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1

Witten index and wall crossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the Witten index of one-dimensional gauged linear sigma models with at least = 2 supersymmetry. In the phase where the gauge group is broken to a finite group, the index is expressed as a certain residue integral. It is subject to a change as the Fayet-Iliopoulos parameter is varied through the phase boundaries. The wall crossing formula is expressed as an integral at infinity of the Coulomb branch. The result is applied to many examples, including quiver quantum mechanics that is relevant for BPS states in d = 4 =2 theories.

Hori, Kentaro; Kim, Heeyeon; Yi, Piljin

2015-01-01

2

Wall crossing, quivers and crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectrum of BPS D-branes on a Calabi-Yau manifold using the 0 + 1 dimensional quiver gauge theory that describes the dynamics of the branes at low energies. We argue that Seiberg dualities of the quiver correspond to crossing the "walls of the second kind" of Kontsevich and Soibelman. There is a large class of examples where the BPS degeneracies of quivers corresponding to one D6 brane bound to arbitrary numbers of D4, D2 and D0 branes are counted by melting crystal configurations. The shape of the crystal is determined by the Calabi-Yau geometry and the background B-field, and its microscopic structure by the quiver Q. We prove that the BPS degeneracies computed from Q and Q' are related by the Kontsevich-Soibelman formula. We also show that, in the limit of infinite B-field, the combinatorics of crystals becomes that of the topological vertex, thus re-deriving the Gromov-Witten/Donaldson-Thomas correspondence.

Aganagic, Mina; Schaeffer, Kevin

2012-10-01

3

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

4

Repulsive interaction of N eel walls, and the internal length scale of the cross{tie wall  

E-print Network

Repulsive interaction of N#19;eel walls, and the internal length scale of the cross{tie wall;eel walls and cross{tie walls are two structures commonly seen in ferro- magnetic thin #12;lms studies (a) the repulsive interaction of one{dimensional N#19;eel walls; and (b) the inter- nal length

Otto, Felix

5

Formula for proton-nucleus reaction cross section at intermediate energies and its application  

E-print Network

We construct a formula for proton-nucleus total reaction cross section as a function of the mass and neutron excess of the target nucleus and the proton incident energy. We deduce the dependence of the cross section on the mass number and the proton incident energy from a simple argument involving the proton optical depth within the framework of a black sphere approximation of nuclei, while we describe the neutron excess dependence by introducing the density derivative of the symmetry energy, L, on the basis of a radius formula constructed from macroscopic nuclear models. We find that the cross section formula can reproduce the energy dependence of the cross section measured for stable nuclei without introducing any adjustable energy dependent parameter. We finally discuss whether or not the reaction cross section is affected by an extremely low density tail of the neutron distribution for halo nuclei.

Kei Iida; Akihisa Kohama; Kazuhiro Oyamatsu

2006-02-03

6

K-shell photoionization cross sections - Calculations and simple fitting formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple analytic formulas are proposed to fit the theoretical Hartree-Dirac-Slater K-shell photoionization cross sections of atoms and ions with atomic number of 26 or higher. It is shown that the criterion of Kamrukov et al. (1983) permits the description of many cross sections for a variety of atoms and ions. Fitting parameters are shown for the photoionization cross sections of

I. M. Band; M. B. Trzhaskovskaia; D. A. Verner; D. G. Iakovlev

1990-01-01

7

Avron-Herbst Type Formula in Crossed Constant Magnetic and Time-Dependent Electric Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we give an Avron-Herbst type formula for the propagator generated by the free Hamiltonian with crossed constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. As an application of the formula, we give a result of the existence of the wave operators under some appropriate conditions on the time-dependent electric field and the potential. Finally, in the case where the electric field is time-independent, we consider the problem of the asymptotic completeness of the wave operators.

Adachi, Tadayoshi; Kawamoto, Masaki

2012-10-01

8

Lifshitz-type formulas for graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes: van der Waals and Casimir interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifshitz-type formulas are obtained for the van der Waals and Casimir interaction between graphene and a material plate, graphene and an atom or a molecule, and between a single-wall carbon nanotube and a plate. The reflection properties of electromagnetic oscillations on graphene are governed by the specific boundary conditions imposed on the infinitely thin positively charged plasma sheet, carrying a continuous fluid with some mass and charge density. The obtained formulas are applied to graphene interacting with Au and Si plates, to hydrogen atoms and molecules interacting with graphene, and to single-wall carbon nanotubes interacting with Au and Si plates. The generalizations to more complicated carbon nanostructures are discussed.

Bordag, M.; Geyer, B.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

2006-11-01

9

(p,?) Reaction Cross Sections Calculations of Fe and Ni Target Nuclei Using New Developed Semi-empirical Formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) are important fusion structural materials in reactor technology. The gas production in the metallic structure arising from many different types of nuclear reactions has been a significant damage mechanism in structural components of fusion reactors. The hydrogen and its isotopes at high temperatures leave out of the metallic lattice but the alpha (?) particles that remain in the lattice generate helium (He) gas bubbles. In other words, the ? particles can cause serious changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the fusion structural materials. In this study, the excitation functions of 54,57Fe(p,?) and 58,60,61,64Ni(p,?) reactions have been investigated in the incident proton energy range of 10-40 MeV to estimate the radiation damage effects on fusion structural materials used in the construction of the first walls and core of the reactor. The calculations of (p,?) reaction cross sections on 54,57Fe and 58,60,61,64Ni have been made by using PCROSS code and CEM95 code. The full exciton and cascade exciton model (CEM95) for pre-equilibrium calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing model for equilibrium calculations are used. Besides, the semi-empirical cross section formula with new coefficient obtained by Tel et al. (Pramana J Phys 74:931-943, 2010) has been applied for (p,?) reactions at 17.9 MeV proton incident energy.

Tel, E.; Akca, S.; Kara, A.; Yi?it, M.; Ayd?n, A.

2013-10-01

10

Growth Thursday, March 6 Cross-polarized optical excitation of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

of the depolarization effect, or so-called antenna effect, cross-polarized op- tical absorption of single-walled carbonGrowth Thursday, March 6 19:00 Cross-polarized optical excitation of single-walled carbon nanotubes of micelle wrapped SWNTs, clearly identified PL peaks due to cross-polarized excitation gives an im- portant

Maruyama, Shigeo

11

Microwave Absorption of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Soluble Cross-Linked Polyurethane Composites  

E-print Network

Microwave Absorption of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Soluble Cross-Linked Polyurethane Composites composites of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with soluble cross-linked polyurethane (SCPU) were because of their easy fabrication into various shapes.20-24 Polyurethanes (PUs), with possessing

Gao, Hongjun

12

Wall-crossing of D4-branes using flow trees  

E-print Network

The moduli dependence of D4-branes on a Calabi-Yau manifold is studied using attractor flow trees, in the large volume limit of the Kahler cone. One of the moduli dependent existence criteria of flow trees is the positivity of the flow parameters along its edges. It is shown that the sign of the flow parameters can be determined iteratively as function of the initial moduli, without explicit calculation of the flow of the moduli in the tree. Using this result, an indefinite quadratic form, which appears in the expression for the D4-D2-D0 BPS mass in the large volume limit, is proven to be positive definite for flow trees with 3 or less endpoints. The contribution of these flow trees to the BPS partition function is therefore convergent. From non-primitive wall-crossing is deduced that the S-duality invariant partition function must be a generating function of rational, multi-covering invariants instead of integer invariants.

Jan Manschot

2010-03-08

13

Explicit formulas for laminar natural convection heat transfer along vertical cylinders with power-law wall temperature distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural convection heat transfer coefficients for vertical cylinders with variable surface temperature distribution must be found by complex numerical integration of the corresponding system of governing differential equations. Its evaluation for practical heat transfer calculations is always based on more or less complex correlations fitted to numerical or experimental results. This paper presents alternative approximate formulas for the calculation of the local Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient and for laminar natural convection around vertical cylinders with power-law wall temperature distribution. These formulae have been derived from the integration of the energy and momentum equations, following the integral method and assuming some simplifying hypothesis, and then, finally fitted to numerical results in order to improve their accuracy. The formula obtained, with only two fitted coefficients, is able to predict the corresponding Nusselt number with a maximum error of 7% over a very wide range of Prandtl numbers (0.1-100) and curvatures, from slender vertical cylinders and needles to the flat plate case, and for the power-law exponents of practical interest.

Muñoz-Cobo, José; Corberán, José; Chiva, Sergio

2002-06-01

14

Formulas for Phase Velocity and Damping of Longitudinal Waves in Thick-Walled Viscoelastic Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency equation for longitudinal waves in a viscoelastic tube of infinite length filled with a viscous fluid is solved for the complex wavenumber, k(=k1+ik2). Thus for two modes, Young's mode and Lamb's mode, an explicit expression for k is obtained which yields the phase velocity c(=??k1, ?=radial frequency) and the damping constant k2. The formulas for k, c, and

Willem Klip; PIETER VAN LOONt; Dorothea A. Klip

1967-01-01

15

Curved thin-walled open-closed cross section beams with finite width  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a consistent formulation of the static behaviour of circular beams with thin-walled open-closed cross section is presented. The influence of the different radius of curvature of each element of the cross section is taken into account, assuming the hypothesis of linear elasticity and that the distortion of the cross section is prevented. The warping shape function is

Lando Mentrasti

1995-01-01

16

Wall Crossing of BPS States on the Conifold from Seiberg Duality and Pyramid Partitions  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the relation between pyramid partitions with a general empty room configuration (ERC) and the BPS states of D-branes on the resolved conifold. We find that the generating function for pyramid partitions with a length n ERC is exactly the same as the D6/D2/D0 BPS partition function on the resolved conifold in particular Kaehler chambers. We define a new type of pyramid partition with a finite ERC that counts the BPS degeneracies in certain other chambers. The D6/D2/D0 partition functions in different chambers were obtained by applying the wall crossing formula. On the other hand, the pyramid partitions describe T^3 fixed points of the moduli space of a quiver quantum mechanics. This quiver arises after we apply Seiberg dualities to the D6/D2/D0 system on the conifold and choose a particular set of FI parameters. The arrow structure of the dual quiver is confirmed by computation of the Ext group between the sheaves. We show that the superpotential and the stability condition of the dual quiver with this choice of the FI parameters give rise to the rules specifying pyramid partitions with length n ERC.

Wu-yen Chuang; Daniel L. Jafferis

2008-10-28

17

Cross-section optimal design of composite laminated thin-walled beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to perform optimal design of cross-section properties of thin-walled laminated composite beams. These properties are expressed as integrals based on the cross-section geometry, on the warping functions for torsion, shear bending and shear warping, and on the individual stiffness of the laminates constituting the cross-section. The finite element method is used in discretizing the theory. For design

J. Barradas Cardoso; Aníbal J. Valido

2011-01-01

18

Determinants of Murein Hydrolase Targeting to Cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan*  

PubMed Central

Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide ?-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1?4)-?-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells. PMID:22303016

Frankel, Matthew B.; Schneewind, Olaf

2012-01-01

19

Cross-shore distribution of longshore sediment transport: comparison between predictive formulas and field measurements  

E-print Network

Facility, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 1261 Duck Road, Duck, NC, 27949-4471, USA c and sediment transport from Duck, NC, collected during the DUCK85, SUPERDUCK, and SANDYDUCK field data of swell and storm conditions covered by the field data set. The Engelund­Hansen formula worked reasonably

US Army Corps of Engineers

20

A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.

Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

2009-01-01

21

A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.

Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

2009-01-01

22

The abdominal wall lumps and bumps: cross-sectional imaging spectrum.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the cross-sectional imaging spectrum of abnormalities that affect the abdominal wall, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cross-sectional imaging is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of abdominal-wall masses. With the increasing use of MRI, it is often possible to reach a diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis, thereby guiding effective management. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies will be illustrated, and the distinctive imaging characteristics of these entities will be highlighted. PMID:22884230

Virmani, Vivek; Sethi, Vineeta; Fasih, Najla; Ryan, John; Kielar, Ania

2014-02-01

23

DNA minor groove binding of cross-linked lexitropsins: experimental conditions required to observe the covalently linked WPPW (groove wall-peptide-peptide-groove wall) motif.  

PubMed Central

A theoretical analysis of binding interactions between covalently cross-linked lexitropsins and DNA is undertaken, in which a novel cyclic symmetric 2:2 dimeric lexitropsin-DNA-binding model is proposed. Applicability of commonly used techniques including NMR, quantitative footprinting, CD, and ethidium fluorometry to differentiate the covalently linked WPPW (groove Wall-Peptide-Peptide-groove Wall) from a 2:2 cross-linked lexitropsin-DNA duplex structure is examined. PMID:7612846

Chen, Y H; Lown, J W

1995-01-01

24

Estimation of erosion/corrosion rate in pipe walls by cross-correlation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In process plants, most pipelines are subject to erosion and/or corrosion due to the presence of aggressive agents, turbulence, or high fluid velocity. Among other causes, changes in process parameters can be considered as an important cause of changes in pipe wall erosion/corrosion rate. Quick detection of these changes by continuous monitoring of the thinning rate of the pipe wall can help prevent further wall damage at early stages of development. In this paper, we apply the cross-correlation technique to ultrasonic signals for accurate estimation of fine changes in the erosion/corrosion rate. The resolution of the cross-correlation technique is increased by combining it with curve fitting methods. The technique is applied to experimental data obtained from a test rig designed for simulating accelerated corrosion in pipes. The results of the new approach are compared with results obtained from a model-based estimation method and very good agreement is observed. The new approach is simple and fast and can be easily incorporated in ultrasonic measurement systems used in process plants.

Honarvar, F.; Salehi, F.; Safavi, V.; Sinclair, A. N.

2012-05-01

25

Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...

26

A cinnamoyl esterase from Aspergillus niger can break plant cell wall cross-links without release of free diferulic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cinnamoyl esterase, ferulic acid esterase A, from Aspergillus niger releases ferulic acid and 5-5- and 8-O-4-dehydrodiferulic acids from plant cell walls. The breakage of one or both ester bonds from dehydrodimer cross-links between plant cell wall polymers is essential for optimal action of carbohydrases on these substrates, but it is not known if cinnamoyl esterases can break these cross-links

Maria-Teresa Garcia-Conesa; Paul A. Kroon; John Ralph; Fred A. Mellon; Ian J. Colquhoun; Luc Saulnier; Jean-Francois Thibault; Gary Williamson

1999-01-01

27

Asymptotically-Correct Structural Modelling Of Thin-Walled Anisotropic Closed Cross-Section Rotating Slender Beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of a comprehensive and compact methodology to obtain the asymptotically-correct stiffness matrix of anisotropic,\\u000a thin-walled, closed cross-section, and rotating slender beams is presented. The Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM), which\\u000a utilizes small geometrical parameters inherent to thin-walled slender beams, is used to obtain the displacement and strain\\u000a fields, and the cross-sectional stiffness matrix without any ad hoc assumptions. The

F. Khouli; F. F. Afagh; R. G. Langlois

28

Investigation of coulomb and pairing effects using new developed empirical formulas for proton-induced reaction cross sections  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated Coulomb and pairing effects by using new empirical formulas including the new coefficients for (p, {alpha}) at 17.9 MeV, (p, np) at 22.3 MeV, and (p, n{alpha}) at 24.8 and 28.5 MeV energies. A new formula is obtained by adjusting Levkovskii's original asymmetry parameter formula and also Tel et al. formula for proton-induced reactions. The new coefficients by using least-squares fitting method for the reactions are determined. In addition, the findings of the present study are compared with the available experimental data.

Tel, E., E-mail: eyuptel@gazi.edu.tr; Aydin, E. G. [Gazi University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Aydin, A. [Kirikkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Kaplan, A. [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Boeluekdemir, M. H.; Okuducu, S. [Gazi University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

2010-03-15

29

Cross-sectional distortion behaviors of thin-walled rectangular tube in rotary-draw bending process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-sectional distortion usually appears during rotary-draw bending process of thin-walled rectangular tube with small bending radius. To study the cross-sectional distortion of the tube, a three-dimensional finite-element model of the process was developed based on ABAQUS\\/Explicit code and its reliability was validated by experiment. Then, the cross-sectional distortion behaviors of the tube were investigated. The results show that a

Gang-yao ZHAO; Yu-li LIU; He YANG; Cai-hong LU

2010-01-01

30

Analysis and Parametric Investigation of Active Open Cross Section Thin Wall Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static behaviour of active Open Cross Section Thin Wall Beams (OCSTWB) with embedded Active/Macro Fibre Composites (AFCs/MFCs) has been investigated for the purpose of advancing the fundamental theory needed in the development of advanced smart structures. An efficient code that can analyze active OCSTWB using analytical equations has been studied. Various beam examples have been investigated in order to verify this recently developed analytical active OCSTWB analysis tool. The cross sectional stiffness constants and induced force, moments and bimoment predicted by this analytical code have been compared with those predicted by the 2-D finite element beam cross section analysis codes called the Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional (VABS) analysis and the University of Michigan VABS (UM/VABS). Good agreement was observed between the results obtained from the analytical tool and VABS. The calculated cross sectional stiffness constants and induced force/moments, the constitutive relation and the six intrinstic static equilibrium equations for OCSTWB were all used together in a first-order accurate forward difference scheme in order to determine the average twist and deflections along the beam span. In order to further verify the analytical code, the static behaviour of a number of beam examples was investigated using 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA). For a particular cross section, the rigid body twist and displacements were minimized with the displacements of all the nodes in the 3-D FEA model that compose the cross section. This was done for a number of cross sections along the beam span in order to recover the global beam twist and displacement profiles from the 3-D FEA results. The global twist and deflections predicted by the analytical code agreed closely with those predicted by UM/VABS and 3-D FEA. The study was completed by a parametric investigation to determine the boundary conditions and the composite ply lay-ups of the active and passive plies that produce the greatest twist in an active I-beam spar using an induced bimoment. It was found that greater twist could be produced by distributing the active plies near the outer flange edges and towards the warping restrained beam root.

