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1

Donaldson wall-crossing formulas via topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wall-crossing formula for Donaldson invariants of simply conected four manifolds with b+ = 1 is shown to be a topological invariant of the manifold, for reducibles with two or fewer singular points. The explicit formulas derived agree with those of (FQ) and (EG).

Thomas Leness

1999-01-01

2

Abelian Quiver Invariants and Marginal Wall-Crossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the equivalence of (a slightly modified version of) the wall-crossing formula of Manschot, Pioline and Sen and the wall-crossing formula of Kontsevich and Soibelman. The former involves abelian analogues of the motivic Donaldson-Thomas type invariants of quivers with stability introduced by Kontsevich and Soibelman, for which we derive positivity and geometricity properties.

Mozgovoy, Sergey; Reineke, Markus

2013-11-01

3

Wall Crossing Phenomenology of Orientifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We initiate the study of wall crossing phenomena in orientifolds of local toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds from a topological string perspective. For this purpose, we define a notion of real Donaldson-Thomas partition function at the large volume, orbifold and non-commutative point in Kaehler moduli space. As a byproduct, we refine the constant map contribution to the partition function of the real

Daniel Krefl

2010-01-01

4

Wild wall crossing and BPS giants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the BPS spectrum of pure SU(3) four-dimensional super Yang-Mills with = 2 supersymmetry exhibits a surprising phenomenon: there are regions of the Coulomb branch where the growth of the BPS degeneracies with the charge is exponential. We show this using spectral networks and independently using wall-crossing formulae and quiver methods. The computations using spectral networks provide a very nontrivial example of how these networks determine the four-dimensional BPS spectrum. We comment on some physical implications of the wild spectrum: for example, exponentially many field-theoretic BPS states with large charge are gigantic. Finally, we exhibit some surprising, thus far unexplained, regularities of the BPS spectrum.

Galakhov, Dmitry; Longhi, Pietro; Mainiero, Tom; Moore, Gregory W.; Neitzke, Andrew

2013-11-01

5

Wall-crossing, Toric divisor and Seiberg duality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the wall-crossing phenomena of BPS D4-D2-D0 states on the conifold and orbifold {{{{{{C}}^2}}} / {{{{{Z}}_2}}} .} , from the viewpoint of the quiver quantum mechanics on the D-branes. The Kähler moduli dependence of the BPS index is translated into the FI parameter dependence of the Witten index. The wall-crossing phenomena are related to the Seiberg dualities of the quiver quantum mechanics. All the differences from the D6-D2-D0 case arise from the additional superpotential and "anti-quark" induced by the D4-brane. When the D-branes are on the conifold, the flop transition changes the duality cascade. When the D-branes are on the orbifold {{{{{{C}}^2}}} / {{{{{Z}}_2}}} .} , the generating function of the Witten index is always given by a character of the affine SU(2) algebra. Both are consistent with the wall-crossing formula for BPS indices.

Nishinaka, Takahiro

2013-07-01

6

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

7

Approximation Formula of Cross-section for the Universal Potential Expression Proposed by Ziegler et al.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in plasma physics has stimulated research on the universal potential applicable for low energy and light ion collisions. First, assessing typical potentials by comparing them with the experimental results of ICISS, we have found that the potential proposed by Ziegler et al. is the most appropriate. We have proposed an approximation formula of the cross-section of Ziegler’s universal potential expression, which enables the total cross-section, nuclear stopping, etc. to be derived analytically.

Kang, Hee Jae; Kawatoh, Eizoh; Shimizu, Ryuichi

1984-05-01

8

Universal functional formula of atomic elastic cross sections. The case of the hydrogen target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and present the universal functional formula, depending on the incident energy and the scattering angle, of the atomic angular differential elastic cross sections for hydrogen target based on the method of least squares. The results of the universal fitting function are in excellent agreement with the results calculated using the partial expansion method.

Tökési, K.; Salamon, P.; Tskhakaya, D.; Coster, D.

2014-04-01

9

Empirical formulae for 14.5 MeV (n,p) cross sections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six empirical formulae of the (n,p) cross sections for 14.5-MeV neutrons were obtained with respect to even and odd (N-Z) values, depending on the effective Q-Value, the Coulomb barrier height, the threshold and incident neutron energies and the mass numb...

S. Selvi H. H. Erbil

1989-01-01

10

A Model (Formula) for Deriving A Hazard Index of Rail-Highway Grade Crossings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to compile data for use as related information in the education of drivers, and to derive a formula for computing a hazard index for rail-highway intersections. Data for the study were compiled from: (1) all crossings on which field data were collected, (2) reports of 642 accidents, and (3) data collected from…

Coburn, James Minton

11

Cross-Barrel Temperature Difference Due to Wall Thickness Variation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advances in manufacturing techniques have reduced, but not eliminated, cross-barrel wall thickness variation in the production of gun barrels. Structurally, these small variations will not appreciably diminish the strength of the barrel, and are, therefor...

N. Gerber M. L. Bundy

1993-01-01

12

Wall-Crossing from Boltzmann Black Hole Halos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question in the study of N=2 supersymmetric string or field theories is\\u000ato understand the decay of BPS bound states across walls of marginal stability\\u000ain the space of parameters or vacua. By representing the potentially unstable\\u000abound states as multi-centered black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, we\\u000aprovide two fully general and explicit formulae for the change

Jan Manschot; Boris Pioline; Ashoke Sen

2010-01-01

13

Special Lagrangian fibrations, wall-crossing, and mirror symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this survey paper, we briefly review various aspects of the SYZ approach to mirror symmetry for non-Calabi-Yau varieties, focusing in particular on Lagrangian fibrations and wall-crossing phenomena in Floer homology. Various examples are presented, some of them new.

Denis Auroux

2009-01-01

14

Constructive Wall-Crossing and Seiberg-Witten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline a comprehensive and first-principle solution to the wall-crossing problem in D = 4N = 2 Seiberg-Witten theories. We start with a brief review of the multi-centered nature of the typical BPS states and of how this allows them to disappear abruptly as parameters or vacuum moduli are continuously changed. This means that the wall-crossing problem is really a bound state formation/dissociation problem. A low energy dynamics for arbitrary collections of dyons is derived, with the proximity to the so-called marginal stability wall playing the role of the small expansion parameter. We discover that the low energy dynamics of such BPS dyons cannot be reduced to one on the classical moduli space, {M}, yet the index can be phrased in terms of {M}. The so-called rational invariant, first seen in Kontsevich-Soibelman formalism of wall-crossing, is shown to incorporate Bose/Fermi statistics automatically. Furthermore, an equivariant version of the index is shown to compute the protected spin character of the underlying D = 4N = 2 theory, where SO(3)J isometry of {M} is identified as a diagonal subgroup of rotation SU(2)L and R-symmetry SU(2)R.

Yi, Piljin

2013-02-01

15

One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity  

SciTech Connect

The limiting bubble wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is demonstrated that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas limit.

Arnold, P.

1993-06-01

16

Generalization of formulas for ionization energy losses and collision cross section in threshold detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of formulas were obtained for (- dE/dx) and the number of collisions per unit of path length (dN/dx) = const, which depend on W sub m, with due account of the polarization effect of the medium.

Yermilova, V. K.; Kotenko, L. P.; Merzon, G. I.; Chekin, V. A.

1975-01-01

17

Inversion formula for the internucleus potential using sub-barrier fusion cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subject to the assumption that sub-barrier fusion is described by an effective one-dimensional energy-independent local potential barrier, the Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the fusion cross sections is inverted to determine this effective potential. Potential barriers, with their associated experimental errors, are presented for ¹³C+ ¹³C and ⁴°Ca+ ⁴°Ca, and the assumption of a local effective potential is shown to be inadequate

A. B. Balantekin; S. E. Koonin; J. W. Negele

1983-01-01

18

Inversion formula for the internucleus potential using sub-barrier fusion cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subject to the assumption that sub-barrier fusion is described by an effective one-dimensional energy-independent local potential barrier, the Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the fusion cross sections is inverted to determine this effective potential. Potential barriers, with their associated experimental errors, are presented for 13C+13C and 40Ca+40Ca, and the assumption of a local effective potential is shown to be inadequate for 64Ni+64Ni.

A. B. Balantekin; S. E. Koonin; J. W. Negele

1983-01-01

19

Analytic confirmation that the factorized formula for harmonic generation involves the exact photorecombination cross section  

SciTech Connect

High-order-harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in a strong laser field is analyzed theoretically, taking into account atomic potential effects beyond the strong field approximation (SFA). Our analytical derivation extends the time-dependent effective range (TDER) theory, developed previously for a short-range potential supporting only a single bound state, to the case of a potential supporting two bound states having different angular momenta and dynamically interacting with the continuum. In contrast to the SFA and the single-state TDER model, in both of which the HHG rates in the region of the high-energy plateau cutoff involve only the plane-wave (first Born) approximation for the photorecombination cross section, our analytic expression for the HHG rates in the two-state TDER model involves the exact photorecombination cross section for this model. These results justify the factorization of HHG rates in the high-energy plateau region in terms of the electron wave packet and the exact (non-Born) photorecombination cross section, which was suggested previously using only phenomenological arguments.

Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Sarantseva, T. S.; Starace, Anthony F. [Department of Physics, Voronezh State University, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Nebraska, Lincoln Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States)

2011-04-15

20

Bridging Walls and Crossing Borders in the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how globalization and neoliberalism have altered higher education in the Spanish-Speaking Caribbean, introducing the entrepreneurship that has characterized North American institutions and encouraging cross-border collaboration. (EV)

Canino, Maria Josefa

2002-01-01

21

Experimental study of cross-laminated timber wall panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cross-laminated structural timber elements is becoming increasingly popular. The number\\u000a of layers varies normally from three upwards. The structural performance of five-layer cross-laminated\\u000a timber elements was investigated. The five layers consisted of 19 mm thick boards, laid successively\\u000a at right angles to each other and glued together with PU-adhesive, layers 1, 3 and 5 lying in one direction

Johan Vessby; Bertil Enquist; Hans Petersson; Tomas Alsmarker

2009-01-01

22

Stability of thin-walled high-pressure cylindrical pipes with non-circular cross-section and variable wall thickness subjected to non-homogeneous corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method for determining the critical time of stability loss of thin-walled cylindrical pipes with non-circular cross-section and variable wall thickness along the directrix subjected to non-homogeneous corrosion from the inside. The method is based upon the model of a thin elastic cylindrical shell with a non-circular cross-section and variable wall thickness along the directrix. It is

E. M. Gutman; J. Haddad; R. Bergman

2005-01-01

23

A computational model for three-dimensional incompressible wall jets with large cross flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational model for the flow field of three dimensional incompressible wall jets prototypic of thrust augmenting ejectors with large cross flow is presented. The formulation employs boundary layer equations in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. Simulation of laminar as well as turbulen wall jets is reported. Quantification of jet spreading, jet growth, nominal separation, and jet shrink effects due to corss flow are discussed.

Murphy, W. D.; Shankar, V.; Malmuth, N. D.

1979-01-01

24

Instantaneous response of elastic thin-walled structures with arbitrary open cross section to rapid heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized modeling and analysis approach of thermally-induced coupled vibrations of elastic thin-walled configurations with arbitrary open cross sections are presented in conjunction with a unified implicit transient methodology. Limited research appears in literature which takes into account the influence of rapid thermal heating effects on structures involving various forms of coupling. As a consequence, the dynamic response of such thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross section due to rapid heating are described here. Effects involving triple, double, and no coupling between bending and torsional vibrations caused by sudden heating on these structures are examined. Numerical test cases are presented which describe the influence of sudden heating on elastic thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross sections.

Chen, Xiaoqin; Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

1992-01-01

25

Isodityrosine cross-linking mediates insolubilization of cell walls in Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic removal of the cell wall induces vegetative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells to transcribe wall genes and synthesize new hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) related to the extensins found in higher plant cell walls. A cDNA expression library made from such induced cells was screened with antibodies to an oligopeptide containing the (SP)x repetitive domains found in Chlamydomonas wall proteins. One of the selected cDNAs encodes an (SP)x-rich polypeptide that also displays a repeated YGG motif. Ascorbate, a peroxidase inhibitor, and tyrosine derivatives were shown to inhibit insolubilization of both the vegetative and zygotic cell walls of Chlamydomonas, suggesting that oxidative cross-linking of tyrosines is occurring. Moreover, insolubilization of both walls was concomitant with a burst in H2O2 production and in extracellular peroxidase activity. Finally, both isodityrosine and dityrosine were found in hydrolysates of the insolubilized vegetative wall layer. We propose that the formation of tyrosine cross-links is essential to Chlamydomonas HRGP insolubilization.

Waffenschmidt, S; Woessner, J P; Beer, K; Goodenough, U W

1993-01-01

26

Quantification of cross-sectional artery wall motion with IVUS image registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atherosclerotic lesions have been shown to have different mechanical properties than the non-diseased artery. Calculating vessel wall strain from cross-sectional vessel wall motions allows for the measurement of local stiffness. In this paper, a robust method is developed to track cross-sectional displacements of an artery wall using two different intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images acquired at two different pressure levels respectively. First, the vessel wall region in one image is segmented semi-automatically by refining two spline-based contours to the locations of inner and outer vessel wall borders. Then the ringlike wall region in one image is registered to its counterpart in the other image in polar coordinates. The registration is performed by minimizing an energy function of the 2D motion field based on a spline-deformable-model. Both intensity and gradient information of the images are used to construct the energy function so that an accurate registration can be achieved. Registration accuracy was tested on simulated motions using IVUS images of a human coronary artery and a porcine carotid. The wall displacement fields calculated from real motion images are also demonstrated.

Oakeson, Kevin D.; Zhu, Hui; Friedman, Morton H.

2004-04-01

27

A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.

Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

2009-01-01

28

The abdominal wall lumps and bumps: cross-sectional imaging spectrum.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the cross-sectional imaging spectrum of abnormalities that affect the abdominal wall, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cross-sectional imaging is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of abdominal-wall masses. With the increasing use of MRI, it is often possible to reach a diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis, thereby guiding effective management. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies will be illustrated, and the distinctive imaging characteristics of these entities will be highlighted. PMID:22884230

Virmani, Vivek; Sethi, Vineeta; Fasih, Najla; Ryan, John; Kielar, Ania

2014-02-01

29

A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.

Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

2009-01-01

30

A Simple Formula for the Third Integral of Motion of Disk-crossing Stars in the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple analytical formula for an approximated third integral of motion associated with nearly equatorial orbits in the Galaxy: I_{3}=Z\\Sigma _{I}^{1/3}, where Z(R) is the vertical amplitude of the orbit at galactocentric distance R and ? I (R) is the integrated dynamical surface mass density of the disk, a quantity which has recently become measurable. We also suggest that this relation is valid for disk-crossing orbits in a wide variety of axially symmetric galactic models, which range from razor-thin disks to disks with non-negligible thickness, whether or not the system includes bulges and halos. We apply our formalism to a Miyamoto-Nagai model and to a realistic model for the Milky Way. In both cases, the results provide fits for the shape of nearly equatorial orbits which are better than the corresponding curves obtained by the usual adiabatic approximation when the orbits have vertical amplitudes comparable to the disk's scale height. We also discuss the role of this approximate third integral of motion in modified theories of gravity.

Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier

2014-05-01

31

Investigation of coulomb and pairing effects using new developed empirical formulas for proton-induced reaction cross sections  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated Coulomb and pairing effects by using new empirical formulas including the new coefficients for (p, {alpha}) at 17.9 MeV, (p, np) at 22.3 MeV, and (p, n{alpha}) at 24.8 and 28.5 MeV energies. A new formula is obtained by adjusting Levkovskii's original asymmetry parameter formula and also Tel et al. formula for proton-induced reactions. The new coefficients by using least-squares fitting method for the reactions are determined. In addition, the findings of the present study are compared with the available experimental data.

Tel, E., E-mail: eyuptel@gazi.edu.tr; Aydin, E. G. [Gazi University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Aydin, A. [Kirikkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Kaplan, A. [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Boeluekdemir, M. H.; Okuducu, S. [Gazi University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

2010-03-15

32

Plant cell-wall cross-links by REDOR NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present a new method that integrates selective biosynthetic labeling and solid-state NMR detection to identify in situ important protein cross-links in plant cell walls. We have labeled soybean cells by growth in media containing l-[ring-d(4)]tyrosine and l-[ring-4-(13)C]tyrosine, compared whole-cell and cell-wall (13)C CPMAS spectra, and examined intact cell walls using (13)C{(2)H} rotational echo double-resonance (REDOR) solid-state NMR. The proximity of (13)C and (2)H labels shows that 25% of the tyrosines in soybean cell walls are part of isodityrosine cross-links between protein chains. We also used (15)N{(13)C} REDOR of intact cell walls labeled by l-[?-(15)N,6-(13)C]lysine and depleted in natural-abundance (15)N to establish that the side chains of lysine are not significantly involved in covalent cross-links to proteins or sugars. PMID:20964382

Cegelski, Lynette; O'Connor, Robert D; Stueber, Dirk; Singh, Manmilan; Poliks, Barbara; Schaefer, Jacob

2010-11-17

33

DNA minor groove binding of cross-linked lexitropsins: experimental conditions required to observe the covalently linked WPPW (groove wall-peptide-peptide-groove wall) motif.  

PubMed Central

A theoretical analysis of binding interactions between covalently cross-linked lexitropsins and DNA is undertaken, in which a novel cyclic symmetric 2:2 dimeric lexitropsin-DNA-binding model is proposed. Applicability of commonly used techniques including NMR, quantitative footprinting, CD, and ethidium fluorometry to differentiate the covalently linked WPPW (groove Wall-Peptide-Peptide-groove Wall) from a 2:2 cross-linked lexitropsin-DNA duplex structure is examined.

Chen, Y H; Lown, J W

1995-01-01

34

Current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with a rectangular cross-section  

SciTech Connect

We performed micromagnetic simulations of the current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with rectangular cross-section. In the absence of the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, a threshold current, J{sub c} is required to drive the domain wall moving continuously. We find that J{sub c} is proportional to the maximum cross product of the demagnetization field and magnetization orientation of the domain wall and the domain wall width. With varying both the wire thickness and width, a minimum threshold current in the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} is obtained when the thickness is equivalent to the wire width. With the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, the calculated domain wall velocity {nu} equals to the adiabatic spin transfer velocity u when the current is far above the Walker limit J{sub w}. Below J{sub w}, {nu}=({beta}/{alpha})u, where {beta} is the nonadiabatic parameter and {alpha} is the damping factor. For different {beta}, we find the Walker limit can be scaled as J{sub w}=({alpha}/{beta}-{alpha})J{sub c}. Our simulations agree well with the one dimensional analytical calculation, suggesting the findings are the general behaviors of the systems in this particular geometry.

Ai, J. H.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Hu, An; Ding, H. F. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Rd., Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-11-01

35

Facile fabrication of polymer nanocapsules with cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid walls.  

PubMed

A facile method was developed for the fabrication of polymer nanocapsules with organic-inorganic hybrid walls and controllable morphologies from a cross-linkable polymer, poly[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate] (PTMSPMA). With the combination of emulsion, hydrolysis, and condensation reaction as well as the internal phase separation, cross-linked PTMSPMA nanocapsules with classic hollow structures, collapsed hollow structures with Kippah, and multi-fold morphologies could be successfully obtained by simply mixing the toluene solution of PTMSPMA with water under vigorous stirring for 48 h at different temperatures. The hydrolysis and condensation of methoxysilyl groups resulted in the phase separation of PTMSPMA inside the toluene droplets and the migration of PTMSPMA to the interface of toluene and water. The cross-linking reaction of methoxysilyl groups further fixed the interfacial phase of PTMSPMA, leading the formation of PTMSPMA nanocapsules with robust cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid walls. Such nanocapsules with robust cross-linking structures may find potential applications for the encapsulations of many functional species. PMID:22759195

Chen, Tianyou; Du, Binyang; Fan, Zhiqiang

2012-07-31

36

New Evaluated Semi-Empirical Formula Using Optical Model for 14-15 MeV ( n, t) Reaction Cross Sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the next century the world will face the need for new energy sources. Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and thus will not contribute to global warming or acid rain. Achieving acceptable performance for a fusion power system in the areas of economics, safety and environmental acceptability, is critically dependent on performance of the blanket and diverter systems which are the primary heat recovery, plasma purification, and tritium breeding systems. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. The hybrid reactor is a combination of the fusion and fission processes. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, we have calculated non-elastic cross-sections by using optical model for ( n, t) reactions at 14-15 MeV energy. We have investigated the excitation function character and reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have obtained new coefficients for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including optical model nonelastic effects by fitting two parameters for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 MeV. We have discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained cross-section formulas with new coefficients have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Ayd?n, A.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Kaplan, A.; Okuducu, ?.

2009-12-01

37

Electron-capture cross section for C6+-H(1s) collisions at electron-volt energies. A test of the Landau-Zener formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At electron-volt energies the probability of electron capture in C6+-H(1s) collisions is small. There are two well-separated regions of the internuclear separation R, R~7.0 a.u. and R~21.4 a.u., where potential curves of states leading to electron capture approach very closely the potential curve which characterizes the primary trajectory from the initial H1s channel. Transitions occur predominantly in these regions. The potential curve of the primary trajectory is the diabatic curve defined from the electronic potential-energy curves labeled 540 and 650 in united-atom notation. This pair of states has a very narrow avoided crossing (?E=2.5×10-5 a.u.) at R=21.36 a.u. Previous calculations on the C6+-H(1s) system have treated this avoided crossing diabatically and taken into account only the transitions occurring near R=7.0 a.u. At electron-volt energies transitions in both regions are significant. It is shown that the two regions can be dealt with independently, to a very good approximation, and that separately calculated cross sections for each region can be added to obtain the total capture cross section. The inner-region cross section is computed with the use of an adiabatic close-coupling method of essentially full quantal accuracy. The outer-region cross section is first obtained from the Landau-Zener formula and then computed directly from the adiabatic close coupling of states 650 and 540. It is shown that the inner region is dominant at the higher energies and that the outer region is dominant at the lower energies. The Landau-Zener formula is shown to be quite satisfactory for the present application.

Green, T. A.; Peek, J. M.; Riley, M. E.; Shipsey, E. J.; Browne, J. C.

1982-09-01

38

Electron-capture cross section for C/sup 6 +/-H 1s collisions at electron-volt energies. A test of the Landau-Zener formula  

SciTech Connect

At electron-volt energies the probability of electron capture in C/sup 6 +/-H 1s collisions is small. There are two well-separated regions of the internuclear separation R, Rapprox.7.0 a.u. and Rapprox.21.4 a.u., where potential curves of states leading to electron capture approach very closely the potential curve which characterizes the primary trajectory from the initial H 1s channel. Transitions occur predominantly in these regions. The potential curve of the primary trajectory is the diabatic curve defined from the electronic potential-energy curves labeled 540 and 650 in united-atom notation. This pair of states has a very narrow avoided crossing (..delta..E = 2.5 x 10/sup -5/ a.u.) at R = 21.36 a.u. Previous calculations on the C/sup 6 +/-H 1s system have treated this avoided crossing diabatically and taken into account only the transitions occurring near R = 7.0 a.u. At electron-volt energies transitions in both regions are significant. It is shown that the two regions can be dealt with independently, to a very good approximation, and that separately calculated cross sections for each region can be added to obtain the total capture cross section. The inner-region cross section is computed with the use of an adiabatic close-coupling method of essentially full quantal accuracy. The outer-region cross section is first obtained from the Landau-Zener formula and then computed directly from the adiabatic close coupling of states 650 and 540. It is shown that the inner region is dominant at the higher energies and that the outer region is dominant at the lower energies. The Landau-Zener formula is shown to be quite satisfactory for the present application.

Green, T.A.; Peek, J.M.; Riley, M.E.; Shipsey, E.J.; Browne, J.C.

1982-09-01

39

An Investigation of Wall Pressure Fluctuations Behind a Sudden Enlargement of the Cross Sectional Area of a Round Pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wall pressure fluctuations behind an abrupt enlargement of a round pipe cross section, where flowing air forms a turbulent mixing zone generating aerodynamic noise, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Microphone measurements along the pipe...

B. Stahl

1981-01-01

40

Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures.  

PubMed

We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected. PMID:21836205

Miguel, J; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Bayer, D; Kurde, J; Heitkamp, B; Piantek, M; Kronast, F; Aeschlimann, M; Dürr, H A; Kuch, W

2009-12-01

41

Chemical Structure, Conjugation, and Cross-Reactivity of Bacillus pumilus Sh18 Cell Wall Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus strain Sh18 cell wall polysaccharide (CWP), cross-reactive with the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b, was purified and its chemical structure was elucidated using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and sugar-specific degradation procedures. Two major structures, 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate) and 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate), with the latter partially substituted by 2-acetamido-2-deoxy--galactopyranose (13%) and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy--glucopyr- anose (6%)

Joanna Kubler-Kielb; Bruce Coxon; Rachel Schneerson

2004-01-01

42

Quadratic formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The quadratic formula is easy to solve, yet sufficiently sophisticated that it provides insight into oscillations of masses connected by springs, as well as insight into chemical bonds between atoms. The purpose of this video is to illustrate what it means to find the "zeros" or "roots" of the quadratic equation, both using a graphical description, as well as by analytically completing the square to obtain the famous quadratic formula.

Liao, David

43

IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS  

SciTech Connect

DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties. Currently, the genes underlying AX feruloylation have not been identified and the isolation of such genes could be of great importance in manipulating ferulates accretion to the wall. Mutation of the feruloyl transferase gene(s) should lead to less ferulates secreted to the cell wall and reduced ferulate cross-linking. Our current research is based on the hypothesis that controlling the level of total feruloylation will have a direct impact on the level of cross-linking and in turn impact biomass utility for forage and biofuel production. Our results/accomplishments for this project so far include: 1. Mutagenised Brachypodium population. We have developed EMS mutagenized populations of model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. EMS populations have been developed from over 28,000 mutagenized seeds generating 5,184 M2 families. A total of 20,793 plants have been screened and 1,233 were originally selected. 2. Selected Brachypodium mutants: Potential mutants on their levels of cell wall ferulates and cell wall AX ? have been selected from 708 M2 families. A total of 303 back-crosses to no-mutagenized parental stock have been done, followed by selfing selected genotypes in order to confirm heritability of traits and to remove extraneous mutations generated by EMS mutagenesis. We are currently growing 12 F5 and F6 populations in order to assess CW composition. If low level of ferulates are confirmed in the candidate lines selected the mutation could be altered in different in one or several kinds of genes such as genes encoding an AX feruloyl transferase; genes encoding the arabinosyl transferase; genes encoding the synthesis of the xylan backbone; genes encoding enzymes of the monolignol pathway affecting FA formation or genes encoding transcription factors that control feruloylation. So it will require further investigations to confirm if we have a mutation on the ferulloyltransferase gene(s). We have also identified severe phenotypes which showed a significant change in the level of cell wall ferulates and sugars and have not survived. As this genotype did not reach flowering stage there was no seed production and so further analysis could not be done. 3. Candidate Gene Approach: Because of the likely long time expected to generate and identify candidate with mutation(s) on the feruloyltransferase gene, from our screening, we have in addition taken a bioinformatics approach in order to try to identify candidates gene(s) involved in feruloylation. Homologues of the rice feruloyl transferase genes belonging to Pfam PF02458 family were identified in Brachypodium distachyon by blasting EST sequences of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes against Brachypodium and homologous sequences identified were tested for their expression level in Brachypodium. Sequences of the two Brachypodium genes, which showed highest expression and similarity to rice sequences, were used to design primers for construction of RNAi and over-expression vectors. These were transformed into Brachypodium using Agrobacterium transformation and plants generated have been analyzed for levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates over generations T0 to T2 or T3. Our data shows a significant reduction if ferulates monomers and dimers from plants generated from RNAi::BdAT2 over 2-3 generations indicating that this gene might be a positive candidate for feruloylation in Brachypodium. However when BdAT2 was up regulated there was not much increase in the level of ferulates as would be expected. This lack of effect on the level of cell wall ferulates could be due to the CaMV::35S promoter used to drive the expression of the putative BdAT2 gene. We have shown previously that Aspergillus FAEA expression in tall fescue under CaMV::35S resulted in 1.9 fold decrease in activity compared to ac

de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

2013-10-16

44

Our Paths Might Cross: the Role of the Fungal Cell Wall Integrity Pathway in Stress Response and Cross Talk with Other Stress Response Pathways?  

PubMed Central

Fungi occupy diverse environments and are subjected to many extreme conditions. Among the stressful conditions faced by fungi are pH changes, osmotic changes, thermal changes, oxide radicals, nutrient deprivation, and exposure to chemicals. These adversities can be found either in the environment or in animal and human hosts. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway provides a means to fortify and repair damages to the cell wall in order to withstand stressful environments. The CWI pathway in comprised of cell wall stress sensors that lead to activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Signaling through the MAPK cascade leads to expression of transcription factors that facilitate biosynthesis of cell wall components and actin organization. Given the relatively limited number of components of the CWI pathway and the very diverse stimuli, there must be a means of expanding the pathway. To manage the diverse stress conditions, the CWI pathway cross talks with other pathways or proteins, and these cross talk events enhance the signaling capabilities of the CWI pathway. Lateral influences that facilitate maintaining the cell wall under stress conditions are TOR signaling, calcineurin signaling, the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway, and additional proteins. In this article, we highlight several of the cross talk events that have been described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other fungi.

Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2009-01-01

45

Bubble Formation from Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross-Flow Under Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-phase flows present a wide variety of applications for spacecraft thermal control systems design. Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter, the gas flow rate, and the liquid cross-flow velocity. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle.

Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

2000-01-01

46

A Transglutaminase Immunologically Related to Tissue Transglutaminase Catalyzes Cross-Linking of Cell Wall Proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1  

PubMed Central

The addition of primary amines to the growth medium of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupts cell wall assembly in both vegetative and zygotic cells. Primary amines are competitive inhibitors of the protein-cross-linking activity of transglutaminases. Two independent assays for transglutaminase confirmed a burst of extracellular activity during the early stages of cell wall formation in both vegetative cells and zygotes. When non-inhibiting levels of a radioactive primary amine (14C-putrescine) were added to the growth medium, both cell types were labeled in a reaction catalyzed by extracellular transglutaminase. The radioactive label was found specifically in the cell wall proteins of both cell types, and acid hydrolysis of the labeled material released unmodified 14C-putrescine. Western blots of the proteins secreted at the times of maximal transglutaminase activity in both cell types revealed a single highly cross-reactive 72-kD band when screened with antibodies to guinea pig tissue transglutaminase. Furthermore, the proteins immunoprecipitated by this antiserum in vivo exhibited transglutaminase activity. We propose that this transglutaminase is responsible for an early cell wall protein cross-linking event that temporally precedes the oxidative cross-linking mediated by extracellular peroxidases.

Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Kusch, Thomas; Woessner, Jeffrey Paul

1999-01-01

47

Revised formulae for sputtering data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revision and improvement of analytic formulae for calculating sputtering yields is performed based on the large number of experimental and calculated sputtering yield data accumulated at IPP in the last three decades. The Bohdansky formula for calculating sputtering yields as a function of energy is revised by introducing a nuclear stopping cross-section based on an analytic fit to the Kr?C potential. New analytic expressions for the two fit parameters Q and Eth of the Bohdansky formula are deduced. Yamamura's formula for the angular dependence of the sputtering yield is shown not to be valid for self-sputtering and for heavy projectiles at energies near the threshold.

García-Rosales, C.; Eckstein, W.; Roth, J.

