter's theory, the differential equations of motion are derived by postulating the principle of the virtual work due to a variation of displacements. In the case of simply supported thin-walled beam, a closed-form solution for the coupled natural frequencies of free harmonic vibrations was derived. The method is illustrated by examples and results are compared with analytical results analyzed by Vlasov's theory as well as with FEM results.

  12. Asymptotic Dynamics of Monopole Walls

    E-print Network

    Cross, R

    2015-01-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  13. Asymptotic Dynamics of Monopole Walls

    E-print Network

    R. Cross

    2015-06-25

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  14. Asymptotic dynamics of monopole walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are Abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  15. Identification of embedded mathematical formulas in PDF documents using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Hu, Xuan; Lin, Xiaofan

    2012-01-01

    With the tremendous popularity of PDF format, recognizing mathematical formulas in PDF documents becomes a new and important problem in document analysis field. In this paper, we present a method of embedded mathematical formula identification in PDF documents, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The method first segments text lines into words, and then classifies each word into two classes, namely formula or ordinary text. Various features of embedded formulas, including geometric layout, character and context content, are utilized to build a robust and adaptable SVM classifier. Embedded formulas are then extracted through merging the words labeled as formulas. Experimental results show good performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, the method has been successfully incorporated into a commercial software package for large-scale e-Book production.

  16. Successful scientist: What's the winning formula?

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Ciappio, Eric D

    2014-11-01

    What does it take to become a successful scientist? This question is usually asked or thought about at some point in a young scientist's career. The early stages of a scientific career are fraught with many hardships, and achieving success can seem impossible and daunting. After encountering many obstacles, it becomes easy to focus on failures and lose sight of career goals. The journey to success can seem so simple when looked upon from the outside, but even the best scientists have endured many hardships, which are often not communicated. This educational symposium featured a diverse panel of 5 accomplished scientists representing different work environments, such as government, industry, and academia. They discussed tips on how to have a successful career journey and the key qualities of a successful scientist. Also, they revealed the secret to what's in the winning formula for success. PMID:25398744

  17. [Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, M

    2008-06-01

    Under inadequate hygienic conditions, opportunistic bacteria may multiply in powdered infant formula (PIF) and cause severe, often fatal neonatal infections. Enterobacter sakazakii has obtained Public Health relevance causing neonatal meningitis (often fatal), bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis. At highest risk are neonates up to two months of age. The new genus designation Cronobacter spp. nov. has been proposed to replace Enterobacter sakazakii. Enterobacter sakazakii is relatively resistant to osmotic and dry stress and may survive in PIF more than 2 years. (Inter)national organisations (EFSA, FAO, WHO, ESPGHAN, DGKJ, OGKJ, ISO) published their opinions recently. Manufacturers can minimize the risk of contamination of PIF by continuously improving technologies and by microbiological surveillance. Institutional and private consumers may reduce the risk of infection by using appropriate hygienic procedures. PMID:18465099

  18. Can the trace formula describe weak localisation?

    E-print Network

    Robert S. Whitney; Igor V. Lerner; Robert A. Smith

    1999-02-24

    We attempt to systematically derive perturbative quantum corrections to the Berry diagonal approximation of the two-level correlation function (TLCF) for chaotic systems. To this end, we develop a ``weak diagonal approximation'' based on a recent description of the first weak localisation correction to conductance in terms of the Gutzwiller trace formula. This semiclassical method is tested by using it to derive the weak localisation corrections to the TLCF for a semiclassically disordered system. Unfortunately the method is unable to correctly reproduce the ``Hikami boxes'' (the relatively small regions where classical paths are glued together by quantum processes). This results in the method failing to reproduce the well known weak localisation expansion. It so happens that for the first order correction it merely produces the wrong prefactor. However for the second order correction, it is unable to reproduce certain contributions, and leads to a result which is of a different form to the standard one.

  19. New entropy formula with fluctuating reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biró, T. S.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Ván, P.

    2015-01-01

    Finite heat reservoir capacity, C, and temperature fluctuation, ?T / T, lead to modifications of the well known canonical exponential weight factor. Requiring that the corrections least depend on the one-particle energy, ?, we derive a deformed entropy, K(S) . The resultingformula contains the Boltzmann-Gibbs, Rényi, and Tsallis formulas as particular cases. For extreme large fluctuations, in the limit C?T2 /T2 ? ?, a new parameter-free entropy-probability relation is gained. The corresponding canonical energy distribution is nearly Boltzmannian for high probability, but for low probability approaches the cumulative Gompertz distribution. The latter is met in several phenomena, like earthquakes, demography, tumor growth models, extreme value probability, etc.

  20. Black-Scholes Formula in Subdiffusive Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdziarz, Marcin

    2009-08-01

    In the classical approach the price of an asset is described by the celebrated Black-Scholes model. In this paper we consider a generalization of this model, which captures the subdiffusive characteristics of financial markets. We introduce a subdiffusive geometric Brownian motion as a model of asset prices exhibiting subdiffusive dynamics. We find the corresponding fractional Fokker-Planck equation governing the dynamics of the probability density function of the introduced process. We prove that the considered model is arbitrage-free and incomplete. We find the corresponding subdiffusive Black-Scholes formula for the fair prices of European options and show how these prices can be evaluated using Monte-Carlo methods. We compare the obtained results with the classical ones.