Griffiths, James

31

Bubble Formation from Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross-Flow Under Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-phase flows present a wide variety of applications for spacecraft thermal control systems design. Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter, the gas flow rate, and the liquid cross-flow velocity. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle.

Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

2000-01-01

32

A transglutaminase immunologically related to tissue transglutaminase catalyzes cross-linking of cell wall proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

The addition of primary amines to the growth medium of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupts cell wall assembly in both vegetative and zygotic cells. Primary amines are competitive inhibitors of the protein-cross-linking activity of transglutaminases. Two independent assays for transglutaminase confirmed a burst of extracellular activity during the early stages of cell wall formation in both vegetative cells and zygotes. When non-inhibiting levels of a radioactive primary amine ((14)C-putrescine) were added to the growth medium, both cell types were labeled in a reaction catalyzed by extracellular transglutaminase. The radioactive label was found specifically in the cell wall proteins of both cell types, and acid hydrolysis of the labeled material released unmodified (14)C-putrescine. Western blots of the proteins secreted at the times of maximal transglutaminase activity in both cell types revealed a single highly cross-reactive 72-kD band when screened with antibodies to guinea pig tissue transglutaminase. Furthermore, the proteins immunoprecipitated by this antiserum in vivo exhibited transglutaminase activity. We propose that this transglutaminase is responsible for an early cell wall protein cross-linking event that temporally precedes the oxidative cross-linking mediated by extracellular peroxidases. PMID:10557250

Waffenschmidt, S; Kusch, T; Woessner, J P

1999-11-01

33

A Transglutaminase Immunologically Related to Tissue Transglutaminase Catalyzes Cross-Linking of Cell Wall Proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1  

PubMed Central

The addition of primary amines to the growth medium of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupts cell wall assembly in both vegetative and zygotic cells. Primary amines are competitive inhibitors of the protein-cross-linking activity of transglutaminases. Two independent assays for transglutaminase confirmed a burst of extracellular activity during the early stages of cell wall formation in both vegetative cells and zygotes. When non-inhibiting levels of a radioactive primary amine (14C-putrescine) were added to the growth medium, both cell types were labeled in a reaction catalyzed by extracellular transglutaminase. The radioactive label was found specifically in the cell wall proteins of both cell types, and acid hydrolysis of the labeled material released unmodified 14C-putrescine. Western blots of the proteins secreted at the times of maximal transglutaminase activity in both cell types revealed a single highly cross-reactive 72-kD band when screened with antibodies to guinea pig tissue transglutaminase. Furthermore, the proteins immunoprecipitated by this antiserum in vivo exhibited transglutaminase activity. We propose that this transglutaminase is responsible for an early cell wall protein cross-linking event that temporally precedes the oxidative cross-linking mediated by extracellular peroxidases. PMID:10557250

Waffenschmidt, Sabine; Kusch, Thomas; Woessner, Jeffrey Paul

1999-01-01

34

Infant Formula  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means ... formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow's milk. If your baby seems to be allergic ...

35

Analysis of active closed cross-section slender beams based on asymptotically correct thin-wall beam theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An asymptotically correct theory for multi-cell thin-wall anisotropic slender beams that includes the shell bending strain measures is extended to include embedded active fibre composites (AFCs). A closed-form solution of the asymptotically correct cross-sectional actuation force and moments is obtained. Active thin-wall beam theories found in the literature neglect the shell bending strains, which lead to incorrect predictions for certain cross-sections, while the theory presented is shown to overcome this shortcoming. The theory is implemented and verified against single-cell examples that were solved using the University of Michigan/Variational Beam Sectional Analysis (UM/VABS) software. The stiffness constants and the actuation vector are obtained for two-cell and three-cell active cross-sections. The theory is argued to be reliable for efficient initial design analysis and interdisciplinary parametric or optimization studies of thin-wall closed cross-section slender beams with no initial twist or obliqueness.

Khouli, F.; Langlois, R. G.; Afagh, F. F.

2007-02-01

36

Actuation of Slender Thin-wall Anisotropic Open Cross-section Beams Based on Asymptotically Correct Vlasov Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asymptotically correct analysis of passive anisotropic thin-walled open cross-section beam-like structures using the variational asymptotic method (VAM) is extended to include embedded macro fiber composites. Application of the VAM to beam-like structures splits the problem into non-linear 1D theory along the selected beam reference line and linear 2D generalized 5 × 5 Vlasov theory augmented by a 5 ×

F. Khouli; J. Griffiths; F. F. Afagh; R. G. Langlois

2010-01-01

37

Endoscopic Sclerotherapy in Porcine Esophagus Changes Luminal Cross-Sectional Area and Wall Distensibility Dose and Time-Dependently  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose- and time-dependent effects ofendoscopic sclerotherapy on luminal cross-sectional areaand wall distensibility were studied in pigs at 5 and 12cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction by means of impedance planimetry. Sixteen healthyanimals underwent two sessions of endoscopicsclerotherapy two weeks apart with injections of either5 or 10 ml of 1% Polidocanol in the distal 7 cm of the esophagus each

Jens Aage; Kolsen Petersen; Christian Djurhuus; Jonathan Koff; Lars Vinter-Jensen; Hans Gregersen

1998-01-01

38

FIBER DEPOSITION ALONG AIRWAY WALLS: EFFECTS OF FIBER CROSS-SECTION ON ROTATIONAL INTERCEPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Airborne fibers present a threat to human health. athematical model of fiber motion is presented which suggests that significant rotational deposition occurs along airway walls downstream of human lung bifurcations. he predictions are validated by cited experimental data. oth pro...

39

Theoretical analyses of aerosol aging on a substrate without wall-effects by a cross-flow  

SciTech Connect

Long time ({approx}1 day) aging or reactions of aerosol is typically studied using either large aerosol chambers (> 10 m3) or particles supported on a substrate to minimize wall effects. To avoid wall effects in the latter, it is often essential that the wall reactivity be extremely small (<< 10-5 reactions per encounter) and that the particle loadings be very small (< 1 pg/cm2) to eliminate transport-limited trace gas depletion near the particles and substrate. We evaluate here a cross-flow approach, which greatly reduces these constraints. Particles are to be supported on a micromesh ({approx}50% or more open area) through which the reactive gas is drawn at around a few hundred cm/s. The analysis shows how the competitions between flow and diffusion establishes a 'zone of isolation' several microns wide around each reactive particle, outside of which the reactivity of other particles or the substrate are irrelevant to the local reactions. This cross-flow approach reduces the effects of substrate and collective particle reactivity typically orders of magnitude, and will facilitate aging studies of supported aerosols.

Cowin, James P.; Yang, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Iedema, Martin J.

2011-12-12

40

Correlation formulas for the frost thickness and heat transfer coefficient on a cylinder in humid air cross flow  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on results of an experimental investigation where the emphasis was placed on obtaining empirical correlations for the frost thickness-time history and the heat transfer coefficient-time history for a cylinder in humid air cross flow. The facility employed for the investigation consisted of a low velocity wind tunnel comprised of a rectangular test section, a transition section and a honeycomb placed at the tunnel entrance. An external refrigerator was used to cool an antifreeze solution having a mixture of 90% methanol and 10% ethylene glycol. Measured parameters included, among other things, the heat transfer coefficient as well as the frost thickness.

Sengupta, S.; Sherif, S.A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wong, K.V. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

41

Profiling of diferulates (plant cell wall cross-linkers) using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recalcitrance of grasses to enzymatic digestion arises to a significant degree from a complex array of phenolic crosslinks between cell wall polysaccharide chains that inhibit their conversion to biofuels and lower their nutritive value for animal feed applications. Polysaccharide esters of ferulic acid are abundant in plant cell walls. Crosslinks between polysaccharides are formed through oxidative dehydrodimerization of ferulates, producing dehydrodiferulates (henceforth termed diferulates). Such ferulates and diferulates further crosslink plant cell walls by radical coupling cross-reactions during lignification. Although cell wall digestibility can be improved by cell wall metabolic engineering, or post-harvest by various pretreatment processes, a more comprehensive understanding of the role and impact of ferulate crosslinking on polysaccharide hydrolysis would be accelerated by availability of analytical methods that can distinguish the various diferulates released during biomass pretreatments, many of which are isomers. In this report, we present an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) strategy for comprehensive separation and identification of diferulate isomers. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra of [M + H](+) ions distinguished various isomers without requiring derivatization. Characteristic product ions for 8-O-4-, 8-8-non-cyclic, 8-8-cyclic, 8-5-cyclic, 8-5-non-cyclic, and 5-5-linked isomers were identified. All diferulates were identified either as di-acids in extracts of NaOH-hydrolyzed corn stover, or as a diverse group of diferulate mono- and di-amides in extracts of Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX™)-treated corn stover. This approach allows for direct analysis of released diferulates with minimal sample preparation, and can serve as the foundation for high-throughput profiling and correlating pretreatment conditions with biomass digestibility in biorefineries producing biofuels and biochemicals. PMID:24040649

Vismeh, Ramin; Lu, Fachuang; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Humpula, James F; Azarpira, Ali; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Ralph, John; Jones, A Daniel

2013-11-01

42

Bubble Formation on a Wall in Cross-Flowing Liquid and Surrounding Fluid Motion,With and Without Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems for space-based thermal management and for the HEDS program demands a precise control of bubble size distribution in liquid. The necessity of bulk liquid motion for controlling bubble size and frequency in the space environment has been suggested by recent studies on pool, forced convection boiling and bubble formation in flowing liquid. The present work, consisting of two parts, explores bubble generation at wall in a cross-flowing liquid, i.e., in a forced convection boiling configuration. A schematic is shown. The first part looks into the bubble formation process under isothermal conditions in a reduced gravity environment, by injecting gas through a hole in the wall of a flowing liquid channel. In the latter part with channel wall heating, flow and temperature fields near a single bubble are studied under normal (1-g) and micro-gravity (mu-g) conditions. The objective of the isothermal experiments is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter (D(sub N)), the gas flow rate (Q(sub g)), and the liquid cross-flow velocity (U(sub L)). The reduced gravity data are shown. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle. With wall heating, liquid motion around an air bubble in cross-flowing 2cs silicone oil is experimentally investigated in 1-g. A spectral element based steady 2D numerical model is also developed. The traces of particles from experimental flow visualization and the corresponding computed streamlines are shown. At the upstream side of the bubble facing the cross-flow, thermocapillary and forced convection create liquid motion away from the wall, up along the surface. At the downstream side, a competing interaction between the two creates a recirculation cell, causing the bulk liquid to stagnate on the surface and separate thereafter. The important dimensionless parameters are - Surface tension and local cross-flow Reynolds numbers R(sub sigma)(U(sub ref)a/v) and Re(sub loc)(U(sub L)a/v), respectively based on reference thermocapillary U(sub ref)(sigma(sub T)Delta.T/mu, Delta T=T(sub wall)-T(sub liquid)) and local cross-flow velocity U(sub L), Prandtl number P(sub r) and Grashoff number Gr(rho.g.beta.DeltaTa(sup 3)/mu.v). Variation of the stagnation point with R(sub sigma) and Re(sub loc) is shown. Also shown are good agreement between experimental and numerical results in 1-g. The computational model is extended to mu-g condition to investigate temperature and velocity on the bubble surface, stagnation and reattachment points of the recirculation cell and wall heat transfer. It is observed that wall heating significantly alters the flow field around the bubble and thus the forces acting on the bubble, which control its detachment. Thus a combination of heating and liquid cross-flow can be utilized to precisely control bubble formation in a mu-g environment.

Bhunia, Avijit; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Nahra, Henry K.

2000-01-01

43

Theory of anisotropic thin-walled closed-cross-section beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variationally and asymptotically consistent theory is developed in order to derive the governing equations of anisotropic thin-walled beams with closed sections. The theory is based on an asymptotic analysis of two-dimensional shell theory. Closed-form expressions for the beam-stiffness coefficients, stress and displacement fields are provided. The influence of material anisotropy on the displacement field is identified. A comparison with the displacement fields obtained by other analytical developments is performed. The stiffness coefficients and static response are also compared with finite element predictions, closed-form solutions and test data.

Berdichevsky, Victor; Armanios, Erian; Badir, Ashraf

1992-01-01

44

Quadratic formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The quadratic formula is easy to solve, yet sufficiently sophisticated that it provides insight into oscillations of masses connected by springs, as well as insight into chemical bonds between atoms. The purpose of this video is to illustrate what it means to find the "zeros" or "roots" of the quadratic equation, both using a graphical description, as well as by analytically completing the square to obtain the famous quadratic formula.

2013-06-21

45

Vortex Partition Functions, Wall Crossing and Equivariant Gromov-Witten Invariants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we identify the problem of equivariant vortex counting in a (2,2) supersymmetric two dimensional quiver gauged linear sigma model with that of computing the equivariant Gromov-Witten invariants of the GIT quotient target space determined by the quiver. We provide new contour integral formulae for the and -functions encoding the equivariant quantum cohomology of the target space. Its chamber structure is shown to be encoded in the analytical properties of the integrand. This is explained both via general arguments and by checking several key cases. We show how several results in equivariant Gromov-Witten theory follow just by deforming the integration contour. In particular, we apply our formalism to compute Gromov-Witten invariants of the orbifold, of the Uhlembeck (partial) compactification of the moduli space of instantons on , and of A n and D n singularities both in the orbifold and resolved phases. Moreover, we analyse dualities of quantum cohomology rings of holomorphic vector bundles over Grassmannians, which are relevant to BPS Wilson loop algebrae.

Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr

2015-01-01

46

Vortex Partition Functions, Wall Crossing and Equivariant Gromov-Witten Invariants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we identify the problem of equivariant vortex counting in a (2,2) supersymmetric two dimensional quiver gauged linear sigma model with that of computing the equivariant Gromov-Witten invariants of the GIT quotient target space determined by the quiver. We provide new contour integral formulae for the {{I}} and {{J}} -functions encoding the equivariant quantum cohomology of the target space. Its chamber structure is shown to be encoded in the analytical properties of the integrand. This is explained both via general arguments and by checking several key cases. We show how several results in equivariant Gromov-Witten theory follow just by deforming the integration contour. In particular, we apply our formalism to compute Gromov-Witten invariants of the {{C}3/{Z}n} orbifold, of the Uhlembeck (partial) compactification of the moduli space of instantons on {{C}2} , and of A n and D n singularities both in the orbifold and resolved phases. Moreover, we analyse dualities of quantum cohomology rings of holomorphic vector bundles over Grassmannians, which are relevant to BPS Wilson loop algebrae.

Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr

2014-10-01

47

Silylesterification of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling between carboxylic and hydrosilane functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.

Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

2014-06-01

48

Prediction of Bubble Diameter at Detachment from a Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross Flow Under Reduced and Normal Gravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two-phase flow science. The objective of the present work is to theoretically investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate embodied in the momentum flux force, and orifice diameter on bubble formation in a wall-bubble injection configuration. A two-dimensional one-stage theoretical model based on a global force balance on the bubble evolving from a wall orifice in a cross liquid flow is presented in this work. In this model, relevant forces acting on the evolving bubble are expressed in terms of the bubble center of mass coordinates and solved simultaneously. Relevant forces in low gravity included the momentum flux, shear-lift, surface tension, drag and inertia forces. Under normal gravity conditions, the buoyancy force, which is dominant under such conditions, can be added to the force balance. Two detachment criteria were applicable depending on the gas to liquid momentum force ratio. For low ratios, the time when the bubble acceleration in the direction of the detachment angle is greater or equal to zero is calculated from the bubble x and y coordinates. This time is taken as the time at which all the detaching forces that are acting on the bubble are greater or equal to the attaching forces. For high gas to liquid momentum force ratios, the time at which the y coordinate less the bubble radius equals zero is calculated. The bubble diameter is evaluated at this time as the diameter at detachment from the fact that the bubble volume is simply given by the product of the gas flow rate and time elapsed. Comparison of the model s predictions was also made with predictions from a two-dimensional normal gravity model based on Kumar-Kuloor formulation and such a comparison is presented in this work.

Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.

2003-01-01

49

Effect of cross-linkable polymer on the morphology and properties of transparent multi-walled carbon nanotube conductive films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we fabricated optically transparent and electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thin films using a spray-coating technique. The transparency and the electrical resistance of thin film are dependent on the nanotube content deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used as adhesion promoters to improve MWCNT coating more significantly. The cross-linked polymer resulted in a superior bond between the MWCNTs and the substrates. The surface electrical resistance was significantly lower than the original sheet after nitric acid (HNO 3) treatment because of the removed surfactant and the increased interconnecting networks of MWCNT bundles, thus improving the electrical and optical properties of the films. Stronger interaction between the MWCNTs and the substrates resulted in lower decomposition of the polymer chain and less amounts of MWCNTs separated into the HNO 3 solution. The lower sheet electrical resistance of PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT conductive films on the PET substrate was because of a more complete conductive path with the cross-linked polymer than that without. Such an improved sheet of electrical resistance varied from 8.83 × 10 4 ?/? to 2.65 × 10 3 ?/? with 5.0 wt.% PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT sprayed on the PET after acid treatment.

Huang, Yuan-Li; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Teng, Chih-Chun; Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wei, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Sheng-Yen

2011-10-01

50

Theory of acoustic propagation in a multi-phase stratified liquid flowing within an elastic-walled conduit of varying cross-sectional area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical solution is derived for the sound field in an arbitrarily layered viscous fluid moving with the non-negligible Mach number within a duct with elastic walls and varying cross-sectional area. The solution is applied to the interpretation of infrasonic and seismic signals preceding and accompanying volcanic eruptions, and can be used to study the acoustic response of various types

M. A Garces

2000-01-01

51

Borate cross-linked/total rhamnogalacturonan II ratio in cell walls for the biochemical diagnosis of boron deficiency in hydroponically grown pumpkin.  

PubMed

Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for vascular plants. The function of B has been demonstrated to cross-link monomeric rhamnogalacturonan II (mRG-II) to form dimeric RG-II-borate (dRG-II-B), and thus to stabilize plant cell walls. The dRG-II-B to total RG-II ratio in the cell walls of pumpkin hydroponically grown under various low-B conditions was analyzed to evaluate its applicability to the diagnosis of plant B deficiency. The dRG-II-B ratio in cell walls ranged between approximately 0.9 in B-sufficient tissues and approximately 0.15 in severe B-deficient tissues, reflecting the B nutritional status of tissues. This result indicates that the degree of B shortage in plant tissues is very likely to be diagnosed by the dRG-II-B ratio in cell walls. PMID:16896255

Matsunaga, Toshiro; Ishii, Tadashi

2006-08-01

52

Cross-hole radar scanning of two vertical, permeable, reactive-iron walls at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A pilot-scale study was conducted by the U.S. Army National Guard (USANG) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to assess the use of a hydraulic-fracturing method to create vertical, permeable walls of zero-valent iron to passively remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The study was conducted near the source area of the Chemical Spill-10 (CS-10) plume, a plume containing chlorinated solvents that underlies the MMR. Ground-water contamination near the source area extends from about 24 m (meters) to 35 m below land surface. The USANG designed two reactive-iron walls to be 12 m long and positioned 24 to 37 m below land surface to intersect and remediate part of the CS-10 plume.Because iron, as an electrical conductor, absorbs electromagnetic energy, the US Geological Survey used a cross-hole common-depth, radar scanning method to assess the continuity and to estimate the lateral and vertical extent of the two reactive-iron walls. The cross-hole radar surveys were conducted in boreholes on opposite sides of the iron injection zones using electric-dipole antennas with dominant center frequencies of 100 and 250 MHz. Significant decreases in the radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans that traversed the injection zones were interpreted by comparing field data to results of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical models and laboratory-scale physical models.The numerical and physical models simulate a wall of perfectly conducting material embedded in saturated sand. Results from the numerical and physical models show that the amplitude of the radar pulse transmitted across the edge of a conductive wall is about 43 percent of the amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted across background material. The amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted through a hole in a conductive wall increases as the aperture of the hole increases. The modeling results indicate that holes with an aperture of less than 40 percent of the dominant wavelength of the radar pulse are not likely to be detected.Based on the results of the numerical and physical modeling, the decreases in radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans traversing the injection zones are interpreted as electrically conductive zones that outline the distribution of iron. The area interpreted as iron in the northern A-wall contains two zones -- an upper zone about 10 m wide, extending from about 25 to 31 m below land surface, and a lower zone about 8 m wide, extending from 31.5 to 34.5 m below land surface. The area interpreted as iron in the southern B-wall is about 9 m wide, extending from about 27 to 34.5 m below land surface. No discrete holes were interpreted in either the A- or B-wall zones.The interpretation of the field data suggests that (1) the hydraulic-fracturing method introduced iron into the subsurface, but not in the dimensions originally proposed; (2) the iron within the treatment zones is distributed in a generally continuous manner; and (3) excluding the discontinuity in the A-wall, holes within the iron treatment zone, if any, exist at scales smaller than about 10 cm, the resolution limit of the radar antennas and acquisition geometry used for this study. The cross-hole radar method appears to have been an effective method for delineating the distribution of iron in the two walls; however, the veracity of the results cannot be ascertained without excavation or drilling into the treatment zone.

Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Savoie, J.G.

2001-01-01

53

Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods subject to influence from cross draft.  

PubMed

The effects of draft on the flow and spillage characteristics of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were investigated. A specially designed draft generator that could supply low-swirl air current was used to provide "cross draft" from three directions, lateral (? = 0(o)), oblique (? = 45(o)), and front (? = 90(o)), with respect to the center point of the range hoods. Flow characteristics of oil mist were inspected through visualization of smoke flows with light scattering (laser light sheet-assisted visualization of smoke flow). The leakage mechanisms, which were closely related to the flow features, were studied by examining both movies and still pictures showing smoke-flow evolution. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas concentration detection method was employed to measure the capture indices. The results showed that the lateral draft pushed the pollutants generated under the hood in the opposite direction and induced serious spillage. The oblique draft pushed the pollutants toward both the rear wall and opposite side and induced more serious spillage than did the lateral draft. The frontal draft forced the pollutants to bifurcate into streams moving toward the left and the right, and induced the most serious pollutant spillage among the three tested drafts. Pollutant spillage became critically significant as the cross draft velocity was increased to greater than 0.2 m/sec. Spillage of pollutants increased as the velocity of the cross draft was increased. Increasing the suction flow rate of the range hood may increase resistance to the draft, but the benefits were limited at draft velocities greater than 0.2 m/sec. Both range hoods had a similarly low capture index under the influence of the lateral draft. For the oblique and frontal drafts, the jet-isolated range hood demonstrated a higher capture index than did the wall-mounted range hood. PMID:22150435

Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Peng, Kuan-Lin

2012-01-01

54

Direct experimental measurement of electron impact ionization-excitation branching ratios 4. Branching ratios and cross sections for <formula>O2+ at 100 eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100-eV ionization of molecular oxygen has been studied by the (e,2e) electron-electron coincidence method. Ionization to the ground state and five excited states of O2+ has been detected. Of these six electronic states, ionization to three, the X2?g, a4?u, and b4?g-, states, was found to account for approximately 95% of the O2+ production. Relative triple differential cross sections for the production of O2+ in these three states were measured as a function of ejected electron energy, ejected electron angle, and incident electron scattering angle. Ionization to the three higher energy states, B2?g-, 2?u, and c4?u-, was found to be much weaker, and it was only possible to estimate the branching ratios to these states. Ionization to the A2?u state, the upper state of the second negative bands of O2+, was not observed, as this state is only weakly excited and is overlaid by the stronger a4?u state. The branching ratios were found to be 0.540, 0.297, and 0.122 for the X2?g, a4?u, and b4?g- states, respectively. The total branching ratio for the B2?g-, 2?u, and c4?u- states was 0.042 (all values+/-20%). The branching ratio to the A2?u state was estimated to be <1%. The cross section for the X2?g, a4?u, and b4?g- states were calculated using the previously measured O2+ production cross section for 100-eV electrons on O2. The results were 92.2(+/-20%)×10-18cm2, 50.8(+/-20%)×10-18cm2, and 22.1(+/-20%)×10-18cm2, respectively. The b4?g- state cross section was in satisfactory agreement with the recalculated optical fluorescence data on the O2+ first negative band emission cross section of 37.1(+/-25%)×10-18cm2 [McConkey and Woolsey, 1969].

Doering, J. P.; Yang, J.

1997-05-01

55

Roles of Tyrosine-Rich Precursor Glycoproteins and Dityrosine- and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Mediated Protein Cross-Linking in Development of the Oocyst Wall in the Coccidian Parasite Eimeria maxima  

PubMed Central

The oocyst wall of apicomplexan parasites protects them from the harsh external environment, preserving their survival prior to transmission to the next host. If oocyst wall formation could be disrupted, then logically, the cycle of disease transmission could be stopped, and strategies to control infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage (macrogamete) of Eimeria maxima are proteolytically processed into smaller glycoproteins, which are then incorporated into the developing oocyst wall. The identification of high concentrations of dityrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in oocyst extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography, together with the detection of a UV autofluorescence in intact oocysts, implicates dityrosine- and possibly DOPA-protein cross-links in oocyst wall hardening. In addition, the identification of peroxidase activity in the wall-forming bodies of macrogametes supports the hypothesis that dityrosine- and DOPA-mediated cross-linking might be an enzyme-catalyzed event. As such, the mechanism of oocyst wall formation in Eimeria, is analogous to the underlying mechanisms involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrices in a number of organisms, widely distributed in nature, including insect resilin, nematode cuticles, yeast cell walls, mussel byssal threads, and sea urchin fertilization membranes. PMID:12796290

Belli, Sabina I.; Wallach, Michael G.; Luxford, Catherine; Davies, Michael J.; Smith, Nicholas C.

2003-01-01

56

Cross-Machine Comparison of Resonant Field Amplification and Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) Stabilization by Plasma Rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dedicated experiments in the DIII-D and JET tokamaks and the NSTX spherical torus reveal an aspect ratio A and safety factor q dependence of the stabilizing effect of plasma rotation on the RWM, which is used to discriminate among theories and improve stabilization strategies in future devices including ITER. Despite the different distance of the DIII-D and JET walls, the critical rotation for RWM stabilization normalized to the inverse Alfven time is the same. Similar NSTX plasmas at lower A, however, yield a significantly higher critical rotation. A decrease of the critical rotation with increasing q95 in DIII-D and JET is consistent with the 1/q^2 dependence observed in NSTX. This increase of rotational stabilization with increasing q is predicted by a kinetic damping model [Bondeson, Phys. Plasmas 3 (1996) 3013] and can be derived from a viscous damping model [Fitzpatrick, Phys. Plasmas 9 (2002) 3459] when taking into account neoclassical viscosity [Shaing, Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 5525]. The observed A dependence of the critical rotation follows from this theory. In each device the weakly damped n=1 mode manifests itself in resonant field amplification (RFA) above the no-wall stability limit. Applying n=1 fields in similar DIII-D and JET plasmas yields the same amplification confirming that the damping process is independent of the wall properties. The RFA is well described by a single weakly damped mode and can be used to infer the RWM damping rate and rotation frequency. Measurements of RFA induced rotation damping in DIII-D will be compared to NSTX observations that agree with neoclassical toroidal viscosity induced drag. 0.5em In collaboration with the DIII-D Team, JET-EFDA contributors and the NSTX Team.

Reimerdes, H.

2005-10-01

57

Improved Jänecke mass formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ?10 and proton number Z ?6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.

He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

2014-11-01

58

Cross-polarized optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes probed by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, UV-Vis-IR and polarized Raman Scatterings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the depolarization effect, or so-called antenna effect, optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is weak when excited by light polarized perpendicular to the nanotube axis. However, in photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectra of isolated SWNTs, PL peaks due to cross-polarized excitation can be clearly identified. By decomposing the cross-polarized component, the optical transition energy of E12 or E21 can be? measured, and the smaller exciton binding energy for perpendicular excitations is concluded [1]. Cross-polarized absorption is dominant in the absorption of a vertically aligned film of SWNTs [2] when excited from the top of the film. In our previous study, a pi-plasmon absorption at 5.25 eV was revealed in contrast to 4.5 eV for parallel excitation [3]. Resonant Raman scattering from such a film is also influenced by the cross-polarized excitation [4]. Even though a Kataura plot for the E33 and E44 range has been proposed by using such a vertically aligned film [5], polarized Raman scattering spectra reveal more complicated features in the system because of the small bundle size, typically 5-8 nanotubes [6]. References: [1] Y. Miyauchi, M. Oba, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006) 205440. [2] Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385 (2004) 298. [3] Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 087402. [4] Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 085403. [5] P. T. Araujo, S. K. Doorn, S. Kilina, S. Tretiak, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Chacham, M. A. Pimenta, A. Jorio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2007) 067401. [6] E. Einarsson, H. Shiozawa, C. Kramberger, M. H. Ruemmeli, A. Gruneis, T. Pichler, S. Maruyama, J. Phys. Chem. C (2007) published on Web.

Maruyama, Shigeo

2008-03-01

59

Designing State Aid Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

2009-01-01

60

The normal growth of the tracheal wall in human foetuses  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tracheal wall thickness is a substantial indicator in various pathological changes. The present study was performed to compile normative data and formulae for the tracheal wall thickness and volume at varying gestational age. Material and methods Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis and statistics a range of the wall thickness, proximal internal-to-external cross-sectional area ratio, and wall volume for the trachea in 73 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 14-25 weeks was examined. Results No significant male-female differences were found. The values of tracheal wall thickness ranged from 0.36 ±0.01 mm for the 14-week group to 1.23 ±0.17 mm for the 25-week group of gestation, according to the linear function y = –0.823 + 0.083 × age ± 0.087. The tracheal lumen rate, expressed as the proximal internal-to-external cross-sectional area ratio, decreased from 42.61 ±1.11% to 26.78 ±4.95%, according to the function y = 62.239 – 1.487 × age ±3.119. The tracheal wall volume rose from 16.28 ±4.18 mm3 in fetuses aged 14 weeks to 269.22 ±29.26 mm3 in fetuses aged 25 weeks, according to the quintic function y = 0.000052 × age4.894. Conclusions The tracheal wall parameters show no sexual dimorphism. The tracheal wall grows linearly in its length, and according to a quintic function in its volume. A relative decrease in the tracheal lumen at the expense of an increase in both the wall thickness and wall volume of the trachea is found during gestation. PMID:24273580

Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Anna; Wo?niak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Flisi?ski, Piotr; Wi?niewski, Marcin

2012-01-01

61

Atomic model of a cell-wall cross-linking enzyme in complex with an intact bacterial peptidoglycan.  

PubMed

The maintenance of bacterial cell shape and integrity is largely attributed to peptidoglycan, a highly cross-linked biopolymer. The transpeptidases that perform this cross-linking are important targets for antibiotics. Despite this biomedical importance, to date no structure of a protein in complex with an intact bacterial peptidoglycan has been resolved, primarily due to the large size and flexibility of peptidoglycan sacculi. Here we use solid-state NMR spectroscopy to derive for the first time an atomic model of an l,d-transpeptidase from Bacillus subtilis bound to its natural substrate, the intact B. subtilis peptidoglycan. Importantly, the model obtained from protein chemical shift perturbation data shows that both domains-the catalytic domain as well as the proposed peptidoglycan recognition domain-are important for the interaction and reveals a novel binding motif that involves residues outside of the classical enzymatic pocket. Experiments on mutants and truncated protein constructs independently confirm the binding site and the implication of both domains. Through measurements of dipolar-coupling derived order parameters of bond motion we show that protein binding reduces the flexibility of peptidoglycan. This first report of an atomic model of a protein-peptidoglycan complex paves the way for the design of new antibiotic drugs targeting l,d-transpeptidases. The strategy developed here can be extended to the study of a large variety of enzymes involved in peptidoglycan morphogenesis. PMID:25429710

Schanda, Paul; Triboulet, Sébastien; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M; Ayala, Isabel; Callon, Morgane; Arthur, Michel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

2014-12-24

62

Protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes studied using 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopies.  