1995-01-01

48

Chemical structure, conjugation, and cross-reactivity of Bacillus pumilus Sh18 cell wall polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus strain Sh18 cell wall polysaccharide (CWP), cross-reactive with the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b, was purified and its chemical structure was elucidated using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and sugar-specific degradation procedures. Two major structures, 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate) and 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate), with the latter partially substituted by 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-galactopyranose (13%) and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-glucopyranose (6%) on position O-2, were found. A minor component was established to be a polymer of -->3-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucopyranosyl)-1-->4-ribitol-1-OPO3-->. The ratios of the three components were 56, 34, and 10 mol%, respectively. The Sh18 CWP was covalently bound to carrier proteins, and the immunogenicity of the resulting conjugates was evaluated in mice. Two methods of conjugation were compared: (i) binding of 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate-activated hydroxyl groups of the CWP to adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH)-derivatized protein, and (ii) binding of the carbodiimide-activated terminal phosphate group of the CWP to ADH-derivatized protein. The conjugate-induced antibodies reacted in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the homologous polysaccharide and with a number of other bacterial polysaccharides containing ribitol and glycerol phosphates, including H. influenzae types a and b and strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:15466043

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Coxon, Bruce; Schneerson, Rachel

2004-10-01

49

Germanium Does Not Substitute for Boron in Cross-Linking of Rhamnogalacturonan II in Pumpkin Cell Walls1  

PubMed Central

Boron (B)-deficient pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) plants exhibit reduced growth, and their tissues are brittle. The leaf cell walls of these plants contain less than one-half the amount of borate cross-linked rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) dimer than normal plants. Supplying germanium (Ge), which has been reported to substitute for B, to B-deficient plants does not restore growth or reduce tissue brittleness. Nevertheless, the leaf cell walls of the Ge-treated plants accumulated considerable amounts of Ge. Dimeric RG-II (dRG-II) accounted for between 20% and 35% of the total RG-II in the cell walls of the second to fourth leaves from Ge-treated plants, but only 2% to 7% of the RG-II was cross-linked by germanate (dRG-II-Ge). The ability of RG-II to form a dimer is not reduced by Ge treatment because approximately 95% of the monomeric RG-II generated from the walls of Ge-treated plants is converted to dRG-II-Ge in vitro in the presence of germanium oxide and lead acetate. However, dRG-II-Ge is unstable and is converted to monomeric RG-II when the Ge is removed. Therefore, the content of dRG-II-Ge and dRG-II-B described above may not reflect the actual ratio of these in muro. 10B-Enriched boric acid and Ge are incorporated into the cell wall within 10 min after their foliar application to B-deficient plants. Foliar application of 10B but not Ge results in an increase in the proportion of dRG-II in the leaf cell wall. Taken together, our results suggest that Ge does not restore the growth of B-deficient plants.

Ishii, Tadashi; Matsunaga, Toshiro; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu; Taoshita, Junji

2002-01-01

50

The quasi-Poisson Goldman formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove a quasi-Poisson bracket formula for the space of representations of the fundamental groupoid of a surface with boundary, which generalizes Goldman's Poisson bracket formula. We also deduce a similar formula for quasi-Poisson cross-sections.

Nie, Xin

2013-12-01

51

Effects of cross-linking, capsule wall thickness, and compound hydrophobicity on aroma release from complex coacervate microcapsules.  

PubMed

Microcapsules were produced by complex coacervation with a gelatin-gum acacia wall and medium-chain-triglyceride core. Dry capsules were partially rehydrated and then loaded with model aroma compounds covering a range of volatility, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. An experimental design was prepared to evaluate the effects of cross-linking, wall/core ratio, and volatile load level on aroma release from capsules in a hot, aqueous environment. The real-time release on rehydration was measured by monitoring the headspace of a vessel containing the capsules to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Data collected showed no effects of cross-linking or wall/core ratio on volatile release in hot water for any of the volatiles studied. When comparing real-time release of the prepared coacervates to a spray-dried equivalent, there was no difference in the release from hot water but the release was slower when coacervates were added to ambient-temperature water. We found volatile release to be primarily determined by compound partition coefficients (oil/water and water/air) and temperature. PMID:19199587

Leclercq, Segolene; Milo, Christian; Reineccius, Gary A

2009-02-25

52

The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells

Axel Fleischer; M. A. ONeill; Rudolf Ehwald

1999-01-01

53

Profiling of diferulates (plant cell wall cross-linkers) using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recalcitrance of grasses to enzymatic digestion arises to a significant degree from a complex array of phenolic crosslinks between cell wall polysaccharide chains that inhibit their conversion to biofuels and lower their nutritive value for animal feed applications. Polysaccharide esters of ferulic acid are abundant in plant cell walls. Crosslinks between polysaccharides are formed through oxidative dehydrodimerization of ferulates, producing dehydrodiferulates (henceforth termed diferulates). Such ferulates and diferulates further crosslink plant cell walls by radical coupling cross-reactions during lignification. Although cell wall digestibility can be improved by cell wall metabolic engineering, or post-harvest by various pretreatment processes, a more comprehensive understanding of the role and impact of ferulate crosslinking on polysaccharide hydrolysis would be accelerated by availability of analytical methods that can distinguish the various diferulates released during biomass pretreatments, many of which are isomers. In this report, we present an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) strategy for comprehensive separation and identification of diferulate isomers. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra of [M + H](+) ions distinguished various isomers without requiring derivatization. Characteristic product ions for 8-O-4-, 8-8-non-cyclic, 8-8-cyclic, 8-5-cyclic, 8-5-non-cyclic, and 5-5-linked isomers were identified. All diferulates were identified either as di-acids in extracts of NaOH-hydrolyzed corn stover, or as a diverse group of diferulate mono- and di-amides in extracts of Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX™)-treated corn stover. This approach allows for direct analysis of released diferulates with minimal sample preparation, and can serve as the foundation for high-throughput profiling and correlating pretreatment conditions with biomass digestibility in biorefineries producing biofuels and biochemicals. PMID:24040649

Vismeh, Ramin; Lu, Fachuang; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Humpula, James F; Azarpira, Ali; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Ralph, John; Jones, A Daniel

2013-11-01

54

Model Stacking (MOST) technique applied in cross-hole ERT field data for the detection of Thessaloniki ancient walls' depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-hole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) study was undertaken near the center of Thessaloniki in order to detect the depth of the existing city walls in the planned route of the new city underground train. This cross-hole setup was used for a study of measurements with various electrode arrays in real urban field conditions to evaluate the resolution of the models which is produced by each array and the reliability of the models which is produced by the newly published "MOST" technique. The pole-tripole array (C2-C1P1P2) produces high resolution models, even when only borehole electrodes are used. The bipole-bipole C1C2-P1P2 array, when used for cross-hole measurements only, produces higher resolution models compared to the C1P1-C2P2 array, even with a lower signal-to-noise ratio, which can result in extremely high RMS error, when noise, systematic or not, must be faced. The models of both arrays are greatly improved by the use of surface electrodes. The pole-bipole array (C1-P1P2) is proved to be less accurate in imaging and quite unstable to the noisy urban environment and to systematic errors. Furthermore, the Model Stacking (MOST) interpretation technique leads to better results with models of greater resolution and fewer artifacts compared even with the combined data inversion. Finally, the ERT cross-hole analysis has been reliable in detecting the city walls.

Leontarakis, Konstantinos; Apostolopoulos, George V.

2013-06-01

55

Cross-Sectional Elastic Imaging of Arterial Wall Using Intravascular Ultrasonography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been several studies on the imaging of the distribution of the elasticity of the arterial wall using intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS). In those studies, the elasticity is estimated only during ventricular diastole. However, the viscous characteristics of the smooth muscle in the media of the arterial wall are also included in the strain measured during diastole. Alternatively, during systole, the smooth muscle has an almost purely elastic characteristic. However, the IVUS probe moves greatly due to the arrival of the pulsatile wave at the beginning of the ejection period. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to compensate for the movement of the IVUS probe in order to precisely measure the regional change in thickness of the arterial wall during one cardiac cycle. Basic experiments using a silicone rubber tube, in which pulsatile flow is generated by an artificial heart, determined the two-dimensional (2-D) distribution of the regional change in thickness and the elasticity. The obtained incremental elastic modulus coincides with that determined by the static pressure-strain test. Furthermore, in an in vitro experiment performed on an extracted human iliac artery, the 2-D distribution of elasticity is obtained and compared with pathological results.

Mita, Hitoshi; Kanai, Hiroshi; Koiwa, Yoshiro; Ichiki, Masataka; Tezuka, Fumiaki

2001-07-01

56

Bubble Formation on a Wall in Cross-Flowing Liquid and Surrounding Fluid Motion,With and Without Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems for space-based thermal management and for the HEDS program demands a precise control of bubble size distribution in liquid. The necessity of bulk liquid motion for controlling bubble size and frequency in the space environment has been suggested by recent studies on pool, forced convection boiling and bubble formation in flowing liquid. The present work, consisting of two parts, explores bubble generation at wall in a cross-flowing liquid, i.e., in a forced convection boiling configuration. A schematic is shown. The first part looks into the bubble formation process under isothermal conditions in a reduced gravity environment, by injecting gas through a hole in the wall of a flowing liquid channel. In the latter part with channel wall heating, flow and temperature fields near a single bubble are studied under normal (1-g) and micro-gravity (mu-g) conditions. The objective of the isothermal experiments is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter (D(sub N)), the gas flow rate (Q(sub g)), and the liquid cross-flow velocity (U(sub L)). The reduced gravity data are shown. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle. With wall heating, liquid motion around an air bubble in cross-flowing 2cs silicone oil is experimentally investigated in 1-g. A spectral element based steady 2D numerical model is also developed. The traces of particles from experimental flow visualization and the corresponding computed streamlines are shown. At the upstream side of the bubble facing the cross-flow, thermocapillary and forced convection create liquid motion away from the wall, up along the surface. At the downstream side, a competing interaction between the two creates a recirculation cell, causing the bulk liquid to stagnate on the surface and separate thereafter. The important dimensionless parameters are - Surface tension and local cross-flow Reynolds numbers R(sub sigma)(U(sub ref)a/v) and Re(sub loc)(U(sub L)a/v), respectively based on reference thermocapillary U(sub ref)(sigma(sub T)Delta.T/mu, Delta T=T(sub wall)-T(sub liquid)) and local cross-flow velocity U(sub L), Prandtl number P(sub r) and Grashoff number Gr(rho.g.beta.DeltaTa(sup 3)/mu.v). Variation of the stagnation point with R(sub sigma) and Re(sub loc) is shown. Also shown are good agreement between experimental and numerical results in 1-g. The computational model is extended to mu-g condition to investigate temperature and velocity on the bubble surface, stagnation and reattachment points of the recirculation cell and wall heat transfer. It is observed that wall heating significantly alters the flow field around the bubble and thus the forces acting on the bubble, which control its detachment. Thus a combination of heating and liquid cross-flow can be utilized to precisely control bubble formation in a mu-g environment.

Bhunia, Avijit; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Nahra, Henry K.

2000-01-01

57

Theory of anisotropic thin-walled closed-cross-section beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variationally and asymptotically consistent theory is developed in order to derive the governing equations of anisotropic thin-walled beams with closed sections. The theory is based on an asymptotic analysis of two-dimensional shell theory. Closed-form expressions for the beam-stiffness coefficients, stress and displacement fields are provided. The influence of material anisotropy on the displacement field is identified. A comparison with the displacement fields obtained by other analytical developments is performed. The stiffness coefficients and static response are also compared with finite element predictions, closed-form solutions and test data.

Berdichevsky, Victor; Armanios, Erian; Badir, Ashraf

1992-01-01

58

Silylesterification of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling between carboxylic and hydrosilane functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.

Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

2014-06-01

59

Prediction of Bubble Diameter at Detachment from a Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross Flow Under Reduced and Normal Gravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two-phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to theoretically investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate embodied in the momentum flux force, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. A two-dimensional one-stage theoretical model based on a global force balance on the bubble evolving from a wall orifice in a cross liquid flow is presented in this work. In this model, relevant forces acting on the evolving bubble are expressed in terms of the bubble center of mass coordinates and solved simultaneously. Relevant forces in low gravity included the momentum flux, shear-lift, surface tension, drag and inertia forces. Under normal gravity conditions, the buoyancy force, which is dominant under such conditions, can be added to the force balance. Two detachment criteria were applicable depending on the gas to liquid momentum force ratio. For low ratios, the time when the bubble acceleration in the direction of the detachment angle is greater or equal to zero is calculated from the bubble x and y coordinates. This time is taken as the time at which all the detaching forces that are acting on the bubble are greater or equal to the attaching forces. For high gas to liquid momentum force ratios, the time at which the y coordinate less the bubble radius equals zero is calculated. The bubble diameter is evaluated at this time as the diameter at detachment from the fact that the bubble volume is simply given by the product of the gas flow rate and time elapsed. Comparison of the model s predictions was also made with predictions from a two-dimensional normal gravity model based on Kumar-Kuloor formulation and such a comparison is presented in this work.

Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

2003-01-01

60

Detection of intraoperative segmental wall-motion abnormalities by transesophageal echocardiography: the incremental value of additional cross sections in the transverse and longitudinal planes.  

PubMed

Because biplane and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are more complex and expensive than single-plane TEE, we performed this study to determine whether the use of multiple single-plane (transverse) cross sections is as reliable for detection of left ventricular segmental wall-motion abnormalities (SWMA) as biplane TEE. We used biplane TEE to acquire nine standard cross sections of the left ventricle in 41 consecutive adults undergoing cardiac or vascular surgery. Six of these cross sections were in the transverse plane (i.e., achievable with single-plane TEE) and three in the longitudinal plane (i.e., achievable only with biplane or multiplane TEE). Each cross section was divided into myocardial segments for analysis. A total of 1810 segments were analyzed by independent investigators using a standardized evaluation system. Seventeen percent of all SWMA detected in this study were in the midpapillary transverse-plane cross section, an additional 48% in other transverse-plane cross sections, and 35% exclusively in the longitudinal-plane cross sections. Thus, most (65%), but not all, SWMA were in cross sections achievable with single-plane TEE. We conclude that the MP-T cross section should be the foundation for assessment of segmental function, but additional cross sections in the transverse and longitudinal planes are required for detection of the majority of segmental wall-motion abnormalities. PMID:8942576

Rouine-Rapp, K; Ionescu, P; Balea, M; Foster, E; Cahalan, M K

1996-12-01

61

The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II  

SciTech Connect

The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.

Fleischer, A.; O'Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.

1999-11-01

62

Direct synthesis of suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes crossing plasma sharpened carbon nanofibre tips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report a method for the direct synthesis of suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (su-SWNTs) using carbon nanofibres (CNFs) as templates via a three-step fabrication process. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition was first employed to grow vertically aligned CNFs, which were then post-treated with an energetic argon plasma in the same reactor to yield structural transformation by sharpening tips and reducing embedded catalytic nanoparticles to favourable sizes, presumably below 10 nm. A thermal chemical vapour deposition process subsequently followed, for directly synthesizing SWNTs suspended across the tips or sidewalls of post-treated CNFs (PT-CNFs) with a span up to 10 µm. We also demonstrated that one can maximize the yield of su-SWNTs on the tips of PT-CNFs by optimizing the post-treatment conditions to provide a protective coating which suppresses the growth of SWNTs from sidewalls. In this approach, no further catalyst deposition is needed after the nanostructured PT-CNF template is formed. Thus, su-SWNTs can be selectively positioned on the tips of PT-CNFs with a clean substrate surface free from unwanted CNTs and with a suspension span not limited by the flow conditions of the carbon source gas. This method of fabricating su-SWNTs can be extended to position a single isolated SWNT for the purpose of either minimizing the environmental perturbation during SWNT characterization or enhancing the performance in nanodevice applications.

Weng, Cheng-Hui; Lee, Wei-Yang; Juang, Zhang-Yu; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Tsai, Chuen-Horng

2006-01-01

63

Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-dependent cross-linking of alpha- agglutinin and beta 1,6-glucan in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall  

PubMed Central

The cell adhesion protein alpha-agglutinin is bound to the outer surface of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall and mediates cell- cell contact in mating. alpha-Agglutinin is modified by addition of a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor as it traverses the secretory pathway. The presence of a GPI anchor is essential for cross- linking into the wall, but the fatty acid and inositol components of the anchor are lost before cell wall association (Lu, C.-F., J. Kurjan, and P. N. Lipke, 1994. A pathway for cell wall anchorage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:4825- 4833). Cell wall association of alpha-agglutinin was accompanied by an increase in size and a gain in reactivity to antibodies directed against beta 1,6-glucan. Several kre mutants, which have defects in synthesis of cell wall beta 1,6-glucan, had reduced molecular size of cell wall alpha-agglutinin. These findings demonstrate that the cell wall form of alpha-agglutinin is covalently associated with beta 1,6- glucan. The alpha-agglutinin biosynthetic precursors did not react with antibody to beta 1,6-glucan, and the sizes of these forms were unaffected in kre mutants. A COOH-terminal truncated form of alpha- agglutinin, which is not GPI anchored and is secreted into the medium, did not react with the anti-beta 1,6-glucan. We propose that extracellular cross-linkage to beta 1,6-glucan mediates covalent association of alpha-agglutinin with the cell wall in a manner that is dependent on prior addition of a GPI anchor to alpha-agglutinin.

1995-01-01

64

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pectins are covalently cross-linked through diferulic bridges in the cell wall.  

PubMed

Arabinan and galactan side chains of sugar beet pectins are esterified by ferulic acid residues that can undergo in vivo oxidative reactions to form dehydrodiferulates. After acid and enzymatic degradation of sugar beet cell walls and fractionation of the solubilized products by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, three dehydrodiferulate-rich fractions were isolated. The structural identification of the different compounds present in these fractions was performed by electrospray-ion trap-mass spectrometry (before and after (18)O labeling) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Several compounds contained solely Ara (terminal or alpha-1-->5-linked-dimer) and dehydrodiferulate. The location of the dehydrodiferulate was assigned in some cases to the O-2 and in others to the O-5 of non-reducing Ara residues. One compound contained Gal (beta-1-->4-linked-dimer), Ara (alpha-1-->5-linked-dimer) and dehydrodiferulate. The location of the dehydrodiferulate was unambiguously assigned to the O-2 of the non-reducing Ara residue and O-6 of the non-reducing Gal residue. These results provide direct evidence that pectic arabinans and galactans are covalently cross-linked (intra- or inter-molecularly) through dehydrodiferulates in sugar beet cell walls. Molecular modeling was used to compute and structurally characterize the low energy conformations of the isolated compounds. Interestingly, the conformations of the dehydrodiferulate-bridged arabinan and galactan fragments selected from an energetic criterion, evidenced very nice agreement with the experimental occurrence of the dehydrodiferulated pectins. The present work combines for the first time intensive mass spectrometry data and molecular modeling to give structural relevance of a molecular cohesion between rhamnogalacturonan fragments. PMID:16297942

Ralet, Marie-Christine; André-Leroux, Gwénaëlle; Quéméner, Bernard; Thibault, Jean-François

2005-12-01

65

Using surface and cross-hole resistivity tomography in an urban environment: An example of imaging the foundations of the ancient wall in Thessaloniki, North Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the application of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique, in both surface and cross-hole modes, for subsurface exploration in an urban environment. The objective was to image the foundations of the Thessaloniki city walls (Region of Macedonia, North Greece) at locations that will be affected by the construction of a new underground Metro line. The surface ERT survey was performed along lines crossing directly over the wall on areas where it had partly collapsed. ERT surveys were also applied at places where the main over ground structure of the walls had been completely destroyed and what is left now is primarily only the ancient subsurface foundations. In addition, the present day ground surface is partially covered by concrete pavement slabs. In both cases, nonconventional electrodes were partially used to carry out a number of ERTs on the ground surface. This was necessary in order not to destroy the pavement slabs and most importantly not to damage in any way the monuments. An example of cross-hole ERT is also presented. Cross-hole ERTs were conducted because detailed measurements employing surface ERT were not possible due to limitations imposed by the urban environment. The way that the boreholes were instrumented is also presented. The combined surface and borehole tomographies produced images of the buried structures allowing the assessment of their geometrical shape and of the dimensions of the foundations of the ancient wall.

Tsokas, G. N.; Tsourlos, P. I.; Vargemezis, G. N.; Pazaras, N. Th.

66

How Do Lignin Composition, Structure, and Cross-Linking Affect Degradability? A Review of Cell Wall Model Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

anisms by which lignin restrict fiber degradation are poorly under- stood. Many aspects of grass cell wall lignification and degradation Hatfield, 1997). These reductions in degradability are are successfully modeled by dehydrogenation polymer-cell wall partly related to the increased lignin content of cell (DHP-CW) complexes formed with primary walls of corn Zea mays walls; however, variations in three-dimensional struc- L.

John H. Grabber

2005-01-01

67

Effect of Activation Cross Section Uncertainties on the Radiological Assessment of the MFE/DEMO First Wall  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 60}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.

Cabellos, O; Reyes, S; Sanz, J; Rodriguez, A; Youssef, M; Sawan, M

2005-05-10

68

Direct experimental measurement of electron impact ionization-excitation branching ratios 4. Branching ratios and cross sections for <formula>O2+ at 100 eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100-eV ionization of molecular oxygen has been studied by the (e,2e) electron-electron coincidence method. Ionization to the ground state and five excited states of O2+ has been detected. Of these six electronic states, ionization to three, the X2?g, a4?u, and b4?g-, states, was found to account for approximately 95% of the O2+ production. Relative triple differential cross sections for the production of O2+ in these three states were measured as a function of ejected electron energy, ejected electron angle, and incident electron scattering angle. Ionization to the three higher energy states, B2?g-, 2?u, and c4?u-, was found to be much weaker, and it was only possible to estimate the branching ratios to these states. Ionization to the A2?u state, the upper state of the second negative bands of O2+, was not observed, as this state is only weakly excited and is overlaid by the stronger a4?u state. The branching ratios were found to be 0.540, 0.297, and 0.122 for the X2?g, a4?u, and b4?g- states, respectively. The total branching ratio for the B2?g-, 2?u, and c4?u- states was 0.042 (all values+/-20%). The branching ratio to the A2?u state was estimated to be <1%. The cross section for the X2?g, a4?u, and b4?g- states were calculated using the previously measured O2+ production cross section for 100-eV electrons on O2. The results were 92.2(+/-20%)×10-18cm2, 50.8(+/-20%)×10-18cm2, and 22.1(+/-20%)×10-18cm2, respectively. The b4?g- state cross section was in satisfactory agreement with the recalculated optical fluorescence data on the O2+ first negative band emission cross section of 37.1(+/-25%)×10-18cm2 [McConkey and Woolsey, 1969].

Doering, J. P.; Yang, J.

1997-05-01

69

Prediction of bubble diameter at detachment from a wall orifice in liquid cross-flow under reduced and normal gravity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two-phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to theoretically investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate embodied in the momentum flux force, and orifice diameter on bubble formation and detachment in a wall-bubble injection configuration. A two-dimensional one-stage theoretical model based on a global

Henry K. Nahra; Y. Kamotani

2003-01-01

70

Geometry Formulas and Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rewritten and updated excerpts from the 30th Edition of the CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulas. Covers all of geometry, minus differential geometry. Very complete collection of definitions, formulas, tables and diagrams, divided into two- and three- dimensional geometry, and further into 16 subdivisions such as transformations, polygons, coordinate systems, isometries, polyhedra and spheres.

Levy, Silvio

2007-12-07

71

Formula Fiction and Hypertext.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is pleasing about hypertext is what has always been pleasing about genre fiction: the creative process of reading. Genre novels are written to a formula--and often called formula fiction. Critics say they are written to make money and to make money only. According to C. S. Lewis, they "rot the mind." If looked at from the standpoint of…

Young, Beth Rapp

72

Study by micro-Raman spectroscopy of wall paints (external parts and cross-sections) from reales alcazares of Seville (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla was originally builded by the Arabic in the year 913. The Mudejar Palace was built by Christian King Pedro I between 1364 and 1366. At the end of XV century the Catholic Kings, Isabel and Fernando made important transformations especially in the Mudejar Palace. Recently, wall paints from Catholic Kings periods were found during works of conservations in the first floor of the Palace. The study of these paints by non-destructive techniques was considered of great interest in order to determine the technology of manufacture and the originality of the artwork. The main objective of this work was to apply the Raman spectroscopy technique on the surface of the wall and on the different layers of the cross-sections prepared in order to characterize the pigments and the plaster present in these wall paints. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer. In this case the dispersive integrated Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRaman HR800 system was employed. Small samples of black, red, yellow, white and green colour were taken from the artwork. The surface of the samples were directly studed by the Raman spectroscopy instrument using red (785 nm) and green (522 nm) lasers, similarly to non-invasive experimental technique. This technique showed the presence of gypsum (SO4Ca.2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) in all the studied samples However, the pigments responsible of different colours were not detected. The surface of these wall paints was covered with gypsum and calcite due to contamination. These mineras were also characterized by XRD and SEM-EDX. The presence of these compounds and the heterogeneous surface did not permit the characterization of the pigments responsible of the colour. In order to better characterization of the pigments and plaster used the study was carried out on cross-sections. The black colour was performed using carbon black. Two different red layers were detected one constituted by cinnabar and lead carbonate and the other one by iron oxides. The green and white colours were constituted by atacamite and calcite, respectively. In addition lead white was detected in green colour. The white layers (plaster) located under the colour layers were constituted by calcite, quartz and feldspars. These data confirm the use of fresco technique. The study of the surface (external part) by micro-Raman spectroscopy limited the characterization of the pigments present in these wall pains, due to the presence of a layer of gypsum deposited on the surface. By other hand, the study by Raman spectroscopy of the cross-sections allowed the characterization of different pigments and support used in the manufacture of these wall paints.

Perez-Rodriguez, José Luis; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Robador, María Dolores; Siguenza, Belinda; Durán, Adrián

2013-04-01

73

Kelvin formula for thermopower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectrics are important in physics, engineering, and material science due to their useful applications and inherent theoretical difficulty. Recent experimental interest has shifted to strongly correlated materials, where the calculations become particularly difficult. Here we reexamine the framework for calculating the thermopower, inspired by ideas of Lord Kelvin from 1854. We find an approximate but concise expression, which we term as the Kelvin formula for the Seebeck coefficient. According to this formula, the Seebeck coefficient is given as the particle number N derivative of the entropy S , at constant volume V , and temperature T , SKelvin=(1)/(qe){(?S)/(?N)}V,T . This formula is shown to be competitive compared to other approximations in various contexts including strongly correlated systems. We finally connect to a recent thermopower calculation for non-Abelian fractional quantum-Hall states, where we point out that the Kelvin formula is exact.

Peterson, Michael R.; Shastry, B. Sriram

2010-11-01

74

Study of the Neutron Flux and Dpa Attenuation in the Reactor Pressure-Vessel Wall  

SciTech Connect

The study of the neutron flux and dpa attenuation in the reactor pressure vessel (PV) wall presented in this work was performed with state-of-the art methods currently used to determine PV fluxes, the BUGLE-96 cross-section library, and the iron displacement cross sections derived from ENDF/B-VI data. The calculations showed that the RG 1.99, Rev. 2, extrapolation formula predicts slower--and therefore conservative--attenuation of the neutron flux (E > 1MeV) in the PV wall. More importantly, the calculations gave slower attenuation of the dpa rate in the PV wall than the attenuation predicted by the formula. The slower dpa rate attenuation was observed for all the cases considered, which included two different PWRs, and several configurations obtained by varying the PV wall thickness and thermal shield thickness. For example, for a PV wall thickness of {approximately}24 cm, the calculated ratio of the dpa rate at 1/4 and 3/4 of the PV wall thickness to the dpa value on the inner PV surface is {approximately}14% and 19% higher, respectively, than predicted by the RG 1.99, Rev. 2, formula.

Remec, I.

1999-06-01

75

Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

Rygiel, Mary Ann

1982-01-01

76

Solvent-free covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamond with diamines: Looking for cross-linking effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The covalent functionalization of carbon nanomaterials with diamines is a way to enhance the mechanical strength of nanocomposites due to cross-linking effects, to form complex networks for nanotube-based electronic circuits, as well as is important for a number of biomedical applications. The main goal of the present work was to covalently functionalize pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamond with three aliphatic diamines (1,8-diaminooctane, 1,10-diaminodecane and 1,12-diaminododecane) and one aromatic diamine (1,5-diaminonaphthalene), by employing a simple one-step solvent-free methodology, which is based on thermal instead of chemical activation. We looked for experimental evidences of cross-linking effects in the carbon nanomaterials synthesized by using solubility/dispersibility tests, atomic force microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis for additional characterization.

Basiuk, Elena V.; Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Meza-Laguna, Víctor; Contreras-Torres, Flavio F.; Martínez, Melchor; Rojas-Aguilar, Aarón; Salerno, Marco; Zavala, Guadalupe; Falqui, Andrea; Brescia, Rosaria

2012-10-01

77

Lesson 14: Quadratic Formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completing the square is applied to the general quadratic to derive the quadratic formula. Before an area application example is given there is a quick review of the four methods that have been presented for solving quadratic equations. Complex numbers are introduced before the discriminant is presented.

2011-01-01

78

The Art of Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two connections with Volker Weispfenning. In the first place, a formula is the sim- plest type of algorithm, and algorithmic mathematics is one of Volker's interests; the considerations in the paper have been the subject of several conversations between Volker and myself. The second connection is the title, which is supposed to remind us of Bach's Die

David J. Jeffrey

2003-01-01

79

The topological trace formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lefschetz formula for the action of a Hecke correspondence on the weighted cohomology of a locally symmetric space is derived. It is also proven that each Hecke correspondence on the reductive Borel-Serre compactification of the locally symmetric space is weakly hyperbolic.

Mark Goresky; Robert MacPherson

2001-01-01

80

On Artsimovich's formula  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of more than 200 ohmic discharges in the T-10 tokamak shows that the formula proposed by L.A. Artsimovich in 1970 for describing the dependence of the ion temperature at the center of the plasma column on certain parameters of the plasma and of the device is valid with high accuracy.

Gott, Yu. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15

81

Research Timeline: Formulaic language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

Wray, Alison

2013-01-01

82

Absence of geometrical correction to the Landau-Zener formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the transition probability P21 in the adiabatic limit between two levels displaying one avoided crossing of width O(?). The geometrical prefactor completing the Dykhne formula for P21 is shown to be of order 1 + 0(?), so that the dominant contribution to P21 is given by the well-known Landau-Zener formula.

Joye, Alain; Pfister, Charles-Edouard

1992-09-01

83

A Simple Approach to the Landau-Zener Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Landau-Zener formula provides the probability of non-adiabatic transitions occurring when two energy levels are swept through an avoided crossing. The formula is derived here in a simple calculation that emphasizes the physics responsible for non-adiabatic population transfer. (Contains 2 figures.)

Vutha, Amar C.

2010-01-01

84

Cross-Machine Comparison of Resonant Field Amplification and Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) Stabilization by Plasma Rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dedicated experiments in the DIII-D and JET tokamaks and the NSTX spherical torus reveal an aspect ratio A and safety factor q dependence of the stabilizing effect of plasma rotation on the RWM, which is used to discriminate among theories and improve stabilization strategies in future devices including ITER. Despite the different distance of the DIII-D and JET walls, the critical rotation for RWM stabilization normalized to the inverse Alfven time is the same. Similar NSTX plasmas at lower A, however, yield a significantly higher critical rotation. A decrease of the critical rotation with increasing q95 in DIII-D and JET is consistent with the 1/q^2 dependence observed in NSTX. This increase of rotational stabilization with increasing q is predicted by a kinetic damping model [Bondeson, Phys. Plasmas 3 (1996) 3013] and can be derived from a viscous damping model [Fitzpatrick, Phys. Plasmas 9 (2002) 3459] when taking into account neoclassical viscosity [Shaing, Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 5525]. The observed A dependence of the critical rotation follows from this theory. In each device the weakly damped n=1 mode manifests itself in resonant field amplification (RFA) above the no-wall stability limit. Applying n=1 fields in similar DIII-D and JET plasmas yields the same amplification confirming that the damping process is independent of the wall properties. The RFA is well described by a single weakly damped mode and can be used to infer the RWM damping rate and rotation frequency. Measurements of RFA induced rotation damping in DIII-D will be compared to NSTX observations that agree with neoclassical toroidal viscosity induced drag. 0.5em In collaboration with the DIII-D Team, JET-EFDA contributors and the NSTX Team.

Reimerdes, H.

2005-10-01

85

Dependence of field driven domain wall velocity on cross-sectional area in Ni65Fe20Co15 nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity of vortex domain walls (DWs) was measured versus magnetic field in Ni65Fe20Co15 nanowires with different widths and thicknesses using time-resolved anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements. The Walker breakdown field, which separates translational and precessional DW propagation regimes, decreases for wider and thicker nanowires. On the contrary, the peak velocity at the Walker breakdown field is independent of the nanowire width and thickness. The Gilbert damping parameter ? was measured independently and was found to be insensitive to nanowire width but decreased with increasing wire thickness. From these data the transverse anisotropy field and dynamical DW width could be determined.

Moriya, Rai; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Thomas, Luc; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

2010-10-01

86

Roles of Tyrosine-Rich Precursor Glycoproteins and Dityrosine- and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Mediated Protein Cross-Linking in Development of the Oocyst Wall in the Coccidian Parasite Eimeria maxima  

PubMed Central

The oocyst wall of apicomplexan parasites protects them from the harsh external environment, preserving their survival prior to transmission to the next host. If oocyst wall formation could be disrupted, then logically, the cycle of disease transmission could be stopped, and strategies to control infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage (macrogamete) of Eimeria maxima are proteolytically processed into smaller glycoproteins, which are then incorporated into the developing oocyst wall. The identification of high concentrations of dityrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in oocyst extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography, together with the detection of a UV autofluorescence in intact oocysts, implicates dityrosine- and possibly DOPA-protein cross-links in oocyst wall hardening. In addition, the identification of peroxidase activity in the wall-forming bodies of macrogametes supports the hypothesis that dityrosine- and DOPA-mediated cross-linking might be an enzyme-catalyzed event. As such, the mechanism of oocyst wall formation in Eimeria, is analogous to the underlying mechanisms involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrices in a number of organisms, widely distributed in nature, including insect resilin, nematode cuticles, yeast cell walls, mussel byssal threads, and sea urchin fertilization membranes.

Belli, Sabina I.; Wallach, Michael G.; Luxford, Catherine; Davies, Michael J.; Smith, Nicholas C.

2003-01-01

87

Roles of tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins and dityrosine- and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-mediated protein cross-linking in development of the oocyst wall in the coccidian parasite Eimeria maxima.  

PubMed

The oocyst wall of apicomplexan parasites protects them from the harsh external environment, preserving their survival prior to transmission to the next host. If oocyst wall formation could be disrupted, then logically, the cycle of disease transmission could be stopped, and strategies to control infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage (macrogamete) of Eimeria maxima are proteolytically processed into smaller glycoproteins, which are then incorporated into the developing oocyst wall. The identification of high concentrations of dityrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in oocyst extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography, together with the detection of a UV autofluorescence in intact oocysts, implicates dityrosine- and possibly DOPA-protein cross-links in oocyst wall hardening. In addition, the identification of peroxidase activity in the wall-forming bodies of macrogametes supports the hypothesis that dityrosine- and DOPA-mediated cross-linking might be an enzyme-catalyzed event. As such, the mechanism of oocyst wall formation in Eimeria, is analogous to the underlying mechanisms involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrices in a number of organisms, widely distributed in nature, including insect resilin, nematode cuticles, yeast cell walls, mussel byssal threads, and sea urchin fertilization membranes. PMID:12796290

Belli, Sabina I; Wallach, Michael G; Luxford, Catherine; Davies, Michael J; Smith, Nicholas C

2003-06-01

88

Electrostatic effect induction formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of induced voltages and short-circuit currents on people is an important step for the determination of tolerable levels of the electrostatic fields of UHV power transmission lines. Formulae for the induced short-circuit current of a hemisphere and a half-cylinder on the ground are derived in this paper. A shape factor, defined as the ratio of the equivalent charge

D. W. Deno

1975-01-01

89

Cross-Linked Poly(Gamma-Glutamic Acid) Attenuates Pleural and Chest Wall Adhesions in a Mouse Thoracotomy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cross-linked poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (XL) is derived from a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer produced by Bacillus subtilis. In the present study, we compared the efficacy of XL in preventing adhesion formation after thoracotomy in mice with Seprafilm (SEP), which is currently the most commonly applied adhesion prevention material. Methods: Left thoracotomy was done. Adhesion between the lung and the thoracotomy

Y. Izumi; Y. Takahashi; M. Kohno; H. Nomori

2012-01-01

90

Calculations of Laminar Heat Transfer Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section and Transpiration-Cooled Walls with Application to Turbine Blade Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate method for development of flow and thermal boundary layers in laminar regime on cylinders with arbitrary cross section and transpiration-cooled walls is obtained by use of Karman's integrated momentum equation and an analogous heat-flow equation. Incompressible flow with constant property values throughout boundary layer is assumed. Shape parameters for approximated velocity and temperature profiles and functions necessary for solution of boundary-layer equations are presented as charts, reducing calculations to a minimum. The method is applied to determine local heat-transfer coefficients and surface temperature-cooled turbine blades for a given flow rate. Coolant flow distributions necessary for maintaining uniform blade temperatures are also determined.

Eckert, E.R.G.; Livingood, John N.B.

1951-01-01

91

The normal growth of the tracheal wall in human foetuses  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tracheal wall thickness is a substantial indicator in various pathological changes. The present study was performed to compile normative data and formulae for the tracheal wall thickness and volume at varying gestational age. Material and methods Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis and statistics a range of the wall thickness, proximal internal-to-external cross-sectional area ratio, and wall volume for the trachea in 73 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 14-25 weeks was examined. Results No significant male-female differences were found. The values of tracheal wall thickness ranged from 0.36 ±0.01 mm for the 14-week group to 1.23 ±0.17 mm for the 25-week group of gestation, according to the linear function y = –0.823 + 0.083 × age ± 0.087. The tracheal lumen rate, expressed as the proximal internal-to-external cross-sectional area ratio, decreased from 42.61 ±1.11% to 26.78 ±4.95%, according to the function y = 62.239 – 1.487 × age ±3.119. The tracheal wall volume rose from 16.28 ±4.18 mm3 in fetuses aged 14 weeks to 269.22 ±29.26 mm3 in fetuses aged 25 weeks, according to the quintic function y = 0.000052 × age4.894. Conclusions The tracheal wall parameters show no sexual dimorphism. The tracheal wall grows linearly in its length, and according to a quintic function in its volume. A relative decrease in the tracheal lumen at the expense of an increase in both the wall thickness and wall volume of the trachea is found during gestation.

Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Anna; Wozniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Flisinski, Piotr; Wisniewski, Marcin

2012-01-01

92

Higher Schläfli Formulas and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Schläfli formula relates the variations of the dihedral angles of a smooth family of polyhedra in a space-form to the variation of the enclosed volume. We give higher analogues of this formula: for each p, we prove a simple formula relating the variation of the volumes of the codimension p faces to the variation of the 'curvature' –

Jean-Marc Schlenker; Rabah Souam

2003-01-01

93

Rate of Convergence for Cardy's Formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that crossing probabilities in 2D critical site percolation on the triangular lattice in a piecewise analytic Jordan domain converge with power law rate in the mesh size to their limit given by the Cardy-Smirnov formula. We use this result to obtain new upper and lower bounds of for the probability that the cluster at the origin in the half-plane has diameter R, improving the previously known estimate of R -1/3+ o(1).

Mendelson, Dana; Nachmias, Asaf; Watson, Samuel S.

2014-07-01

94

Bedload Formulas. Part A. A Selection of Bedload Formulas. Part B. Program Listings for Bedload Formulas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formulas for computing bedload are reviewed, and FORTRAN program listings are given for digital computer solution of 14 of them. The programs are for the formulas of Schoklitsch, Meyer-Peter, Casey, Haywood, Straub, Waterways Experiment Station, Shields, ...

S. Shulits R. D. Hill

1968-01-01

95

Peroxidase catalysed cross-linking of an intrinsically unstructured protein via dityrosine bonds in the oocyst wall of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria maxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria maxima possess a resilient oocyst wall that protects them upon excretion in host faeces and in the outside world, allowing them to survive between hosts. The wall is formed from the contents of specialised organelles – wall-forming bodies – found in macrogametes of the parasites. The presence of dityrosine in the oocyst wall suggests that

Kelly Mai; Nicholas C. Smith; Zhi-Ping Feng; Marilyn Katrib; Jan Šlapeta; Iveta Šlapetova; Michael G. Wallach; Catherine Luxford; Michael J. Davies; Xuecheng Zhang; Raymond S. Norton; Sabina I. Belli

2011-01-01

96

A winning formula.  

PubMed

New contracts enable pharmacists to expand the role with benefits for patients and primary care nurses. Nurses and pharmacists can cross-refer to make the best use of each other's expertise. PMID:16875279

Greenwood, Lynne

97

Chicken-based formula is better tolerated than extensively hydrolyzed casein formula for the management of cow milk protein allergy in infants.  

PubMed

The effective treatment of cow milk allergy in infants consists of elimination of cow milk protein and the introduction of formulas based on an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula or an amino acid-based formula. However, about 10% of these infants are still allergic to an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and an amino acid-based formula is very expensive. We conducted a study to verify whether the new chicken-based formula will be better tolerated than an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula for the treatment of cow milk allergy in infants. One hundred infants, diagnosed with cow milk allergy by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge tests, were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study to compare a response to an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and the chicken-based formula. Subjects were randomly given one of the two formulas for 2 weeks. There was a 2-week washout period of taking an amino acid-based formula before being switched to the other formula for another 2 weeks. If the subjects showed allergic symptoms during the 2 weeks of test formula, they would be announced as intolerance or allergic to that formula. Sixty seven of 80 confirmed subjects agreed to enroll their infants. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Twenty and 33 infants were tolerant whereas and 38 and 25 infants were intolerant to an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and the chicken-based formula, respectively. The chicken-based formula showed significantly better tolerance than an extensively hydrolyzed protein formula in the management of cow milk allergy in infants. PMID:22507606

Jirapinyo, Pipop; Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Kangwanpornsiri, Channagan; Wongarn, Renu

2012-01-01

98

Anisotropy of wall energy in orthoferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wall anisotropy causes bubble domains to be elliptical. A formula relating the eccentricity of an elliptical bubble to the anisotropic wall energy is derived, and an experimental technique for measuring the wall anisotropy is described. In Sm0.55Tb0.45FeO3a measured anisotropy energy of 1.7 percent of the wall-energy density at room temperature is responsible for eccentricities as large as 0.4 at average

EDWARD DELLA TORRE; M. Dimyan

1970-01-01

99

Rate of Convergence for Cardy's Formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that crossing probabilities in 2D critical site percolation on the triangular lattice in a piecewise analytic Jordan domain converge with power law rate in the mesh size to their limit given by the Cardy-Smirnov formula. We use this result to obtain new upper and lower bounds of {e^{O(sqrt{log log R})} R^{-1/3}} for the probability that the cluster at the origin in the half-plane has diameter R, improving the previously known estimate of R -1/3+o(1).

Mendelson, Dana; Nachmias, Asaf; Watson, Samuel S.

2014-05-01

100

Altered extent of cross-linking of beta1,6-glucosylated mannoproteins to chitin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with reduced cell wall beta1,3-glucan content.  

PubMed Central

The yeast cell wall contains beta1,3-glucanase-extractable and beta1,3-glucanase-resistant mannoproteins. The beta1,3-glucanase-extractable proteins are retained in the cell wall by attachment to a beta1,6-glucan moiety, which in its turn is linked to beta1,3-glucan (J. C. Kapteyn, R. C. Montijn, E. Vink, J. De La Cruz, A. Llobell, J. E. Douwes, H. Shimoi, P. N. Lipke, and F. M. Klis, Glycobiology 6:337-345, 1996). The beta1,3-glucanase-resistant protein fraction could be largely released by exochitinase treatment and contained the same set of beta1,6-glucosylated proteins, including Cwp1p, as the B1,3-glucanase-extractable fraction. Chitin was linked to the proteins in the beta1,3-glucanase-resistant fraction through a beta1,6-glucan moiety. In wild-type cell walls, the beta1,3-glucanase-resistant protein fraction represented only 1 to 2% of the covalently linked cell wall proteins, whereas in cell walls of fks1 and gas1 deletion strains, which contain much less beta1,3-glucan but more chitin, beta1,3-glucanase-resistant proteins represented about 40% of the total. We propose that the increased cross-linking of cell wall proteins via beta1,6-glucan to chitin represents a cell wall repair mechanism in yeast, which is activated in response to cell wall weakening.

Kapteyn, J C; Ram, A F; Groos, E M; Kollar, R; Montijn, R C; Van Den Ende, H; Llobell, A; Cabib, E; Klis, F M

1997-01-01

101

A Salary Formula for Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)

Gilbert, Michael B.

1975-01-01

102

Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)

Oliver, Bernard M.

1993-01-01

103

Configuration spaces and signature formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that nontrivial topological and geometric information about configuration spaces of linkages and tensegrities can\\u000a be obtained using the signature formulas for the mapping degree and Euler characteristic. In particular, we prove that the\\u000a Euler characteristics of such configuration spaces can be effectively calculated using signature formulas. We also investigate\\u000a the critical points of signed area function on the

G. Khimshiashvili

2009-01-01

104

Understanding Quadrature Formulas for Planar Regions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quadrature formulas for double integrals are described. Examples are used to given an idea of what should be proven about quadrature formulas. Proofs are simple and cover formulas of third- and fifth-degree polygonal accuracy. Several problems are provide...

C. B. Huelsman

1973-01-01

105

Classification of resonance Regge trajectories and a modified Mulholland formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ a simple potential model to analyze the effects which a Regge trajectory, correlating with a bound or a metastable state at zero angular momentum, has on an integral cross section. A straightforward modification of the Mulholland formula of Macek et al. (2004, 2009) [2] is proposed for more efficient separation of the resonance contribution.

Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

2011-08-01

106

Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

Olson, Arthur V.

107

Compensation Formula for Hearing Loss.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics (CHABA) was asked by the Bureau of medicine and Surgery of the Department of the Navy to draft this report which would provide a formula for converting the pure-tone audiometric thresholds of federal...

W. D. Ward

1975-01-01

108

Bott's formula and enumerative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline a strategy for computing intersection numbers on smooth varieties with torus actions using a residue formula of Bott. As an example, Gromov-Witten numbers of twisted cubic and elliptic quartic curves on some general complete intersection in projective space are computed. The results are consistent with predictions made from mirror symmetry computations. We also compute degrees of some loci

GEIR ELLINGSRUD; S. A. Strømme

1994-01-01

109

Surface diffuseness correction in global mass formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By taking into account the surface diffuseness correction for unstable nuclei, the accuracy of the macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved. The rms deviation with respect to essentially all the available mass data falls to 298 keV, crossing the 0.3 MeV accuracy threshold for the first time within the mean-field framework. Considering the surface effect of the symmetry potential which plays an important role in the evolution of the “neutron skin” toward the “neutron halo” of nuclei approaching the neutron drip line, we obtain an optimal value of the symmetry energy coefficient J=30.16 MeV. With an accuracy of 258 keV for all the available neutron separation energies and of 237 keV for the ?-decay Q-values of super-heavy nuclei, the proposed mass formula is particularly important not only for the reliable description of the r process of nucleosynthesis but also for the study of the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei.

Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Wu, Xizhen; Meng, Jie

2014-06-01

110

Empirical formula evaluation of the collision strength for the electrons with atoms and ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experimental data and theoretical calculations have been researched for the collision excitation cross section Q, collision strength (Omega) and rate coefficient R on the electrons with atoms and ions. The empirical formulae of the different types hav...

Yao Lishan Shi Zhiqiang Liu Shaoxiang Wu Lingyun

1995-01-01

111

Wall Turbulence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was aimed at understanding turbulence generated at a wall. The goals were to investigate the structure of turbulence in the viscous wall region, to understand how production of turbulence is related to measured structural parameters, to deve...

L. P. Purtell

1992-01-01

112

Quadrature formulae for classes of functions of low smoothness  

SciTech Connect

For Sobolev and Korobov spaces of functions of several variables a quadrature formula with explicitly defined coefficients and nodes is constructed. This formula is precise for trigonometric polynomials with harmonics from the corresponding step hyperbolic cross. The error of the quadrature formula in the classes W{sup {alpha}}{sub p}[0,1]{sup n}, E{sup {alpha}}[0,1]{sup n} is o((ln M){sup {beta}}/M{sup {alpha}}), where M is the number of nodes and {beta} is a parameter depending on the class. The problem of the approximate calculation of multiple integrals for functions in W{sup {alpha}}{sub p}[0,1]{sup n} is considered in the case when this class does not lie in the space of continuous functions, that is, for {alpha}{<=}1/p.

Nursultanov, E D [Kazakhstan Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Astana (Kazakhstan); Tleukhanova, N T [Eurasian National University named after L.N.Gumilev, Astana (Kazakhstan)

2003-10-31

113

Discretization formulas for unstructured grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galerkin weighted residual technique using linear triangular weight functions is employed to develop finite difference formula in cartesian coordinates for the Laplacian operator, first derivative operators and the function for unstructured triangular grids. The weighted residual coefficients associated with the weak formulation of the Laplacian operator are shown to agree with the Taylor series approach on a global average. In addition, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the Voronoi (finite difference) area of an unstructured grid.

Baumeister, Kenneth J.

1988-01-01

114

Foodservice Management Formulas Made Easy  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will become familiar with a self-instructional individualized unit of foodservice management problem sets, the benefits and problems associated with self-instruction and how to adopt this method of teaching to ones own setting.This presentation will provide an overview of a self-instructional unit for review and practice of foodservice management mathematical formulas developed for use in an undergraduate dietetics

D. L. Golzynski; S. H. Cash

1997-01-01

115

Longitudinal displacement of the carotid wall and cardiovascular risk factors: associations with aging, adiposity, blood pressure and periodontal disease independent of cross-sectional distensibility and intima-media thickness.  

PubMed

The recently discovered longitudinal displacement of the common carotid arterial wall (i.e., the motion along the same plane as the blood flow), may be associated with incident cardiovascular events and represents a novel and relevant clinical information. At present, there have only been a few studies that have been conducted to investigate this longitudinal movement. We propose here a method to assess noninvasively the wall bi-dimensional (two-dimensional [2-D], cross-sectional and longitudinal) motion and present an original approach that combines a robust speckle tracking scheme to guidance by minimal path contours segmentation. Our method is well suited to large clinical population studies as it does not necessitate strong imaging prerequisites. The aim of this study is to describe the association between the longitudinal displacement of the carotid arterial wall and cardiovascular risk factors, among which periodontal disease. Some 126 Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease, an emerging risk factor, and 27 healthy age- and sex-matched non-indigenous control subjects had high-resolution ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery. Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial wall 2-D motion were then assessed using our method in ultrasound B-mode sequences. Carotid longitudinal displacement was markedly lower in the periodontal disease group than the control group (geometric mean (IQR): 0.15 mm (0.13) vs. 0.42 mm (0.30), respectively; p < 0.0001), independent of cardiovascular risk factors, cross-sectional distensibility and carotid intima-media thickness (p < 0.0001). A multivariable model indicated that the strongest correlates of carotid longitudinal displacement in adults with periodontal disease were age (?-coefficient = -.235, p = .03), waist (?-coefficient = -.357, p = 0.001), and pulse pressure (?-coefficient = .175, p = 0.07), independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, cross-sectional distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Carotid longitudinal displacement, estimated with our approach, is impaired in the periodontal disease group, independent of established cardiovascular risk factors and other noninvasive measures of arterial stiffness, and may represent an important marker of cardiovascular risk. PMID:22920549

Zahnd, Guillaume; Vray, Didier; Sérusclat, André; Alibay, Djhianne; Bartold, Mark; Brown, Alex; Durand, Marion; Jamieson, Lisa M; Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; O'Dea, Kerin; Moulin, Philippe; Celermajer, David S; Skilton, Michael R

2012-10-01

116

Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

2010-01-01

117

Experimental and modal verification of an integral equation solution for a thin-walled dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to add the capability of an X-band uplink onto the 70-m antenna, a new dichroic plate is needed to replace the Pyle-guide-shaped dichroic plate currently in use. The replacement dichroic plate must exhibit an additional passband at the new uplink frequency of 7.165 GHz, while still maintaining a passband at the existing downlink frequency of 8.425 GHz. Because of the wide frequency separation of these two passbands, conventional methods of designing air-filled dichroic plates exhibit grating lobe problems. A new method of solving this problem by using a dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes is presented and verified experimentally. Two checks of the integral equation solution are described. One is the comparison to a modal analysis for the limiting cross shape of a square hole. As a final check, a prototype dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes was built and measured.

Epp, L. W.; Stanton, P. H.

1993-01-01

118

Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.

Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.

1994-01-01

119

A switching formula for optimal gait transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a simple, closed-form switching formula for determining the optimal gait transition speeds of legged robots. For robots with even-numbered legs that are arranged symmetrically along the direction of locomotion, the formula determines the forward locomotion speed at which running (gallop) becomes more efficient than walking (trot). The accuracy of the switching formula is empirically evaluated through a

Hyuk Kang; Byungchul An; F. C. Park

2010-01-01

120

Determining the Empirical Formula of Hydrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will apply the mole concept and the law of conservation of mass to determine the empirical formula of a hydrate. Students will also use data from their experiment to understand the concept of mole ratios, formulas and predicting products from reactions. Students will interpret formula representation of compounds and understand their percent composition.

2012-10-11

121

The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…

Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.

2008-01-01

122

A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

Cramer, Eugene H.

1978-01-01

123

Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).

Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.

1996-01-01

124

Whiteness formula in CIELAB uniform color space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to standardize the calculation of whiteness. Whiteness formulas currently in use satisfactorily characterize the appearance of commercial whiteness. However, they have poor correlations with the observers' evaluations, and are often unsuccessful in assessing tinted white samples. A whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space is developed in this paper. Several whiteness formulas are analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space agrees well with the visual ranking, and it is superior to the CIE whiteness formula and the others in visual correlativity, uniformity and applicability.

He, Guoxin; Zhou, Mingxun

2007-07-01

125

Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH) has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected) and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene

S. Samuel Yang; Wayne Wenzhong Xu; Mesfin Tesfaye; JoAnn F. S. Lamb; Hans-Joachim G. Jung; Kathryn A. VandenBosch; Carroll P. Vance; John W. Gronwald

2010-01-01

126

Black hole interior mass formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product, and irreducible mass product of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the surface gravity product, the surface temperature product and the Komar energy product of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman black hole spacetimes. We show the black hole mass formula on the Cauchy horizon following the seminal work by Smarr [Phys Rev Lett 30:71 (1973), Phys Rev D 7:289 (1973)] for the outer horizon. We also prescribe the four laws of black hole mechanics for the inner horizon. A new definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed.

Pradhan, Parthapratim

2014-05-01

127

Recursion Formulas of Central Configurations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes central configurations which are special configurations leading to homothetic solutions of the n-body problem. For the planar central configurations, these solutions also provide periodic solutions of the n-body problem. Chapter 1 defines the problem and provides an overview of the area. There is historical interest in knowing the total number of these central configurations. For n >= 4 the problem remains unsolved. Furthermore, a different mass ratio between the n bodies will produce a different total number of central configurations. This paper will provide the total number of central configurations which has a special mass ratio. For the planar central configurations the total number of central configurations grows at the speed n!2n, and the three dimensional case is n!3^{n }. Chapters 2, 3 and 5 give details and proofs of the analytical continuation method. This method begins with three bodies, then creates the central configurations with four bodies with one small mass, using the implicit function theorem. If the process is repeated, the total number of central configurations for any n-body problem may be calculated, provided (n-3) masses are sufficiently small. In Chapters 4 and 7, the formulas are derived for the total number of central configurations of the n-body problem with special mass ratio (m _1,m_2,m_3,epsilon_1, ...,epsilonn) in both planar and three-dimensional cases. Examples of formulas provided are: n!(2^{n+1} + 1) , n!((n^2 - n + 4)2^{n+1 } - n - 7), and (n!/6) ((n ^3 + 11n - 12)2^{n+2} + 6n + 54). Chapter 6 solves a very special degenerate case during the continuation process. The Morse Index of these central configurations is discussed in Chapter 8.

Tien, Fangcheng

1993-01-01

128

Fungal cell wall organization and biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The composition and organization of the cell walls from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Neurospora crassa, and Cryptococcus neoformans are compared and contrasted. These cell walls contain chitin, chitosan, ?-1,3-glucan, ?-1,6-glucan, mixed ?-1,3-/?-1,4-glucan, ?-1,3-glucan, melanin, and glycoproteins as major constituents. A comparison of these cell walls shows that there is a great deal of variability in fungal cell wall composition and organization. However, in all cases, the cell wall components are cross-linked together to generate a cell wall matrix. The biosynthesis and properties of each of the major cell wall components are discussed. The chitin and glucans are synthesized and extruded into the cell wall space by plasma membrane-associated chitin synthases and glucan synthases. The glycoproteins are synthesized by ER-associated ribosomes and pass through the canonical secretory pathway. Over half of the major cell wall proteins are modified by the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. The cell wall glycoproteins are also modified by the addition of O-linked oligosaccharides, and their N-linked oligosaccharides are extensively modified during their passage through the secretory pathway. These cell wall glycoprotein posttranslational modifications are essential for cross-linking the proteins into the cell wall matrix. Cross-linking the cell wall components together is essential for cell wall integrity. The activities of four groups of cross-linking enzymes are discussed. Cell wall proteins function as cross-linking enzymes, structural elements, adhesins, and environmental stress sensors and protect the cell from environmental changes. PMID:23419716

Free, Stephen J

2013-01-01

129

Advances in nutritional modifications of infant formulas.  

PubMed

Modifications to infant formulas are continually being made as the components of human milk are characterized and as the nutrient needs of diverse groups of infants are identified. Formulas with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids added in amounts similar to those in human milk have recently become available in the United States; infants fed these formulas or human milk have higher tissue concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and reportedly have better visual acuity than do infants fed nonsupplemented formulas. Selenium, an important antioxidant, is present in higher concentrations in human milk than in non-fortified cow milk-based formula, and the selenium intakes of infants fed nonfortified formulas are reported to be at or below recommended levels. Blood selenium concentrations and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity are higher in infants fed selenium-supplemented formulas or human milk than in infants fed non-fortified formulas. Nucleotides and their related products play key roles in many biological processes. Although nucleotides can be synthesized endogenously, they are considered "conditionally essential." Nucleotide concentrations in human milk are higher than in unsupplemented cow milk-based formulas, and studies in animals and human infants suggest that dietary nucleotides play a role in the development of the gastrointestinal and immune systems. Formulas for preterm infants after hospital discharge are designed to meet the needs of a population in whom growth failure is common. Several studies have shown that preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formulas after hospital discharge have higher rates of catch-up growth than do infants fed standard term-infant formulas. PMID:12812153

Carver, Jane D

2003-06-01

130

Generalizations of Dashen's formula in supersymmetric QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In supersymmetric QCD there are two formulae for the masses and the decay constans of pseudo-Goldstone bosons. The first one, the direct analogue of Dashen's formula, relates the "pion" mass-squared matrix to the quark-antiquark condensate, while the second one, recently obtained by Veneziano, relates the mass matrix to a chiral symmetry breaking condensate of squark fields. These formulae are established using superfield chiral Ward identities and special properties of a class of composite operators.

Shore, Graham M.

1984-01-01

131

Wall Tension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, develops the relationship between tension, pressure, and radius in a balloon. The same ideas are then applied to the walls of spherical and cylindrical containers. Several links provide further information.

Nave, Carl R.

2007-11-15

132

Wall Turbulence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

Hanratty, Thomas J.

1980-01-01

133

Superfluid Kubo formulas from partition function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear response theory relates hydrodynamic transport coefficients to equilibrium retarded correlation functions of the stress-energy tensor and global symmetry currents in terms of Kubo formulas. Some of these transport coefficients are non-dissipative and affect the fluid dynamics at equilibrium. We present an algebraic framework for deriving Kubo formulas for such thermal transport coefficients by using the equilibrium partition function. We use the framework to derive Kubo formulas for all such transport coefficients of superfluids, as well as to rederive Kubo formulas for various normal fluid systems.

Chapman, Shira; Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron

2014-04-01

134

Dynamic time scale for the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model based on Rice's formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic formulation of Smagorinsky's subgrid-scale model for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) requires averaging to avoid instability due to extreme fluctuations. For complex-geometry flows a Lagrangian approach is often useful [see Meneveau, Lund, and Cabot, JFM 319 (1996)]. However, an ad-hoc choice of the relaxation timescale must be made, often based on resolved strain-rates and stresses at the grid- scale. Recently, Park and Mahesh [Phys. Fluids 21, 065106 (2009)] proposed the attractive notion of using statistics of the error signal itself to determine a timescale dynamically. We extend this approach by using Rice's formula to dynamically estimate the time between mean-crossings of the error signal and set the averaging timescale to be twice this value. The approach requires accumulating Lagrange-averaged square error and its time-derivative squared, which is done using the Eulerian approximation as proposed in the original model. For validation, LES of flow in a channel and through an array of cubes are compared with experimental results. Distributions of the dynamic coefficient, error, and dynamic timescale are shown as a function of distance from the wall. Computational efficiency and memory requirements are also discussed.

Verhulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

2011-11-01

135

Medicaid Formula: Effects of Proposed Formula on Federal Shares of State Spending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medicaid is the primary program for providing health care services to eligible low-income individuals. It is jointly financed by federal and state governments under a matching formula that varies for each state. Using the formula, the federal contribution...

1999-01-01

136

The Steiner formula for Minkowski valuations  

PubMed Central

A Steiner type formula for continuous translation invariant Minkowski valuations is established. In combination with a recent result on the symmetry of rigid motion invariant homogeneous bivaluations, this new Steiner type formula is used to obtain a family of Brunn–Minkowski type inequalities for rigid motion intertwining Minkowski valuations.

Parapatits, Lukas; Schuster, Franz E.

2012-01-01

137

A Choice of a New Funding Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the fiscal neutrality of three funding formulas that have been proposed to replace the current funding formula for Oklahoma's common schools in an attempt to have greater equity in the distribution of funds to the various districts. Using data from SY-03 to SY-07, calculations of state aid for the 540- districts and fiscal…

Hancock, Kenneth

2008-01-01

138

Risk formulas in calcium oxalate urolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reflect the risk of calcium stone formation, risk formulas have been described in the literature with the objective of being able to predict the further course of the stone disease. Some of these formulas are reviewed in this paper. Various results were obtained when different risk expressions were related to the severity of the stone disease. Although

Hans-Göran Tiselius

1997-01-01

139

Extracting Minimal and Closed Monotone DNF Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In this paper, first we introduce minimal and closed mono-tone DNF formulas as extensions of maximal and closed itemsets. Next, by incorporating the algorithm dnf cover designed by Hirata et al. (2003) with the algorithm Charm designed by Zaki and Hsiao (2002), we design the algorithm cdnf cover to extract closed monotone DNF formulas with a pruning as same

Yoshikazu Shima; Shinji Mitsuishi; Kouichi Hirata; Masateru Harao

2004-01-01

140

Definability on a Random 3-CNF Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the question of certifying unsatisfiability of random 3-CNF formulas. At which densities can we hope for a simple sufficient condition for unsatisfiability that holds almost surely? We study this question from the point of view of definability theory. The main result is that first-order logic cannot express any sufficient condition that holds almost surely on random 3-CNF formulas

Albert Atserias

2005-01-01

141

Teaching Structural Formulas in Chemistry: How Students Relate Structural Formulas to the Solubility of Substances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural formulas give professional chemists information about physical and chemical properties of corresponding compounds. In chemistry education at secondary schools, structural formulas are introduced in the context of chemical bonding. Structural formulas are not introduced as representations of the properties of chemical compounds. This…

Goedhart, Martin; van Duin, Yvonne

142

'Stucco' Walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

2004-01-01

143

Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that

Xu Huang; Wentao Liang; Sulin Zhang

2011-01-01

144

Wall Covering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

1978-01-01

145

Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability  

SciTech Connect

Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using /sup 65/Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation.

Loennerdal, B.; Cederblad, A.; Davidsson, L.; Sandstroem, B.

1984-11-01

146

TRANSVERSE EFFECTS DUE TO RANDOM DISPLACEMENT OF RESISTIVE WALL SEGMENTS AND FOCUSING ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we study the single bunch transverse beam dynamics in the presence of random displacements of resistive wall segments and focusing elements. Analytical formulas are obtained for long-range resistive wall wake, together with numerical results for short-range resistive wall wake. The results are applied to the LCLS project and some other proposed accelerators.

Jean Delayen; Juhao Wu

2007-06-18

147

Theory of electron scattering by domain wall in nano-wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scattering of the electron by a domain wall in a nano-wire is calculated perturbatively to the lowest order. The resistance by the wall is calculated based on Landauer's formula. The pressure on the wall due to the electron scattering is calculated from the phase shift.

Gen Tatara

2001-01-01

148

Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Derives the general Doppler formula in a nonstatic universe using assumptions of special relativity, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Examples of applications to physical cosmology are given. (SL)

Gross, Peter G.

1977-01-01

149

Money Ivestigation 1 (solving linear equations, formulas)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hands-on activity to help students understand four basic binary operations in algebraic expressions, solving linear equations in 1 variable, and solving a formula for an indicated variable, using value of collections of coins.

2011-01-01

150

Extended Feynman Formula for Harmonic Oscillator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A slight modification of Feynman's original method leads to the Maslov correction in the path integral formula of a harmonic oscillator. Caustics are treated in a direct geometry way. (Atomindex citation 11:506300)

P. A. Horvathy

1979-01-01

151

Asymptotic unbounded root loci - Formulas and computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new geometric way of computing the asymptotic behavior of unbounded root loci of a strictly proper linear time-invariant control system as loop gain goes to infinity is presented. Properties of certain restricted linear maps and nested restrictions of linear maps are developed, and formulas are obtained for the leading coefficient of the asymptotic values of the unbounded multivariable root loci are obtained in terms of eigenvalues of those maps. Published results and a certain simple null structure assumption are used to relate these asymptotic values to the structure at infinity of the Smith-McMillan form of the open loop transfer function. Explicit matrix formulas for the more abstract derived formulas are given and additional geometric insights are developed with orthogonal projections and singular value decomposition. Formulas for the pivots of the unbounded root loci are calculated and shown to have the same form as the coefficients of the unbounded asymptotic root loci.

Sastry, S. S.; Desoer, C. A.