PubMed

The reversible protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in sulfuric acid and Nafion was investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopies. Magic-angle spinning (MAS) was used to obtain high-resolution 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra. The 13C NMR chemical shifts are reported for bulk SWNTs, H2SO4-treated SWNTs, SWNT-Nafion polymer composites, SWNT-AQ55 polymer composites, and SWNTs in contact with water. Protonation occurs without irreversible oxidation of the nanotube substrate via a charge-transfer process. This is the first report of a chemically induced change in a SWNT 13C resonance brought about by a reversible interaction with an acidic proton, providing additional evidence that carbon nanotubes behave as weak bases. Cross polarization was found to be a powerful technique for providing an additional contrast mechanism for studying nanotubes in contact with other chemical species. The CP studies confirmed polarization transfer from nearby protons to nanotube carbon atoms. The CP technique was also applied to investigate water adsorbed on carbon nanotube surfaces. Finally, the degree of bundling of the SWNTs in Nafion films was probed with the 1H-13C CP-MAS technique. PMID:16332107

Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Davis, Mark F; Gennett, Thomas; Dillon, Anne C; Jones, Kim M; Heben, Michael J

2005-12-14

63

Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

1980-01-01

64

Earth pressure analysis on limited soils between front wall and back wall of griddling underground diaphragm wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the limit equilibrium theory and the hypothesis of double planar sliding plane, earth pressure calculation models of front and back walls of the underground diaphragm wall are established with the consideration of cohesion and the width of limited soils. And formulae are also deduced to calculate the earth pressure of the front and back walls. According to these

Wei Xu; Zanyun Xu; Qingfeng Shen

2011-01-01

65

Direct calculation of wall interferences and wall adaptation for two-dimensional flow in wind tunnels with closed walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the direct calculation of the wall induced interference velocity in two dimensional flow based on Cauchy's integral formula was derived. This one-step method allows the calculation of the residual corrections and the required wall adaptation for interference-free flow starting from the wall pressure distribution without any model representation. Demonstrated applications are given.

Amecke, Juergen

1986-01-01

66

Physical aspects of sound insulation through walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simplified summary, expository in nature, of the theory of airborne sound insulation of walls. The normal incidence mass law for both single and double walls is derived and suitably approximated to give easily usable forms. The frequency dependence of transmission loss is explained and approximate formulae for calculation of the resonance frequency of a double wall

K. K. Schiller

1967-01-01

67

Formula Fiction and Hypertext.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is pleasing about hypertext is what has always been pleasing about genre fiction: the creative process of reading. Genre novels are written to a formula--and often called formula fiction. Critics say they are written to make money and to make money only. According to C. S. Lewis, they "rot the mind." If looked at from the standpoint of…

Young, Beth Rapp

68

Selected Baking Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

Bogdany, Melvin

69

Syntactic Complexity Formula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to measure by quantifiable means syntactic complexity component of readability, the Syntactic Complexity Formula is based on the theory that syntactic patterns frequently found in the language of children might be a more valid criterion than sentence length for controlling syntax. The Formula's analysis is based on transformational…

Botel, Morton; Granowsky, Alvin

70

Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

2014-12-01

71

Two Novel Techniques for Determination of Polysaccharide Cross-Links Show that Crh1p and Crh2p Attach Chitin to both ?(1-6)- and ?(1-3)Glucan in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall? †  

PubMed Central

Previous work, using solubilization of yeast cell walls by carboxymethylation, before or after digestion with ?(1-3)- or ?(1-6)glucanase, followed by size chromatography, showed that the transglycosylases Crh1p and Crh2p/Utr2p were redundantly required for the attachment of chitin to ?(1-6)glucan. With this technique, crh1? crh2? mutants still appeared to contain a substantial percentage of chitin linked to ?(1-3)glucan. Two novel procedures have now been developed for the analysis of polysaccharide cross-links in the cell wall. One is based on the affinity of curdlan, a ?(1-3)glucan, for ?(1-3)glucan chains in carboxymethylated cell walls. The other consists of in situ deacetylation of cell wall chitin, generating chitosan, which can be extracted with acetic acid, either directly (free chitosan) or after digestion with different glucanases (bound chitosan). Both methodologies indicated that all of the chitin in crh1? crh2? strains is free. Reexamination of the previously used procedure revealed that the ?(1-3)glucanase preparation used (zymolyase) is contaminated with a small amount of endochitinase, which caused erroneous results with the double mutant. After removing the chitinase from the zymolyase, all three procedures gave coincident results. Therefore, Crh1p and Crh2p catalyze the transfer of chitin to both ?(1-3)- and ?(1-6)glucan, and the biosynthetic mechanism for all chitin cross-links in the cell wall has been established. PMID:19734368

Cabib, Enrico

2009-01-01

72

Quantitative evaluation of axial wall taper in prepared artificial teeth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the axial wall taper of prepared artificial teeth using a non-contact three-dimensional shape measuring system. A total of 54 artificial teeth prepared by pre-clinical dental students for complete cast restorations were evaluated. For quantitative analysis, five cross sections were computer-graphically placed perpendicularly to the z-axis. The surface coordinate values (x, y, z) of each cross section were converted into polar coordinate values (r, theta), which were then graphically rendered to a two-dimensional plane. At four points, each 90 degrees from the distal center point of the cross section, the axial wall taper was quantitatively calculated using a formula based on the differences in radius between the highest and lowest positions of the cross sections of the prepared tooth. The average calculated taper was 5.8 degrees in the distal region, 21.7 degrees in the buccal region, 14.9 degrees in the mesial region and 12.5 degrees in the lingual region. These results suggest that the axial wall taper of prepared teeth can be quantitatively evaluated using this measuring system. PMID:16313090

Okuyama, Yayoi; Kasahara, Shin; Kimura, Kohei

2005-09-01

73

AJ Geometric Formulas Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solve various attributes of shapes and solids. Includes calculations for circle, parallelogram, rectangle, square, trapezoid, right circular cone, right circular cylinder, rectangular solid, and sphere geometric formulas. Geometry attributes include volume, area, perimeter, surface area, radius, length and circumference.

Jimmy Raymond

74

A Simple Approach to the Landau-Zener Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Landau-Zener formula provides the probability of non-adiabatic transitions occurring when two energy levels are swept through an avoided crossing. The formula is derived here in a simple calculation that emphasizes the physics responsible for non-adiabatic population transfer. (Contains 2 figures.)

Vutha, Amar C.

2010-01-01

75

Piezoelectric behavior of wood under combined compression and vibration stresses II: Effect of the deformation of cross-sectional wall of tracheids on changes in piezoelectric voltage in linear-elastic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated and clarified the relation between the piezoelectric voltage and microscopic fracture of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtura Endl.), in particular the deformation of the cross-sectional wall of the tracheid in linear-elastic regions under combined\\u000a compression and vibration stresses. The piezoelectric voltage-deformation (P-D) curve consisted of a linear region starting from the origin followed by a convex curved region. The

Takahisa Nakai; Kose Ando

1998-01-01

76

Prediction of trajectories of a jet issuing normally across a wall boundary layer into a cross flow (an analysis based on a vortex filament model)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in jet penetration due to the wall boundary layer is estimated quantitatively in the flow field including an aerodynamic interference between the wall boundary layer and the jet. The aerodynamic effect of the wall boundary layer is replaced by that of a secondary vortex filament resulting from vorticity in the wall boundary layer. A differential equation governing the increase in jet penetration is derived using the circulation around the secondary vortex filaments, its induced velocity, and the empirical decay law of the maximum velocity along the jet center-line. The circulation around the secondary vortex filament is estimated according to Hawthorne's (1954) theory and expressed in terms of aerodynamic characteristics of the wall boundary layer. A numerical example shows fairly good agreement with the experiment.

Sugiyama, Yoshiyuki

1987-12-01

77

The Formula Essay Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

Haluska, Jan

2012-01-01

78

Formula Hybrid International Competition  

E-print Network

of the hybrid gasoline engine, there are more components to a hybrid drivetrain, including the electric motor, and computerized control systems. But the greatest obstacle of all was that hybrid cars could not meet newlyFormula Hybrid International Competition May 4, 5, 6, 2009 #12;09 annual third We are thrilled

Carver, Jeffrey C.

79

Research Timeline: Formulaic language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

Wray, Alison

2013-01-01

80

A Formula for Factoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests use of the quadratic formula to build understanding that connections between factors and solutions to equations work both ways. Making use of natural connections among concepts allows students to work more efficiently. Presents four sample problems showing the roots of equations. Messy quadratic equations with rational roots can be solved…

Roebuck, Kay I. Meeks

1997-01-01

81

Lesson 14: Quadratic Formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completing the square is applied to the general quadratic to derive the quadratic formula. Before an area application example is given there is a quick review of the four methods that have been presented for solving quadratic equations. Complex numbers are introduced before the discriminant is presented.

2011-01-01

82

27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...b) Filing. Formulas shall be filed on TTB Form 5154.1, Formula and Process...If a product's formula is disapproved...Numbering. The formulas shall be serially...However, a new formula for use at...

2011-04-01

83

27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...b) Filing. Formulas shall be filed on TTB Form 5154.1, Formula and Process...If a product's formula is disapproved...Numbering. The formulas shall be serially...However, a new formula for use at...

2012-04-01

84

27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...b) Filing. Formulas shall be filed on TTB Form 5154.1, Formula and Process...If a product's formula is disapproved...Numbering. The formulas shall be serially...However, a new formula for use at...

2014-04-01

85

27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...b) Filing. Formulas shall be filed on TTB Form 5154.1, Formula and Process...If a product's formula is disapproved...Numbering. The formulas shall be serially...However, a new formula for use at...

2013-04-01

86

Rate of Convergence for Cardy's Formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that crossing probabilities in 2D critical site percolation on the triangular lattice in a piecewise analytic Jordan domain converge with power law rate in the mesh size to their limit given by the Cardy-Smirnov formula. We use this result to obtain new upper and lower bounds of for the probability that the cluster at the origin in the half-plane has diameter R, improving the previously known estimate of R -1/3+ o(1).

Mendelson, Dana; Nachmias, Asaf; Watson, Samuel S.

2014-07-01

87

2007 Formula SAE pedal box  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is the design and implementation of the pedal box for the 2007 MIT Formula SAE car. Formula SAE is a collegiate competition in which groups of degree seeking students design and manufacture small ...

Schiller, Brad W

2007-01-01

88

Efficient Simplification of Bisimulation Formulas  

E-print Network

Efficient Simplification of Bisimulation Formulas Uffe H. Engberg1 Kim S. Larsen23 ABSTRACT The problem of checking or optimally simplifying bisimula- tion formulas is likely to be computationally very what we can obtain. Sometimes our algorithm can simplify a formula per- fectly, sometimes it cannot

Larsen, Kim Skak

89

27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5...AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26 Formula requirements. (a) General. An approved formula is required to blend,...

2011-04-01

90

27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5...AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26 Formula requirements. (a) General. An approved formula is required to blend,...

2014-04-01

91

27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5...AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26 Formula requirements. (a) General. An approved formula is required to blend,...

2010-04-01

92

27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5...AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26 Formula requirements. (a) General. An approved formula is required to blend,...

2013-04-01

93

27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5...AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26 Formula requirements. (a) General. An approved formula is required to blend,...

2012-04-01

94

A Practical Note on Readability Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the readability formulas devised by Fry and McLaughlin to the Dale-Chall formula and reports similar results with the Fry and Dale-Chall formulas, but variant results using the McLaughlin formula. Bibliography. (MD)

Pauk, Walter

1969-01-01

95

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cell wall epitopes of the insect pathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi: differential binding to fungal surfaces and cross-reactivity with host hemocytes and basement membrane components.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated against epitopes on yeast-like hyphal bodies and hyphae of the entomopathogenic hyphomycete, Nomuraea rileyi. Two MAbs (4C10, 2H4) bind to epitopes common to both hyphal bodies and hyphae, whereas MAb 4E9 binds only to hyphal surfaces. 4C10 and 2H4 appear to be directed towards carbohydrate portions of cell surface mannoproteins, as evidenced by similarities in staining patterns between these MAbs and Concanavalin A on Western blots of N. rileyi cell wall extracts. These MAbs cross-react with antigens on blastospore and hyphal surfaces of two other entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus in fluorescence microscopy assays, but do not cross-react with a non-entomopathogenic strain of Candida albicans or with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. MAb 4C10 also cross-reacts with immunocompetent granular hemocytes from Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) larvae and with S. exigua plasmatocytes. Electron microscopy revealed that this MAb binds to a component in cytoplasmic granules in the hemocytes, and that surface labeling may be due to the release of this MAb-positive component upon degranulation. MAb 2H4 does not cross-react with granular hemocytes, but does bind to plasmatocytes and hemocytes that tightly adhere to the substrate in monolayer assays. Additionally, MAb 4C10 specifically labels a basement membrane epitope on S. exigua fat body, suggesting that this antibody binds to mannose residues on extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Cross-reactivity of these N. rileyi MAbs with insect hemocyte and tissue components indicates that fungal surface epitopes can mimic host surface molecules, which could explain why N. rileyi hyphal bodies are not recognized by granulocytes and are able to circulate freely in the hemolymph without binding to basement membranes lining the hemocoel. PMID:9548369

Pendland, J C; Boucias, D G

1998-02-01

96

I. DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL FORMULAS Here are the basic formulas. My apologies in advance that I don't guarantee the overall  

E-print Network

the Golden Rule formula W = 2Ã? X f jhf jvjiij 2 ffi(E f \\Gamma E i ) The differental scattering cross section. Differential cross section: doe d\\Omega = jf j 2 (1) Relation between scattering amplitude and phase shifts: f 0 i = V 0 k; k 0 ! \\Lambda = 0 otherwise Let us first calculate the Born cross section using

Bertsch George F.

97

Bone mineralization and vitamin D/calcium daily intake of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cross-sectional analysis of bone mineralization during the first year of life of infants (N=107) exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF), or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life was conducted. Participants were part of the longitudinal Beginnings study. ...

98

Leonardo da Vinci's "A skull sectioned": skull and dental formula revisited.  

PubMed

What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing "A skull sectioned" (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned paranasal sinuses and ductus nasolacrimalis. A dissected lateral wall of the maxilla is also present. Furthermore, at the level of the foramen mentale, the drawing displays compact and spongious bony components, together with a cross-section through the foramen mentale and its connection with the canalis mandibulae. Leonardo was the first to describe a correct dental formula (6424) and made efforts to place this formula above the related dental elements. However, taking into account, the morphological features of the individual elements of the maxilla, it can be suggested that Leonardo sketched a "peculiar dental element" on the position of the right maxillary premolar in the dental sketch. The fact that the author did not make any comment on that special element is remarkable. Leonardo could have had sufficient knowledge of the precise morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars, since the author depicted these elements in the dissected skull. The fact that the author also had access to premolars in situ corroborates our suggestion that "something went wrong" in this part of the drawing. The present study shows that historical anatomical drawings are very useful for interactive learning of detailed anatomy for students in medicine and dentistry. PMID:22431331

Gerrits, Peter O; Veening, Jan G

2013-05-01

99

Wonderful Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

Greenman, Jim

2006-01-01

100

THE MAGIC FORMULA TYRE MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the latest version 3 of the Magic Formula tyre model. The model provides a set of mathematical formulae from which the forces and moment acting from road to tyre can be calculated at longitudinal, lateral and camber slip conditions, which may occur simultaneously. The model aims at an accurate description of measured steady-state tyre behaviour.

Hans B. Pacejka; Egbert Bakker

1992-01-01

101

Symbol manipulation and formula manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, Chinese research workers have noticed that there are systems for symbol manipulation and formula manipulation abroad. But use of computers in China is later. In early years, only assemblers, ALGOL, BASIC and FORTRAN languages were used, which were not suited to help manipulate formulas. Someone has considered extending FORTRAN by manipulation functions. Many people hope to use LISP

Chen Dongyue

1983-01-01

102

The influences of transverse magnetic anisotropy on field-induced domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domain wall (DW) propagation in magnetic nanowires is an important subject in nanomagnetism because of its fundamental interest and potential applications in spintronic devices. It is well known that a head-to-head (or tail-to-tail) domain wall in a nanowire will propagate along the wire under an axial magnetic field. In this talk, we shall show that a new velocity-field formula can fit well with numerical results obtained from the open-source micromagnetic simulation package OOMMF. The fitting parameters have clear physical meanings that relate to the transverse magnetic anisotropy. How the transverse magnetic anisotropy, which can be modified by both transverse magnetic field and the aspect ratio of wire cross section, affects the DW structure and hence the DW propagation velocity will be discussed systematically.

Lu, Jie; Yan, Peng; Wang, Xiangrong

2009-03-01

103

27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article...in accordance with a formula on Form 1479-A approved...person who has approved formulas or statements of...

2012-04-01

104

27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article...in accordance with a formula on Form 1479-A approved...person who has approved formulas or statements of...

2013-04-01

105

27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article...in accordance with a formula on Form 1479-A approved...person who has approved formulas or statements of...

2014-04-01

106

27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article...in accordance with a formula on Form 1479-A approved...person who has approved formulas or statements of...

2010-04-01

107

27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article...in accordance with a formula on Form 1479-A approved...person who has approved formulas or statements of...

2011-04-01

108

Wall Turbulence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

Hanratty, Thomas J.

1980-01-01

109

Wall Tension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, develops the relationship between tension, pressure, and radius in a balloon. The same ideas are then applied to the walls of spherical and cylindrical containers. Several links provide further information.