1983-01-01

152

Traction Control System for Formula Student Electric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with design of traction control of Formula Student Electric Car. There will introduced new conception of formula traction system and its application to the Formula car. In next season we would like to use 2 motors, each of them will be directly connected to its wheel. This solution needs precise control of them to provide high dynamics and great ability to ride curves in high speeds. Using the same torque on each wheel brings problem when one of wheel loss the traction ability. Some slip could happen and the unexpected lateral movement becomes. There will described the mathematic model of formula car. To reduce slips etc. we will publish the theoretical algorithm that reduces or increases torques on rear wheels to stabilize the car. There will be described what states have to be measured and evaluated. Also places where the sensors will be placed will be shown.

Houf, Z.; ?e?ovský, Z.; Hlinovský, V.

153

General transformation formulas for Fermi Walker coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the transformation and inverse transformation, in the form of Taylor expansions, from arbitrary coordinates to Fermi Walker coordinates in tubular neighborhoods of arbitrary timelike paths for general spacetimes. Explicit formulae for coefficients and the Jacobian matrix are given.

Klein, David; Collas, Peter

2008-07-01

154

Practical formula for the radiated angular momentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple formula for the radiated angular momentum based on a spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition of the Weyl scalar representing outgoing radiation in the Kinnersley tetrad. We test our formula by measuring the radiated angular momentum from three simulations of nonspinning equal-mass-black-hole binaries with orbital angular momentum aligned along the x, y, and z axes, respectively. We find

Carlos O. Lousto; Yosef Zlochower

2007-01-01

155

Practical formula for the radiated angular momentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple formula for the radiated angular momentum based on a spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition of the Weyl scalar psi4 representing outgoing radiation in the Kinnersley tetrad. We test our formula by measuring the radiated angular momentum from three simulations of nonspinning equal-mass black-hole binaries with orbital angular momentum aligned along the x, y, and z axes, respectively.

Carlos O. Lousto; Yosef Zlochower

2007-01-01

156

Vibration mode frequency formulae for micromechanical scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A torsional scan mirror suspended with two flexure beams can be used in various display, imaging and other scanning applications. Using various mirror shapes and flexure dimensions as parameters, a set of analytical formulae is presented to predict the natural frequency of the first five vibration modes, which are torsion, in-plane and out-of-plane sliding modes and in-plane and out-of-plane rocking modes. Mode frequencies are compared with the finite element model (FEM) predictions using ANSYS™ for a wide range of flexure beam dimensions. The formulae include the effective inertia of the flexure beams and orthotropic material anisotropy effects. The analytical formulae are verified for both isotropic (e.g. steel) and orthotropic (e.g. silicon) materials. These formulae work very well when the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory assumptions and the rigid mirror assumption are satisfied. The accuracy of analytical predictions is improved by introducing an empirical correction factor to the analytical predictions using non-dimensional flexure beam ratios. The correction factor reduces the error between analytical formulae and FEM predictions to within a few per cent for all five modes for a large range of flexure dimensions. FEM predictions and analytical formulae are partly verified by experimental results.

Urey, Hakan; Kan, Cihan; Davis, Wyatt O.

2005-09-01

157

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...components: Project Expense Level (PEL), Utility Expense Level (UEL), and other formula expenses (add-ons). Formula expense...calculated as follows: {[(PEL multiplied by EUM) plus (UEL multiplied by EUM) plus add-ons] minus (formula income...

2010-04-01

158

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...components: Project Expense Level (PEL), Utility Expense Level (UEL), and other formula expenses (add-ons). Formula expense...calculated as follows: {[(PEL multiplied by EUM) plus (UEL multiplied by EUM) plus add-ons] minus (formula income...

2009-04-01

159

Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.

Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

2012-01-01

160

Collective magnetism at multiferroic vortex domain walls.  

PubMed

Cross-coupled phenomena of multiferroic domains and domain walls are of fundamental scientific and technological interest. Using cryogenic magnetic force microscopy, we find alternating net magnetic moments at ferroelectric domain walls around vortex cores in multiferroic hexagonal ErMnO(3), which correlate with each other throughout the entire vortex network. This collective nature of domain wall magnetism originates from the uncompensated Er(3+) moments at domain walls and the self-organization of the vortex network. Our results demonstrate that the collective domain wall magnetism can be controlled by external magnetic fields and represent a major advancement in the manipulation of local magnetic moments by harnessing cross-coupled domain walls. PMID:23151028

Geng, Yanan; Lee, N; Choi, Y J; Cheong, S-W; Wu, Weida

2012-12-12

161

Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

2012-01-01

162

Simulation of a Composite Solar Wall with the Finite Difference Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passive solar walls use the solar energy to heat the buildings. The composite wall solar collector system consists of a glazing, a massive wall and an insulating wall. Thanks to the big thermal resistance of the insulating wall, there is little inverse thermal flux that crosses from the interior to the exterior. In this paper, the thermal performances of

Jibao Shen; Dezhong Huang; Stéphane Lassue; Laurent Zalewski

2006-01-01

163

Practical formula for the radiated angular momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple formula for the radiated angular momentum based on a spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition of the Weyl scalar ?4 representing outgoing radiation in the Kinnersley tetrad. We test our formula by measuring the radiated angular momentum from three simulations of nonspinning equal-mass black-hole binaries with orbital angular momentum aligned along the x, y, and z axes, respectively. We find that the radiated angular momentum agrees with the differences in the remnant horizon spins and the initial angular momentum for each system.

Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef

2007-08-01

164

Generalisation of opacity formulas for neutron transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of reactor physics, one is often called to relate the physical properties of a medium to the statistics of the random trajectories of the neutrons flowing through it. For instance, Cauchy's formula establishes a link between the average length of the neutron paths (which is proportional to the medium opacity) and the volume-to-surface ratio of the traversed medium. In this work, we consider some extensions of such results for neutrons undergoing scattering, absorption and branching. A validation of the proposed formulas via Monte Carlo simulations is discussed.

de Mulatier, Clélia; Zoia, Andrea; Rosso, Alberto; Diop, Cheikh M.

2014-06-01

165

Average prime-pair counting formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking r>0 , let ?_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p? x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that ?_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ?_{2r}(x)=?_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for ?(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ?_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

2010-04-01

166

Nuclear charge radii in modern mass formulas  

SciTech Connect

We examine the predictions for nuclear charge radii made by an extended Thomas-Fermi mass formula, the first to be built entirely on microscopic forces, and the finite-range droplet model mass formula, the most refined of the droplet-model approaches. The former is highly successful, the parameters emerging from the mass fit giving an optimal fit to charge radii also, without any further adjustment. The latter model in its published form seems to suffer from an inappropriate choice for the values of some of the parameters, and we discuss how improvement might be possible.

Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E. [Foster Radiation Laboratory, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada)] [Foster Radiation Laboratory, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Dutta, A.K. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); [School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 452001 (India); Pearson, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Tondeur, F. [Institut d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, and Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)] [Institut d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, and Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

1994-03-01

167

Shear-induced migration of a droplet near a plane wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migration of a deformed fluid droplet in shear flow at a relatively large distance from a plane wall is considered. We derive a new formula for the lateral migration velocity for the nearly spherical droplet. The agreement between our formula and the recent computer simulation is satisfactory. .

Imaeda, Tatsuhiro

2000-06-01

168

Roles of Tyrosine-Rich Precursor Glycoproteins and Dityrosine and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Mediated Protein Cross-Linking in Development of the Oocyst Wall in the Coccidian Parasite Eimeria maxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oocyst wall of apicomplexan parasites protects them from the harsh external environment, preserving their survival prior to transmission to the next host. If oocyst wall formation could be disrupted, then logically, the cycle of disease transmission could be stopped, and strategies to control infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and

Sabina I. Belli; Michael G. Wallach; Catherine Luxford; Michael J. Davies; Nicholas C. Smith

2003-01-01

169

Yiqihuoxuejiedu Formula Inhibits Vascular Remodeling by Reducing Proliferation and Secretion of Adventitial Fibroblast after Balloon Injury  

PubMed Central

Vascular remodeling occurs in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Adventitial remodeling may be a potential therapeutic target. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula uses therapeutic principles from Chinese medicine to supplement Qi, activate blood circulation, and resolve toxin and it has been shown to inhibit vascular stenosis. To investigate effects and mechanisms of the formula on inhibiting vascular remodeling, especially adventitial remodeling, rats with a balloon injury to their common carotid artery were used and were treated for 7 or 28 days after injury. The adventitial area and ?-SMA expression increased at 7 days after injury, which indicated activation and proliferation of adventitial fibroblasts. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula reduced the adventitial areas at 7 days, attenuated the neointima and vessel wall area, stenosis percent, and ?-SMA expression in the neointima, and reduced collagen content and type I/III collagen ratio in the adventitia at 28 days. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula had more positive effects than Captopril in reducing intimal proliferation and diminishing stenosis, although Captopril lowered neointimal ?-SMA expression and reduced the collagen content at 28 days. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula has inhibitory effects on positive and negative remodeling by reducing adventitial and neointimal proliferation, reducing content, and elevating adventitial compliance.

Zhao, Ming-Jing; Wang, Jie; Gao, Yong-Hong; Liu, Hui-Min; Lv, Xi-Ying; Lei, Huan; Sun, Qing-Qin; Xu, Ying; He, Ying-Kun; Wang, Shuo-Ren

2014-01-01

170

Adolescent Formula Literature and Its Promiscuous Progeny.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the history and effect of popular culture generally and of the adolescent formula novel specifically. Seven primary characteristics of art as popular culture are that the work is accessible, easy to understand, conventional in form, not shocking in content, expressive of common and appropriate values, relative to some element…

Stanek, Lou Willett

171

A Delayed Black and Scholes Formula I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we develop an explicit formula for pricing European options when the under- lying stock price follows a non-linear stochastic differential delay equation (sdde). We believe that the proposed model is sufficiently flexible to fit real market data, and is yet simple enough to allow for a closed-form representation of the option price. Furthermore, the model main- tains

Mercedes Arriojas; Yaozhong Hu; Salah-Eldin Mohammed; Gyula Papk

2003-01-01

172

A Delayed Black and Scholes Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we develop an explicit formula for pricing European options when the underlying stock price follows nonlinear stochastic functional differential equations with fixed and variable delays. We believe that the proposed models are sufficiently flexible to fit real market data, and yet simple enough to allow for a closed-form representation of the option price. Furthermore, the models maintain

Mercedes Arriojas; Yaozhong Hu; Salah-Eldin Mohammed; Gyula Pap

2007-01-01

173

Trinomial Formula, Pascal- and Sierpinski-Pyramid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulated by a picture of a Sierpinski-pyramid and an article by Stewart, students were asked about a connection between this pyramid and the well-known trinomial formula. The results of all the work done with students are presented in this note. (Contains 8 figures.)

Zeitler, H.

2002-01-01

174

Marginal Costs and Formula-Based Funding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marginal cost is the cost of producing an additional unit. In higher education, one marginal cost would be cost of educating an additional student. Formula-based budget determination for public higher education is usually based on average cost per student. This study estimates marginal cost and compares it with average cost. There are several…

O'Connor, Ellen

175

Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

2005-01-01

176

Stoichiometry : FormulaFromComp (8 Variations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lactic acid is the substance that makes your muscles burn when you've been exercising hard. Lactic acid is composed of 40.0% carbon, 6.7% hydrogen, and 53.3% oxygen by weight. If it has a molar mass of 90 g/mol, what is its molecular formula?

177

Spectral sum rules and Selberg's integral formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Selberg's integral formula we derive all Leutwyler-Smilga type sum rules for one and two flavors, and for each of the three chiral random matrix ensembles. In agreement with arguments from effective field theory, all sum rules for Nf=1 coincide for the three ensembles. The connection between spectral correlations and the low-energy effective partition function is discussed.

Jacobus Verbaarschot

1994-01-01

178

Implementing Gilbert's PIP Formula in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gilbert (1978) developed a Potential for Improving Performance (PIP) formula based on worth, value, and cost. Worth related the value of a performance to its cost. The PIP related the worth of exemplary performance to the worth of average performance. This offered an opportunity for improvement by making appropriate changes through training or…

Cardinale, Loretta A.

179

WKB explicit formulae for bound states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radial Schrödinger equation with a central potential is discussed and the pertinent WKB integral is cast in a more convenient form to extract closed formulae for the eigenvalues. These can be deduced in several interesting cases and are of asymptotic nature, i.e. they hold when one of the two quantum numbers appearing in the equation tends to infinity.

Paiano, Giulio

2008-08-01

180

The Explicit Formula and a Propagator  

Microsoft Academic Search

I give a new derivation of the Explicit Formula for the general number field K, which treats all primes in exactly the same way, whether they are discrete or archimedean, and also ramified or not. In another token, I advance a probabilistic interpretation of Weil's positivity criterion, as opposed to the usual geometrical analogies or goals. But in the end,

Jean-Francois Burnol

1998-01-01

181

A Professor's Formula for Teaching Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a formula for writing critical thinking assignments on different academic levels which professors can use in training elementary and secondary educators and in developing critical thinkers at different academic levels. The paper includes lists of terminology, instructional materials, and assignments at various academic levels…

Hepburn, Velma

182

The Nature of Inaccuracy among Readability Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to assess the usefulness of a variety of readability formulas in predicting the relative difficulty of passages, and to explore the contribution of pupils' background to text difficulty. Subjects were 285 special education students in grades 1-9, 117 of whom were based in rural and suburban Minnesota (MN) and 168 of…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; And Others

183

Airborne laser scanning: basic relations and formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of basic relations and formulas concerning airborne laser scanning is given. They are divided into two main parts, the first treating lasers and laser ranging, and the second one referring to airborne laser scanning. A separate discussion is devoted to the accuracy of 3D positioning and the factors influencing it. Examples are given for most relations, using typical

E. P. Baltsavias

1999-01-01

184

Inversion of Gamow's formula and inverse scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamow's tunneling formula is inverted and the issue of the uniqueness of the solution is compared with the solution obtained by the method of Gel'fand and Levitan. Some insight is gained into the key differences between classical and quantum inverse scattering, which account for the fact that a potential can be uniquely determined in the latter but only to within

Sohang C. Gandhi; Costas J. Efthimiou

2006-01-01

185

A Formula for Early Infantile Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offered is an explanation for the development of early infantile autism as defined by L. Kanner which incorporates the behavior of the child, the behavior of the parent, and a critical time period of development. Writings of Kanner on the characteristics of autistic children, parental characteristics, and etiology are reviewed. The formula…

Roy, M. Aaron

186

Money Ivestigation 2 (solving linear equations, formulas)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The second part of the Money Investigation activities. A hands-on activity to help students understand four basic binary operations in algebraic expressions, solving linear equations in 1 variable, and solving a formula for an indicated variable, using value of collections of coins.

2011-01-01

187

A methodology for resource allocation in health care for South Africa. Part III. A South African health resource allocation formula.  

PubMed

A formula to calculate the proportion of the public sector budget that should be allocated to various geographical regions of South Africa is described. The formula is broadly classified into curative and preventive components. Using data that are routinely available, indices of need are calculated for each of these components. It is concluded that resource allocation on a macro level should closely approximate regional population distribution if cross-border flow of patients and additional teaching-hospital expenditure are ignored. PMID:2339309

Bourne, D E; Pick, W M; Taylor, S P; McIntyre, D E; Klopper, J M

1990-05-01

188

Approximate scaling formula for collisional angular-momentum mixing of Rydberg atoms  

SciTech Connect

An approximate scaling formula has been determined that permits the rapid estimation of cross sections for angular-momentum-changing collisions of Rydberg atoms with a variety of targets, using information about low-energy-electron scattering from the target. The formula is obtained by fitting the results of coupled-channel and Born-approximation calculations to functions of reduced parameters. Application to Na(nd)+He, Ne, Ar, N/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/; Rb(nf)+He, Ar, Xe; and Xe(nf)+CO/sub 2/, suggests that the accuracy is about a factor of 2.

Hickman, A.P.

1981-01-01

189

Morphology of chasma walls, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The landforms developed on the walls of the Valles Marineris system of chasmas are of three major types, which are locally transitional. The most common type is composed of steep spurs and gullies. The dominant process in the formation or modification of this type appears to be the downslope movement of. material under the influence of gravity, resulting in the accumulation of extensive talus deposits. The type is morphologically similar to high, steep terrestrial scarps in desert or alpine environments. The second morphologic type consists of walls dissected by tributary canyons with characteristic V-shaped cross profiles and blunt canyon heads that locally contain lobate deposits. The tributary canyons may be relict features of the time, when the existence of running water was possible on the surface of Mars. The third morphologic type consists of landslide scars forming broad curved or straight recessed sections of chasma wall. This type is accompanied by landslide deposits that form hummocky floors at the base of the recessed sections. The landslides developed at the expense of other wall morphologies. Chains of rimless depressions and craters that parallel the main structural trends of the chasmas are best interpreted as collapse holes. The origin of the chasmas on Mars is conjectural and may have been structural (grabens), but, on the basis of morphologic studies of their walls, it is suggested that most of the present wall configuration is the result of erosional scarp retreat, where erosion follows preestablished structural planes of weakness.

Lucchitta, B. K.

1978-01-01

190

Elimination of the twist distortion in IVUS and CAG image fusion based on the Frenet-Serret formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular disease can be diagnosed at higher accuracy by the fusion of IVUS (Intravascular Ultrasound) and CAG (Coronary Angiography) data. In the IVUS images acquisition process, pull-back path of the ultrasonic probe will twist due to intravascular blood flow and friction with vascular wall, which causes image distortion in the fusion of such IVUS images. In this paper, a new method used for reducing the twist between adjacent frames of IVUS is presented. First, we establish a rough perspective projection imaging model from the crossing information of two almost perpendicular projective angiography images. Then we use a discrete approximation of the Frenet-Serret formulas to calculate IVUS frames' relative twist by sequential triangulation method and correct the twist. Finally, coronary lumen data extracted from the corrected IVUS images are added to 3D transducer paths which are reconstructed by the model mentioned above. Reconstruction of the coronary artery which contains the lumen information of IVUS removes blind spots in CAG and provides a full view of artery which is absent in IVUS images.

Li, Hongxiao; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin

2010-11-01

191

Random vibration of compliant wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper is concerned with the realistic case of two-dimensional random motion of a membrane with bending stiffness supported on a viscoelastic spring substrate and on an elastic base plate under both subsonic and supersonic boundary layer turbulence. The cross-power spectral density of surface displacements is solved in terms of design variables of the compliant wall - such as the dimensions and material properties of the membrane (Mylar), substrate (PVC foam), and panel (aluminum) - so that a sensitivity analysis can be made to examine the influence of each design variable on the surface response statistics. Three numerical examples typical of compliant wall design are worked out and their response statistics in relation to wave drag and roughness drag are assessed. The results can serve as a guideline for experimental investigation of the drag reduction concept through the use of a compliant wall.

Yang, J.-N.; Heller, R. A.

1976-01-01

192

Earthquake Resistant Structural Walls - Coupled Wall Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the development of earthquake resistant, reinforced concrete walls, two one-third scale, six-story coupled wall specimens were tested under incremental cyclic loadings. A lightly coupled system which damaged early was first tested and then retested wit...

A. E. Fiorato G. B. Barney J. D. Aristizabal-Ochoa K. N. Shiu W. G. Corley

1981-01-01

193

Evaluation of standard liver volume formulae for Chinese adults  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate different standard liver volume (SLV) formula and verify the applicability of the formulae for Chinese adults. METHODS: Data from 70 cases of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) performed at our transplantation centers between January 2008 and April 2009 were analyzed. SLV was estimated using our recently reported formula [the Chengdu formula: SLV (mL) = 11.5 × body weight (kg) + 334] and other reported formulae used for Chinese adults. Actual intraoperative liver volumes were obtained from a review of the patients’ medical records. RESULTS: The actual right liver volume was not significantly different from the estimated right liver volume determined by the Chengdu formula, but was significantly smaller than estimates using the Heinemann, Urata, Vauthey, and Lee formulae (P < 0.01), and significantly larger than estimates using the Fan formula (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The Chengdu formula was demonstrated to be reliable by its application in LDLT.

Shi, Zheng-Rong; Yan, Lu-Nan; Li, Bo; Wen, Tian-Fu

2009-01-01

194

Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language  

PubMed Central

Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use.

Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

2014-01-01

195

Constrained Clar formulas of coronoid hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Aromatic character of coronoid hydrocarbons is greatly influenced by the shapes of outer and inner peripheries. The most aromatic rings in coronoids are jutting benzene rings on the armchair edges, if any. Clar formulas of many coronoids conform to the aromaticity patterns. However, placement of all aromatic sextets on highly aromatic rings is sometimes forbidden by the presence of the central cavity. The magnitude of aromatic stabilization energy due to macrocyclic conjugation [SSE(mc)] and the NICS(1) value at the center of the cavity strongly depend on the structure of the superposed Clar formula. Localization of ?-electrons in fixed aromatic sextets effectively suppresses macrocyclic conjugation. The sign of SSE(mc) is determined by the number of carbon atoms that form the hub cycle. PMID:24506483

Aihara, Jun-ichi; Makino, Masakazu

2014-02-20

196

A flood-flow formula for Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the frequency and magnitude of floods within the Connecticut area is contained in this report. Annual flood discharges for 44 stream-gaging stations whose records range in length from l0 to 40 years are presented and a regional flood-frequency relationship developed based upon the ratios of all floods to the mean annual flood at each of these locations. Definition of this curve for floods of larger recurrence intervals is based upon historical studies of extraordinary floods which have occurred within the area. For ungaged areas, the mean annual flood value may be determined by use of a flood-flow formula based upon the topographic characteristics of drainage area and basin slope. The development of this formula also is included.

Bigwood, B. L.; Thomas, M. P.

1955-01-01

197

Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers.

Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zdeborová, Lenka; Zecchina, Riccardo

2012-05-01

198

An improved nuclear mass formula: WS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a global nuclear mass formula which is based on the macroscopic-microscopic method, the Skyrme energy-density functional and the isospin symmetry in nuclear physics. The rms deviation with respect to 2149 known nuclear masses falls to 336 keV, and the rms deviations from 1988 neutron separation energies and ?-decay energies of 46 superheavy nuclei are significantly reduced to 286 and 248 keV, respectively. The predictive power of the mass formula for describing new measured masses in GSI and those in AME2011 is excellent. In addition, we introduce an efficient and powerful systematic method, radial basis function approach, for further improving the accuracy and predictive power of global nuclear mass models.

Wang, Ning; Liu, Min

2013-03-01

199

A Simple Option-Pricing Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple option-pricing formula based on the Weibull distribution is introduced. The simplicity of the algebraic form and ease of implementation are comparable to those of Black-Scholes. Application to S&P 500 options shows that the pricing biases present in the Black-Scholes model are eliminated. Prices produced by the presented model generally lie within or close to the bid-ask spread. For

Robert Savickas

2002-01-01

200

A Generalized Formula to Determine Pythagorean Triples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note proposes a unique solutions to find out the value of x, y and z which satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. The uniqueness of the proposed formulae is to find the total number of y's and z's at a given value of x. The value of y and z can be calculated by factoring x[superscript 2] or…

Mohapatra, Amar Kumar; Prakash, Nupur

2010-01-01

201

Graded Lie Superalgebras and the Superdimension Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the structure of graded Lie superalgebras L=?(?,a)??×AL(?,a), where ? is a countable abelian semigroup and A is a countable abelian group with a coloring map satisfying a certain finiteness condition. Given a denominator identity for the graded Lie superalgebra L, we derive a superdimension formula for the homogeneous subspaces L(?,a)(???,a?A), which enables us to study

Seok-Jin Kang

1998-01-01

202

Design formulas for short-wavelength FELs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple formulas for optimization of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron lasers (FELs) are presented. The FEL gain length and the optimal ?-function are explicitly expressed in terms of the electron beam and undulator parameters. The FEL saturation length is estimated taking into account energy diffusion due to quantum fluctuations of the undulator radiation. Examples of the FEL optimization are given. Parameters of a SASE FEL, operating at the Compton wavelength, are suggested.

Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

2004-05-01

203

Orbifold genera, product formulas and power operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the definition of orbifold elliptic genus and introduce orbifold genera of chromatic level h, using h-tuples rather than pairs of commuting elements. We show that our genera are in fact orbifold invariants, and we prove integrality results for them. If the genus arises from an H?-map into the Morava–Lubin–Tate theory Eh, then we give a formula expressing the

Nora Ganter

2006-01-01

204

Gravitational Larmor formula in higher dimensions  

SciTech Connect

The Larmor formula for scalar and gravitational radiation from a pointlike particle is derived in any even higher-dimensional flat spacetime. General expressions for the field in the wave zone and the energy flux are obtained in closed form. The explicit results in four and six dimensions are used to illustrate the effect of extra dimensions on linear and uniform circular motion. Prospects for detection of bulk gravitational radiation are briefly discussed.

Cardoso, Vitor; Cavaglia, Marco; Guo Junqi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677-1848 (United States)

2007-04-15

205

Bandwidth formula for Linear FMCW radar waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Telecommunications Union provides recommendations regarding spectral emission bounds for primary radar systems. These bounds are currently in review and are defined in terms of spectral occupancy, necessary bandwidth, 40dB bandwidth and out-of-band roll-off rates. Here we derive out-of-band domain spectral envelopes, bandwidth formula and roll-off rates, for various Linear FMCW radar waveforms including sawtooth (LFMCW), Quadratic Phase Coded

Michael D. E. Turley

2009-01-01

206

Towards the learnability of DNF formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a DNF formula that has a CNF representationthat contains at least one “1\\/poly-heavy” clause with respect to a distribution D is weakly learnable under this distribution. So DNF that are not weakly learnable under the distribution D do not have any “1\\/poly-heavy” clauses in any of their CNF representations. We then show that ~-CDNF, a DNF j

Nader H. Bshouty

1996-01-01

207

The wrist of the formula 1 driver  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: During formula 1 driving, repetitive cumulative trauma may provoke nerve disorders such as nerve compression syndrome as well as osteoligament injuries. A study based on interrogatory and clinical examination of 22 drivers was carried out during the 1998 formula 1 World Championship in order to better define the type and frequency of these lesions. METHODS: The questions investigated nervous symptoms, such as paraesthesia and diminishment of sensitivity, and osteoligamentous symptoms, such as pain, specifying the localisation (ulnar side, dorsal aspect of the wrist, snuff box) and the effect of the wrist position on the intensity of the pain. Clinical examination was carried out bilaterally and symmetrically. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 22 drivers reported symptoms. One suffered cramp in his hands at the end of each race and one described a typical forearm effort compartment syndrome. Six drivers had effort "osteoligamentous" symptoms: three scapholunate pain; one medial hypercompression of the wrist; two sequellae of a distal radius fracture. Seven reported nerve disorders: two effort carpal tunnel syndromes; one typical carpal tunnel syndrome; one effort cubital tunnel syndrome; three paraesthesia in all fingers at the end of a race, without any objective signs. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be the first report of upper extremity disorders in competition drivers. The use of a wrist pad to reduce the effects of vibration may help to prevent trauma to the wrist in formula 1 drivers. ???

Masmejean, E. H.; Chavane, H.; Chantegret, A.; Issermann, J. J.; Alnot, J. Y.

1999-01-01

208

The formula for survival in resuscitation.  

PubMed

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Advisory Statement on Education and Resuscitation in 2003 included a hypothetical formula--'the formula for survival' (FfS)--whereby three interactive factors, guideline quality (science), efficient education of patient caregivers (education) and a well-functioning chain of survival at a local level (local implementation), form multiplicands in determining survival from resuscitation. In May 2006, a symposium was held to discuss the validity of the formula for survival hypothesis and to investigate the influence of each of the multiplicands on survival. This commentary combines the output from this symposium with an updated illustration of the three multiplicands in the FfS using rapid response systems (RRS) for medical science, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for local implementation, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for educational efficiency. International differences between hospital systems made it difficult to assign a precise value for the multiplicand medical science using RRS as an example. Using bystander CPR as an example for the multiplicand educational efficiency, it was also difficult to provide a precise value, mainly because of differences between compression-only and standard CPR. The local implementation multiplicand (exemplified by therapeutic hypothermia) is probably the easiest to improve, and is likely to have the most immediate improvement in observed survival outcome in most systems of care. Despite the noted weaknesses, we believe that the FfS will be useful as a mental framework when trying to improve resuscitation outcome in communities worldwide. PMID:23917078

Søreide, Eldar; Morrison, Laurie; Hillman, Ken; Monsieurs, Koen; Sunde, Kjetil; Zideman, David; Eisenberg, Mickey; Sterz, Fritz; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Soar, Jasmeet; Nolan, Jerry P

2013-11-01

209

New analytic formula for edge bootstrap current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. A drift-kinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the low collisionality banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions (represented by O. Sauter, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1999) are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is a significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas. The deviation occurs in different ways between a conventional aspect ratio tokamak and a tight aspect ratio tokamak. A new analytic fitting formula, as a simple modification to the Sauter formula, is obtained to bring the analytic expression to a better agreement with the edge kinetic simulation results.

Chang, C. S.; Koh, S.; Menard, J.; Weitzner, H.; Choe, W.

2012-10-01

210

Generalization of Green's Formulae In Thermoelasticity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Generalization of Greenâs functions and Greenâs formulae onto a case of boundary value problems in the classical theory of static and dynamical thermal stresses are suggested i this article.These result has been obtained for the first time and are the generalization of the well known Greenâs integral formulae for the theories of heat conduction and elasticity onto static and dynamical theories of uncoupled thermoelastisity . They can also be explained as a generalization of a classical integral Mayselâs formulae onto those cases when the temperature field satisfies the equation of heat conduction, the field being caused by the internal heat source and temperature or heat flux prescribed on the boundary. The advantage is that it allows us to unite the two-stage process of solving the boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses (the first stage comprise the determination of temperature fields and second stage comprises the determination of thermoplastic displacements). The investigations have shown that the possibilities of realizing the concrete solutions which have the form given generalization are so vast that they could be a subject for a whole handbook on influence functions and integral solutions of boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses. They are, for example, the solutions for locally mixed boundary value problems for canonic elastic bodies for Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, spherical and other systems of orthogonal coordinate. In doing so most of them can be expressed in terms of elementary functions, that are very important for practical calculations.

Sheremet, Victor; Sheremet, Adrian

2004-08-31

211

The health implications of soy infant formula.  

PubMed

Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF). Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility of estrogenic effects of isoflavones contained in SF. There are few studies of children who were fed SF, and thus insufficient data are available to judge if SF feeding results in clinically significant developmental effects and if there are any long-term health consequences (adverse or beneficial). However, the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a prospective longitudinal study comparing growth, development, and health of breastfed children with formula-fed (SF and MF) children from birth through age 6 y. After 5 y of study, children in all 3 groups (n > 300) are growing and developing within normal limits, and there are no indications of adverse effects in the soy-fed children. Neonatal pig studies comparing SF, MF, and breast milk (BM) have shown diet-specific gene expression profiles in various target tissues. Therefore, although SF differed significantly from BM, MF also differed from BM, and SF differed from MF. Nonetheless, these animals grew and developed normally, and SF piglets had several health benefits (eg, increased bone quality) and no observable adverse effects. Thus, to date, our results suggest that SF supports normal growth and may have advantages in promoting bone development. PMID:19357221

Badger, Thomas M; Gilchrist, Janet M; Pivik, R Terry; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Chen, Jin-Ran; Ronis, Martin J

2009-05-01

212

Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.  

PubMed

Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. PMID:22325867

Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

2012-04-01

213

Specific heat of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a force constant model, we have calculated the phonon spectrum and specific heat of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes. Compared with carbon nanotubes, boron nitride nanotubes have a larger specific heat. The fitting formulas for diameter and chirality dependence of specific heat at 300 K are given.

Xiao, Y.; Yan, X. H.; Xiang, J.; Mao, Y. L.; Zhang, Y.; Cao, J. X.; Ding, J. W.

2004-06-01

214

Production cross section of rotating string  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate production cross sections of a single rotating string from a collision of two light states in bosonic string theory. We find that the cross sections are written in terms of the modified Bessel function of the first kind with the degree given by the angular momentum in the high energy regime. We also obtain a similar formula from

Tsunehide Kuroki; Toshihiro Matsuo

2008-01-01

215

Angular momentum effects and barrier modification in sub-barrier fusion reactions using the proximity potential in the Wong formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the capture cross-section data from Ca48+U238, Ca48+Pu244, and Ca48+Cm248 reactions in the superheavy mass region, and fusion-evaporation cross sections from Ni58+Ni58, Ni64+Ni64, and Ni64+Mo100 reactions known for fusion hindrance phenomenon in coupled-channels calculations, the Wong formula is assessed for its angular momentum and barrier-modification effects at sub-barrier energies. The simple, l=0 barrier-based Wong formula is shown to ignore the

Raj Kumar; Manie Bansal; Sham K. Arun; Raj K. Gupta

2009-01-01

216

Angular momentum effects and barrier modification in sub-barrier fusion reactions using the proximity potential in the Wong formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the capture cross-section data from Ca+²³U, Ca+²Pu, and Ca+²Cm reactions in the superheavy mass region, and fusion-evaporation cross sections from Ni+Ni, Ni+Ni, and Ni+¹°°Mo reactions known for fusion hindrance phenomenon in coupled-channels calculations, the Wong formula is assessed for its angular momentum and barrier-modification effects at sub-barrier energies. The simple, l=0 barrier-based Wong formula is shown to ignore the

Raj Kumar; Manie Bansal; Sham K. Arun; Raj K. Gupta

2009-01-01

217

Selenium status of preterm infants fed human milk, preterm formula, or selenium-supplemented preterm formula.  