Nave, Carl R.

2007-11-15

110

Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Additives Dental Fluorosis Private Well Water and Fluoride Bottled Water and Fluoride Dental Sealants Infection Control Journal Articles ... lessen this chance, parents can use low-fluoride bottled water some of the time to mix infant formula; ...

111

Formulas for Image Factor Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

Hakstian, A. Ralph

1973-01-01

112

Central Difference Formula in Numerical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes numerical differentiation and the central difference formula in numerical analysis. Presents three computer programs that approximate the first derivative of a function utilizing the central difference formula. Analyzes conditions under which the approximation formula is exact. (MDH)

de Alwis, Tilak

1992-01-01

113

27 CFR 19.378 - Formula requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Formulas § 19.378 Formula requirements. An approved formula on TTB Form...

2010-04-01

114

Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that removing several innermost walls causes even more drastic cross-sectional polygonization of the MWCNTs. The predicted cross-sectional configurations agree with prior experimental observations. We attribute the radial corrugations to the compressive stresses induced by the excessive inter-wall vdW energy release of the MWCNTs. The stable cross-sectional configurations provide fundamental guidance to the design of single MWCNT-based devices and shed lights on the mechanical control of electrical properties.

Huang, Xu; Liang, Wentao; Zhang, Sulin

2011-12-01

115

Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that removing several innermost walls causes even more drastic cross-sectional polygonization of the MWCNTs. The predicted cross-sectional configurations agree with prior experimental observations. We attribute the radial corrugations to the compressive stresses induced by the excessive inter-wall vdW energy release of the MWCNTs. The stable cross-sectional configurations provide fundamental guidance to the design of single MWCNT-based devices and shed lights on the mechanical control of electrical properties.

Huang, Xu; Liang, Wentao; Zhang, Sulin

2010-12-01

116

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. ...shall comply with the formula requirements of...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this paragraph...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2014-04-01

117

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. ...shall comply with the formula requirements of...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this paragraph...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2011-04-01

118

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. ...shall comply with the formula requirements of...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this paragraph...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2010-04-01

119

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. ...shall comply with the formula requirements of...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this paragraph...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2013-04-01

120

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. ...shall comply with the formula requirements of...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this paragraph...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2012-04-01

121

'Stucco' Walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

2004-01-01

122

Hadrian's Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hadrian's Wall is an historical monument built by the Romans in Britain and spans more than 2,000 years of history. Standing as a "reminder of past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations," the Wall is equipped with museums, forts, and events that bring Roman history to life. Designed by the World Heritage Site, this Web site offers tourist information (such as travel and hotel arrangements) for anyone interested in visiting this historical landmark that ranks along with the great wonders of the world.

1998-01-01

123

Wall Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

McGinley, Connie Q.

2004-01-01

124

Down to Business - Rewriting Formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students often do not see the point in solving formulas for a particular variable when there are no values given. This lab is not designed to teach how to solve literal equations, but rather to give students an understanding of why one might need to do so. This lab has students substitute values into the basic interest formula and then solve for the missing value. After solving several problems in this form, they solve the formula for that variable and then evaluate it by substituting in the given information. Students discover for themselves that it is sometimes better to solve for the variable first and then input the values when solving several problems for the same variable.

2011-01-01

125

Surface diffuseness correction in global mass formula  

E-print Network

By taking into account the surface diffuseness correction for unstable nuclei, the accuracy of the macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved. The rms deviation with respect to essentially all the available mass data falls to 298 keV, crossing the 0.3 MeV accuracy threshold for the first time within the mean-field framework. Considering the surface effect of the symmetry potential which plays an important role in the evolution of the "neutron skin" toward the "neutron halo" of nuclei approaching the neutron drip line, we obtain an optimal value of the symmetry energy coefficient J=30.16 MeV. With an accuracy of 258 keV for all the available neutron separation energies and of 237 keV for the alpha-decay Q-values of super-heavy nuclei, the proposed mass formula is particularly important not only for the reliable description of the r-process of nucleosynthesis but also for the study of the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei.

Wang, Ning; Wu, Xizhen; Meng, Jie

2014-01-01

126

HOOK LENGTH FORMULA AND GEOMETRIC COMBINATORICS  

E-print Network

HOOK LENGTH FORMULA AND GEOMETRIC COMBINATORICS Igor Pak Department of Mathematics Massachusetts here a transparent proof of the hook length formula. The formula is reduced to an equality between mysterious hook length formula for this dimension. Ever since, a quest for a simple combinatorial proof has

Pak, Igor

127

Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…

McClintock, David L.

128

Transient Resistive Wall Wake for Very Short Bunches  

SciTech Connect

The catch up distance for the resistive wall wake in a round pipe is approximately equal to the square of the pipe radius divided by the bunch length. The standard formulae for this wake are applicable at distances much larger than the catch up distance. In this paper, we calculate the resistive wall wake at distances compared with the catch up distance assuming a constant wall conductivity.

Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

2005-05-13

129

Coexistent Runge-Kutta formulas  

E-print Network

equations for the fourth-order formula, but does not satisfy the necessary equations for the fifth-order formula. This work only invest. ' gates the first two of the following cases involving the parameters a. : i Case I: a !a -a )(a -a ) = 0; a (a -a... of the numerical approximation obtained. by the Runge-Kutta method. The equations which must be satisfied by a fifth? order Runge Kutta process of explicit type, namely, 6 yn+1 = yn + ~ "mkm m=1 (1. 1) k =hf(x, y) m-1 k =hf(z +ah, y +) n m ' n j=1 b k...

Callaghan, John Michael

2012-06-07

130

Anomalous Transport from Kubo Formulae  

E-print Network

Chiral anomalies have profound impact on the transport properties of relativistic fluids. In four dimensions there are different types of anomalies, pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies. They give rise to two new non-dissipative transport coefficients, the chiral magnetic conductivity and the chiral vortical conductivity. They can be calculated from the microscopic degrees of freedom with the help of Kubo formulae. We review the calculation of the anomalous transport coefficients via Kubo formulae with a particular emphasis on the contribution of the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly.

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2012-07-24

131

Anomalous Transport from Kubo Formulae  

E-print Network

Chiral anomalies have profound impact on the transport properties of relativistic fluids. In four dimensions there are different types of anomalies, pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies. They give rise to two new non-dissipative transport coefficients, the chiral magnetic conductivity and the chiral vortical conductivity. They can be calculated from the microscopic degrees of freedom with the help of Kubo formulae. We review the calculation of the anomalous transport coefficients via Kubo formulae with a particular emphasis on the contribution of the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly.

Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2012-01-01

132

Anomalous Transport from Kubo Formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chiral anomalies have profound impact on the transport properties of relativistic fluids. In four dimensions there are different types of anomalies, pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies. They give rise to two new non-dissipative transport coefficients, the chiral magnetic conductivity and the chiral vortical conductivity. They can be calculated from the microscopic degrees of freedom with the help of Kubo formulae. We review the calculation of the anomalous transport coefficients via Kubo formulae with a particular emphasis on the contribution of the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly.

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Peña-Benitez, Francisco

133

Recurrence Formulas for Fibonacci Sums  

E-print Network

In this article we present a new recurrence formula for a finite sum involving the Fibonacci sequence. Furthermore, we state an algorithm to compute the sum of a power series related to Fibonacci series, without the use of term-by-term differentiation theorem

Adilson J. V. Brandao; Joao L. Martins

2008-05-18

134

formula society of automotive engineers  

E-print Network

new student members and faculty to contribute to the project financial accounting » Procuring University comprises a group of enthusiastic students who completely design and fabricate a formula race car software, sophisticated control systems and fabrication techniques, a group of 30 students apply

Stormo, Gary

135

Algebraic methods and bounded formulas  

E-print Network

than what is obtain­ able by the topological method. Namely, the non­definability result is extendedAlgebraic methods and bounded formulas Domenico Zambella 1 Department of Mathematics and Computer of the purposes of these article is to expose them to a public with interests ranging from arithmetic to finite

Amsterdam, University of

136

27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...be made to a current formula on TTB Form 5154...alternative for the original formula. No changes may be made to current formulas without specific...

2012-04-01

137

27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate...serially number each formula, commencing with “1...sequence. Nonbeverage wine formulas will be prefixed...

2012-04-01

138

27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate...serially number each formula, commencing with “1...sequence. Nonbeverage wine formulas will be prefixed...

2011-04-01

139

27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...be made to a current formula on TTB Form 5154...alternative for the original formula. No changes may be made to current formulas without specific...

2010-04-01

140

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL...Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.60 Formula No. 33. (a...branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not...denatured alcohol Formulas No. 3-A,...

2014-04-01

141

27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate...serially number each formula, commencing with “1...sequence. Nonbeverage wine formulas will be prefixed...

2013-04-01

142

27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...be made to a current formula on TTB Form 5154...alternative for the original formula. No changes may be made to current formulas without specific...

2011-04-01

143

27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate...serially number each formula, commencing with “1...sequence. Nonbeverage wine formulas will be prefixed...

2010-04-01

144

27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate...serially number each formula, commencing with “1...sequence. Nonbeverage wine formulas will be prefixed...

2014-04-01

145

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL...Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.60 Formula No. 33. (a...branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not...denatured alcohol Formulas No. 3-A,...

2013-04-01

146

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL...Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.60 Formula No. 33. (a...branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not...denatured alcohol Formulas No. 3-A,...

2012-04-01

147

27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...be made to a current formula on TTB Form 5154...alternative for the original formula. No changes may be made to current formulas without specific...

2014-04-01

148

27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...be made to a current formula on TTB Form 5154...alternative for the original formula. No changes may be made to current formulas without specific...

2013-04-01

149

A recurrence formula for shear-lag problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of the bending action in box beams with appreciable shear deformation of the flanges becomes very difficult in the general case of variable cross section and loading. This paper presents a convenient method of solving the problem by the familiar method of dividing the beam into a number of bays that can be assumed to have constant cross section and loading. Application of formerly derived shear-lag formulas leads to a general equation closely analogous in form to the well-known three-moment equation. A numerical example and two comparisons between calculation and experimental results are included.

Kuhn, Paul

1939-01-01

150

Foodservice Management Formulas Made Easy  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will become familiar with a self-instructional individualized unit of foodservice management problem sets, the benefits and problems associated with self-instruction and how to adopt this method of teaching to ones own setting.This presentation will provide an overview of a self-instructional unit for review and practice of foodservice management mathematical formulas developed for use in an undergraduate dietetics

D. L. Golzynski; S. H. Cash

1997-01-01

151

27 CFR 19.452 - Formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles Denaturation § 19.452 Formulas. Spirits shall be denatured in accordance with formulas as authorized in 27 CFR part 21...

2010-04-01

152

Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

2010-01-01

153

Distance Formula (length of a segment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach you how to find the length of a segment using the distance formula. Use the following link to learn the distance formula: Distance Formula (Length of a Line Segment) Now for some practice. Do problems 1-4 on the following practice quiz: Distance Formula Practice OK! You are set for the homework! Assignment #4 on the following link: Class Zone Geometry Textbook ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-08-24

154

A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

Cramer, Eugene H.

1978-01-01

155

Formula Funding in the SREB States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current formula funding practices in the South and implications for the future are analyzed. Formula funding systems are used in 12 of the 14 states belonging to the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). Changes that have occurred in the formulas of each state since 1973-74 are described. Data from 1977-78 academic year are compared to the…

Spence, David S.

156

Determining the Empirical Formula of Hydrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will apply the mole concept and the law of conservation of mass to determine the empirical formula of a hydrate. Students will also use data from their experiment to understand the concept of mole ratios, formulas and predicting products from reactions. Students will interpret formula representation of compounds and understand their percent composition.

2012-10-11

157

Dynamic time scale for the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model based on Rice's formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic formulation of Smagorinsky's subgrid-scale model for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) requires averaging to avoid instability due to extreme fluctuations. For complex-geometry flows a Lagrangian approach is often useful [see Meneveau, Lund, and Cabot, JFM 319 (1996)]. However, an ad-hoc choice of the relaxation timescale must be made, often based on resolved strain-rates and stresses at the grid- scale. Recently, Park and Mahesh [Phys. Fluids 21, 065106 (2009)] proposed the attractive notion of using statistics of the error signal itself to determine a timescale dynamically. We extend this approach by using Rice's formula to dynamically estimate the time between mean-crossings of the error signal and set the averaging timescale to be twice this value. The approach requires accumulating Lagrange-averaged square error and its time-derivative squared, which is done using the Eulerian approximation as proposed in the original model. For validation, LES of flow in a channel and through an array of cubes are compared with experimental results. Distributions of the dynamic coefficient, error, and dynamic timescale are shown as a function of distance from the wall. Computational efficiency and memory requirements are also discussed.

Verhulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

2011-11-01

158

27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...formulas. (a) New formulas. Except as otherwise...you must file a new formula (with a new formula...requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change...b) Superseding formulas. You may file a superseding formula, instead of a...

2013-04-01

159

27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...formulas. (a) New formulas. Except as otherwise...you must file a new formula (with a new formula...requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change...b) Superseding formulas. You may file a superseding formula, instead of a...

2010-04-01

160

27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...formulas. (a) New formulas. Except as otherwise...you must file a new formula (with a new formula...requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change...b) Superseding formulas. You may file a superseding formula, instead of a...

2014-04-01

161

27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...formulas. (a) New formulas. Except as otherwise...you must file a new formula (with a new formula...requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change...b) Superseding formulas. You may file a superseding formula, instead of a...

2012-04-01

162

27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...formulas. (a) New formulas. Except as otherwise...you must file a new formula (with a new formula...requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change...b) Superseding formulas. You may file a superseding formula, instead of a...

2011-04-01

163

Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.  

PubMed

Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. PMID:22325867

Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

2012-04-01

164

Wall pressure fluctuations of a turbulent separated and reattaching flow affected by an unsteady wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal characteristics of the wall-pressure fluctuations in separated and reattaching flows over a backward-facing step were investigated through pressure-velocity joint measurements carried out using multiple-arrayed microphones and split-film probes. A spoke-wheel-type wake generator was installed upstream of the backward-facing step. The flow structure at the effective forcing frequency (St f=0.2) was found to be well organized in terms of wall pressure spectrum, cross-correlation, wavenumber-frequency spectrum, and wavelet auto-correlation. Introduction of the unsteady wake (St f=0.2) reduced the reattachment length by 10%. In addition, the unsteady wake enhanced the turbulence intensity near the separation edge and, as a consequence, enhanced the quadrupole sound sources; however, the turbulence intensity near the reattachment region was weakened and the overall flow noise was attenuated. The greater organization of the flow structure induced by the unsteady wake led to a weakening of the dipole sound sources, which are the dominant sound sources in this system. The dipole sound sources generated by wall pressure fluctuations were calculated using Curle’s integral formula.

Chun, Sejong; Liu, Ying Zheng; Sung, Hyung Jin

2004-10-01

165

Wall-E Learns About Proportion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate the diameter of the moon with the help of Wall-E. In this video, the mischievous robot learns that the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is mapping the moon. From Earth, the moon looks too small to land on. Wall-E learns to use math to determine the size of the moon. The moon is compared to the size of a baseball, and Earth is compared to the size of a basketball.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

2009-07-11

166

27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93 Section 20...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General...ingredients listed in an appoved formula shall constitute a...

2012-04-01

167

27 CFR 21.66 - Formula No. 38-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 38-C. 21.66 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.66 Formula No. 38-C. (a)...

2011-04-01

168

27 CFR 21.55 - Formula No. 28-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 28-A. 21.55 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.55 Formula No. 28-A. (a)...

2010-04-01

169

27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.64 Formula No. 37. (a)...

2014-04-01

170

27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a)...

2013-04-01

171

27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a)...

2013-04-01

172

27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93 Section 20...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General...ingredients listed in an appoved formula shall constitute a...

2010-04-01

173

27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56 Section 25.56... Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file...

2012-04-01

174

27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate products...MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products...manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1...

2012-04-01

175

27 CFR 21.73 - Formula No. 39-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 39-D. 21.73 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.73 Formula No. 39-D. (a)...

2012-04-01

176

27 CFR 21.66 - Formula No. 38-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 38-C. 21.66 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.66 Formula No. 38-C. (a)...

2010-04-01

177

27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a)...

2012-04-01

178

27 CFR 21.55 - Formula No. 28-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 28-A. 21.55 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.55 Formula No. 28-A. (a)...

2013-04-01

179

27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor...application shall list the formulas for adoption by: (a) Formula number, (b) Name of product...of his previously approved formulas by the...

2011-04-01

180

27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.46 Formula No. 22. (a)...

2014-04-01

181

27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a)...

2010-04-01

182

27 CFR 21.66 - Formula No. 38-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 38-C. 21.66 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.66 Formula No. 38-C. (a)...

2013-04-01

183

27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.64 Formula No. 37. (a)...

2010-04-01

184

27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.46 Formula No. 22. (a)...