PubMed

The selenium status of 46 orally fed vitamin E-sufficient preterm infants (birth weight less than 1700 gm) was studied longitudinally for 3 weeks to determine the efficacy of selenium supplementation. Infants were fed either human milk (n = 21; 24 ng selenium/ml), preterm formula (n = 13; 7.8 ng selenium/ml), or preterm formula supplemented with sodium selenite (n = 12; 34.8 ng selenium/ml). Plasma and erythrocyte selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity and urinary and dietary selenium content were evaluated on study day 1 (day enteral feeds reached 100 kcal/kg/day) and weekly for 3 weeks. Throughout the study, selenium intakes of infants fed preterm formula plus sodium selenite were greater than those of infants fed human milk, which were greater than those of infants fed preterm formula (p less than 0.001). After 3 weeks no differences were observed among groups for plasma or erythrocyte selenium or glutathione peroxidase. Plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase values within all groups were low compared with those reported for term infants fed human milk. Whereas urinary selenium levels of infants fed preterm formula plus sodium selenite were greater than those of infants fed preterm formula at weeks 1 and 2 (p less than 0.01), infants fed human milk and preterm formula had lower levels at week 3 than on study day 1 (p less than 0.05). We conclude that blood selenium measurements typically used to monitor selenium status do not reflect dietary selenium intakes of orally fed preterm infants. PMID:1908895

Smith, A M; Chan, G M; Moyer-Mileur, L J; Johnson, C E; Gardner, B R

1991-09-01

218

Fast Method of Deriving the Kirchhoff Formula for Moving Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kirchhoff formula for a moving surface is very useful in many wave propagation problems, particularly in the prediction of noise from rotating machinery. Several publications in the last two decades have presented derivations of the Kirchhoff formula ...

F. Farassat J. W. Posey

2007-01-01

219

27 CFR 26.53 - Changes of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products...product covered by an approved formula will necessitate the submission of a new...

2013-04-01

220

27 CFR 26.223 - Changes of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for...product covered by an approved formula will necessitate the submission of a new...

2013-04-01

221

24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases are intended to be employed to provide information on...

2013-04-01

222

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

2013-10-01

223

Fragment formula calculator (FFC): determination of chemical formulas for fragment ions in mass spectrometric data.  

PubMed

The accurate determination of mass isotopomer distributions (MID) is of great significance for stable isotope-labeling experiments. Most commonly, MIDs are derived from gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) measurements. The analysis of fragment ions formed during EI, which contain only specific parts of the original molecule can provide valuable information on the positional distribution of the label. The chemical formula of a fragment ion is usually applied to derive the correction matrix for accurate MID calculation. Hence, the correct assignment of chemical formulas to fragment ions is of crucial importance for correct MIDs. Moreover, the positional distribution of stable isotopes within a fragment ion is of high interest for stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques. For example, (13)C-metabolic flux analyses ((13)C-MFA) are dependent on the exact knowledge of the number and position of retained carbon atoms of the unfragmented molecule. Fragment ions containing different carbon atoms are of special interest, since they can carry different flux information. However, the process of mass spectral fragmentation is complex, and identifying the substructures and chemical formulas for these fragment ions is nontrivial. For that reason, we developed an algorithm, based on a systematic bond cleavage, to determine chemical formulas and retained atoms for EI derived fragment ions. Here, we present the fragment formula calculator (FFC) algorithm that can calculate chemical formulas for fragment ions where the chemical bonding (e.g., Lewis structures) of the intact molecule is known. The proposed algorithm is able to cope with general molecular rearrangement reactions occurring during EI in GC/MS measurements. The FFC algorithm is able to integrate stable isotope labeling experiments into the analysis and can automatically exclude candidate formulas that do not fit the observed labeling patterns.1 We applied the FFC algorithm to create a fragment ion repository that contains the chemical formulas and retained carbon atoms of a wide range of trimethylsilyl and tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatized compounds. In total, we report the chemical formulas and backbone carbon compositions for 160 fragment ions of 43 alkylsilyl-derivatives of primary metabolites. Finally, we implemented the FFC algorithm in an easy-to-use graphical user interface and made it publicly available at http://www.ffc.lu . PMID:24498896

Wegner, André; Weindl, Daniel; Jäger, Christian; Sapcariu, Sean C; Dong, Xiangyi; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Hiller, Karsten

2014-02-18

224

A generalized Debye scattering formula and the Hankel transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffracted intensity of an x-ray or neutron diffraction experiment is expressed as an integral over an atomic position distribution function. A generalized Debye scattering formula results. Since this distribution function is expanded into a series of spherical harmonics, an inverse Hankel transform of the intensity allows the calculation of the expansion coefficients which describe the atomic arrangement completely. The connections between the generalized Debye scattering formula and the original Debye formula as well as the Laue scattering formula are derived.

Wieder, Thomas

1999-05-01

225

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must require bidders that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy-based infant formula under the contract...bidder pay the State agency a rebate on the soy-based infant formula supplied by...

2010-01-01

226

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must require bidders that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy-based infant formula under the contract...bidder pay the State agency a rebate on the soy-based infant formula supplied by...

2009-01-01

227

Ultradiscrete soliton equations derived from ultradiscrete permanent formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose formulae of ultradiscrete permanent. Utilizing the formulae, ultradiscrete soliton equations and their multi-soliton solutions are obtained by a simple process. Changing variables and parameters of the formulae, we can derive the ultradiscrete Toda, KdV and hungry Lotka-Volterra equations. An extended version of the ultradiscrete hungry Lotka-Volterra equation is also proposed.

Nakamura, Shinya

2011-07-01

228

Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions

L. F. Truett; S. C. Davis; P. S. Hu

2000-01-01

229

Addition formulae for Abelian functions associated with specialized curves.  

PubMed

We discuss a family of multi-term addition formulae for Weierstrass functions on specialized curves of low genus with many automorphisms, concentrating mostly on the case of genus 1 and 2. In the genus 1 case, we give addition formulae for the equianharmonic and lemniscate cases, and in genus 2 we find some new addition formulae for a number of curves. PMID:21320915

Eilbeck, J C; Matsutani, S; Onishi, Y

2011-03-28

230

27 CFR 21.52 - Formula No. 27.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Formula No. 27. 21.52 Section 21.52 Alcohol, Tobacco...and Authorized Uses § 21.52 Formula No. 27. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons...

2009-04-01

231

27 CFR 21.52 - Formula No. 27.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27. 21.52 Section 21.52 Alcohol, Tobacco...and Authorized Uses § 21.52 Formula No. 27. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons...

2010-04-01

232

Resistance formulas of grounding systems in two-layer earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper lists, under one umbrella, the resistance formulas of grounding systems, namely: the buried grid, the driven rodbed, and the combination of the buried grid and rodbed. The formulas are synthesized from rigorous asymptotes; as a result, they are accurate (averaged error â 5%) and do not require empirical tables or graphs. The validity of these formulas is verified

Y. L. Chow; M. M. Elsherbiny; M. M. A. Salama

1996-01-01

233

Wind tunnel wall interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

1986-01-01

234

Mirror nuclei constraint in nuclear mass formula  

SciTech Connect

The macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved by considering mirror nuclei constraint. The rms deviation with respect to 2149 measured nuclear masses is reduced to 0.441 MeV. The shell corrections, the deformations of nuclei, the neutron and proton drip lines, and the shell gaps are also investigated to test the model. The rms deviation of {alpha}-decay energies of 46 superheavy nuclei is reduced to 0.263 MeV. The predicted central position of the superheavy island could lie around N=176{approx}178 and Z=116{approx}120 according to the shell corrections of nuclei.

Wang Ning; Liang Zuoying [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Liu Min [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wu, Xizhen [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

2010-10-15

235

Classical Radiation Formula in the Rindler Frame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a preceding paper [T. Hirayama, Prog. Theor. Phys. 106} (2001), 71], the power of the classical radiation emitted by a moving charge was evaluated in the Rindler frame. In this paper, we give a simpler derivation of this radiation formula, including an estimation of the directional dependence of the radiation. We find that the splitting of the energy-momentum tensor into a bound part I and an emitted part II is consistent with the three conditions introduced in the preceding paper, also for each direction within the future light cone.

Hirayama, T.

2002-10-01

236

The spectral side of Arthur's trace formula  

PubMed Central

The trace formula is one of the most important tools in the theory of automorphic forms. It was invented in the 1950's by Selberg, who mostly studied the case of hyperbolic surfaces, and was later on developed extensively by Arthur in the generality of an adelic quotient of a reductive group over a number field. Here we provide an explicit expression for the spectral side, improving Arthur's fine spectral expansion. As a result, we obtain its absolute convergence for a wide class of test functions.

Finis, Tobias; Lapid, Erez M.; Muller, Werner

2009-01-01

237

Casimir energy, dispersion, and the Lifshitz formula  

SciTech Connect

Despite suggestions to the contrary, we show in this paper that the usual dispersive form of the electromagnetic energy density must be used to derive the Lifshitz force between parallel dielectric media. This conclusion follows from the general form of the quantum vacuum energy, which is the basis of the multiple-scattering formalism. As an illustration, we explicitly derive the Lifshitz formula for the interaction between parallel dielectric semispaces, including dispersion, starting from the expression for the total energy of the system. The issues of constancy of the energy between parallel plates and of the observability of electrostrictive forces are briefly addressed.

Milton, Kimball A.; Wagner, Jef; Parashar, Prachi; Brevik, Iver [Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics and Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-2061 (United States); Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2010-03-15

238

Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. For the cases treated the concordance of theory and measurement is so close as to make a resume of results desirable. Incidentally formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given, some being new forms for ready use derived in a previous paper. (author)

Zahm, A F

1927-01-01

239

If walls could talk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

240

Localization method for volume of domain-wall moduli spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of the moduli space of non-Abelian Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) domain walls is obtained exactly in U(N_c) gauge theory with Nf matters. The volume of the moduli space is formulated, without an explicit metric, by a path integral under constraints on BPS equations. The path integral over fields reduces to a finite-dimensional contour integral by a localization mechanism. Our volume formula satisfies a Seiberg-like duality between moduli spaces of the U(N_c) and U(N_f-N_c) non-Abelian BPS domain walls in a strong coupling region. We also find a T-duality between domain walls and vortices on a cylinder. The moduli space volume of non-Abelian local (N_c=N_f) vortices on the cylinder agrees exactly with that on a sphere. The volume formula reveals various geometrical properties of the moduli space.

Ohta, Kazutoshi; Sakai, Norisuke; Yoshida, Yutaka

2013-07-01

241

Comparison of heat and mass transfer in different heat exchanger geometries with corrugated walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In systematic comparative analyses heat exchangers with corrugated walls are analysed. The wall corrugation is generated by sinusoidally shaped walls as well as by crosswise corrugated cylinders of different cross-section on plane walls like those being used as spacers in membrane technology.Corrugated structures in crosswise orientation are composed of passages formed by layers of corrugated structures with opposite orientation of

C Zimmerer; P Gschwind; G Gaiser; V Kottke

2002-01-01

242

Fusion cross-sections for inertial fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of selective resonant tunneling model is extended from d 1 t fusion to other light nucleus fusion reactions, such as d 1 d fusion and d 1 3 He. In contrast to traditional formulas, the new formula for the cross-section needs only a few parameters to fit the experimental data in the energy range of interest. The features

XING ZHONG LI; BIN LIU; SI CHEN; QING MING WEI; HEINRICH HORA

2004-01-01

243

Lifshitz formula by a spectral summation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lifshitz formula is derived by making use of the spectral summation method, which is a mathematically rigorous simultaneous application of both the mode-by-mode summation technique and scattering formalism. The contributions to the Casimir energy of electromagnetic excitations of different types (surface modes, waveguide modes, and photonic modes) are clearly retraced. A correct transition to imaginary frequencies is accomplished with allowance for all the peculiarities of the frequency equations and pertinent scattering data in the complex ? plane, including, in particular, the cuts connecting the branch points and complex roots of the frequency equations (quasinormal modes). The important feature of our approach is a special choice of appropriate passes in the contour integrals which are used for transition to imaginary frequencies. As a result, the longstanding problem of cuts in the complex ? plane is solved completely. Some subtleties and vague points in previous derivations of the Lifshitz formula are elucidated. For completeness of the presentation, the necessary mathematical facts are also stated, namely, solution of the Maxwell equations for configurations under consideration, scattering formalism for parallel-plane interfaces, determination of the frequency equation roots, and others.

Nesterenko, V. V.; Pirozhenko, I. G.

2012-11-01

244

Universal behavior of the [Formula: see text] transition form factors.  

PubMed

The photon transition form factors of ?, ? and [Formula: see text] are discussed in view of recent measurements. It is shown that the exact axial anomaly sum rule allows a precise comparison of all three form factors at high-[Formula: see text] independent of the different structures and distribution amplitudes of the participating pseudoscalar mesons. We conclude: (i) The ?? form factor reported by Belle is in excellent agreement with the nonstrange [Formula: see text] component of the ? and [Formula: see text] form factors obtained from the BaBar measurements. (ii) Within errors, the ?? form factor from Belle is compatible with the asymptotic pQCD behavior, similar to the ? and [Formula: see text] form factors from BaBar. Still, the best fits to the data sets of ??, ??, and [Formula: see text] form factors favor a universal small logarithmic rise [Formula: see text]. PMID:23226917

Melikhov, Dmitri; Stech, Berthold

2012-12-01

245

'The formula that killed Wall Street': the Gaussian copula and modelling practices in investment banking.  

PubMed

Drawing on documentary sources and 114 interviews with market participants, this and a companion article discuss the development and use in finance of the Gaussian copula family of models, which are employed to estimate the probability distribution of losses on a pool of loans or bonds, and which were centrally involved in the credit crisis. This article, which explores how and why the Gaussian copula family developed in the way it did, employs the concept of 'evaluation culture', a set of practices, preferences and beliefs concerning how to determine the economic value of financial instruments that is shared by members of multiple organizations. We identify an evaluation culture, dominant within the derivatives departments of investment banks, which we call the 'culture of no-arbitrage modelling', and explore its relation to the development of Gaussian copula models. The article suggests that two themes from the science and technology studies literature on models (modelling as 'impure' bricolage, and modelling as articulating with heterogeneous objectives and constraints) help elucidate the history of Gaussian copula models in finance. PMID:25051588

MacKenzie, Donald; Spears, Taylor

2014-06-01

246

Dynamical evolution of domain walls in an expanding universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whenever the potential of a scalar field has two or more separated, degenerate minima, domain walls form as the universe cools. The evolution of the resulting network of domain walls is calculated for the case of two potential minima in two and three dimensions, including wall annihilation, crossing, and reconnection effects. The nature of the evolution is found to be largely independent of the rate at which the universe expands. Wall annihilation and reconnection occur almost as fast as causality allows, so that the horizon volume is 'swept clean' and contains, at any time, only about one, fairly smooth, wall. Quantitative statistics are given. The total area of wall per volume decreases as the first power of time. The relative slowness of the decrease and the smoothness of the wall on the horizon scale make it impossible for walls to both generate large-scale structure and be consistent with quadrupole microwave background anisotropy limits.

Press, William H.; Ryden, Barbara S.; Spergel, David N.

1989-01-01

247

A representation formula for maps on supermanifolds  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the notion of morphisms of rings of superfunctions which is the basic concept underlying the definition of supermanifolds as ringed spaces (i.e., following Berezin, Leites, Manin, etc.). We establish a representation formula for all (pull-back) morphisms from the algebra of functions on an ordinary manifolds to the superalgebra of functions on an open subset of a superspace. We then derive two consequences of this result. The first one is that we can integrate the data associated with a morphism in order to get a (nonunique) map defined on an ordinary space (and uniqueness can be achieved by restriction to a scheme). The second one is a simple and intuitive recipe to compute pull-back images of a function on a manifold M by a map from a superspace to M.

Helein, Frederic [Institut de Mathematiques de Jussieu, UMR 7586, Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, Case 7012, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

2008-02-15

248

Determining anatomical position of the umbilicus in Iranian girls, and providing quantitative indices and formula to determine neo-umbilicus during abdominoplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: The umbilicus plays an important role in the aesthetic appearance of the abdomen. So, its restoration during reconstructive surgeries, such as an abdominoplasty, is a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitative indices based on constant skeletal points in the anterior wall of abdomen in order to provide an appropriate site of a neo-umbilicus during an abdominoplasty. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we enrolled 65 young adult girls (20–25 years old) who were nulliparous, nulligravid, and without any history of surgery. Weight, height, distance from xiphoid to umbilicus (Xu), distance from the pubic symphysis to xiphosternum (Xp), and anterior superior iliac spine (interASIS) distance of the subjects were measured. Data were analysed by SPSS ver. 16 using descriptive statistics and multiple regression tests in order to present a formula (equation). Results: Mean age was 22.74 ± 1.51 years, mean weight 54.98 ± 6.51 kg, mean height 160.91 ± 4.11 cm and body mass index (BMI) was calculated to be 21.25 ± 2.61 kg/m2. Mean Xp distance was 32.26 ± 2.23 cm and mean Xu distance was 17.11 ± 1.64 cm. Xu/Xp ratio (ratio of umbilicoxiphoid distance to puboxiphoid distance) was 53.06 ± 3.9%. Data were analysed using multiple regression test and likelihood ratio. The formula used in determining the appropriate site of neo-umbilicus during abdominoplasty was suggested: Xu=?0.98 + 0.91Xp ? 0.07H. Conclusion: By applying these quantitative methods, the natural site of neo-umbilicus could be determined. This may reduce practice errors and increase patient satisfaction. In addition, these findings provide plausible evidence to defend against possible legal complaints.

Parnia, Rafi; Ghorbani, Ladan; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

249

Abdominal wall surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. ... mini-tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

250

Compliant Walled Combustion Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion devices described herein comprise a compliant combustion chamber wall or segment. The compliant segment deforms during combustion in the combustion chamber. Some devices may include a compliant wall configured to stretch responsive to pressure ...

H. Prahlad J. Helm R. E. Pelrine S. Oh S. E. Stanford

2005-01-01

251

Observing Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn why and how stone walls were built. A prior knowledge of New England colonists and the history of New England is helpful. After a directed reading and discussion, they will take a nature walk to an area where they can examine a stone wall. The students will then use notebook and pencil to sketch the wall and make observations of the stones, the plants growing nearby, and other materials they see around the wall.

252

Halogenation of microcapsule walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

1972-01-01

253

Description of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a list of key terms used to describe stone walls. The definitions for each term can be found in the corresponding chapter and section of the book 'Exploring Stone Walls'. Users can use the outline as a checklist, marking off the terms that best describe the wall they are investigating.

254

The Lamportian cell wall  

SciTech Connect

The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))

1991-05-01

255

An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.

2004-01-01

256

An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as 'Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.' By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438

Yi, Yeong-Deug; Chang, Il-Moo

2004-09-01

257

Shear modulus at all pressures: Generalized Guinan Steinberg formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guinan Steinberg (GS) formula for the shear modulus at all pressures is widely used in material strength studies. As we demonstrate here, the GS formula predicts a value for the shear modulus that is higher than its actual value at low to moderate compressions, even if it has the correct ultrahigh pressure limit. We show that the reason for this shortcoming is insufficient negative curvature in the GS shear modulus as a function of pressure, and propose a generalized GS formula which corrects this inaccuracy. Both the (standard) GS formula and new generalized formula are compared to the experimental data and ab initio calculations on the shear moduli of gold, aluminum, cobalt and beryllium. While the standard formula fails, the generalized one is in good agreement with data in each of the four cases.

Burakovsky, Leonid; Preston, Dean L.

2006-09-01

258

Identification of embedded mathematical formulas in PDF documents using SVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the tremendous popularity of PDF format, recognizing mathematical formulas in PDF documents becomes a new and important problem in document analysis field. In this paper, we present a method of embedded mathematical formula identification in PDF documents, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The method first segments text lines into words, and then classifies each word into two classes, namely formula or ordinary text. Various features of embedded formulas, including geometric layout, character and context content, are utilized to build a robust and adaptable SVM classifier. Embedded formulas are then extracted through merging the words labeled as formulas. Experimental results show good performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, the method has been successfully incorporated into a commercial software package for large-scale e-Book production.

Lin, Xiaoyan; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Hu, Xuan; Lin, Xiaofan

2012-01-01

259

Systematic errors in estimation of insolation by empirical formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic errors in the estimation of surface, insolation,Q, by two popular empirical formulas are investigated statistically by using coincident measurements of the global solar radiation\\u000a and the total cloud cover at JMA observatories over Japan. The results show that Reed’s (1977) widely-accepted formula remarkably\\u000a overestimatesQ under overcast conditions. The overestimation is particularly evident in the summer months. The formula also

Shoichi Kizu

1998-01-01

260

GENERALIZING THE BLACK-SCHOLES FORMULA TO MULTIVARIATE CONTINGENT CLAIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides approximate formulas that generalize the Black-Scholes formula in all dimensions. Pricing and hedging of multivariate contingent claims are achieved by computing lower and upper bounds. These bounds are given in closed form in the same spirit as the classical one-dimensional Black-Scholes formula. Lower bounds perform remarkably well. Like in the one- dimensional case, Greeks are also available

E CARMONA; VALDO DURRLEMAN

261

Integral formula for supersymmetric scattering amplitudes in three dimensions.  

PubMed

We propose a new integral formula for all tree-level scattering amplitudes of N = 6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory. It resembles the Roiban-Spradlin-Volovich-Witten formula for N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory based on a twistor string theory formulation. Our formula implies that the (2k)-point tree-level amplitude is closely related to degree (k-1) curves in CP(k-1). PMID:23215372

Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Sangmin

2012-11-01

262

Generalization of Equatorial Impact-Parameter Formulas for Rotating Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper computes co-rotating and contra-rotating impact-parameter formulas in the plane of symmetry for any plane symmetric and axisymmetric rotating body in all metric theories of gravity, including general relativity. Impact-parameter formulas are useful to compute the appearance of accreting black holes, neutron stars, and other emitting or reflecting matter near a gravitationally compact rotating body. These rotating-body impact-parameter formulas

James Graber

2009-01-01

263

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

264

A new analytical formula for neutron capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes in radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Photoneutrons are produced in radiation therapy with high energy photons. Also, capture gamma rays are the byproduct of neutrons interactions with wall material of radiotherapy rooms. Aim In the current study an analytical formula was proposed for capture gamma dose calculations in double bend mazes in radiation therapy rooms. Materials and methods A total of 40 different layouts with double-bend mazes and a 18 MeV photon beam of Varian 2100 Clinac were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo (MC) code. Neutron capture gamma ray dose equivalent was calculated by the MC method along the maze and at the maze entrance door of all the simulated rooms. Then, all MC resulted data were fitted to an empirical formula for capture gamma dose calculations. Wu–McGinley analytical formula for capture gamma dose equivalent at the maze entrance door in single-bend mazes was also used for comparison purposes. Results For capture gamma dose equivalents at the maze entrance door, the difference of 2–11% was seen between MC and the derived equation, while the difference of 36–87% was found between MC and the Wu–McGinley methods. Conclusion Our results showed that the derived formula results were consistent with the MC results for all of 40 different geometries. However, as a new formula, further evaluations are required to validate its use in practical situations. Finally, its application is recommend for capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes to improve shielding calculations.

Ghiasi, Hosein; Mesbahi, Asghar

2012-01-01

265

Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall MHD Accelerators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm's law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm's law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities lead to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed field accelerator operation.

Litchford, R. J.

2003-01-01

266

Power formula for open-channel flow resistance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper evaluates various power formulas for flow resistance in open channels. Unlike the logarithmic resistance equation that can be theoretically derived either from Prandtl's mixing-length hypothesis or von Karman's similarity hypothesis, the power formula has long had an appearance of empiricism. Nevertheless, the simplicity in the form of the power formula has made it popular among the many possible forms of flow resistance formulas. This paper reexamines the concept and rationale of the power formulation, thereby addressing some critical issues in the modeling of flow resistance.

Chen, Cheng-Lung

1988-01-01

267

Holomorphicity and the Walczak formula on Sasakian manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Walczak formula is a very nice tool for understanding the geometry of a Riemannian manifold equipped with two orthogonal complementary distributions. M. Svensson [Holomorphic foliations, harmonic morphisms and the Walczak formula, J. London Math. Soc. (2) 68 (3) (2003) 781-794] has shown that this formula simplifies to a Bochner-type formula when we are dealing with Kähler manifolds and holomorphic (integrable) distributions. We show in this paper that such results have a counterpart in Sasakian geometry. To this end, we build on a theory of (contact) holomorphicity on almost contact metric manifolds. Some other applications for (pseudo-)harmonic morphisms on Sasaki manifolds are outlined.

Brînz?nescu, Vasile; Slobodeanu, Radu

2006-12-01

268

Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

269

Great wall...and lesser wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What nature has covered up, humans have again exposed. Using images from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), researchers have found remnants of two generations of the Great Wall of China buried beneath desert sands, 700 km west of Beijing. Erosion and wind storms had shielded parts of both walls from view, but the foundation now has been laid bare by remote sensors.

270

(The structure of pectins from cotton suspension culture cell walls)  

SciTech Connect

We have made progress on several projects to do with determining the structure of pectins. These include: (1) Devising a new sensitive method to determine the degree of methyl esterification (DOM) of pectins; (2) solubilization of all of RGI from cotton cell walls; (3) solubilization of RGII from cotton cell walls; (4) characterization of xyloglucan from cotton cell walls; and (5) investigation giving an indication of a cross-link between extension and pectin.

Mort, A.

1990-01-01

271

Potential of a plasma bound between two biased walls  

SciTech Connect

An analytical study is presented for an one-dimensional, steady-state plasma bound between two perfectly absorbing walls that are biased with respect to each other. Starting from a description of the plasma sheaths formed at both walls, an expression relating the bulk plasma potential to the wall currents is derived, showing that the plasma potential undergoes an abrupt transition when currents cross a critical value. This result is confirmed by numerical simulations performed with a particle-in-cell code.

Loizu, J.; Dominski, J.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-08-15

272

Analysis of heat transfer from single wires close to walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional numerical investigations of the forced heat convection from a microcylinder in laminar cross-flow, both in free stream and in near-wall flow, were carried out aiming at a better understanding of the physics behind the wall effects on hot-wire near-wall measurements. In the physical model, an infinitely thin plate with the same properties as the fluid (air) was used as

J.-M. Shi; D. Gerlach; M. Breuer; F. Durst; C. F. Lange

2003-01-01

273

Geography of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurrence of stone walls in New England. Topics include what constitutes a stone wall province and three critical factors in the occurence of stone walls: bedrock geology, glacial history, and land use history. Users can determine the type of stone wall in any given area by using the maps to determine its location, determine the type of bedrock, type of surficial materials, and type of settlement history for that spot. Referring to the text of 'Exploring Stone Walls', they can determine which type of stone wall province contains those types of rock and surface process and read the description of what the most common type of stone walls should be in that area.

274

Wall of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Cape Town University, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

2011-02-15

275

The road to the vertebral formula.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the paraxial mesoderm differentiates into several structures, including the axial skeleton. The genetic mechanisms that control positional information in the paraxial mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis are responsible for the development of a skeleton with the appropriate vertebral formula, i.e. a specific number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae. These control mechanisms are complex and involve molecules of different kinds, including transcription factors, like those encoded by the Hox genes, and signalling molecules, like those involved in Gdf11, FGF, retinoic acid or WNT signalling. Recent experiments indicate that most of the positional information for the paraxial mesoderm is encoded during the initial steps of its development in the presomitic mesoderm, although it is only decoded later during differentiation of the somites. The genesis of positional identity may be linked to the process of somitogenesis, which also occurs in the presomitic mesoderm as a result of complex interactions involving oscillatory activity of components of the Notch and WNT signalling pathways and antagonistic gradients of FGF/WNT and retinoic acid. The possible connections between Hox genes and all these signalling processes to generate a properly patterned axial skeleton are discussed in this review. PMID:19247958

Mallo, Moisés; Vinagre, Tânia; Carapuço, Marta

2009-01-01

276

Modules with Demazure Flags and Character Formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study a family of finite-dimensional graded representations of the current algebra of {sl}_2 which are indexed by partitions. We show that these representations admit a flag where the successive quotients are Demazure modules which occur in a level ?-integrable module for A_1^1 as long as ? is large. We associate to each partition and to each ? an edge-labeled directed graph which allows us to describe in a combinatorial way the graded multiplicity of a given level ?-Demazure module in the filtration. In the special case of the partition 1^s and ?=2, we give a closed formula for the graded multiplicity of level two Demazure modules in a level one Demazure module. As an application, we use our result along with the results of Naoi and Lenart et al., to give the character of a {g}-stable level one Demazure module associated to B_n^1 as an explicit combination of suitably specialized Macdonald polynomials. In the case of {sl}_2, we also study the filtration of the level two Demazure module by level three Demazure modules and compute the numerical filtration multiplicities and show that the graded multiplicites are related to (variants of) partial theta series.

Chari, Vyjayanthi; Schneider, Lisa; Shereen, Peri; Wand, Jeffrey

2014-03-01

277

Cell Wall Organization and Wall Growth in the Filamentous Green Algae Cladophora and Chaetomorpha. I. The Basic Structure and Its Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of two papers dealing with the wall structure and growth of Chaetomorpha (Ch. melagonium and Ch. princeps) and of Cladophora (Cl. prolifera and Cl. rupestris). Here the structure is investigated of the side walls and cross-walls of the cells in the filaments, including the apical cells, using polarization microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy. All

Eva Frei; R. D. Preston

1961-01-01

278

Cross-guide coupler modeling and design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling of cross-guide couplers based on the theory of equivalent electric and magnetic dipoles of an aperture is described. Additional correction factors due to nonzero wall thickness and large aperture are also included in this analysis. Comparisons of the measured and calculated results are presented for cross-guide couplers with circular or cross-shaped coupling apertures. A cross-guide coupler was designed as a component of the C-band feed to support the Phobos mission.

Chen, J.

1988-01-01

279

Oscillator based on pinned domain walls driven by direct current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a pinned domain wall in a thin ferromagnetic strip with high perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy was examined by means of micromagnetic simulations. A preliminary analysis was carried out to describe both the cross-section dependence of the equilibrium states and the field-driven motion of a domain wall along perfect strips. Next, localized domain wall oscillations under application of direct currents in a strip with a notch were studied. This dynamical regime, and both the direct and the alternating contributions to the voltage signal induced by the pinned domain wall oscillations, were micromagnetically analyzed. Finally, a strip with several pinned domain walls was considered. Our analysis reveals that the direct contribution to the voltage signal can be linearly enhanced with the number of walls, an observation which could be useful to develop domain-wall-based nano-oscillators.

Martinez, E.; Torres, L.; Lopez-Diaz, L.

2011-05-01

280

Influence of Convection Velocity on the Turbulent Wall Pressure Wavenumber-Frequency Spectrum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cross spectral and cross correlation data from experiments and numerical simulations have shown the turbulent wall pressure convection velocity to vary with the streamwise spatial separation, xi, due to the spatial decay rates of turbulent structures in t...

W. L. Keith B. M. Abraham

1995-01-01

281

Dose buildup factor formula for double-layered shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radiation shielding, health physics, and radioactive waste management, it is very important to know buildup factors for various materials and their combinations used as multilayer shields. In this work, a general formula that computes buildup factors for double-layer shields was developed on the basis of Monte Carlo photon transport using the MCNP code. Formulas for buildup factors for double-layer

M. Guvendik; N. Tsoulfanidis

1999-01-01

282

A Simple Formula to Estimate Settling Velocity of Natural Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple formula to calculate the settling velocity of natural sediment particles for grain sizes between 0.063 and 1 mm is presented. The formula has been derived from the previous work of Dietrich, and it predicts the dimensionless settling velocity W * as a function of a dimensionless fluid-sediment parameter S * , provided the sediment shape factor and roundness

Ole S. Madsen

2003-01-01

283

Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula in k space.  

PubMed

An angular spectrum representation in three dimensions is used to develop three-dimensional Fourier forms of the first and second Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formulae and the Kirchhoff diffraction formula. For forward-propagating waves, these reduce to three-dimensional Fourier representations for diffraction in the forward half-space. PMID:24323105

Sheppard, C J R; Lin, J; Kou, S S

2013-06-01

284

The Processing of Formulaic Sequences by Second Language Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of researchers have suggested that formulaic sequences are stored and processed holistically (Altenberg, 1998; Raupach, 1984; Schmitt & Carter, 2004; Spottl & McCarthy, 2004). However, the evidence for this hypothesis has not been conclusive. The present study examined the representation and processing of formulaic sequences in two online…

Jiang, Nan; Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

2007-01-01

285

"Your Eye Is Sparkling": Formulaic Expressions and Routines in Turkish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are certain pre-coded (formulaic) utterances conventionally triggered by certain communication situations, and their use is expected and deemed appropriate because they are seen as part of everyday politeness formulas. Lack of an English equivalent indicates cultural differences governing their use. Some routines are taught explicitly and…

Dogancay, Seran

286

On Generalized Lipschitz-type Formulae and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present a certain Lipschitz-type formula and its generalization via Mellin-Barnes type integrals. We further introduce a class of double Eisenstein series for SL(2,) defined on the pair of the upper (or lower) half planes, and show their transformation properties by using the generalized Lipschitz-type formulae.

Katsurada, Masanori; Noda, Takumi

2010-07-01

287

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192.105 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel...

2010-10-01

288

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192.105 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel...

2009-10-01

289

But Can They Read It? A Look at Readability Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines six science books in reference to their reading levels as determined by the Fry, SMOG, and Fog formulas. A disparity in calculated values is noted and explained to be the result of the use of different comprehension levels by the formulas. Suggestions concerning the selection of science reading materials for the classroom are provided.…

Ricker, Kenneth S.

1978-01-01

290

Kernel formula approach to the universal Whitham hierarchy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the kernel formula proposed by Carroll and Kodama, we derive the dispersionless Hirota equations of the universal Whitham hierarchy. We also verify the associativity equations in this hierarchy from the dispersionless Hirota equations and give a realization of the associative algebra with the structure constants expressed in terms of residue formulas.

Shen, Hsin-Fu; Lee, Niann-Chern; Tu, Ming-Hsien

2010-11-01

291

A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology,

James B. Yu; Danil V. Makarov; Cary Gross

2011-01-01

292

Formula Student as Part of a Mechanical Engineering Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formula Student (FS) is a multi-university student design competition managed by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Students are required to demonstrate and prove their creativity and engineering skills through the design, manufacture and financing of a small formula style race car. This paper seeks to explore the educational value that…

Davies, Huw Charles

2013-01-01

293

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192.105 Transportation...Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the...

2013-10-01

294

Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical formula for propagation loss is derived from Okumura's report in order to put his propagation prediction method to computational use. The propagation loss in an urban area is presented in a simple form: A + B log10R, where A and B are frequency and antenna height functions and R is the distance. The introduced formula is applicable to

M. Hata

1980-01-01

295

Cardy-Verlinde Formula of Kehagias-Sfetsos Black Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have shown that the entropy of the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole in Ho?ava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity can be expressed by the Cardy-Verlinde formula. The later is supposed to be an entropy formula of conformal field theory in any dimension.

Setare, M. R.; Jamil, Mubasher

2011-02-01

296

Board of Regents State Appropriation Formula. Revised: 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Board of Regents, at its September 4, 1975 meeting, approved the State Appropriation Formula (revised 1976). The public institutions of higher education in Louisiana are to use this document in preparing requests for operating funds for fiscal 1976-77. The 11 sections of the formula are presented, dealing with: authority, introduction, basic…

Louisiana State Board of Regents, Baton Rouge.

297

Concise Formulas for the Standard Errors of Component Loading Estimates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Derived formulas for the asymptotic standard errors of component loading estimates to cover the cases of principal component analysis for unstandardized and standardized variables with orthogonal and oblique rotations. Used the formulas with a real correlation matrix of 355 subjects who took 12 psychological tests. (SLD)

Ogasawara, Haruhiko

2002-01-01

298

Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)

Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine

1982-01-01

299

Origin of the Formulas of Dihydrogen and Other Simple Molecules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The logic and experimental data are described with which chemists originally deduced the formulas of the fundamental compounds such as H[subscript 2], H[subscript 2]O, Cl[subscript 2], NH[subscript 3], CH[subscript 4], and HCl. This information is never provided in current texts at any level and the formulas of such simple compounds are taken as…

Williams, Andrew

2007-01-01

300

Formulas for the Design of CUSUM Quality Control Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of CUSUM control charts, it is common to use charts, tables, or software to find an appropriate critical threshold (h). This article provides an approximate formula to calculate the threshold directly from prespecified values of the reference value (k) and the in-control average run length (ARL0). Formulas are also provided for choosing k and h from prespecified

Peter A. Rogerson

2006-01-01

301

Modifications to the Zener formula for limitation of grain size  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the ratio of grain boundary curvature to grain size is reported, from which it is deduced that the terminal grain size determined by inclusions should be about an order of magnitude less than that predicted by the Zener formula in its usual form. It is demonstrated that the Zener formula does not necessarily include the condition

N. A. Haroun; D. W. Budworth

1968-01-01

302

Delay and Noise Formulas for Capacitively Coupled Distributed RC Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple yet useful analytical formulas for delay, slope and crosstalk noise amplitude for capacitively coupled two-, three- and infinite-line systems are derived assuming bus lines and other signal lines in deep-submicron VLSI's. The calculated results using the derived formulas are extensively compared with SPICE simulation results to demonstrate the validity of the analytical expressions. Two modes have been studied; the

Hiroshi Kawaguchi; Takayasu Sakurai

1998-01-01

303

Metric Hopf-Lax formula with semicontinuous data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study a metric Hopf-Lax formula looking in parti- cular at the Carnot-Caratheodory case. We generalize many properties of the classical euclidean Hopf-Lax formula and we use it in order to get existence results for Hamilton-Jacobi-Cauchy problems satisfying a suitable Hormander condition.

Federica Dragoni

2007-01-01

304

Geometrical Simplification of the Dipole-Dipole Interaction Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice…

Kocbach, Ladislav; Lubbad, Suhail

2010-01-01

305

Origin of the Economic Order Quantity formula; transcription or transformation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to speculate on how the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) formula was developed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a literature review and analysis. Findings – Ford Whitman Harris's contribution to the EOQ formula is significantly original. Practical implications – Origins of work and questions of plagiarism can be ambiguous. The speculations here illustrate

Bill Roach

2005-01-01

306

Landauer's formula conductance of nanotube junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two nanotubes with different diameter and helicity can be connected without dangling bonds by introducing a pair of disclinations, a 5-membered ring and a 7-membered ring, in the honeycomb lattice of the nanotubes.( S.Iijima,et al., Nature 318, 162 (1985),B.I.Dunlap, Phys.Rev.B 49 5643 (1994)) Since nanotubes become metals and semiconductors according to their diameter and helicity, electronic devices with nanometer size might be realized by combining the nanotube junctions. We calculated conductances of about six thousand kinds of junctions connecting two metallic nanotubes by Landauer's formula with a simple tight binding model. It is found that the conductance is determined only by the ratio R_2/R1 where R1 and R2 are the circumference of the thinner tube and that of the thicker tube, respectively. When R_2/R1 >> 1, the conductance is found to be almost proportional to (R_2/R_1)-3. (Ryo Tamura and Masaru Tsukada Phys.Rev.B, to be appeared) When the Fermi energy EF is shifted by doping in the energy range |E_F|> R_1, the conductance as a function of EF has a resonant peak near E_F=E_c. We are also planning to discuss double junctions.

Tamura, Ryo; Tsukada, Masaru

1997-03-01

307

WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out.

Kent, George

2006-01-01

308

Cell wall integrity  

PubMed Central

The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways.

Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

2013-01-01

309

Phonon spectrum of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a force constant model, we investigated the phonon spectrum and then specific heat of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes. The results show that the frequencies of Raman and infrared active modes decrease with increasing diameter in the low frequency, which is consistent with the results calculated by density functional theory. The fitting formulae for diameter and chirality dependence of specific heat at 300K are given.

Xiao, Yang; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Jue-Xian; Mao, Yu-Liang; Xiang, Jun

2004-09-01

310

Rapid hospital room decontamination using ultraviolet (UV) light with a nanostructured UV-reflective wall coating.  

PubMed

We tested the ability of an ultraviolet C (UV-C)-reflective wall coating to reduce the time necessary to decontaminate a room using a UV-C-emitting device (Tru-D SmartUVC). The reflective wall coating provided the following time reductions for decontamination: for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, from 25 minutes 13 seconds to 5 minutes 3 seconds ([Formula: see text]), and for Clostridium difficile spores, from 43 minutes 42 seconds to 9 minutes 24 seconds ([Formula: see text]). PMID:23571373

Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Tande, Brian M; Weber, David J

2013-05-01

311

Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall Magnetohydrodynamic Accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed-field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm s law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desi...

R. J. Litchford

2004-01-01

312

Dynamic Wall Pressure Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of the art in measurement and interpretation of dynamic wall pressure beneath a turbulent boundary layer is reviewed. The mean pressure increase for shear flow over an orifice in a wall is explained, using triple deck theory, to stem from stream...

P. Leehey

1988-01-01

313

Limb body wall complex.  

PubMed

Limb body wall complex (LBWC) is a rare clinicopathological entity, representing a compound anomaly pattern in ventral body wall defects. The authors report a case of LBWC diagnosed in early antenatal period. The pregnancy was terminated following the diagnosis. Fetal autopsy findings were typical of LBWC. PMID:18603699

Prasun, Pankaj; Behera, Bijaya Kumar; Pradhan, Mandakini

2008-01-01

314

Domain wall filters  

SciTech Connect

We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

Oliver Baer; Rajamani Narayanan; Herbert Neuberger; Oliver Witzel

2007-03-15

315

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

316

Vaginal wall fibroid.  

PubMed

Localization of leiomyomas in the vaginal wall is very rare. We report about a case of a vaginal leiomyoma in the anterior vaginal wall, preoperatively identified with sonography and CT. Surgical enucleation was performed. Surgical removal in these cases is safe and usually with minimal bleeding. PMID:18317784

Theodoridis, T D; Zepiridis, L; Chatzigeorgiou, K N; Papanicolaou, A; Bontis, J N

2008-09-01

317

Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important photoluminescence and photovoltaic processes. PMID:24821815

Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

2014-05-27

318

The Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural, and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles; links to books and other publications; and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

319

Wall heat transfer and flame propagation in a constant volume duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous data on single event flame propagation, wall heat transfer, and their interactions were obtained for a constant volume chamber. Pressure variation, wall temperature variation, and high speed schlieren movies were obtained for the combustion of methane and air in a constant volume duct of square cross section for a series of equivalence ratios. Flame speed and wall heat flux

J. B. Woodard; D. H. Hirvo; R. Greif; R. F. Sawyer

1981-01-01

320

Detection of paired domain walls in a ferromagnetic ring by a bend resistance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated dynamics of paired domain walls in a microfabricated ferromagnetic ring by using a ballistic transport character of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) microcross. The stray field from the domain walls results in a change in the bend resistance of the 2DEG cross lying beneath the ferromagnetic ring depending on the positions of the domain walls. The measurements

Masahiro Hara; Takashi Kimura; Yoshichika Otani

2008-01-01

321

High-protein formulas: evidence for use in preterm infants.  

PubMed

Relatively high amounts of protein are required to achieve normal fractional protein synthetic rates during the late second through early third trimester of fetal growth. Once preterm infants achieve higher protein intakes for sustained periods, growth begins to approximate that of the normally growing fetus and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are improved. Preterm formulas have been developed that are enriched in protein. This review discusses several factors when using standard preterm formulas and high-protein preterm formulas in the neonatal intensive care unit, with an emphasis on quantity and quality of enteral protein delivery and risks to insufficient and/or excess protein administration. PMID:24873839

D Brown, Laura; Hendrickson, Kendra; Masor, Marc L; Hay, William W

2014-06-01

322

Universal electro-osmosis formulae for porous media.  

PubMed

Approximate analytical formulae valid for any porous media with elongated pores are derived for the electro-osmotic coefficient alpha and for the average ionic concentration n . A macroscopic Debye-Hückel length kappa (-)(-1) based on n is introduced. Simultaneously, the electro-osmotic coefficient alpha is systematically calculated for various media, zeta potentials and electrolyte concentrations by solving the local equations. Numerical results show that kappa (-)(-1) and alpha follow universal curves valid whatever the porous medium; these curves can be approximated by the analytical formulae previously derived. These formulae can be used to provide a priori estimates of the electro-osmotic coefficient. PMID:18155228

Gupta, A; Coelho, D; Adler, P M

2008-03-15

323

Near-wall turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current state of knowledge about the structure of wall-bounded turbulent flows is reviewed, with emphasis on the layers near the wall in which shear is dominant, and particularly on the logarithmic layer. It is shown that the shear interacts with scales whose size is larger than about one third of their distance to the wall, but that smaller ones, and in particular the vorticity, decouple from the shear and become roughly isotropic away from the wall. In the buffer and viscous layers, the dominant structures carrying turbulent energy are the streamwise velocity streaks, and the vortices organize both the dissipation and the momentum transfer. Farther from the wall, the velocity remains organized in streaks, although much larger ones than in the buffer layer, but the vortices lose their role regarding the Reynolds stresses. That function is taken over by wall-attached turbulent eddies with sizes and lifetimes proportional to their heights. Two kinds of eddies have been studied in some detail: vortex clusters, and ejections and sweeps. Both can be classified into a detached background, and a geometrically self-similar wall-attached family. The latter is responsible for most of the momentum transfer, and is organized into composite structures that can be used as models for the attached-eddy hierarchy hypothesized by Townsend ["Equilibrium layers and wall turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 11, 97-120 (1961)]. The detached component seems to be common to many turbulent flows, and is roughly isotropic. Using a variety of techniques, including direct tracking of the structures, it is shown that an important characteristic of wall-bounded turbulence is temporally intermittent bursting, which is present at all distances from the wall, and in other shear flows. Its properties and time scales are reviewed, and it is shown that bursting is an important part of the production of turbulent energy from the mean shear. It is also shown that a linearized model captures many of its characteristics.

Jiménez, Javier

2013-10-01

324

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

325

Monte Carlo study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube materials: The effect of different scattering models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials for beam energies of ~0.3 to 30 keV is presented based on event-by-event Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories using state-of-the-art scattering cross sections. The importance of different analytic approximations for computing the elastic and inelastic electron-scattering cross sections for MWCNTs is emphasized. We offer a simple parameterization for the total and differential elastic-scattering Mott cross section, using appropriate modifications to the Browning formula and the Thomas-Fermi screening parameter. A discrete-energy-loss approach to inelastic scattering based on dielectric theory is adopted using different descriptions of the differential cross section. The sensitivity of electron penetration and backscattering parameters to the underlying scattering models is examined. Our simulations confirm the recent experimental backscattering data on MWCNT forests and, in particular, the steep increase of the backscattering yield at sub-keV energies as well as the sidewalls escape effect at high-beam energies.

Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Nojeh, Alireza; Moscovitch, Marko

2013-02-01

326

Monte Carlo study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube materials: The effect of different scattering models  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials for beam energies of {approx}0.3 to 30 keV is presented based on event-by-event Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories using state-of-the-art scattering cross sections. The importance of different analytic approximations for computing the elastic and inelastic electron-scattering cross sections for MWCNTs is emphasized. We offer a simple parameterization for the total and differential elastic-scattering Mott cross section, using appropriate modifications to the Browning formula and the Thomas-Fermi screening parameter. A discrete-energy-loss approach to inelastic scattering based on dielectric theory is adopted using different descriptions of the differential cross section. The sensitivity of electron penetration and backscattering parameters to the underlying scattering models is examined. Our simulations confirm the recent experimental backscattering data on MWCNT forests and, in particular, the steep increase of the backscattering yield at sub-keV energies as well as the sidewalls escape effect at high-beam energies.

Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris [Medical Physics Lab, University of Ioannina Medical School, 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Nojeh, Alireza [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Moscovitch, Marko [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, NW 20057 (United States)

2013-02-28

327

Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23141821

Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

2013-01-01

328

[Use of infant formulas with reduced antigenic content. Committee on Nutrition of the French Pediatrics Society].  

PubMed

Three types of infant formulas with reduced antigenic content are presently available: formulas with partially hydrolyzed proteins (hypoallergenic formulas), formulas with extensively hydrolyzed proteins, and amino-acids mixtures. There respective indications for preventing, postponing or treating allergic manifestations are presented, recalling that breast milk remains the best recommendation. Patent cow milk allergy requires extensively hydrolyzed proteins formulas. PMID:10761610

2000-03-01

329

Specific heat and quantized thermal conductance of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal properties of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes are calculated. It is found that boron nitride nanotubes have a larger specific heat than that of carbon nanotubes. The fitting formulas for diameter and chirality dependence of specific heat at 300 K are given. Moreover, thermal conductance of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes exhibits a universal quantization at low temperature, which is independent of the diameter and chirality of nanotubes.

Xiao, Y.; Yan, X. H.; Cao, J. X.; Ding, J. W.; Mao, Y. L.; Xiang, J.

2004-05-01

330

Modelling the arterial wall by finite elements.  

PubMed

The mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall was determined theoretically utilizing some parameters of blood flow measured in vivo. Continuous experimental measurements of pressure and diameter were recorded in anesthetized dogs on the thoracic ascending and midabdominal aorta. The pressure was measured by using a catheter, and the diameter firstly, at the same site, by a plethysmograph with mercury gauge and secondly, by a sonomicrometer with ferroelectric ceramic transducers. The unstressed radius and thickness were measured at the end of each experiment in situ. Considering that the viscous component is not important relatively to the nonlinear component of the elasticity and utilizing several equations for Young modulus calculation (thick and thin wall circular cylindrical tube formulas and Bergel's equation) the following values were obtained for this parameter: 0.6 MPa-2 MPa in midabdominal aorta and 2 MPa-6.5 MPa in thoracic ascending aorta. The behaviour of the aorta wall was modelled considering an elastic law and using the finite element program "Lagamine" working in large deformations. The discretized equilibrium equations are non-linear and a unique axi-symmetric, iso-parametric element of 1 cm in length with 8 knots was used for this bi-dimensional problem. The theoretical estimation of radius vessel, utilizing a constant 5 MPa Young modulus and also a variable one, are in good agreement with the experimental results, showing that this finite element model can be applied to study mechanical properties of the arteries in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:7691211

Mosora, F; Harmant, A; Bernard, C; Fossion, A; Pochet, T; Juchmes, J; Cescotto, S

1993-01-01

331

Line shape cross sections of HD immersed in He and H2 gas. I - Pressure broadening cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two tests of the electronic potential energy surface of hydrogenlike systems are reported here, including the second virial coefficient of para hydrogen at low temperatures and HD-D2 elastic and inelastic differential scattering cross sections. Formulas are given for Dicke narrowing as well as for the line broadening and calculated shift cross sections. Close coupling calculations are performed

Joachim Schaefer; Louis Monchick

1987-01-01

332

No difference in urinary iodine concentrations between Boston-area breastfed and formula-fed infants.  

PubMed

Background: Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. Results: The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5??g/L (range 40-897.5??g/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5??g/L; range 61.5-395.5??g/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5??g/L; range 40-897.5??g/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8??g/L; range 123-592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Conclusions: Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition. PMID:24801116

Gordon, Joshua H; Leung, Angela M; Hale, Andrea R; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B; Nelson, Sara M; Brown, Rosalind S

2014-08-01

333

Quantitative thermo-acoustic imaging: An exact reconstruction formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to mathematically advance the field of quantitative thermo-acoustic imaging. Given several electromagnetic data sets, we establish for the first time an analytical formula for reconstructing the absorption coefficient from thermal energy measurements. Since the formula involves derivatives of the given data up to the third order, it is unstable in the sense that small measurement noises may cause large errors. However, in the presence of measurement noise, the obtained formula, together with a noise regularization technique, provides a good initial guess for the true absorption coefficient. We finally correct the errors by deriving a reconstruction formula based on the least square solution of an optimal control problem and prove that this optimization step reduces the errors occurring and enhances the resolution.

Ammari, Habib; Garnier, Josselin; Jing, Wenjia; Nguyen, Loc Hoang

334

Multidimensional Extension of the Generalized Chowla-Selberg Formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After recalling the precise existence conditions of the zeta function of a pseudodifferential operator, and the concept of reflection formula, an exponentially convergent expression for the analytic continuation of a multidimensional inhomogeneous Epstein-type zeta function of the general form<FORMULA FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> with A the p×p$ matrix of a quadratic form, a p vector and q a constant, is obtained. It is valid on the whole complex s-plane, is exponentially convergent and provides the residua at the poles explicitly. It reduces to the famous formula of Chowla and Selberg in the particular case p=2, , q=0. Some variations of the formula and physical applications are considered.

Elizalde, E.

335

New data supporting the software project costing formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halstead's Software Science formulas and the Air Force's Rome Air Development Center software effort data base are used to derive a software project effort estimator. 2 tor is: T = 94s 2 and T = 381 where This estima

Victor B. Schneider

1979-01-01

336

Comparison of the performances of several modified bituminous mix formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical behaviour of several formulas of bituminous concrete containing polymer (HDPE), polymer-bitumens (EVA) and waste of sole of shoes (containing copolymer butadiene-styrene-SBR noted DSBR and ethylene and vinyl acetate-EVA noted DEVA) were studied. The aim of this work is to improvement of the poor mechanicals performances of a bituminous concrete formula (0/14) which isn't conforming to the Algerian standards. Also, the mechanical tests showed that the permanent deformations and the indirect tensile strength at the temperatures of service resistances are improved. At high-temperature service, formulas of asphalt bitumen-EVA most resistant against the average temperature in service, it mixes made with waste are best resistant. All the formulas have a good behaviour with water.

Saoula, Samia; Haddadi, Smail; Mokhtar, Khedidja Ait

2012-09-01

337

The Rodrigues Operator Transform, Tables of Generalized Rodrigues Formulas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tables of generalized Rodrigues formulas for various special functions are given to facilitate use of the ideas in the author's 'The Rodrigues Operator Transform, Preliminary Report,' AD-636 137. (Author)

T. P. Higgins

1965-01-01

338

42 CFR 51.3 - Formula for determining allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements § 51.3 Formula for determining allotments. The Secretary shall make...

2012-10-01

339

An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)

Johnson, Steven D.

1996-01-01

340

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External...Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula...Department of Agriculture meat inspection specifications...

2013-04-01

341

Use of High Calcium Infant Formula to Prevent Plumbism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored an alternative form of primary prevention of lead poisoning in children using the nutritional supplement calcium glycerophosphate added to infant formula to reduce lead absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Subjects were children...

J. D. Sargent

1992-01-01

342

WIC and the Retail Price of Infant Formula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rebates from infant formula manufacturers to State agencies that administer the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) support over one-quarter of all WIC participants. However, concerns have been raised that WIC and...

D. Smallwood E. Frazao M. Prell V. Oliveira

2004-01-01

343

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI...

2009-04-01

344

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI...

2013-04-01

345

MIR wall surveyor  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus an insufficient amount of backscattered data are collected to use diffraction tomographic [3] techniques to form images. The problem is therefore one of determining the wall layers from a set of time series reflection data. We develop two channel signal processing algorithms to determine the location of the layers of a wall, using as inputs the time series returned from the wall and the incident pulse. We study the problem using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) computer code to simulate the electromagnetic propagation within and scattering from a wall probed with five pulses. We use the results to develop and test signal processing procedures for locating the individual layers. We study two classes of algorithms: a deconvolution approach to determine a layered impulse response, and a correlation approach. After testing the algorithms on the FDTD results, we down-select to a suitable method.

Lehman, S K

1998-08-01

346

The Tilt Formula for Generalized Simplices in Hyperbolic Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Abstract. For a simplex in Lorentzian space whose vertices are in the positive light cone, Weeks defined the ``tilt'' relative to each\\u000a face. It gave us an efficient tool for deciding whether or not the dihedral angle between two simplices holding a face in\\u000a common is convex. He also provided an efficient formula, called the ``tilt formula,'' to obtain

Akira Ushijima

2002-01-01

347

General asymptotic formulas for fixed-length quantum entanglement concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

General formulas of entanglement concentration are derived by using an information-spectrum approach not only for i.i.d. sequences, but also for the general sequences of partially entangled pure states. From these formulas, not only can the achievable rates be calculated, but also the error exponents, resulting in a general relation between the performance of the entanglement concentration and the eigenvalues of

M. Hayashi

2003-01-01

348

There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas  

PubMed Central

Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 ?g/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 ?g/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 ?g/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 ?g of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

2010-01-01

349

Anti-diabetic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine formula.  

PubMed

An anti-diabetic TCM formula consisting of Schizandra chinensis Baill. (SC), Coptis chinensis (CC), Psidium guajava L. leaves (PG) and Morus alba L. leaves (MA) was developed based on its ?-glucosidase, DPP-4 and AGE inhibitory activities in vitro using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the in vivo study was carried out to confirm the anti-diabetic function of the formula. RSM results showed that the optimum anti-diabetic TCM formula is the combination SC (3000 ?g mL(-1)), CC (80 ?g mL(-1)), PG (374.56 ?g mL(-1)) and MA (480 ?g mL(-1)). For the in vivo study, insulin resistant mice were induced by high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) feeding for 6 weeks. Administration of the developed formula significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose in the HF/HS diet mice. Moreover, the formula decreased blood glucose levels in the insulin tolerance test. These results indicated that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the formula might be due to decreased insulin resistance. The serum fructosamine level in the high dose group was significantly lower than the HF/HS and normal control groups, indicating that the formula could improve middle term glucose levels and reduce the risk of complications. The contents of berberine and 1-deoxynojirimycin in the formula were 4.7 ± 0.4 and 77.1 ± 1.1 ?g mL(-1), respectively. These two compounds can be used as indicators for quality control during production. PMID:22899105

Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang

2012-11-01

350

Enzymatic determination of free carnitine in milk and infant formulas.  

PubMed

A simple spectrophotometric assay for free carnitine in milk and supplemented infant formulas has been developed. After acid extraction, carnitine is measured enzymatically through its reaction with carnitine acetyltransferase coupled with acetyl coenzyme A and dithiobenzoate (DTNB). The manually performed method is rapid, accurate, and convenient for routine quality-control analysis of infant formulas. The chemistry is also suitable for automation, for greatly enhanced throughput. PMID:7703730

Indyk, H E; Woollard, D C

1995-01-01

351

Exact Learning of Subclasses of CDNF Formulas with Membership Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We consider the exact learnability of subclasses of Booleanformulas from membership queries alone. We show how to combine knownlearning algorithms that use membership and equivalence queries toobtain new learning results only with memberships. In particular weshow the exact learnability of read-k monotone CDNF formulas, Sat-k O(log n)-CDNF, and O(plog n)-size CDNF from membership queriesonly.1 IntroductionLearning DNF formulas has been

Carlos Doiuingo

1996-01-01

352

Hebes Chasma Wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

This false color image of a canyon wall located in Hebes Chasma, was collected during the Southern Fall season. Hebes Chasma is located north of Valles Marineris.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.5, Longitude 284.5 East (75.5 West). 35 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

353

Musculoskeletal chest wall pain  

PubMed Central

The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5

Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

1985-01-01

354

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

355

Wall conditioning on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like all tokamaks, ITER will require wall conditioning systems and strategies for successful operation from the point of view of plasma-facing surface preparation. Unlike today's devices however, ITER will have to manage large quantities of tritium fuel, imposing on wall conditioning a major responsibility for tritium inventory control. It will also feature the largest plasma-facing beryllium surface ever used in a tokamak and its high duty cycle and long pulse are expected to lead to the rapid formation of deposited layers in which tritium can accumulate. This paper summarises the currently planned ITER wall conditioning systems and describes the strategy for their use throughout exploitation of the device.

Shimada, Michiya; Pitts, Richard A.

2011-08-01

356

Crafting Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson, students will discuss the formation of rocks in earth history, hear about earth history, discuss the importance of respect and stewardship of past and present, and consider height, width, texture and shape when making rock representations. Following a review of previous explorations of stone walls, they will read and discuss geological concepts, particularly what a rock looks like. They will then construct papier-mache 'rocks' and build a model wall from them, write stories about their hypothetical histories, and hide the stories in their model wall. Finally, they will read and discuss the stories hidden in their rocks.

357

Isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formulas.  

PubMed

Enterobacter sakazakii is a pathogen of increasing medical concern, due to it being implicated in cases of meningitis, sepis, and necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the consumption of contaminated infant milk formula. At present, the method adopted by the Mexican food industry for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii is based on the methodology of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, this procedure is laborious and requires 7 days to obtain a confirmative result. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of E. sakazakii in two types of powdered infant milk formula, using an alternative method that requires less time and a smaller sample size than the FDA protocol. We adapted Leuschner's procedure by eliminating violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) plates and instead adopting white light incubation to stimulate yellow pigment development. This allowed for isolation of E. sakazakii from powdered infant milk formula using a smaller sample and requiring only 5 days for analysis. Results showed that 92% of formula 1 and 32% of formula 2 was positive for E. sakazakii. The high contamination level of E. sakazakii suggests the need for monitoring hygienic conditions in the manufacturing plant and to assess the prevalence of E. sakazakii in powdered infant milk formulas sold in México. PMID:17600483

Torres-Chavolla, Edith; Ramírez-Cerda, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Rojo, Rosalba

2007-01-01

358

The Kirchhoff Formula for a Supersonically Moving Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kirchhoff formula for radiation from stationary surfaces first appeared in 1882, and it has since found many applications in wave propagation theory. In 1930, Morgans extended the formula to apply to surfaces moving at speeds below the wave propagation speed; we refer to Morgans formula as the subsonic formulation. A modern derivation of Morgans result was published by Farassat and Myers in 1988, and it has now been used extensively in acoustics, particularly for high speed helicopter rotor noise prediction. Under some common conditions in this application, however, the appropriate Kirchhoff surface must be chosen such that portions of it travel at supersonic speed. The available Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces is not suitable for this situation. In the current paper we derive the Kirchhoff formula applicable to a supersonically moving surface using some results from generalized function theory. The new formula requires knowledge of the same surface data as in the subsonic case. Complications that arise from apparent singularities in the new formulation are discussed briefly in the paper.

Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

1996-01-01

359

Simple Formulas and Results for Buckling-Resistance and Stiffness Design of Compression-Loaded Laminated-Composite Cylinders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple formulas for the buckling stress of homogeneous, specially orthotropic, laminated-composite cylinders are presented. The formulas are obtained by using nondimensional parameters and equations that facilitate general validation, and are validated against the exact solution for a wide range of cylinder geometries and laminate constructions. Results are presented that establish the ranges of the nondimensional parameters and coefficients used. General results, given in terms of the nondimensional parameters, are presented that encompass a wide range of geometries and laminate constructions. These general results also illustrate a wide spectrum of behavioral trends. Design-oriented results are also presented that provide a simple, clear indication of laminate composition on critical stress, critical strain, and axial stiffness. An example is provided to demonstrate the application of these results to thin-walled column designs.

Nemeth, Michael P.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

2009-01-01

360

75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...formula, including infant formula labeling, quality control procedures, notification requirements, and recordkeeping...of infant formula to establish and adhere to quality control procedures, notify FDA when a batch of infant...

2010-05-04

361

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of...

2010-04-01

362

21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250 Section 107.250...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of...

2009-04-01

363

21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230 Section 107.230...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an...

2009-04-01

364

76 FR 32976 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food...requirements related to the recall of infant formula. DATES: Submit either electronic...other forms of information technology. Infant Formula Recall Regulations--21...

2011-06-07

365

21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230 Section 107.230...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an...

2010-04-01

366

The living wall [picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 picture on 14 double sided sheets : col. ; 31 x 526 cm., folded to 31 x 44 cm. A photomontage of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. with photographs of mementos left at the wall and a \\

Steve Klein

2012-01-01

367

Designing a Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 5 of PDF), young learners investigate how materials and design contribute to the strength of a structure, particularly walls. Learners use different materials to construct "walls" and then test the strength of each by setting up a ramp near the wall and releasing a car from the top of the ramp. Learners also watch a video clip and develop a fair test to compare the strength of the different walls they have constructed. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Keep Out Cows." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

Kids, Pbs

2006-01-01

368

Flagellar propulsion near walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here we use simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model eukaryotic flagella. We show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella which results in a decrease of their propulsive force near a no-slip wall.

Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

2010-11-01

369

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby foods available in the Polish market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of 4 compounds from the group of light PAHs listed by the US EPA and 15 PAHs listed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food were determined in commercially available infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby foods. PAHs determination was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with selective detectors (HPLC–FLD\\/DAD) and confirmed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

M. Ciecierska; M. W. Obiedzi?ski

2010-01-01

370

Morphogenesis of walled cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. In this talk I will discuss the interplay between growth and mechanics in shaping a walled cell, in the particularly simple geometry of tip-growing cells, which elongate via the assembly and expansion of cell wall in the apical region of the cell. Using only conservation laws and describing the observed irreversible expansion of the cell wall during growth as the extension of an inhomogeneous viscous fluid shell under the action of turgor pressure, we determine theoretically the radius of the cell and its growth velocity in terms of the turgor pressure and the secretion rate and rheology of the cell wall material. Moreover, we derive simple scaling laws for the geometry of the cell and find that a single dimensionless parameter, which characterizes the relative roles of cell wall assembly and expansion, is sufficient to explain the observed variation in shapes of tip-growing cells. Our work shows that the physics of cell wall expansion tightly constrains cell shape, providing a unified explanation of the characteristic morphologies of tip-growing cells across species that span several kingdoms, even though their underlying molecular mechanisms of cell morphogenesis are very different. More generally, our description provides a general framework to understand cell growth and remodeling in plants (pollen tubes, root hairs, etc.), fungi (hyphal growth and fission and budding yeast) and some bacteria.

Campas, Otger

2011-03-01

371

Heat transfer wall  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In a perforated heat conductive surface structure having voids under an outer surface and openings in the outer surface, in order to obtain a high performance in particular at a low pressure and low temperature region, there is provided a heat transfer wall in which a thickness of a wall at a ceiling of each void and a length of a passage of the respective openings are increased in predetermined ranges.

1986-08-19

372

Measuring Wall Insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the only way for homeowners to learn about the effectiveness of their home insulation is to hire an energy auditor. This difficulty deters homeowners from taking action to improve energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device to measure wall insulation by measuring the temperature difference between the wall surface and the interior air. This device is effective in diagnosing cases of low insulation.

Parks, Beth; Kurkel, Kevin; Zranchev, Amanda; Brown, Clayton

2011-03-01

373

Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

1994-01-01

374

A Module Analysis Approach to Investigate Molecular Mechanism of TCM Formula: A Trial on Shu-feng-jie-du Formula  

PubMed Central

At the molecular level, it is acknowledged that a TCM formula is often a complex system, which challenges researchers to fully understand its underlying pharmacological action. However, module detection technique developed from complex network provides new insight into systematic investigation of the mode of action of a TCM formula from the molecule perspective. We here proposed a computational approach integrating the module detection technique into a 2-class heterogeneous network (2-HN) which models the complex pharmacological system of a TCM formula. This approach takes three steps: construction of a 2-HN, identification of primary pharmacological units, and pathway analysis. We employed this approach to study Shu-feng-jie-du (SHU) formula, which aimed at discovering its molecular mechanism in defending against influenza infection. Actually, four primary pharmacological units were identified from the 2-HN for SHU formula and further analysis revealed numbers of biological pathways modulated by the four pharmacological units. 24 out of 40 enriched pathways that were ranked in top 10 corresponding to each of the four pharmacological units were found to be involved in the process of influenza infection. Therefore, this approach is capable of uncovering the mode of action underlying a TCM formula via module analysis.

Zhang, Fangbo; Tang, Shihuan; Liu, Xi; Gao, Yibo; Wang, Yanping

2013-01-01

375

Research on exploiting residual coal around final end-walls by highwall mining system in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the resources’ recovery ratio and the economic benefits of surface coal mines, we present a residual coal extraction technology from final end-walls with highwall mining system in China. Based on Mark–Bieniawski formula and tributary area theory, the evaluation methodology of highwall mining parameters under the thick cover was given. Furthermore, the pillar design chart in the highwall mining

Yanlong Chen; Hideki Shimada; Takashi Sasaoka; Akihiro Hamanaka; Kikuo Matsui

2012-01-01

376

On the evolution of fungal and yeast cell walls  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in genomics and proteomics provide evidence that yeast and other fungal cell walls share a common origin. The fibrous component of yeast cell walls usually consists of ?-glucan and/or chitin. N-glycosylated proteins form an amorphous, cross-linking matrix as well as fibres on the outer surfaces of the walls. While the enzymes responsible for cross-linking walls into covalent complexes are conserved, the wall-resident proteins have diversified rapidly. These cell wall proteins are usually members of multi-gene families, and paralogues are often subject to gene silencing through epigenetic mechanisms and environmentally induced expression regulation. Comparative studies of protein sequences reveal that there has been fast sequence divergence of the Saccharomyces sexual agglutinins, potentially serving as a driver for yeast speciation. In addition, cell wall proteins show an unusually high content of tandem and non-tandem repeats, and a high frequency of changes in the number of repeats both among paralogues and among orthologues from conspecific strains. The rapid diversification and regulated expression of yeast cell wall proteins help yeast cells to respond to different stimuli and adapt them to diverse biotic and abiotic environments.

Xie, Xianfa; Lipke, Peter N.

2011-01-01

377

The Logarithmic Tail of Néel Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the multiscale problem of a parametrized planar 180° rotation of magnetization states in a thin ferromagnetic film. In an appropriate scaling and when the film thickness is comparable to the Bloch line width, the underlying variational principle has the form <FORMULA FORM="DISPLAY" DISC="MATH"> where the reduced stray-field operator Q approximates (-?)1/2 as the quality factor Q tends to zero. We show that the associated Néel wall profile u exhibits a very long logarithmic tail. The proof relies on limiting elliptic regularity methods on the basis of the associated Euler-Lagrange equation and symmetrization arguments on the basis of the variational principle. Finally we study the renormalized limit behavior as Q tends to zero.

Melcher, Christof

378

The Structure of Plant Cell Walls  

PubMed Central

Cell wall strength is decreased by both auxin treatment and low pH. In a recently proposed model of the plant cell wall, xyloglucan polymers are hydrogen-bonded to cellulose fibrils, forming the only noncovalent link in the network of polymers which cross-link the cellulose fibers. The decreased strength of the cell wall seen upon lowering the pH might be due to an effect of hydrogen ions on the rate of xyloglucan creep along cellulose fibers. This paper investigates binding of xyloglucan fragments to cellulose. At equilibrium, the per cent of nine- and seven-sugar xyloglucan fragments which are bound to cellulose is sensitive to both temperature and the concentration of nonaqueous solvents. However, neither the per cent of xyloglucan fragments bound to cellulose at equilibrium, nor the rate at which the xyloglucan fragments bind to cellulose, is sensitive to changes in hydrogen ion concentration. These results support the hypothesis that, within the cell wall, xyloglucan chains are connected to cellulose fibers by hydrogen bonds, but these results suggest that this interconnection between xyloglucan and cellulose is unlikely to be the point within the wall which regulates the rate of cell elongation.

Valent, Barbara S.; Albersheim, Peter

1974-01-01

379

Characterization of the cell wall and cell wall proteins of Chromatium vinosum.  

PubMed Central

Highly purified cell walls of Chromatium vinosum were isolated by differential centrifugation, with or without Triton X-100 extraction. The isolated material had a protein composition similar to that of cell walls obtained by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-two proteins were reproducibly detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A 42-kilodalton protein was shown to account for 65% of the total cell wall protein. The majority of cell wall proteins were solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate at room temperature; however, they existed as high-molecular-weight complexes unless heated to 45 degrees C or above. The cell wall contained one heat-modifiable protein which migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 37,400 when solubilized at 70 degrees C or below, but which migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 52,500 if solubilized at 100 degrees C. The electrophoretic mobility of three proteins was modified by 2-mercaptoethanol. The majority of C. vinosum cell wall proteins had isoelectric points between pH 4.5 and 5.5, and the 42-kilodalton protein focused at pH 4.9. No proteins were detected which were analogous to the lipoprotein or peptidoglycan-associated proteins of the Enterobacteriaceae. Nearest-neighbor analysis with a reducible, cross-linking reagent indicated that three proteins, including the 42-kilodalton protein, associated with themselves. Most of the cell wall proteins were partially accessible to proteases in both intact cells and isolated cell walls. Protease treatment of the whole cell or isolated cell wall digested approximately an 11,000-molecular-weight portion of the 42-kilodalton protein. Images

Lane, B C; Hurlbert, R E

1980-01-01

380

Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

2008-01-01

381

Detecting domain walls of axionlike models using terrestrial experiments.  

PubMed

Stable topological defects of light (pseudo)scalar fields can contribute to the Universe's dark energy and dark matter. Currently, the combination of gravitational and cosmological constraints provides the best limits on such a possibility. We take an example of domain walls generated by an axionlike field with a coupling to the spins of standard-model particles and show that, if the galactic environment contains a network of such walls, terrestrial experiments aimed at the detection of wall-crossing events are realistic. In particular, a geographically separated but time-synchronized network of sensitive atomic magnetometers can detect a wall crossing and probe a range of model parameters currently unconstrained by astrophysical observations and gravitational experiments. PMID:23383890

Pospelov, M; Pustelny, S; Ledbetter, M P; Jackson Kimball, D F; Gawlik, W; Budker, D

2013-01-11

382

Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Accepted 17 March 1997? The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants.??

Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N

1997-01-01

383

Probability plotting position formulas for flood records with historical information  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For purposes of evaluating fitted flood frequency distributions or for purposes of estimating distributions directly from plots of flood peaks versus exceedance probabilities (either by subjective or objective techniques), one needs a probability plotting position formula which can be applied to all of the flood data available: both systematic and historic floods. Some of the formulas in use are simply extensions of existing formulas (such as Hazen and Weibull) used on systematic flood records. New plotting position formulas proposed by Hirsch and Stedinger (1986) and in this paper are based on a recognition that the flood data arises from partially censored sampling of the flood record. The theoretical appropriateness, bias in probability and bias in discharge of the various plotting position formulas are considered. The methods are compared in terms of their effects on flood frequency estimation when an objective curve-fitting method of estimation is employed. Consideration is also given to the correct interpretation of the historical record length and the effect of incorrectly assuming that record length equals the time since the first known historical flood. This assumption is employed in many flood frequency studies and may result in a substantial bias in estimated design flood magnitudes. ?? 1987.

Hirsch, R. M.

1987-01-01

384

AN ASYMPTOTIC SAMPLING FORMULA FOR THE COALESCENT WITH RECOMBINATION  

PubMed Central

Ewens sampling formula (ESF) is a one-parameter family of probability distributions with a number of intriguing combinatorial connections. This elegant closed-form formula first arose in biology as the stationary probability distribution of a sample configuration at one locus under the infinite-alleles model of mutation. Since its discovery in the early 1970s, the ESF has been used in various biological applications, and has sparked several interesting mathematical generalizations. In the population genetics community, extending the underlying random-mating model to include recombination has received much attention in the past, but no general closed-form sampling formula is currently known even for the simplest extension, that is, a model with two loci. In this paper, we show that it is possible to obtain useful closed-form results in the case the population-scaled recombination rate ? is large but not necessarily infinite. Specifically, we consider an asymptotic expansion of the two-locus sampling formula in inverse powers of ? and obtain closed-form expressions for the first few terms in the expansion. Our asymptotic sampling formula applies to arbitrary sample sizes and configurations.

Jenkins, Paul A.; Song, Yun S.

2009-01-01

385

Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistance in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.

Truett, L.F.

2000-09-12

386

Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistance in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.

Truett, L.F.; Davis, S.C.; Hu, P.S.

2000-09-01

387

Approximate inversion formula for structural dynamics and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper the authors presented an iterative method and an approximate formula for predicting the response of a system modified by a finite set of rank-one modifications. This method was developed based on the successive application of the Sherman-Morrison matrix inversion formula to calculate the inverse of a matrix changed by a rank-k modification and provides an easier method to calculate the change in the transfer matrix of a dynamic system when it undergoes a number of k simply connected modifications. This paper presents a new and more interesting justification of the method which allows an extension of the approximate formula from a formula for frequency response approximation to a more general approximate matrix inversion formula applicable to particularly shaped matrices generally encountered in structural dynamics and control. This new approach extends the area of the application of the previously presented method. An example of a simple application of this method to the problem of feedback control of structures known only through their estimated receptances is presented.

St?ncioiu, Danut; Ouyang, Huajiang

2013-10-01

388

Elastic light scattering from ? electrons in zigzag BN single-walled nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical study of the Rayleigh (elastic light) scattering (RS) from ? electrons in boron-nitride single-walled nanotubes (BN-SWNTs) with a zigzag achiral structure. The ?-electronic band structure of the nanotubes is treated within a simple analytical model based on the tight-binding and zone-folding approximations. We provide explicit formulas for the real and imaginary parts of the linear optical susceptibility ?(?), both of which contribute to the RS cross section ?(?). The ?(?) spectra we have calculated for several representative BN-SWNTs (l,0) of fairly large diameters ( >1.3 nm) show a series of very pronounced peak structures which occur at energies corresponding to resonant ?-electron transitions between the valence- and conduction-energy-subband edges, where van Hove's singularities of the joint density of (electronic) states of the nanotubes are located. It is found that the RS spectra are indicative of the underlying electronic structure of the BN-SWNTs (l,0), exhibiting radically different global resonant profiles for the nanotubes with odd l and for those with even l, and thus suggesting a way of discriminating between them in experiment. Experimental implications of a number of other findings, emerging from the present theoretical calculation of the RS spectra, are also discussed.

Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

2011-10-01

389

The natural frequency of the pressure oscillations inside a water-wave entrapped air pocket on a rigid wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slamming events consisting of an air pocket which is entrapped between a free-surface wave and a rigid structure are considered. This type of impacts occurs during sloshing at a high filling level and as breaking waves impact on sea walls. The air pressure inside this type of air pockets is nearly uniform in space and oscillates in time qualitatively like the free oscillations of a mass-spring system. New analytical natural-frequency formulas are derived for an entrapped air pocket on a vertical wall and for the entrapped air pocket at the upper corner of a sloshing tank. The formulas are verified through comparison with the boundary element method. A comparison between the new analytical formula for entrapped air pockets at the upper corner of a sloshing tank and experiments shows good agreement. The new analytical formula for the entrapped air pocket at a vertical wall is compared with experiments and an existing formula by Topliss et al. (1993). None of the analytical formulas could accurately estimate the natural frequency for this problem. Improved results were obtained by a boundary element method when the geometry of the air pocket and the free surface were fitted accurately. This work shows that the natural frequency is sensitive to both the assumed shape of the air pocket and the shape of the free surface outside the air pocket.

Abrahamsen, B. C.; Faltinsen, O. M.

2012-11-01

390

Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

391

Domain walls of linear polarization in isotropic Kerr media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new type of domain-wall vector solitary waves in isotropic self-defocusing Kerr media. These domain walls consist of localized structures separating uniform field domains of orthogonal linear polarizations. They result from the interplay between diffraction, self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation in cases where the nonlinear birefringence coefficient B = {?xyyx(3)}/{?xxxx(3)} is negative. Numerical simulations show that these new vector solitary waves are stable.

Louis, Y.; Sheppard, A. P.; Haelterman, M.

1997-09-01

392

Absorption of fortification iron from milk formulas in infants  

SciTech Connect

The bioavailability of iron added to different types of cows' milk formulas was studied using mono-isotopic and double-isotopic methods in 396 infants aged 5-18 mo. All the milk formulas were fortified with ferrous sulfate in concentrations varying between 10 and 19 mg elemental iron/liter. Iron absorption from low-fat milks and full-fat milks varied from 2.9 to 5.1%. A higher range of mean absorption, 5.9 to 11.3%, was observed in the same formulas with the addition of ascorbic acid at concentrations of 100 mg/l or higher (up to 800 mg/l), demonstrating its enhancing effect on iron absorption in fortified milks. The amount of milk fat, the addition of carbohydrates, or acidification did not seem to influence iron absorption.

Stekel, A.; Olivares, M.; Pizarro, F.; Chadud, P.; Lopez, I.; Amar, M.

1986-06-01

393

Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.

Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

394

Playing Robinson's Wall Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students study a stone wall by carefully sketching it and observing color, grain size, sedimentary structures, weathering characteristics, and possible origin of the stones. As an alternative to save time, the instructor can provide a sketch of part of the wall. A simple skeleton sketch that depicts the outline of each block in the area of interest is shown as an example. Another way to make such a sketch is to photograph the wall and trace the outlines of the stone blocks onto a sheet of tracing paper. The drawing can then be enlarged using a photocopier. Follow-up discussions include simple comparisons of weathering characteristics or more advanced comparisons of grain size and composition between the stones.

395

Fetal abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. PMID:24342556

Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

2014-04-01

396

Pitfalls in the design and manufacture of infant formulae.  

PubMed

The composition of modern infant formulae is basically oriented on the "golden standard" human milk and influenced by several official regulations and recommendations (EC, ESPGAN, etc.). This article will focus on two recent improvements in the field of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) and protein hydrolysates. The addition of LCPs for preterm formulae was recommended recently by ESPGAN (the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition). Our research has focused on this problem for many years and we have found a good source of LCPs using specially prepared egg-yolk lipids. Others have used fish oils and run into the problem of growth retardation. Therefore, the possible sources of LCPs have to be discussed very critically and the alternatives will be shown. Also, new developments like the use of single-cell oils will be discussed. Second, the use of protein hydrolysates have been introduced for the so-called hypoantigenic or hypoallergenic formulae. Hypoantigenic formulae for preventive use have to be differentiated clearly from hypoallergenic formulae for treatment of proved cows' milk protein allergy. The problems of designing suitable hydrolysates that are low in antigenicity and good in taste will be outlined. The determination of the molecular weight distribution by gel chromatography will be compared critically with the newer techniques. The ELISA technique for testing the antigenicity is recommended before any in vivo evaluation. So far, the anaphylactic guinea-pig model is the most sensitive in vivo testing method. Summing up, modern infant formulae manufacture is much more dependent on modern laboratory techniques, which have to be chosen critically and must be adapted to the newest state of the art. PMID:7841620

Sawatzki, G; Georgi, G; Kohn, G

1994-09-01

397

Selenium in German infants fed breast milk or different formulas.  

PubMed

At birth and at 4 months of age, selenium (Se) values of 129 term infants on three different diets were determined: 50 infants were breast fed (HM), 44 received formula based on cow's milk (F) and 35 were fed "hypoallergenic formula" (PHF) (partially hydrolysed whey protein). The Se status of a group of twins (n = 12) fed "hypoallergenic formula" was compared with the respective group of singletons. All infants had low plasma Se values during early infancy. The plasma Se of breast-fed infants remained stable (plasma Se 43 +/- 8 ng/ml at birth and at 4 months), whereas plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) decreased (birth: 107 +/- 29 U/l; 4 months: 62 +/- 11 U/l). The formula-fed infants showed a reduction in plasma Se levels from birth to 4 months (38 +/- 10 ng/ml and 29 +/- 9 ng/ml, respectively). The decrease was even more pronounced in infants fed the "hypoallergenic formula". This group presented the lowest Se values (plasma Se 39 +/- 9 ng/ml at birth; 20 +/- 6 ng/ml at 4 months). Renal excretion of Se was found to be lower in the formula-fed infants (F and PHF) compared with the HM group. There was a significant correlation between plasma and urinary Se (r = 0.62, p = 0.0001). Urinary Se (microgram Se/g creatinine) appeared to be a good indicator of Se intake. Measurements of urine Se might be used as a screening method for the estimation of the Se supply. Weight and length increases in all infants were within the normal range. There were no differences between the different feeding groups. PMID:7488806

Jochum, F; Fuchs, A; Menzel, H; Lombeck, I

1995-08-01

398

Evaluation of mean skin temperature formulas by infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the reliabiliity of formulas for calculating mean skin temperature (Tsk), values were computed by 18 different techniques and were compared with the mean of 10,841 skin temperatures measured by infrared thermography. One hundred whole-body infrared thermograms were scanned in ten resting males while changing the air temperature from 40° C to 4° C. Local, regional average and mean skin temperatures were obtained using an image processing system. The agreement frequency, defined as the percentage of the calculated Tsk values which agreed with the corresponding infrared thermographic Tsk within +/-0.2° C, ranged for with the various formulas from 7% to 80%. In many sites, the local skin temperature did not coincide with the regional average skin temperature. When the local skin temperatures which showed the highest percentage similarity to the regional average skin temperature within +/-0.4° C were applied to the formula, the agreement frequency was markedly improved for all formulas. However, the agreement frequency was not affected by changing the weighting factors from specific constants to individually measured values of regional surface area. By applying the physiologically reliable accuracy range of +/-0.2° C in the moderate and +/-0.4° C in the cool condition, agreement frequencies of at least 95% were observed in formulas involving seven or more skin temperature measurement sites, including the hand and foot. We conclude that calculation of a reliable mean skin temperature must involve more than seven skin temperature measurement sites regardless of ambient temperature. Optimal sites for skin temperature measurement are proposed for various formulas.

Choi, J. K.; Miki, K.; Sagawa, S.; Shiraki, K.

399

A trace formula for activated escape in noisy maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using path-integral methods, a formula is deduced for the noise-induced escape rate from an attracting fixed point across an unstable fixed point in one-dimensional maps. The calculation starts from the trace formula for the eigenvalues of the Frobenius-Perron operator ruling the time evolution of the probability density in noisy maps. The escape rate is determined from the loop formed by two heteroclinic orbits connecting back and forth the two fixed points of the one-dimensional map extended to a two-dimensional symplectic map. The escape rate is obtained with the expression of the prefactor to the Arrhenius-van’t Hoff exponential factor.

Demaeyer, J.; Gaspard, P.

2013-10-01

400

A new application of the Gürsey and Radicati mass formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spin- and flavour-dependent SU(6) violations in the baryon spectrum by means of a Gürsey-Radicati mass formula. The average energy of each SU(6) multiplet is described using the SU(6)-invariant interaction given by a hypercentral potential containing a linear and a hyper-Coulomb term. We show that the nonstrange- and strange-baryon masses are, in general, fairly well reproduced and moreover that the Gürsey-Radicati formula holds in a satisfactory way also for the excited states up to 2 GeV.

Giannini, M. M.; Santopinto, E.; Vassallo, A.

2005-08-01

401

F-TF Sum and Difference angle formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In this task, you will show how all of the sum and difference angle formulas can be derived from a single formula when combined with relations you have...

402

The Collins Formula Applied in Optical Image Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel method for image encryption, which is realized by the Collins formula with the random shifting method. The Collins formula can denote different optical transforms by one expression with different ABCD elements. For a generalized optical system, the ABCD elements can be randomly chosen, so the keys are increased and the security of the system is strengthened. Finally, some computer simulations are given for different encryption systems to prove the possibilities. The encryption effect is good, and people without the correct keys can not obtain the information easily.

Chen, Lin-Fei; Zhao, Dao-Mu; Mao, Hai-Dan; Ge, Fan; Guan, Rui-Xia

2013-04-01

403

Trace formula for a dielectric microdisk with a point scatterer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional dielectric microcavities are of widespread use in microoptics applications. Recently, a trace formula has been established for dielectric cavities which relates their resonance spectrum to the periodic rays inside the cavity. In this paper, we extend this trace formula to a dielectric disk with a small scatterer. This system has been introduced for microlaser applications, because it has long-lived resonances with strongly directional far field. We show that its resonance spectrum contains signatures not only of periodic rays but also of diffractive rays that occur in Keller's geometrical theory of diffraction. We compare our results with those for a closed cavity with Dirichlet boundary conditions.

Hales, Robert F. M.; Sieber, Martin; Waalkens, Holger

2011-04-01

404

Runaway dilatonic domain walls  

SciTech Connect

We explore the stability of domain wall and bubble solutions in theories with compact extra dimensions. The energy density stored inside of the wall can destabilize the volume modulus of a compactification, leading to solutions containing either a timelike singularity or a region where space decompactifies, depending on the metric ansatz. We determine the structure of such solutions both analytically and using numerical simulations, and analyze how they arise in compactifications of Einstein-Maxwell theory and type IIB string theory. The existence of instabilities has important implications for the formation of networks of topological defects and the population of vacua during eternal inflation.

Aguirre, Anthony [SCIPP, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Larfors, Magdalena [Arnold Sommerfeld Center fuer Theoretische Physik, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

2010-02-15

405

Total cross sections for electron scattering on chloromethanes: Formulation of the additivity rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total cross sections for electron scattering on CH 3Cl, CH2Cl2 , and CHCl3 have been measured by an absolute method in the ~75-4000!-eV energy range. The overall experimental error is below 5%. A formula- tion of the additivity rule is proposed. The molecular cross sections are approximated by a Born-like two- parameter formula. We show that the low-energy parameter is

Grzegorz P. Karwasz; Roberto S. Brus; Andrea Piazza; Antonio Zecca

1999-01-01

406

Miniature Laser Doppler Velocimeter for Measuring Wall Shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature optoelectronic instrument has been invented as a nonintrusive means of measuring a velocity gradient proportional to a shear stress in a flow near a wall. The instrument, which can be mounted flush with the wall, is a variant of a basic laser Doppler velocimeter. The laser Doppler probe volume can be located close enough to the wall (as little as 100 micron from the surface) to lie within the viscosity-dominated sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The instrument includes a diode laser, the output of which is shaped by a diffractive optical element (DOE) into two beams that have elliptical cross sections with very high aspect ratios.

Gharib, Morteza; Modarress, Darius; Forouhar, Siamak; Fourguette, Dominique; Taugwalder, Federic; Wilson, Daniel

2005-01-01

407

Hydrodynamic loading of microcantilevers oscillating near rigid walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrations of microcantilevers in atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or radio frequency (RF) switches are strongly influenced by the viscous hydrodynamics of the surrounding fluid in the vicinity of a rigid wall. While prior efforts to model this hydrodynamic loading have focused on squeeze film damping effects at high Knudsen and squeeze numbers, the regimes of low Knudsen and squeeze numbers are also very important for which squeeze film models need to be discarded in favor of unsteady Stokes hydrodynamics. We extend the work of Green and Sader [Phys Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005)] and present compact semianalytical formulas for the unsteady viscous hydrodynamic function of slender microbeams oscillating near rigid walls, in terms of key nondimensional numbers. Using these closed-form expressions, it becomes possible to predict easily the wet natural frequencies and quality factors of multiple modes of microcantilevers near rigid walls in diverse applications ranging from AFM in liquids to RF microswitches under ambient conditions. The semianalytical formulas are extensively validated by comparing their predicted wet natural frequencies and quality factors with those based on three-dimensional, transient flow-structure interaction simulations, as well as previous experiments performed in the field by other researchers.

Tung, Ryan C.; Jana, Anirban; Raman, Arvind

2008-12-01

408

Two Prophecy Formulas for Assessing the Reliability of Item Response Theory-Based Ability Estimates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new prophecy formulas for estimating item response theory (IRT)-based reliability of a shortened or lengthened test are proposed. Some of the relationships between the two formulas, one of which is identical to the well-known Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, are examined and illustrated. The major assumptions underlying these formulas are…

Raju, Nambury S.; Oshima, T.C.

2005-01-01

409

New Proofs of Some q-Summation and q-Transformation Formulas  

PubMed Central

We obtain an expectation formula and give the probabilistic proofs of some summation and transformation formulas of q-series based on our expectation formula. Although these formulas in themselves are not the probability results, the proofs given are based on probabilistic concepts.

Liu, Xian-Fang; Bi, Ya-Qing; Luo, Qiu-Ming

2014-01-01

410

Hermite's formula for vector polynomial interpolation with applications to structured matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Hermite formula for polynomial interpolation is generalized to interpolation of vector polynomials (tangential interpolation). The formula exhibits a relation between the matricial homogeneous problem and the nonhomogeneous vector problem. As applications, a formula for the inverse of a generalized Vandermonde matrix is presented and it is shown that the well-known formulas for the inverse of a Toeplitz matrix

Georg Heinig; Fadhel Al-Musallam

1998-01-01

411

Shape functions and integration formulas for three-dimensional finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape functions and numerical integration formulas for 3D finite element analysis as found in most finite element reference books are incomplete. For example, shape functions and integration formulas for a pyramid with a quadrilateral base are missing. It is also difficult to find symmetric higher-order integration formulas for triangular and tetrahedral elements. In general, these shape functions and integration formulas

G. Bedrosian

1992-01-01

412

Antiferromagnetic domain wall manipulation and measurement in chromium films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I report three sets of experiments on the manipulation and measurement of antiferromagnetic spin-density wave domain walls in Cr films. The first set explores the role of surface pinning on determining antiferromagnetic domain orientations and domain dynamics in epitaxial Cr(001) films. By means of magnetic field cooling used in conjunction with resistivity measurements we explore the relative strength of surface pinning as a function of sample thickness and crystalline mosaic quality. I also describe X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy measurements on the timescales for domain wall motion in a poly Q-domain Cr(001) film as well as in a poly Q-domain Cr(111) bulk crystal. We found that surface and defect pinning causes the domain structure to evolve much more slowly in the Cr film than in the bulk crystal. Next, I report our method to lithographically pattern individual antiferromagnetic domain walls in epitaxial Cr(001)/Fe/Au films. This technique utilizes local control over surface pinning and magnetic frustration to create a 90° spin-density wave domain wall in the Cr layer. Verification of the domain wall formation is made using synchrotron x-ray techniques. X-ray microdiffraction indicates a domain wall of width less than our experimental resolution of 1 micrometer and microfluorescence confirms that the domain wall nucleates in the Cr film at the precise location specified by the patterning. Finally, I describe our experiments to measure electrical transport across patterned antiferromagnetic domain walls. Several wire-shaped devices were fabricated that each contained a patterned 90° spin-density wave domain wall crossing its center. Each device contained current and voltage leads that allowed us to isolate effects of electron scattering by the antiferromagnetic domain wall. We use models to understand our data and demonstrate an unexpected temperature dependence of the domain wall resistivity that helps determine the underlying mechanism for electron scattering by spin-density wave domain walls.

Logan, Jonathan Michael

413

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

414

Pressure wall patch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rigid patch body for placing over a damaged portion (hole) of an external wall of a pressurized vessel, such as a space vehicle or a habitat, is discussed. The rigid patch body allows an astronaut to make temporary repairs to the pressurized vessel from the exterior of the vessel, which enables more permanent repairs to be made from the interior of the vessel. The pressure wall patch of the present invention includes a floor surrounded by four side members. Each side member includes a threaded screw for anchoring the patch body to the external wall of the pressurized vessel and a recess in its lower surface for supporting an inflatable bladder for surrounding the damaged portion (hole) of the external wall to seal the area surrounding the damaged portion. This allows the vessel to be repressurized. The floor of the rigid patch body supports a source of gas that is connected to the gas supply valve and a gas supply gauge in communication with the gas supply valve and the inflatable bladder.

Williamsen, Joel E. (inventor); Weddendorf, Bruce C. (inventor)

1994-01-01

415

A Wall of Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

Stevens, Lori

2008-01-01

416

The Invisible Wall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The barrier to a company's performance may be a conflict of organizational values and culture with those of the training profession. Elements of this value system that create the invisible wall are egalitarianism, people focus, "guerilla" training tactics, and emphasis on human interaction. (JOW)

Zenger, John H.

1997-01-01

417

Radio Wall Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radio Wall Street, brought to you by Investor Broadcast Network, offers current financial news for investors. RealAudio files are organized in sections including top stories, technology news, IPOs, and mutual funds. Special sections provide interviews with leading CEOs and investment analysts. Daily features and popular programs are listed at the bottom of the site.

418

A School without Walls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the summer, selected students of Hawaiian ancestry who have completed seventh or eighth grade participate in a boarding program with outdoor activities such as pulling taro, star gazing, and camping. The activities eliminate walls of doubt and fear and nurture self-confidence, creativity, personal growth, leadership, and cultural awareness.…

Venuti, Len Tai

1994-01-01

419

Eddy-Wall Interactions,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nonlinear one and a half-layer model is considered to examine the collision of isolated eddies with vertical walls. The round undisturbed eddies are allowed to have relatively large amplitudes; they are bounded by a free streamline beyond which the ocea...

D. Nof

1988-01-01

420

Angular momentum effects and barrier modification in sub-barrier fusion reactions using the proximity potential in the Wong formula  

SciTech Connect

Using the capture cross-section data from {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu, and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 248}Cm reactions in the superheavy mass region, and fusion-evaporation cross sections from {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni, {sup 64}Ni+{sup 64}Ni, and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 100}Mo reactions known for fusion hindrance phenomenon in coupled-channels calculations, the Wong formula is assessed for its angular momentum and barrier-modification effects at sub-barrier energies. The simple, l=0 barrier-based Wong formula is shown to ignore the modifications of the barrier due to its inbuilt l dependence via l summation, which is found to be adequate enough to explain the capture cross sections for all the three above-mentioned {sup 48}Ca-based reactions forming superheavy systems. For the capture (equivalently, quasifission) reactions, the complete l-summed Wong formula is shown to be the same as the dynamical cluster-decay model expression, of one of us (R.K.G.) and collaborators, with the condition of fragment preformation probability P{sub 0}{sup l}=1 for all the angular momentum l values. In the case of fusion-evaporation cross sections, however, a further modification of barriers is required for below-barrier energies, affected in terms of either the barrier 'lowering' or barrier 'narrowing' via the curvature constant. Calculations are made for use of nuclear proximity potential, with effects of multipole deformations included up to hexadecapole, and orientation degrees of freedom integrated for both the coplanar and noncoplanar configurations.