2013-04-01

185

27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 36. 21.63 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a)...

2014-04-01

186

27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor...application shall list the formulas for adoption by: (a) Formula number, (b) Name of product...of his previously approved formulas by the...

2013-04-01

187

27 CFR 21.38 - Formula No. 4.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4. (a)...

2013-04-01

188

27 CFR 21.67 - Formula No. 38-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 38-D. 21.67 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.67 Formula No. 38-D. (a)...

2010-04-01

189

27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a)...

2012-04-01

190

27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a)...

2011-04-01

191

27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.46 Formula No. 22. (a)...

2011-04-01

192

27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2010-04-01

193

27 CFR 21.73 - Formula No. 39-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39-D. 21.73 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.73 Formula No. 39-D. (a)...

2010-04-01

194

27 CFR 21.80 - Formula No. 45.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 45. 21.80 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.80 Formula No. 45. (a)...

2011-04-01

195

27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2014-04-01

196

27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a)...

2010-04-01

197

27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin...26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2011-04-01

198

27 CFR 21.67 - Formula No. 38-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 38-D. 21.67 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.67 Formula No. 38-D. (a)...

2011-04-01

199

27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93 Section 20...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General...ingredients listed in an appoved formula shall constitute a...

2013-04-01

200

27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B. 21.36 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a)...

2013-04-01

201

27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a)...

2014-04-01

202

27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate products...MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products...manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1...

2011-04-01

203

27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2012-04-01

204

27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 36. 21.63 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a)...

2011-04-01

205

27 CFR 21.80 - Formula No. 45.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 45. 21.80 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.80 Formula No. 45. (a)...

2010-04-01

206

27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 36. 21.63 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a)...

2013-04-01

207

27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.46 Formula No. 22. (a)...

2012-04-01

208

27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a)...

2012-04-01

209

27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B. 21.36 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a)...

2012-04-01

210

27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56 Section 25.56... Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file...

2010-04-01

211

27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a)...

2010-04-01

212

27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a)...

2013-04-01

213

27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate products...MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products...manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1...

2013-04-01

214

27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a)...

2010-04-01

215

27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a)...

2014-04-01

216

27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56 Section 25.56... Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file...

2013-04-01

217

27 CFR 21.55 - Formula No. 28-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 28-A. 21.55 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.55 Formula No. 28-A. (a)...

2012-04-01

218

27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor...application shall list the formulas for adoption by: (a) Formula number, (b) Name of product...of his previously approved formulas by the...

2012-04-01

219

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110 Section 990.110 Housing...FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1)...

2013-04-01

220

27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin...26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2010-04-01

221

27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.64 Formula No. 37. (a)...

2011-04-01

222

27 CFR 21.58 - Formula No. 31-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 31-A. 21.58 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.58 Formula No. 31-A. (a)...

2011-04-01

223

27 CFR 21.80 - Formula No. 45.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 45. 21.80 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.80 Formula No. 45. (a)...

2013-04-01

224

27 CFR 21.55 - Formula No. 28-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 28-A. 21.55 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.55 Formula No. 28-A. (a)...

2014-04-01

225

27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93 Section 20...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General...ingredients listed in an appoved formula shall constitute a...

2014-04-01

226

27 CFR 21.78 - Formula No. 42.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 42. 21.78 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.78 Formula No. 42. (a)...

2013-04-01

227

27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.46 Formula No. 22. (a)...

2010-04-01

228

27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor...application shall list the formulas for adoption by: (a) Formula number, (b) Name of product...of his previously approved formulas by the...

2014-04-01

229

27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B. 21.36 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a)...

2014-04-01

230

27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate products...MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products...manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1...

2014-04-01

231

27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56 Section 25.56... Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file...

2014-04-01

232

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110 Section 990.110 Housing...FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1)...

2010-04-01

233

27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93 Section 20...DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General...ingredients listed in an appoved formula shall constitute a...

2011-04-01

234

27 CFR 21.67 - Formula No. 38-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 38-D. 21.67 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.67 Formula No. 38-D. (a)...

2014-04-01

235

27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a)...

2013-04-01

236

27 CFR 21.80 - Formula No. 45.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 45. 21.80 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.80 Formula No. 45. (a)...

2014-04-01

237

27 CFR 21.58 - Formula No. 31-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 31-A. 21.58 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.58 Formula No. 31-A. (a)...

2014-04-01

238

27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 36. 21.63 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36. (a)...

2012-04-01

239

27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.64 Formula No. 37. (a)...

2013-04-01

240

27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a)...

2012-04-01

241

27 CFR 21.66 - Formula No. 38-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 38-C. 21.66 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.66 Formula No. 38-C. (a)...

2012-04-01

242

27 CFR 21.38 - Formula No. 4.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4. (a)...

2014-04-01

243

27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin...26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2013-04-01

244

27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate products...MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products...manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1...

2010-04-01

245

27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39 Formula No. 6-B. (a)...

2011-04-01

246

27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.64 Formula No. 37. (a)...

2012-04-01

247

27 CFR 21.58 - Formula No. 31-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 31-A. 21.58 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.58 Formula No. 31-A. (a)...

2012-04-01

248

27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a)...

2014-04-01

249

27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a)...

2014-04-01

250

27 CFR 21.55 - Formula No. 28-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 28-A. 21.55 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.55 Formula No. 28-A. (a)...

2011-04-01

251

27 CFR 21.73 - Formula No. 39-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 39-D. 21.73 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.73 Formula No. 39-D. (a)...

2011-04-01

252

27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a)...

2011-04-01

253

27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2013-04-01

254

27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B. 21.36 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a)...

2011-04-01

255

27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56 Section 25.56... Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file...

2011-04-01

256

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110 Section 990.110 Housing...FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1)...

2012-04-01

257

27 CFR 21.66 - Formula No. 38-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 38-C. 21.66 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.66 Formula No. 38-C. (a)...

2014-04-01

258

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110 Section 990.110 Housing...FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1)...

2011-04-01

259

27 CFR 21.67 - Formula No. 38-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 38-D. 21.67 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.67 Formula No. 38-D. (a)...

2013-04-01

260

27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor...application shall list the formulas for adoption by: (a) Formula number, (b) Name of product...of his previously approved formulas by the...

2010-04-01

261

27 CFR 21.73 - Formula No. 39-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 39-D. 21.73 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.73 Formula No. 39-D. (a)...

2014-04-01

262

27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin...26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2012-04-01

263

27 CFR 21.80 - Formula No. 45.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 45. 21.80 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.80 Formula No. 45. (a)...

2012-04-01

264

27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin...26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2014-04-01

265

27 CFR 21.78 - Formula No. 42.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 42. 21.78 Section...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.78 Formula No. 42. (a)...

2014-04-01

266

27 CFR 21.38 - Formula No. 4.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4. (a)...

2012-04-01

267

27 CFR 21.67 - Formula No. 38-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 38-D. 21.67 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.67 Formula No. 38-D. (a)...

2012-04-01

268

27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Previously approved formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55...RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form 27-B...

2011-04-01

269

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110 Section 990.110 Housing...FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1)...

2014-04-01

270

27 CFR 21.58 - Formula No. 31-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 31-A. 21.58 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.58 Formula No. 31-A. (a)...

2013-04-01

271

27 CFR 21.73 - Formula No. 39-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39-D. 21.73 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.73 Formula No. 39-D. (a)...

2013-04-01

272

27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45 Section...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a)...

2011-04-01

273

27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.137 Formulas disapproved for drawback. A formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not...

2010-04-01

274

27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Formula No. 19. 21.44 Section 21.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula...812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2014-04-01

275

27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Formula No. 19. 21.44 Section 21.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula...812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2011-04-01

276

27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Formula No. 19. 21.44 Section 21.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula...812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2013-04-01

277

27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Formula No. 19. 21.44 Section 21.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula...812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2010-04-01

278

27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Formula No. 19. 21.44 Section 21.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula...812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2012-04-01

279

Black Hole Interior Mass Formula  

E-print Network

We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product and \\emph {irreducible mass product} of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the \\emph{surface gravity product}, \\emph{surface temperature product} and \\emph{Komar energy product} of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole space-time. We show the black hole mass formula on the \\emph{Cauchy horizon} following the seminal work by Smarr\\cite{smarr} for the outer horizon. We also prescribed the \\emph{four} laws of black hole mechanics for the \\emph{inner horizon}. New definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed.

Parthapratim Pradhan

2014-05-06

280

Dualizing the Poisson summation formula.  

PubMed Central

If f(x) and g(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair, then the Poisson summation formula can be written as 2sumfrominfinityn = 1g(n) + g(0) = 2sumfrominfinityn = 1f(n) + f(0). The concepts of linear transformation theory lead to the following dual of this classical relation. Let phi(x) and gamma(x) = phi(1/x)/x have absolutely convergent integrals over the positive real line. Let F(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1phi(n/x)/x - integralinfinity0phi(t)dt and G(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1gamma (n/x)/x - integralinfinity0 gamma(t)dt. Then F(x) and G(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair. We term F(x) the "discrepancy" of phi because it is the error in estimating the integral phi of by its Riemann sum with the constant mesh spacing 1/x. PMID:11607208

Duffin, R J; Weinberger, H F

1991-01-01

281

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...specified in § 26.36, formulas are required by...Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...shall be stated on the formula. These formulas shall be submitted...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2012-04-01

282

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...specified in § 26.36, formulas are required by...Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...shall be stated on the formula. These formulas shall be submitted...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2014-04-01

283

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specified in § 26.36, formulas are required by...Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...shall be stated on the formula. These formulas shall be submitted...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2013-04-01

284

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specified in § 26.36, formulas are required by...Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...shall be stated on the formula. These formulas shall be submitted...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2010-04-01

285

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...specified in § 26.36, formulas are required by...Puerto Rico. If a formula is submitted to...shall be stated on the formula. These formulas shall be submitted...shall be stated on the formula. All formulas required by this...

2011-04-01

286

Microanalysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the study of a wide range of plant organs, revealing a high degree of heterogeneity in the substitution pattern of wall polymers such as the cross-linking glycan xyloglucan and the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. The high sensitivity of MALDI-TOF allows the use of small amounts of samples, thus making it possible to investigate the wall structure of single cell types when material is collected by such methods as laser micro-dissection. As an example, the analysis of the xyloglucan structure in the leaf cell types outer epidermis layer, entire epidermis cell layer, palisade mesophyll cells, and vascular bundles were investigated. OLIMP is amenable to in situ wall analysis, where wall polymers are analyzed on unprepared plant tissue itself without first isolating cell walls. In addition, OLIMP enables analysis of wall polymers in Golgi-enriched fractions, the location of nascent matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis, enabling separation of the processes of wall biosynthesis versus post-deposition apoplastic metabolism. These new tools will make possible a semi-quantitative analysis of the cell wall at an unprecedented level. PMID:19825669

Obel, Nicolai; Erben, Veronika; Schwarz, Tatjana; Kühnel, Stefan; Fodor, Andrea; Pauly, Markus

2009-09-01

287

Building Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

288

Wind tunnel wall interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

1986-01-01

289

Preclinical assessment of infant formula.  

PubMed

Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

Lönnerdal, Bo

2012-01-01

290

Elastic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical expressions for the velocities of the longitudinal and the torsional sound waves in single-walled carbon nanotubes are derived using Born's perturbation technique within a lattice-dynamical model. These expressions are compared to the formulas for the velocities of the sound waves in an elastic hollow cylinder from the theory of elasticity to obtain analytical expressions for the Young's and shear

V. N. Popov; V. E. Van Doren; M. Balkanski

2000-01-01

291

Teaching Structural Formulas in Chemistry: How Students Relate Structural Formulas to the Solubility of Substances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural formulas give professional chemists information about physical and chemical properties of corresponding compounds. In chemistry education at secondary schools, structural formulas are introduced in the context of chemical bonding. Structural formulas are not introduced as representations of the properties of chemical compounds. This…

Goedhart, Martin; van Duin, Yvonne

292

Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)

Spitz, Herman H.

1993-01-01

293

Generating Kummer Type Formulas for Hypergeometric Functions  

E-print Network

be parameters satisfying n j=1 j = -k. Hypergeometric function of type Ek,n is defined by the integral (; z) = CGenerating Kummer Type Formulas for Hypergeometric Functions Nobuki Takayama Kobe University, Rokko in algebra and geometry for generating Kummer type formulas. 1 Introduction The Gauss hypergeometric function

Takayama, Nobuki

294

An Explicit Formula For The Divisor Function  

E-print Network

The details for the construction of an explicit formula for the divisors function d(n) = #{d | n} are formalized in this article. This formula facilitates a unified approach to the investigation of the error terms of the divisor problem and circle problem.

N. A. Carella

2014-05-16

295

Formulas in Physics Have a "Standard" Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss the importance of the ordering of symbols in physics formulas and identify implicit conventions that govern the "standard" form for how formulas are written and interpreted. An important part of writing and reading this form is understanding distinctions among constants, parameters, and variables. We delineate these conventions and…

Moelter, Matthew J.; Jackson, Martin

2012-01-01

296

Chemistry 365: Stirling's Formula David Ronis  

E-print Network

Chemistry 365: Stirling's Formula © David Ronis McGill University There is a simple way to obtain;Chemistry 365 -2- Stirling's Formula x!(2 )1/2 xx+1/2 e-x , (4) which implies that ln(x!)x ln(x) - x + ln[(2

Ronis, David M.

297

Alternative Derivations for the Poisson Integral Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poisson integral formula is revisited. The kernel in the Poisson integral formula can be derived in a series form through the direct BEM free of the concept of image point by using the null-field integral equation in conjunction with the degenerate kernels. The degenerate kernels for the closed-form Green's function and the series form of Poisson…

Chen, J. T.; Wu, C. S.

2006-01-01

298

The Processing of Malformed Formulaic Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of formulaicity in naturally occurring language use points to an important role in the way language is acquired, processed, and used. It is widely recommended that second-language instruction should ensure that learners develop a rich repertoire of formulaic sequences. If this is justified, it follows that learner failure to use…

Millar, Neil

2011-01-01

299

Predicting Overtime with the Pythagorean Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980, Bill James created the Pythagorean win expectation formula with a somewhat counterintuitive idea in mind. James believed, and his formula proved, that a baseball team's current runs scored to runs allowed ratio was better than a team's current record at predicting a team's future winning percentage. The rationale was that the outcomes of close games, which factor prominently

Jason W. Rosenfeld; Jake I. Fisher; Daniel Adler; Carl Morris

2010-01-01

300

Derivation of Refraction Formulas Paul S. Heckbert  

E-print Network

Derivation of Refraction Formulas Paul S. Heckbert ABSTRACT We derive three alternative formulas for the refracted ray direction in ray tracing in order to prove their equivalence and to demonstrate the process refract when they strike an interface between two different transpar­ ent media, such as air­water, air

Treuille, Adrien

301

A Choice of a New Funding Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the fiscal neutrality of three funding formulas that have been proposed to replace the current funding formula for Oklahoma's common schools in an attempt to have greater equity in the distribution of funds to the various districts. Using data from SY-03 to SY-07, calculations of state aid for the 540- districts and fiscal…

Hancock, Kenneth

2008-01-01

302

The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) Circled-Times U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Elie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenboeck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.

Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M. [Departamento de Fisica dos Solidos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica dos Solidos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Neto, Jose Abdala Helayeel [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-160 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)] [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-160 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

2013-01-15

303

Cauchy's formulas for random walks in bounded domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cauchy's formula was originally established for random straight paths crossing a body B subset {R}n and basically relates the average chord length through B to the ratio between the volume and the surface of the body itself. The original statement was later extended in the context of transport theory so as to cover the stochastic paths of Pearson random walks with exponentially distributed flight lengths traversing a bounded domain. Some heuristic arguments suggest that Cauchy's formula may also hold true for Pearson random walks with arbitrarily distributed flight lengths. For such a broad class of stochastic processes, we rigorously derive a generalized Cauchy's formula for the average length travelled by the walkers in the body, and show that this quantity depends indeed only on the ratio between the volume and the surface, provided that some constraints are imposed on the entrance step of the walker in B. Similar results are also obtained for the average number of collisions performed by the walker in B.

Mazzolo, Alain; de Mulatier, Clélia; Zoia, Andrea

2014-08-01

304

Neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC are presented. We use Biersack and Haggmark's empirical formula in constructing the electronic stopping power, which combines Lindhard's model at low PKA energies and Bethe-Bloch's model at high PKA energies. The electronic stopping power for polyatomic materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law potential is used for nuclear scattering. Coupled intergro-differential equations for the number of displaced atoms j, caused by PKA i, are then derived. The procedure outlined above gives partial displacement cross sections, displacement cross sections for each specie of the lattice, and for each PKA type. The corresponding damage rates for several fusion and fission neutron spectra are calculated. The stoichiometry of the irradiated material is investigated by finding the ratio of displacements among various atomic species. The role of each specie in displacing atoms is also investigated by calculating the fraction of displacements caused by each PKA type. The study shows that neutron displacement damage rates of SiC in typical magnetic fusion reactor first walls will be ~ 10-15 dpa MW -1 m 2; in typical lead-protected inertial confinement fusion reactor first walls they will be ~ 15-20 dpa MW -1 m 2. For fission spectra, we find that the neutron displacement damage rate of SiC is ~ 74 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in FFTF, ~ 39 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR, and 25 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in NRU. Approximately 80% of displacement atoms are shown to be of the carbon-type.

Hanchen, Huang; Ghoniem, Nasr

1993-02-01

305

Dynamical evolution of domain walls in an expanding universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whenever the potential of a scalar field has two or more separated, degenerate minima, domain walls form as the universe cools. The evolution of the resulting network of domain walls is calculated for the case of two potential minima in two and three dimensions, including wall annihilation, crossing, and reconnection effects. The nature of the evolution is found to be largely independent of the rate at which the universe expands. Wall annihilation and reconnection occur almost as fast as causality allows, so that the horizon volume is 'swept clean' and contains, at any time, only about one, fairly smooth, wall. Quantitative statistics are given. The total area of wall per volume decreases as the first power of time. The relative slowness of the decrease and the smoothness of the wall on the horizon scale make it impossible for walls to both generate large-scale structure and be consistent with quadrupole microwave background anisotropy limits.

Press, William H.; Ryden, Barbara S.; Spergel, David N.

1989-01-01

306

Development and application of wall-function treatments for turbulent forced and mixed convection flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

CFD calculations of turbulent flow near smooth walls generally employ one of two broad strategies to resolve the very influential, complex, but thin near-wall viscosity-affected sub-layer. One approach uses a fine numerical mesh and a turbulence model incorporating viscous influences; the other employs “wall functions”—formulae that attempt to account for the overall resistance of the sublayer to momentum and heat

T. J. Craft; S. E. Gant; A. V. Gerasimov; H. Iacovides; B. E. Launder

2006-01-01

307

Lesson 26: The Distance and Midpoint Formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins by associating the distance between two points with the right triangle that may be formed by joining the points and extending horizontal and vertical lines through the points. This linking is generalized to derive the distance formula for any two points in the plane. The midpoint formula is then derived by taking the average of the coordinates of the two points. Using the distance formula, the equation for circle is derived and then examples follow for finding the equation of a given circle.

2011-01-01

308

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

309

Effect of a Herbal Formula Consisting of Leech, Dahuang and Chinese Cassia Bark on Diet-induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Atherosclerosis is a common condition with slow build-up of plaque on the inside wall of arteries. This study was undertaken to investigate whether a herbal formula consisting of three traditional Chinese medicines, including leech (Shuizhi, Whitmania pigra Whitman), Dahuang (medicinal rhubarb, Rheum palmatum L., Polygonaceae), and Chinese cassia bark ( Guipi, Cinnamomum

Heqing Huang; Peiqin Liu; Weihua Liu; Sha Tao; Zhi-Wei Zhou; Ziqing Hei; Chun Guang Li; Charlie Changli Xue; Min Huang; Shu-Feng Zhou

310

Potential of a plasma bound between two biased walls  

SciTech Connect

An analytical study is presented for an one-dimensional, steady-state plasma bound between two perfectly absorbing walls that are biased with respect to each other. Starting from a description of the plasma sheaths formed at both walls, an expression relating the bulk plasma potential to the wall currents is derived, showing that the plasma potential undergoes an abrupt transition when currents cross a critical value. This result is confirmed by numerical simulations performed with a particle-in-cell code.

Loizu, J.; Dominski, J.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-08-15

311

(The structure of pectins from cotton suspension culture cell walls)  

SciTech Connect

We have made progress on several projects to do with determining the structure of pectins. These include: (1) Devising a new sensitive method to determine the degree of methyl esterification (DOM) of pectins; (2) solubilization of all of RGI from cotton cell walls; (3) solubilization of RGII from cotton cell walls; (4) characterization of xyloglucan from cotton cell walls; and (5) investigation giving an indication of a cross-link between extension and pectin.

Mort, A.

1990-01-01

312

The reaction of 2-amino-4[Formula: see text]-pyrans with [Formula: see text]-bromosuccinimide.  

PubMed

The reaction of racemic 2-amino-4[Formula: see text]-pyrans, such as 3-amino-1-aryl-1[Formula: see text]-benzo[Formula: see text]chromene-2-carbonitriles, with [Formula: see text]-bromosuccinimide (NBS), in [Formula: see text], at room temperature, is a very quick, regio, stereoselective, and high yielding process, affording major racemic [Formula: see text]-2-bromo-3-imino-benzo[Formula: see text]chromene or racemic [Formula: see text]-2-bromo-3-(bromoimino)-benzo[Formula: see text]chromene derivatives, when using 1.0 or 2.2 equivalents of NBS, respectively. This reaction, extended to isomeric 2-amino-4-aryl-4[Formula: see text]-benzo[Formula: see text]chromene-3-carbonitriles, showed an unexpected reactivity, affording racemic (3[Formula: see text],4[Formula: see text]-3-bromo-2-(bromoimino)-benzo[Formula: see text]chromene-3-carbonitriles or 2-oxo-2[Formula: see text]-benzo[Formula: see text]chromene-3-carbonitriles, when using 2.2 or 1.0 equivalents of NBS, respectively. The reaction of alkyl 6-amino-5-cyano-2-methyl-4[Formula: see text]-pyran-3-carboxylates has yielded unstable racemic (3[Formula: see text],4[Formula: see text]-alkyl 3-bromo-2-(bromoimino)-3-cyano-6-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2[Formula: see text]-pyran-5-carboxylates. The mechanism of these reactions has been investigated by computational methods. PMID:25502233

Samadi, Abdelouahid; Silva, Daniel; Chioua, Mourad; Infantes, Lourdes; Soriano, Elena; Marco-Contelles, José

2015-02-01

313

Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall  

PubMed Central

The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of ?1,3- and ?1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, ?1,3- and ?1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

Orlean, Peter

2012-01-01

314

Asymptotic theory of transonic wind tunnel wall interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two limiting cases are considered related to transonic wall interference. For the first case corresponding to slender airplanes, an area rule for interference holds in which the interference of the complete airplane can be obtained from that of its equivalent body of revolution. For large wall height, the slender case exhibits an asymptotic triple deck structure consisting of a cross

N. D. Malmuth; C. C. Wu; H. Jafroudi; R. McLachlan; J. D. Cole

1991-01-01

315

On the mechanics of thin-walled laminated composite beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formal engineering approach of the mechanics of thin-walled laminated beams based on kinematic assumptions consistent with Timoshenko beam theory is presented. Thin-walled composite beams with open or closed cross section subjected to bending and axial load are considered. A variational formulation is employed to obtain a comprehensive description of the structural response. Beam stiffness coefficients, which account for the

Ever J. Barbero; Roberto Lopez-Anido; Julio F. Davalos

1993-01-01

316

On the Mechanics of Thin-Walled Laminated Composite Beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formal engineering approach of the mechanics of thin-walled laminated beams based on kinematic assumptions consistent with Timoshenko beam theory is pre sented. Thin-walled composite beams with open or closed cross section subjected to bend ing and axial load are considered. A variational formulation is employed to obtain a com prehensive description of the structural response. Beam stiffness coefficients, which

Ever J. Barbero; Roberto Lopez-Anido; Julio F. Davalos

1993-01-01

317

Cell Wall Organization and Wall Growth in the Filamentous Green Algae Cladophora and Chaetomorpha. I. The Basic Structure and Its Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of two papers dealing with the wall structure and growth of Chaetomorpha (Ch. melagonium and Ch. princeps) and of Cladophora (Cl. prolifera and Cl. rupestris). Here the structure is investigated of the side walls and cross-walls of the cells in the filaments, including the apical cells, using polarization microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy. All

Eva Frei; R. D. Preston

1961-01-01

318

Traction Control System for Formula Student Electric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with design of traction control of Formula Student Electric Car. There will introduced new conception of formula traction system and its application to the Formula car. In next season we would like to use 2 motors, each of them will be directly connected to its wheel. This solution needs precise control of them to provide high dynamics and great ability to ride curves in high speeds. Using the same torque on each wheel brings problem when one of wheel loss the traction ability. Some slip could happen and the unexpected lateral movement becomes. There will described the mathematic model of formula car. To reduce slips etc. we will publish the theoretical algorithm that reduces or increases torques on rear wheels to stabilize the car. There will be described what states have to be measured and evaluated. Also places where the sensors will be placed will be shown.

Houf, Z.; ?e?ovský, Z.; Hlinovský, V.

319

Area Formulas on Isometric Dot Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrated is the use of isometric graph paper in the discovery of nonstandard area formulas. The use of definitions, geometric construction, record keeping, and conjectures about triangles, rhombuses, hexagons, parallelograms, isosceles trapezoids, rectangles, and trapezoids are described. (YP)

Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

1989-01-01

320

Product formulas for exponentials of commutators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a recursive method for systematically constructing product formula approximations to exponentials of commutators, giving approximations that are accurate to arbitrarily high order. Using these formulas, we show how to approximate unitary exponentials of (possibly nested) commutators using exponentials of the elementary operators, and we upper bound the number of elementary exponentials needed to implement the desired operation within a given error tolerance. By presenting an algorithm for quantum search using evolution according to a commutator, we show that the scaling of the number of exponentials in our product formulas with the evolution time is nearly optimal. Finally, we discuss applications of our product formulas to quantum control and to implementing anticommutators, providing new methods for simulating many-body interaction Hamiltonians.

Childs, Andrew M.; Wiebe, Nathan

2013-06-01

321

SUMMATION FORMULAE FOR NONCOMMUTATIVE HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES  

E-print Network

SUMMATION FORMULAE FOR NONCOMMUTATIVE HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES MICHAEL SCHLOSSER #3; Abstract. We-00272 \\Algebraic Combinatorics in Europe". 1 #12; 2 MICHAEL SCHLOSSER paper of Tirao [16]. To be precise, we Jackson summation) is still open. The summatio

Schlosser, Michael

322

Discovering Functional Formulas through Changing Representation Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with computer generation of numerical functional formulas describing results of scientific experiments (measurements). It describes the methodology for generating functional physical laws called COPER (Kokar 1985a). This method generates only so called \\

Mieczyslaw M. Kokar

1986-01-01

323

A burn formula in clinical practice.  

PubMed Central

In a retrospective review of the 10-year period 1969-78 the intravenous plasma loads given to patients admitted to one burn centre were studied and compared with the volumes predicted by the formula used at that centre. Of 1728 patients admitted 342 (19.8%) received intravenous resuscitation with plasma. The formula appeared to be a good empirical guide to transfusion needs in the 36 h after burning. Patients with burns in excess of 45% body surface area (BSA), and particularly children, were likely to require more fluid than that indicated by the formula estimate. However, as burns in excess of 50% BSA are uncommon (50/1728 admissions) it seems reasonable to use a formula which is a guide to the probable needs of most patients while accepting the clinical response as the best means of assessing the actual fluid need of each patient, especially those with extensive injury. PMID:7247262

Griffiths, R. W.; Laing, J. E.

1981-01-01

324

Money Ivestigation 1 (solving linear equations, formulas)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hands-on activity to help students understand four basic binary operations in algebraic expressions, solving linear equations in 1 variable, and solving a formula for an indicated variable, using value of collections of coins.

2011-01-01

325

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

2010-04-01

326

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

2013-04-01

327

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

2014-04-01

328

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

2012-04-01

329

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the flavor was added (that is, before, during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors...state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the finished product....

2011-04-01

330

Channel Wall Landslides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

331

27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20...Restricted to fuel use, comparable to specially denatured alcohol “Use Code No.” 611, 612,...

2012-04-01

332

27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20...Restricted to fuel use, comparable to specially denatured alcohol “Use Code No.” 611, 612,...

2013-04-01

333

27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20...Restricted to fuel use, comparable to specially denatured alcohol “Use Code No.” 611, 612,...

2011-04-01

334

27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20...Restricted to fuel use, comparable to specially denatured alcohol “Use Code No.” 611, 612,...

2010-04-01

335

27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20...Restricted to fuel use, comparable to specially denatured alcohol “Use Code No.” 611, 612,...

2014-04-01

336

75 FR 32495 - Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information...which assistance is determined using a formula approach under the Operating Fund Program...Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula. OMB Approval Number:...

2010-06-08

337

24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Calculation of formula income. 990.195 Section 990.195...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Income § 990.195 Calculation of formula income. (a) General. For the...

2012-04-01

338

28 CFR 31.3 - Formula grant plan and applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formula grant plan and applications. 31.3 Section...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT PROGRAMS Formula Grants General Provisions § 31.3 Formula grant plan and applications....

2010-07-01

339

28 CFR 31.3 - Formula grant plan and applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formula grant plan and applications. 31.3 Section...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT PROGRAMS Formula Grants General Provisions § 31.3 Formula grant plan and applications....

2014-07-01

340

28 CFR 31.3 - Formula grant plan and applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formula grant plan and applications. 31.3 Section...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT PROGRAMS Formula Grants General Provisions § 31.3 Formula grant plan and applications....

2013-07-01

341

28 CFR 31.3 - Formula grant plan and applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formula grant plan and applications. 31.3 Section...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT PROGRAMS Formula Grants General Provisions § 31.3 Formula grant plan and applications....

2012-07-01

342

24 CFR 990.160 - Overview of calculating formula expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Overview of calculating formula expenses. 990.160 Section 990.160...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.160 Overview of calculating formula expenses. (a) General....

2013-04-01

343

24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Calculation of formula income. 990.195 Section 990.195...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Income § 990.195 Calculation of formula income. (a) General. For the...

2011-04-01

344

24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Calculation of formula income. 990.195 Section 990.195...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Income § 990.195 Calculation of formula income. (a) General. For the...

2014-04-01

345

24 CFR 990.160 - Overview of calculating formula expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Overview of calculating formula expenses. 990.160 Section 990.160...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.160 Overview of calculating formula expenses. (a) General....

2012-04-01

346

24 CFR 990.160 - Overview of calculating formula expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Overview of calculating formula expenses. 990.160 Section 990.160...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.160 Overview of calculating formula expenses. (a) General....

2011-04-01

347

24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Calculation of formula income. 990.195 Section 990.195...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Income § 990.195 Calculation of formula income. (a) General. For the...

2013-04-01

348

24 CFR 990.160 - Overview of calculating formula expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Overview of calculating formula expenses. 990.160 Section 990.160...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.160 Overview of calculating formula expenses. (a) General....

2010-04-01

349

28 CFR 31.3 - Formula grant plan and applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formula grant plan and applications. 31.3 Section...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT PROGRAMS Formula Grants General Provisions § 31.3 Formula grant plan and applications....

2011-07-01

350

24 CFR 990.160 - Overview of calculating formula expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Overview of calculating formula expenses. 990.160 Section 990.160...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.160 Overview of calculating formula expenses. (a) General....

2014-04-01

351

27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol...Authorized Uses § 21.79 Formula No. 44. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons... 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2012-04-01

352

27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol...Authorized Uses § 21.79 Formula No. 44. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons... 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2013-04-01

353

27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol...Authorized Uses § 21.79 Formula No. 44. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons... 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2010-04-01

354

27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol...Authorized Uses § 21.79 Formula No. 44. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons... 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2011-04-01

355

27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol...Authorized Uses § 21.79 Formula No. 44. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons... 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use...

2014-04-01

356

Halogenation of microcapsule walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

1972-01-01

357

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Razand, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul E.; Technology, National I.

358

Collins diffraction formula studied in quantum optics.  

PubMed

We find that the Collins diffraction formula in cylindrical coordinates is just the transformation matrix element of a three-parameter two-mode squeezing operator in the deduced entangled state representation. This is a new tie connecting the unitary transform in quantum optics to the generalized Hankel transform in Fourier optics. The group multiplication rule of the squeezing operators maps to the Collins formula related to two successive Hankel transforms. PMID:16902639

Fan, Hong-Yi; Lu, Hai-Liang

2006-09-01

359

MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES COMPRISING SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES, MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES AND BUCKMINSTERFULLERENE  

EPA Science Inventory

We report a facile method to accomplish cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and Buckminsterfullerene (C-60) using microwave (MW) irradiation. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked with SW...

360

Copyright 2004 by the author(s). Published here under licence by The Resilience Alliance. Shine, R., M. Lemaster, M. Wall, T. Langkilde, and R. Mason. 2004. Why did the snake cross the road?  

E-print Network

? Effects of roads on movement and location of mates by garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) gravel road on the behavior and trail-following abilities of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis the Snake Cross the Road? Effects of Roads on Movement and Location of Mates by Garter Snakes (Thamnophis

Mason, Robert T.