Kumar, Raj; Bansal, Manie; Arun, Sham K.; Gupta, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 60014 (India)

2009-09-15

421

Monty's Dilemma with No Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents an attempt to analyse Monty's dilemma by means of conversational formula-free dialogues and to simulate the problem by composing isomorphic stories. The crucial roles of specifying the underlying scenarios and explicating epistemic and probabilistic assumptions are highlighted.

Falk, Ruma

2014-01-01

422

Improved recursive formula for calculating shock response spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently used recursive formulas for calculating the shock response spectra are based on an impulse invariant digital simulation of a single degree of freedom system. This simulation results in significant errors when the natural frequencies are greater than 1\\/6 the sample rate. It is shown that a ramp invariant simulation results in a recursive filter with one additional filter weight

D. O. Smallwood

1980-01-01

423

Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants  

PubMed Central

Background: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major risk factors for SIDS such as prone sleeping and maternal smoking. Aims: To establish whether arousability was altered by method of feeding, and whether breast fed infants would have lower arousal thresholds. Methods: Forty three healthy term infants were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: 2–4 weeks post-term, 2–3 months post-term, and 5–6 months post-term. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold (cm H2O) in response to nasal air jet stimulation applied alternately to the nares were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) while infants slept supine. Arousal thresholds and sleep period lengths were compared between formula fed and breast fed infants at each age. Results: Arousal thresholds were not different between breast fed and formula fed infants in QS. However, in AS breast fed infants were significantly more arousable than formula fed infants at 2–3 months of age. There was no difference between groups of infants when sleep period length was compared at any study. Conclusions: Breast fed infants are more easily aroused from AS at 2–3 months of age than formula fed infants. This age coincides with the peak incidence of SIDS.

Horne, R; Parslow, P; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Adamson, T

2004-01-01

424

An approximation formula for a class of Markov reliability models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A way of considering a small but often used class of reliability model and approximating algebraically the systems reliability is shown. The models considered are appropriate for redundant reconfigurable digital control systems that operate for a short period of time without maintenance, and for such systems the method gives a formula in terms of component fault rates, system recovery rates, and system operating time.

White, A. L.

1984-01-01

425

Amino Acid Difference Formula to Help Explain Protein Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formula for difference between amino acids combines properties that correlate best with protein residue substitution frequencies: composition, polarity, and molecular volume. Substitution frequencies agree much better with overall chemical difference between exchanging residues than with minimum base changes between their codons. Correlation coefficients show that fixation of mutations between dissimilar amino acids is generally rare.

R. Grantham

1974-01-01

426

Fluency Formula[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Fluency Formula"[TM] is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency for first- through sixth-grade students. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundation for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom. Students…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

2007-01-01

427

Geometric Quantum Gates, Composite Pulses, and Trotter--Suzuki Formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that all geometric quantum gates (GQG's in short), which are quantum gates only with geometric phases, are robust against control field strength errors. As examples of this observation, we show (1) how robust composite rf-pulses in NMR are geometrically constructed and (2) a composite rf-pulse based on Trotter--Suzuki Formulas is a GQG.

Kondo, Yasushi

2011-05-01

428

Chapter 2 Formula: Evaluation Report 1990-91.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 2 Formula provides federal funds to the states through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by P.L. 100-297 in 1988. Chapter 2 funds can support one or more programs that do the following: meet the educational needs of students with special needs (at-risk and high-cost students); acquire curricular…

Bliss, Kristen M.

429

A unified framework for exact cone-beam reconstruction formulas.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present concise proofs of several recently developed exact cone-beam reconstruction methods in the Tuy inversion framework, including both filtered-backprojection and backprojection-filtration formulas in the cases of standard spiral, nonstandard spiral, and more general scanning loci. While a similar proof of the Katsevich formula was previously reported, we present a new proof of the Zou and Pan backprojection-filtration formula. Our proof combines both odd and even data extensions so that only the cone-beam transform itself is utilized in the backprojection-filtration inversion. More importantly, our formulation is valid for general smooth scanning curves, in agreement with an earlier paper from our group [Ye, Zhao, Yu, and Wang, Proc. SPIE 5535, 293-300 (Aug. 6 2004)]. As a consequence of that proof, we obtain a new inversion formula, which is in a two-dimensional filtering backprojection format. A possibility for generalization of the Katsevich filtered-backprojection reconstruction method is also discussed from the viewpoint of this framework. PMID:16013729

Zhao, Shiying; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

2005-06-01

430

A unified framework for exact cone-beam reconstruction formulas  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present concise proofs of several recently developed exact cone-beam reconstruction methods in the Tuy inversion framework, including both filtered-backprojection and backprojection-filtration formulas in the cases of standard spiral, nonstandard spiral, and more general scanning loci. While a similar proof of the Katsevich formula was previously reported, we present a new proof of the Zou and Pan backprojection-filtration formula. Our proof combines both odd and even data extensions so that only the cone-beam transform itself is utilized in the backprojection-filtration inversion. More importantly, our formulation is valid for general smooth scanning curves, in agreement with an earlier paper from our group [Ye, Zhao, Yu, and Wang, Proc. SPIE 5535, 293-300 (Aug. 6 2004)]. As a consequence of that proof, we obtain a new inversion formula, which is in a two-dimensional filtering backprojection format. A possibility for generalization of the Katsevich filtered-backprojection reconstruction method is also discussed from the viewpoint of this framework.

Zhao Shiying; Yu Hengyong; Wang Ge [CT/Micro-CT Laboratory, Department of Radiology University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2005-06-15

431

The bistatic formulae of dielectric objects in physical optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical optics assumption, is used to build up bistatic formulas for an electromagnetic field scattered by a specular surface of arbitrary smooth convex three-dimensional dielectric objects. The problem is formulated in terms of the polarization dependence form of the surface electromagnetic current ratio coefficients. The surfaces of objects are modeled by planar polygon patches and Gordon's planar polygon patch

N. Li; C. Su; J. Yang; J. Hu

1993-01-01

432

Analytical formulas for coplanar lines in hybrid and monolithic MICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some analytical expressions for coplanar lines found in the literature are examined with the aim of assessing their validity, and possible improvements are suggested when necessary. As a possible application of the analytical formulas discussed here, a design chart is presented for a coplanar waveguide on a GaAs substrate. The thickness of the substrate is typical of microwave integrated circuit

G. Ghione; C. Naldi

1984-01-01

433

Some Approximate Kohn-Sham Molecular Energy Formulas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Density functional calculations have been carried out for twelve molecules by several different Kohn-Sham procedures in order to test the effectiveness of two approximate molecular energy formulas that have been applied earlier in the context of Hartree-F...

P. Politzer F. Abu-Awwad

1998-01-01

434

A modified spatial resolution formula for DOI-PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the spatial resolution performance of PET systems, Derenzo published an analytic resolution formula in 1993 to analytically calculate spatial resolution in the center of FOV which accounts for impacts of geometrical, instrumental, reconstruction and physical factors and is now widely used to guide PET system design. Extending from this study, the crystal size is replaced by FWHM of

Yan Xia; Tianyu Ma; Yaqiang Liu; Shi Wang; Yiping Shao

2011-01-01

435

DIMENSION FORMULA FOR GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS AND ITS APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the structure of innite dimensional Lie algebras L = L 2 L graded by a countable abelian semigroup sat- isfying a certain niteness condition. The Euler-Poincar e principle yields the denominator identities for the -graded Lie algebras, from which we derive a dimension formula for the homogeneous subspaces L ( 2 ). Our dimen- sion

SEOK-JIN KANG; MYUNG-HWAN KIM

436

24 CFR 968.310 - Determination of formula amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...formula allocation for PHAs designated as mod troubled under PHMAP â(1) Notification. After a PHA is designated as a mod troubled agency under PHMAP (24 CFR part...subpart because of its designation as a mod troubled PHA. HUD shall also...

2010-04-01

437

24 CFR 968.310 - Determination of formula amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...formula allocation for PHAs designated as mod troubled under PHMAP â(1) Notification. After a PHA is designated as a mod troubled agency under PHMAP (24 CFR part...subpart because of its designation as a mod troubled PHA. HUD shall also...

2009-04-01

438

Illinois Community College Funding Formula Survey. Volume 21, Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of Illinois community college presidents and business managers to determine current institutional thinking on the Illinois funding formula. Study findings, based on responses from 36 out of the 39 colleges in the state included the following: (1) 64% of the respondents favored the concept of averaging credit hours and unit…

Fonte, Richard; And Others

439

Library Formula: Report and Recommendations. Report Number 79-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents comprehensive recommendations in the library budget formula area for public 2- and 4-year institutions in Washington based on recommendations adopted by the council in 1976 with some revisions. A review and analysis of statistical data supplied by the 4-year institutions and community college system in the areas of staffing,…

Fischer, Norman M.

440

Modified predictive formula for the electron stopping power  

SciTech Connect

We report an improved predictive formula for the electron stopping power (SP) based on an analysis and fit of SPs and electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) calculated from optical data for 37 elemental solids and energies between 200 eV and 30 keV. The formula is a function of energy, density, and IMFP, and is recommended for solids with atomic numbers larger than 6. While the mean deviation between predicted and calculated SPs was 7.25%, larger deviations were found for four additional materials, Li (22.2%), Be (17.9%), graphite (15.3%), and diamond (15.7%). The predictive SP formula can be applied to multicomponent materials. Test comparisons for two compounds, guanine and InSb, showed average deviations of 16.0% and 19.1%, respectively. The improved SP formula is expected to be useful in simulations of electron trajectories in solids with the continuous slowing-down approximation (e.g., in Auger-electron spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis)

Jablonski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Tanuma, S. [Materials Analysis Station, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Powell, C. J. [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States)

2008-03-15

441

The Use of Readability Formulas in Patient Education Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the SMOG readability formula scores of currently available patient education materials. It was hypothesized that the reading level of the materials would be higher than 7.5, the reading level of the average American citizen; and that there would be a significant reduction in the measured document reading levels…

Mathews, Paul J.; And Others

442

Explicit formulas for noncommutative deformations of CPN and CHN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give explicit expressions of a deformation quantization with separation of variables for CPN and CHN. This quantization method is one of the ways to perform a deformation quantization of Kähler manifolds, which is introduced by Karabegov. Star products are obtained as explicit formulas in all order in the noncommutative parameter. We also give the Fock representations of the noncommutative CPN and CHN.

Sako, Akifumi; Suzuki, Toshiya; Umetsu, Hiroshi

2012-07-01

443

Automated Discovery of Numerical Approximation Formulae via Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of genetic programming to automate the discovery of numerical approximation formulae. The authors present results involving rediscovery of known approximations for Harmonic numbers and discovery of rational polynomial approximations for functions of one or more variables, the latter of which are compared to Padé approximations obtained through a symbolic mathematics package. For functions of a

Matthew J. Streeter; Lee A. Becker

2003-01-01

444

Recognizing Renamable Generalized Propositional Horn Formulas is NP-Complete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yamasaki and Doshita have defined an extension of the class of propositional Horn formulas; later, Gallo and Scutella generalized this class to a hierarchy Gamma sub 0 is contained in Gamma sub 1 is contained in...is contained in Gamma sub k is contained ...

T. Eiter P. Kilpelaeinen H. Mannila

1992-01-01

445

An analytical formula for the design of quadrature mirror filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrature mirror filters have an outstanding relevance in the implementation of filter banks for dividing the speech signal into frequency bands and for reconstructing it from these subbands. An analytical formula is given, which allows one to optimize the design of the basic low-pass FIR filter by means of a straight nonlinear minimization procedure.

GIANCARLO PIRANI; VALERIO ZINGARELLI

1984-01-01

446

Extraction of Frequent Few-Overlapped Monotone DNF Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, first we introduce frequent few-overlapped monotone DNF for- mulas under the minimum support ?, the minimum term support ? and the maximum overlap ?. We say that a monotone DNF formula f = X1 ? · · · ? Xm is frequent if supp(f ) ? ? and supp(Xi) ? ? , and few-overlapped if ol (f

Yoshikazu Shim; Kouichi Hirata; Masateru Harao

447

The presentation of the Planck radiation formula (tutorial)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Errors in the treatment of complex concepts may be due to authors being too selective in their choice of theoretical material to include, to keep complication of the explanation to a minimum. This situation seems to exist in the treatment of Planck's derivation of the Planck radiation formula, the distribution function for the energy density of black-body (or cavity) radiation,

R. C. Dougal

1976-01-01

448

On reconstruction formulas and algorithms for the thermoacoustic tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys recent progress in establishing uniqueness and developing inversion formulas and algorithms for the thermoacoustic tomography. In mathematical terms, one deals with a rather special inverse problem for the wave equation. In the case of constant sound speed, it can also be interpreted as a problem concerning the spherical mean transform.

Mark Agranovsky; Peter Kuchment; Leonid Kunyansky

2007-01-01

449

27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Any formula approved on Form 27-B Supplemental prior to January 1, 1980, shall continue to be valid until revoked or voluntarily...not apply. [T.D. ATF-62, 44 FR 71715, Dec. 11, 1979. Redesignated and amended by T.D....

2013-04-01

450

27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Any formula approved on Form 27-B Supplemental prior to January 1, 1980, shall continue to be valid until revoked or voluntarily...of § 26.52 shall not apply. [44 FR 71709, Dec. 11, 1979. Redesignated and amended by T.D....

2013-04-01

451

Formulas and Methods Used in the Analysis of Pressure Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to make available a compact summary of the formulas and methods used in the stress analysis of thin pressure vessels. The first part deals only with membrane forces and deformations resulting from pressure loading in shells o...

M. Kural

1970-01-01

452

Generalization of Gunion-Bertsch formula for soft gluon emission  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the most extensively used Gunion-Bertsch formula for the soft gluon emission in a perturbative QCD. We show that the corrections arising due to this generalization could be very important for the phenomenology of the hot and dense matter produced in the heavy-ion collisions.

Abir, Raktim; Mustafa, Munshi G. [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Greiner, Carsten [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Martinez, Mauricio [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438, Frankfurt (Germany)

2011-01-01

453

27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gallons of alcohol add: (1) Six pounds of either boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F.; 11/3 pounds...materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F., to total...

2013-04-01

454

Calculation of Shell Corrections for Semiempirical Formulas for Nuclear Masses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shell corrections deltaE for semiempirical formulas for nuclear masses are calculated taking consequently into account a strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. The precision of the developed method is under discussion. The dependence of deltaE on the paramet...

G. G. Bunatyan

1978-01-01

455

Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of introductory textbooks shows that many authors fail to connect explicitly their discussions of empirical versus molecular formulas with their latter discussions of the composition and structure of nonmolecular solids. A study proposes that some method, such as the use of quotation marks, be adopted to differentiate unambiguously…

Jensen, William B.

2004-01-01

456

Geometrical simplification of the dipole-dipole interaction formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice as large. The physical facts are naturally known, but the transformation presented seems to underline the geometrical features in a rather unexpected way. The consequence of the features discussed is the so-called magic angle which appears in many applications. The present discussion contributes to an easier introduction of this feature. We also discuss the possibility of designing educational toys and try to suggest why this formula has not been written down frequently before this work. A similar transformation is also possible for the field of a single dipole. In this case we found one such formula on the Web, but we could not find any published detailed discussion for this case either.

Kocbach, Ladislav; Lubbad, Suhail

2010-07-01

457

Handbook of Industrial Engineering Equations, Formulas, and Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first handbook to focus exclusively on industrial engineering calculations with a correlation to applications, Handbook of Industrial Engineering Equations, Formulas, and Calculations contains a general collection of the mathematical equations often used in the practice of industrial engineering. Many books cover individual areas of engineering and some cover all areas, but none covers industrial engineering specifically, nor do they

Adedeji B Badiru; Olufemi A Omitaomu

2011-01-01

458

New scaling for compressible wall turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical Mach-number (M) scaling in compressible wall turbulence was suggested by van Driest (Van Driest E R. Turbulent boundary layers in compressible fluids. J Aerodynamics Science, 1951, 18(3): 145-160) and Huang et al. (Huang P G, Coleman G N, Bradshaw P. Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modeling. J Fluid Mech, 1995, 305: 185-218). Using a concept of velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS), defined by high correlation regions in a field of two-point cross-correlation coefficient between a velocity and a vorticity component, we have discovered a limiting VVCS as the closest streamwise vortex structure to the wall, which provides a concrete Morkovin scaling summarizing all compressibility effects. Specifically, when the height and mean velocity of the limiting VVCS are used as the units for the length scale and the velocity, all geometrical measures in the spanwise and normal directions, as well as the mean velocity and fluctuation (r.m.s) profiles become M-independent. The results are validated by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible channel flows with M up to 3. Furthermore, a quantitative model is found for the M-scaling in terms of the wall density, which is also validated by the DNS data. These findings yield a geometrical interpretation of the semi-local transformation (Huang et al., 1995), and a conclusion that the location and the thermodynamic properties associated with the limiting VVCS determine the M-effects on supersonic wall-bounded flows.

Pei, Jie; Chen, Jun; Fazle, Hussain; She, ZhenSu

2013-09-01

459

Generalized Van Hove Formula for Scattering of Neutrons by the Nonequilibrium Statistical Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of scattering of particles (e.g., neutrons) by statistical medium was recast for the nonequilibrium statistical medium. The correlation scattering function of the relevant variables give rise to a very compact and entirely general expression for the scattering cross-section of interest. The formula obtained by Van Hove provides a convenient method of analyzing the properties of slow neutron and light scattering by systems of particles such as gas, liquid or solid in the equilibrium state. In this paper the theory of scattering of particles by many-body system was reformulated and generalized for the case of nonequilibrium statistical medium. A new method of quantum-statistical derivation for the space and time Fourier transforms of the Van Hove correlation function was formulated. Thus in place of the usual Van Hove scattering function, a generalized one was deduced and the result was shown to be of greater potential utility than those previously given in the literature. This expression gives a natural extension of the familiar Van Hove formula for scattering of slow neutrons for the case in which the system under consideration is in a nonequilibrium state. The feasibility of light- and neutron-scattering experiments to investigate the appropriate problems in real physical systems was discussed briefly.

Kuzemsky, A. L.

2012-07-01

460

[Chest wall reconstruction after resection of chest wall tumors].  

PubMed

Between 1994 and 2012, chest wall resection and reconstruction were performed 15 patients (16 cases) with primary chest wall tumors, metastatic tumors. and chest wall recurrence of breast carcinoma. In all the patients, reconstruction of the chest wall was performed using layers of polypropylene Marlex mesh sheets. In 9 patients, only Marlex mesh sheets were used. The post-operative course was uneventful, and neither paradoxical respiration nor respiratory failure was observed. In 2 patients, reconstructions of the sternum was performed using a Marlex mesh sandwich. A full thickness chest wall defect was reconstructed using Marlex mesh and a pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. Chest wall recurrence of breast cancer and primary leiomyosarcoma of the chest wall were observed in 4 and 1 patient, respectively. In conclusion, polypropylene Marlex mesh sheets arranged in a layered form appear to be a stable prosthetic material for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:24743410

Yoshiya, Katsuo; Koizumi, Takahisa; Shinohara, Hirohiko; Aoki, Tadashi; Koike, Teruaki

2014-01-01

461

4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

462

Earthquake Resistant Structural Walls, Tests of Isolated Walls. Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Behavior of structural walls for use in earthquake resistant buildings is studied. Included is a presentation of results from sixteen tests on isolated walls. The tests were conducted in an attempt to develop design criteria for reinforced concrete struct...

A. E. Fiorato H. G. Russell J. D. Aristizabal-Ochoa R. G. Oesterle W. G. Corley

1979-01-01

463

Formula for Success: Adding High-Quality Pre-K to State School Funding Formulas. Education Reform Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families, teachers and policy makers increasingly understand that high-quality pre-kindergarten is a critical part of children's educational experience. In 13 states and the District of Columbia, Pre-K programs are financed through the school funding formula. This report, co-written with the Education Law Center, discussed the benefits and…

Boylan, Ellen; White, Shad

2010-01-01

464

Determination of biotin and folate in infant formula and milk by optical biosensor-based immunoassay.  

PubMed

Biomolecular interaction analysis was evaluated for the automated analysis of biotin- and folate-supplemented infant formulas and milk powders. The technique was configured as a biosensor-based, nonlabeled inhibition immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies raised against analyte-conjugate. Sample extraction conditions were optimized and antibodies were evaluated for cross-reactivity. Performance parameters included a quantitation range of 2-70 ng/mL, recoveries of 86-102%, agreement against assigned reference values for National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1846, between-laboratory reproducibility relative standard deviation of 9.1% for biotin and 8.1% for folate, respectively, and equivalence against reference microbiological assay methods for both analytes. PMID:11048855

Indyk, H E; Evans, E A; Bostrom Caselunghe, M C; Persson, B S; Finglas, P M; Woollard, D C; Filonzi, E L

2000-01-01

465

A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.

Hill, P R

1958-01-01

466

THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S E

2009-08-17

467

Secrets of the Great Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A companion site to the Discovery special of the same name, Secrets of the Great Wall offers information about the construction and history of the Great Wall as well as substantial background information on the dynasties that "built and rebuilt the wall over a period of one thousand years." The site also features maps of China showing the Wall's location, satellite photos of the wall from space, a "Random Great Wall Factoid Generator," and videotaped panoramic views of the Wall. Note: These IPIX images require a Java plug-in that is available at the site. Celebrating more modern feats of Chinese engineering, Secrets of the Great Wall also links to Valley of the Dammed, a Discovery site examining China's construction of "the world's largest dam" on the Yangtze River.

Rause, Vince.

468

Scaling the Plant Cell Wall  

NSF Publications Database

... Scaling the Plant Cell Wall New method brings greater understanding of how plants build cell walls ... plant, Arabidopsis. The team, which was supported in part by the National Science Foundation?s Plant ...

469

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

470

Border Crossings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that communities, cities, and nations are no longer culturally and ethnically monolithic and examines the possibilities of human fellowships based on faith. Highlights intermarriage, migration, and changes in family structure as sources of complexity, but argues that we must learn how to live together after having crossed traditional…

Garcia-Rivera, Alex

1996-01-01

471

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

472

Development of wall climbing robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A configuration design is presented for a wall-climbing robot with high payload which is capable of moving on diversified surfaces of walls including the wall surface to ceilings in every direction. A developed quadruped wall climbing robot, NINJYA-1, is introduced. NINJYA-1 is composed of legs based on a 3D parallel link mechanism and a VM (Valve-regulated Multiple) sucker which will

Hisao Kojima; Ryousei Toyama; Kengo Kobayashi

1992-01-01

473

Computer analysis of thin-walled structural members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of the stresses and failure modes in thin-walled structural members is a complex procedure. Structural designers will often need help in analysing these types of structures. A vehicle for providing this help is the computer program developed for the microcomputer. In this paper, a computer procedure is described for the cross-section analysis and elastic buckling analysis of thin-walled structural members. The cross-section analysis calculates the section properties, warping displacements, and the longitudinal and shear stresses for thin-walled open and closed cross-sections of any shape. The longitudinal stresses are used to perform an elastic finite strip buckling analysis of thin-walled structural members. The analysis can be done for a number of different buckle half-wavelengths of the member and the load factor and buckled shape are output for each length. The analysis is performed by the user-friendly computer program THIN-WALL, which is also described in the paper.

Papangelis, J. P.; Hancock, G. J.

1995-07-01

474

Side Shield for Wall Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method employs curved shield on each side of mining machine. In stowed position, shield folded against roof-support columns on one side. In deployed position, shield raised and braced against coal-seam wall by hydraulic cylinder. Shield supports wall until roof and wall properly secured by bolting and cement coating.

Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

475

The Cell Walls of Platymonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Electron micrographs of cell walls of the unicellular green flagellate Platymonas subcordifomis revealed no evidence of a fibrous construction. A prepara- tion of walls was isolated, hydrolysed, and analysed by paper chromatography. The major components indicated were galactose and a uronic acid ; glucose was not de- tected. It was concluded that the cell walls of this alga are

R. A. Lewin

1958-01-01

476

Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

Lewis, E. V.

1987-01-01

477

Subshell formula for the Bethe-Born stopping approximation  

SciTech Connect

It is known that the subshell contributions to the coefficient of the O(lnE) asymptotic term of the Bethe-Born stopping-number formula are not given correctly by partitioning the squared matrix element defining this coefficient into a simple sum of its subshell contributions. This interesting result is extended to the second, or O(1), asymptotic term in the stopping number. In this case, the subshell decomposition results in a sum of two expressions. One is simply the subshell decomposition of the squared matrix element defining the O(1) coefficient for the total system. The second term is more complex in form but sums to zero, as it must, when summed over all subshells in the target. It is pointed out that this second term and its summation requirement can be used to impose a useful restriction on the construction of theoretical subshell corrections for the Bethe-Born formula.

Peek, J.M.

1983-05-01

478

Classical generalization of the Drude formula for the optical conductivity  

SciTech Connect

A simple classical generalization of the Drude formula is derived based on the impulse response approach and Poisson statistics. The new feature is a parameter c, which is a measure of persistence of velocity. With negative values of c, it is possible to mimic the infrared properties of poor metals that display a minimum in the optical conductivity at zero frequency. The electron current in these cases reverses direction before decaying to zero. Specific examples considered are Hg and its amalgams, liquid Te, and the quasicrystal Al{sub 63.5}Cu{sub 24.5}Fe{sub 12}. Discussion is offered on the connection with interband transitions, on the distinction between the electron lifetime and the transport relaxation time, and on other generalizations of the Drude formula.

Smith, N. V.

2001-10-15

479

Improved Polynomial Identity Testing for Read-Once Formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An arithmetic read-once formula (ROF for short) is a formula (a circuit whose underlying graph is a tree) in which the operations are { + ,×} and such that every input variable labels at most one leaf. In this paper we study the problems of giving deterministic identity testing and reconstruction algorithms for ROFs. Our main result is an n^{{mathcal{O}}(k + log n)} time deterministic algorithm for checking whether a black box holding the sum of k n-variate ROFs computes the zero polynomial. In other words, we provide a hitting set of size n^{{mathcal{O}}(k + log n)} for the sum of k ROFs. This result greatly improves [27] where an n^{{mathcal{O}}(k^2 + sqrt n)} algorithm was given for the problem.

Shpilka, Amir; Volkovich, Ilya

480

Exact blocking formulas for spin and gauge models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the example of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model, we show that in contrast to what can be done in configuration space, the tensor renormalization group formulation allows one to write exact, compact, and manifestly local blocking formulas and exact coarse-grained expressions for the partition function. We argue that similar results should hold for most models studied by lattice gauge theorists. We provide exact blocking formulas for several 2D spin models [the O(2) and O(3) sigma models and the SU(2) principal chiral model] and for the three-dimensional gauge theories with groups Z2, U(1) and SU(2). We briefly discuss generalizations to other groups, higher dimensions and practical implementations.

Liu, Yuzhi; Meurice, Y.; Qin, M. P.; Unmuth-Yockey, J.; Xiang, T.; Xie, Z. Y.; Yu, J. F.; Zou, Haiyuan

2013-09-01

481

Correlation of Kinetic Moment of Inertia with Power Formula Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level energies of ground band of even Z, even N nuclei may be reproduced well with good accuracy by using the power index formula E = aIb. In an earlier study of the dependence of the kinetic moment of inertia (MoI) J(1) on spin I, a possible correlation of the MoI J(1) with power index "b" was suggested. Here we illustrate that the slope of the kinetic MoI versus spin I corresponds to the magnitude of the index "b" for several isotopes in the A = 100-150 region. The validity of the formula is illustrated for light nuclei in A = 100 region and its use for studying shape phase transition at N = 60.

Kumar, Rajesh; Katoch, Vikas; Sharma, S.; Gupta, J. B.

2012-10-01

482

An explicit formula for metal wire plasmon of terahertz wave.  

PubMed

An explicit formula for metal wire plasmon of terahertz wave is analytically derived. The derivation is based on the huge relative permittivities of nonmagnetic metals in the spectral region of terahertz wave, some important properties of modified Bessel functions, and a suitable Taylor expansion. The obtained formula is further checked by many numerical tests. We find that, for all 11 tested nonmagnetic metals, for the whole spectral region of terahertz wave, and for the wide radius range from 10 microm to infinity, the relative deviation for the effective index is always smaller than 5%. This good agreement clearly shows that the derived expression can be conveniently used for the analysis and design of metal wire plasmon of terahertz wave. PMID:19997314

Yang, Jie; Cao, Qing; Zhou, Changhe

2009-11-01

483

On a quadrature formula of Gori and Micchelli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparked by Bojanov (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 70 (1996) 349), we provide an alternate approach to quadrature formulas based on the zeros of the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind for any weight function w introduced and studied in Gori and Micchelli (Math. Comp. 65 (1996) 1567), thereby improving on their observations. Upon expansion of the divided differences, we obtain explicit expressions for the corresponding Cotes coefficients in Gauss-Turan quadrature formulas for and I(fTn;w) for a Gori-Micchelli weight function. It is also interesting to mention what has been neglected for about 30 years by the literature is that, as a consequence of expansion of the divided differences in the special case when , the solution of the famous Turan's Problem 26 raised in 1980 was in fact implied by a result of Micchelli and Rivlin (IBM J. Res. Develop. 16 (1972) 372) in 1972. Some concluding comments are made in the final section.

Yang, Shijun

2005-04-01

484

Evaluation of Open-Formula Grower Diets for Juvenile Walleyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two feeding trials (72 and 91 d) with replicated treatments were conducted to evaluate four experimental open-formula diets for juvenile walleyes Sander vitreus. The four diets were similar in crude protein (45.3–48.5%) and energy (1,149–1,175 J\\/g) but differed in the type of oil used (menhaden, flaxseed, soy, and commercial microalgae oil [CMP] with a high omega-3 fatty acid content). The

Robert C. Summerfelt; Richard D. Clayton

2007-01-01

485

Formulas Giving Buildup Factor for Double-Layered Shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulas that give absorbed dose buildup factors for two-layered shields have been developed based on gamma-ray absorption buildup factors computed with the Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Transport Code System (MCNP). The shielding materials considered were water, lead, steel, concrete, and some of their combinations for two-layered shields with thicknesses between 1 to 10 mfp. Gamma energy considered ranged from 0.5

Mevlut Guvendik; Nicholas Tsoulfanidis

2000-01-01

486

Testing CIELAB-based color-difference formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMC, BFD, and CIE94 color-difference for- mulas have been compared throughout their weighting functions to the CIELAB componentsDL*, DC*, DH*, and from their performance with respect to several wide data- sets from old and recent literature. Predicting the magni- tude of perceived color differences, a statistically significant improvement upon CIELAB should be recognized for these three formulas, in particular

Manuel Melgosa

2000-01-01

487

The Joule-Thomson expansion coefficient by formula manipulation  

SciTech Connect

By use of formula manipulation, practical programs used to estimate the Joule-Thomson coefficients are presented in this paper. The available equations of state used include the following: van der Waals, Virial, BWR, RK, and SRK. The Joule-Thomson coefficients for nitrogen and ethane are estimated by the proposed programs, and their ability to reproduce experimental values is tested. It is found that the RK equation yields the best results for nitrogen and ethane despite its simplicity.

Hirose, Y.; Kitazawa, T. (Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo 158 (JP)); Yoshida, T. (Chiba Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

1990-07-01

488

Some approximate Kohn-Sham molecular energy formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density functional calculations have been carried out for 12 molecules by several different Kohn-Sham procedures in order to test the effectiveness of two approximate molecular energy formulas that have been applied earlier in the context of Hartree-Fock theory. The equation Epsilonmolecular = 3\\/7(nune + 2nunn), in which nu ne and nu nn are the nuclear-electronic attraction and the nuclear repulsion,

Peter Politzer Fakher Abu-Awwad; FAKHER ABU-AWWAD

1998-01-01

489

General formulas for fixed-length quantum entanglement concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

General formulas of entanglement concentration are derived by using an information-spectrum approach for the i.i.d. sequences and the general sequences of partially entangled pure states. That is, we derive general relations between the performance of the entanglement concentration and the eigenvalues of the partially traced state. The achievable rates with constant constraints and those with exponential constraints can be calculated

Masahito Hayashi

2002-01-01

490

General formulas for fixed-length quantum entanglement concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

General formulas of entanglement concentration are derived by using an information-spectrum approach for the i.i.d. sequences and the general sequences of partially entangled pure states. That is, we derive general relations between the performance of the entanglement concentration and the eigen- values of the partially traced state. The achievable rates with constant constraints and those with exponential constraints can be

Masahito Hayashi

2006-01-01