361

On design formulas of U-shaped bellows  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of the following four design formulas of the single-ply unreinforced U-shaped bellows is examined: (1) Kellogg`s formula, (2) formula of EJMA, (3) formula by Hamada and Takezono, (4) formula by Hamada et al. Examination is carried out by comparing results of the design stress and the fatigue life estimated by these four formulas with each other and with experimental data.

Hamada, M. [Tokushima Coll. of Technology (Japan); Tsuda, T. [Canon Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Production Engineering Research Lab.

1997-02-01

362

Single-Walle 4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-print Network

105 Single-Walle 4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Sebastien Nanot, Nicholas A. Thompson, Ji Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are hol- low, long cylinders with extremely large aspect ratios classified into single-walled and multi- walled nanotubes. Single-walled carbon nano- tubes, the subject

Kono, Junichiro

363

Wall of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Cape Town University, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

2011-02-15

364

Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

365

van der Waals interaction between a microparticle and a single-walled carbon nanotube  

SciTech Connect

The Lifshitz-type formulas describing the free energy and the force of the van der Waals interaction between an atom (molecule) and a single-walled carbon nanotube are obtained. The single-walled nanotube is considered as a cylindrical sheet carrying a two-dimensional free-electron gas with appropriate boundary conditions on the electromagnetic field. The obtained formulas are used to calculate the van der Waals free energy and force between a hydrogen atom (molecule) and single-walled carbon nanotubes of different radii. Comparison studies of the van der Waals interaction of hydrogen atoms with single-walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes show that depending on atom-nanotube separation distance, the idealization of graphite dielectric permittivity is already applicable to nanotubes with only two or three walls.

Blagov, E. V.; Mostepanenko, V. M. [Noncommercial Partnership 'Scientific Instruments', Tverskaya Street 11, Moscow 103905 (Russian Federation); Klimchitskaya, G. L. [North-West Technical University, Millionnaya Street 5, St. Petersburg 191065 (Russian Federation)

2007-06-15

366

Improved formulas for calculating cyclotron orbit properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using improved techniques, analytical formulas are derived for calculating the orbit period, the radial tune, and the vertical tune as a function of energy for a given magnetic field. As examples, these formulas are applied to fields from two different machines: the three-sector K1200 superconducting cyclotron at this laboratory, and the six-sector 500 MeV cyclotron at the TRIUMF laboratory. A comparison of the results with those from a standard orbit integration program shows that the analytical formulas are, on the average, highly accurate for the orbit period, quite accurate for the radial tune, but only moderately accurate for the vertical tune. Moreover, differences between the theoretical and orbit code results are found to exhibit relatively large fluctuations which are produced by small irregularities in the measured field data.

Gordon, M. M.; Jeon, Dong-O

1991-03-01

367

27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20.115...USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use...

2013-04-01

368

27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... A manufacturer's own formulas may be adopted for use at...owned subsidiary may adopt the formulas of the parent company, and...by two photocopies of each formula to be adopted. The notice shall list the numbers of all formulas to be adopted and...

2010-04-01

369

27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20.115...USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use...

2012-04-01

370

27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20.115...USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use...

2014-04-01

371

27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... A manufacturer's own formulas may be adopted for use at...owned subsidiary may adopt the formulas of the parent company, and...by two photocopies of each formula to be adopted. The notice shall list the numbers of all formulas to be adopted and...

2012-04-01

372

27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... A manufacturer's own formulas may be adopted for use at...owned subsidiary may adopt the formulas of the parent company, and...by two photocopies of each formula to be adopted. The notice shall list the numbers of all formulas to be adopted and...

2014-04-01

373

27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20.115...USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use...

2011-04-01

374

27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... A manufacturer's own formulas may be adopted for use at...owned subsidiary may adopt the formulas of the parent company, and...by two photocopies of each formula to be adopted. The notice shall list the numbers of all formulas to be adopted and...

2011-04-01

375

27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... A manufacturer's own formulas may be adopted for use at...owned subsidiary may adopt the formulas of the parent company, and...by two photocopies of each formula to be adopted. The notice shall list the numbers of all formulas to be adopted and...

2013-04-01

376

24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of formula income. 990.195 Section...Calculating Formula Income § 990.195 Calculation of formula income. (a) General...through December 31, 2004. (b) Calculation of formula income. To...

2010-04-01

377

On Learning Arithmetic ReadOnce Formulas with Exponentiation  

E-print Network

On Learning Arithmetic Read­Once Formulas with Exponentiation Daoud Bshouty \\Lambda Nader H. Bshouty y April 27, 1995 Abstract A formula is a read­once formula if each variable appears at most once in it. An arithmetic read­once formula (AROF) with exponen­ tiation is one in which the operations

Bshouty, Nader

378

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

379

Variable Differential Cross Section Due to Nuclear Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard differential cross section formula assumes a motionless massive point nucleus. However, nuclear oscillation is a reality, changing the position of the impact parameter in relation to the incoming beam of particles or ions thereby affecting the cross section. If the static differential cross section is d?/d?= (Ze^22??/8??0T)^2, an oscillator can be added to the formula describing the movement of the cross section so that the resulting formula for differential cross section is (Ze^22??/2/8??0T)^2 (Ax?i + Ay?j +Az?k. By taking in ot account nuclear motion there will be some reconciliation between experimental and theoretical values.

Brekke, Stewart

2007-10-01

380

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

SciTech Connect

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

381

Pesin's Entropy Formula for Systems Between and  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we give a new observation of Pesin's entropy formula, motivated from Mañé's proof of (Ergod Theory Dyn Sys 1:95-102, 1981). Let be a compact Riemann manifold and be a diffeomorphism on . If is an -invariant probability measure which is absolutely continuous relative to Lebesgue measure and nonuniformly-Hlder-continuous(see Definition 1.1), then we have Pesin's entropy formula, i.e., the metric entropy satisfies where are the Lyapunov exponents at with respect to Nonuniformly-H lder-continuous is a new notion from probabilistic perspective weaker than

Tian, Xueting

2014-09-01

382

Saha Ionization Formula and the Voids  

E-print Network

The ultra-low density limit of Saha ionization formula suggests that, in this limit, matter would prefer to remain ionized.This has a very important implication for cosmic structures known as Voids.These are ultra-low density (much less than average density of matter in the Universe) regions in the galactic clusters and superclusters.The ionization formula implies that matter trapped in the Voids should be ionized.Therefore, we expect a very faint radiation glow from the Voids resulting from the motion of the charged particles.

Mofazzal Azam

2002-08-14

383

Maize stem tissues: ferulate deposition in developing internode cell walls.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that ferulates are only deposited in the primary cell wall of grasses. To test this hypothesis, the fourth elongating, above-ground internode of maize (Zea mays l.) was sampled from three maize hybrids throughout development. Cell wall composition was determined by the Uppsala Dietary Fibre method. Ester- and ether-linked ferulates were determined by HPLC analysis of ferulic acid released from the internodes by low and high temperature alkaline treatments. Internode length increased from 9 to 152 mm over 96 days of growth, with elongation being complete in the first 12 days. More than half of the cell wall material in the maize internodes accumulated after elongation had ended. Deposition of cell wall material appeared to reach its maximum extent 40 days after sampling began, well before physiological maturity of the maize plants. Galactose and arabinose began to accumulate early in cell wall development which was presumed to be associated with primary wall growth during internode elongation. The major secondary wall constituents (analyzed as glucose, xylose, and Klason lignin) did not begin to accumulate rapidly until shortly before internode elongation ended. Ferulate ester deposition began before ferulate ethers were observed in the cell wall, but both forms of ferulate continued to accumulate in secondary cell walls, long after internode elongation had ceased. These data clearly show that contrary to the hypothesis, ferulate deposition was not restricted to the primary wall and that active lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking mediated by ferulates occurs in the secondary wall. PMID:12809714

Jung, Hans-Joachim G

2003-07-01

384

Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important photoluminescence and photovoltaic processes. PMID:24821815

Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

2014-05-27

385

The Nature of Inaccuracy among Readability Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to assess the usefulness of a variety of readability formulas in predicting the relative difficulty of passages, and to explore the contribution of pupils' background to text difficulty. Subjects were 285 special education students in grades 1-9, 117 of whom were based in rural and suburban Minnesota (MN) and 168 of…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; And Others

386

Formula SAE Competition Composites on Race Cars  

E-print Network

Formula SAE Competition Composites on Race Cars Detroit ver. 1 ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes Institute of Technology #12;ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 8 Rochester Institute of Technology #12;ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton

Colton, Jonathan S.

387

BORON AND MOLYBDENUM CONTENT IN INFANT FORMULAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is new evidence that the content of boron (B) (Hunt, 2004) and molybdenum (Mo) (Friel, 1999) in human milk (HM) may be regulated homeostatically. Presently, the B and Mo content of infant formulas (F) is not standardized by either statute or manufacturing practice. Our analysis of 5 representa...

388

The Economic Vitality Formula of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…

Konopnicki, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

389

SUMMATION, TRANSFORMATION, AND EXPANSION FORMULAS FOR  

E-print Network

GASPER AND MICHAEL SCHLOSSER # Abstract. After reviewing some fundamental facts from the theory of theta series and of Jackson's 8 # 7 summation formula (cf. [8, Eq. (2.6.2)]). Elliptic hypergeometric series GASPER AND MICHAEL SCHLOSSER identities involving multiple bases and theta functions, special cases

Schlosser, Michael

390

Stopping-power formula for magnetic monopoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stopping-power formula is presented for magnetic monopoles with charge vertical-bargvertical-bar = 137e\\/2 and vertical-bargvertical-bar = 137e. Close- and distant-collision effects are considered and the estimated accuracy in an absolute sense is +- 3% for ..beta.. 9 or approx. = 0.2 and ..gamma.. 9 or approx. = 100.

S. Ahlen

1978-01-01

391

CDS Market Formulas and Models Damiano Brigo  

E-print Network

pricing measure. The seminal example is the Black and Scholes (1973) model for the equity market. Another example is the Black (1976) model for commod- ity options, used for years by market operators also a natural equivalent measure, allow pricing reference options by Black and Scholes market valuation formulas

Brigo, Damiano

392

Quantum Ito's formula and stochastic evolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using only the Boson canonical commutation relations and the Riemann-Lebesgue integral we construct a simple theory of stochastic integrals and differentials with respect to the basic field operator processes. This leads to a noncommutative Ito product formula, a realisation of the classical Poisson process in Fock space which gives a noncommutative central limit theorem, the construction of solutions of certain

R. L. Hudson; K. R. Parthasarathy

1984-01-01

393

Money Ivestigation 2 (solving linear equations, formulas)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The second part of the Money Investigation activities. A hands-on activity to help students understand four basic binary operations in algebraic expressions, solving linear equations in 1 variable, and solving a formula for an indicated variable, using value of collections of coins.

2011-01-01

394

HEIGHT FORMULAS FOR HOMOGENEOUS VARIETIES HARRY TAMVAKIS  

E-print Network

HEIGHT FORMULAS FOR HOMOGENEOUS VARIETIES HARRY TAMVAKIS Dedicated to my teacher, William Fulton] for the Faltings height of certain homogeneous varieties in terms of combinatorial data, and verify de- fines an arithmetic variety X in projective space Pn Z. The Faltings height h(X) of X

Tamvakis, Harry

395

HEIGHT FORMULAS FOR HOMOGENEOUS VARIETIES HARRY TAMVAKIS  

E-print Network

HEIGHT FORMULAS FOR HOMOGENEOUS VARIETIES HARRY TAMVAKIS Dedicated to my teacher, William Fulton] for the Faltings height of certain homogeneous varieties in terms of combinatorial data, and verify de­ fines an arithmetic variety X in projective space P n Z . The Faltings height h(X) of X

Tamvakis, Harry

396

Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

1994-01-01

397

Interactive Word Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

2013-01-01

398

History of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief summary provides an overview of the creation, abandonment, and reclamation of stone walls in New England. Topics include the creation of matter and elements; the formation and erosion of rock to make stones; the harvesting and stacking of stones by humans to form the walls; and subsequent abandonment and reclamation by our modern culture.

399

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

400

The Twisting of Thin-walled, Stiffened Circular Cylinders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of the present investigation of the twisting of thin-walled, stiffened cylinders the following conclusions can be reached: 1) there is as yet no generally applicable formula for the buckling moment of the skin; 2) the mathematical treatment of the condition of the shell after buckling of the skin is based on the tension-field theory, wherein the strain condition is considered homogenous.

Schapitz, E

1938-01-01

401

Rapid hospital room decontamination using ultraviolet (UV) light with a nanostructured UV-reflective wall coating.  

PubMed

We tested the ability of an ultraviolet C (UV-C)-reflective wall coating to reduce the time necessary to decontaminate a room using a UV-C-emitting device (Tru-D SmartUVC). The reflective wall coating provided the following time reductions for decontamination: for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, from 25 minutes 13 seconds to 5 minutes 3 seconds ([Formula: see text]), and for Clostridium difficile spores, from 43 minutes 42 seconds to 9 minutes 24 seconds ([Formula: see text]). PMID:23571373

Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Tande, Brian M; Weber, David J

2013-05-01

402

Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language  

PubMed Central

Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

2014-01-01

403

24 CFR 1000.310 - What are the components of the IHBG formula?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false What are the components of the IHBG formula? 1000.310...Formula § 1000.310 What are the components of the IHBG formula? The IHBG formula consists of two components: (a) Formula Current...

2010-04-01

404

Graphical representation of QT rate correction formulae: an aid facilitating the use of a given formula and providing a visual comparison of the impact of different formulae.  

PubMed

The QT interval on the electrocardiogram is an increasingly important measurement, especially in relation to drug action and interaction. The QT interval varies inversely as the heart rate and numerous rate correction formulae have been proposed. It is difficult to compare the effect of applying different formulae at different heart rates and for different measured QT intervals. A simple graphical display of the results from different formulae is proposed. This display is dependent on the concept of the absolute correction factor. This graphical presentation is useful (a) in comparing the effect of the application of different formulae and (b) in directly reading the correction produced by any individual formula. PMID:22361012

Rowlands, Derek J

2012-01-01

405

Adaptive dispersion formula for index interpolation and chromatic aberration correction.  

PubMed

This paper defines and discusses a glass dispersion formula that is adaptive. The formula exhibits superior convergence with a minimum number of coefficients. Using this formula we rationalize the correction of chromatic aberration per spectrum order. We compare the formula with the Sellmeier and Buchdahl formulas for glasses in the Schott catalogue. The six coefficient adaptive formula is found to be the most accurate with an average maximum index of refraction error of 2.91 × 10(-6) within the visible band. PMID:24515080

Li, Chia-Ling; Sasián, José

2014-01-13

406

Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: Z =-1 to 92  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.49.1153]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determined using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.

DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.

2014-11-01

407

Simple formula for a Gaussian beam with general astigmatism in a homogeneous medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple analytical formula that describes the evolution of a Gaussian beam with general astigmatism in a homogeneous medium is obtained. The quadratic form matrix, which determines the transverse distribution of the field in the beam for an arbitrary value of the longitudinal coordinate, is represented in the form of a linear combination of such matrix in a certain initial cross section and a unit matrix. The coefficients of the linear combination are complex-valued and are expressed via the longitudinal coordinate of the considered cross section, the refractive index of the medium, and the determinant and the trace of the initial matrix.

Plachenov, A. B.; Kudashov, V. N.; Radin, A. M.

2009-06-01

408

Determining anatomical position of the umbilicus in Iranian girls, and providing quantitative indices and formula to determine neo-umbilicus during abdominoplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: The umbilicus plays an important role in the aesthetic appearance of the abdomen. So, its restoration during reconstructive surgeries, such as an abdominoplasty, is a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitative indices based on constant skeletal points in the anterior wall of abdomen in order to provide an appropriate site of a neo-umbilicus during an abdominoplasty. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we enrolled 65 young adult girls (20–25 years old) who were nulliparous, nulligravid, and without any history of surgery. Weight, height, distance from xiphoid to umbilicus (Xu), distance from the pubic symphysis to xiphosternum (Xp), and anterior superior iliac spine (interASIS) distance of the subjects were measured. Data were analysed by SPSS ver. 16 using descriptive statistics and multiple regression tests in order to present a formula (equation). Results: Mean age was 22.74 ± 1.51 years, mean weight 54.98 ± 6.51 kg, mean height 160.91 ± 4.11 cm and body mass index (BMI) was calculated to be 21.25 ± 2.61 kg/m2. Mean Xp distance was 32.26 ± 2.23 cm and mean Xu distance was 17.11 ± 1.64 cm. Xu/Xp ratio (ratio of umbilicoxiphoid distance to puboxiphoid distance) was 53.06 ± 3.9%. Data were analysed using multiple regression test and likelihood ratio. The formula used in determining the appropriate site of neo-umbilicus during abdominoplasty was suggested: Xu=?0.98 + 0.91Xp ? 0.07H. Conclusion: By applying these quantitative methods, the natural site of neo-umbilicus could be determined. This may reduce practice errors and increase patient satisfaction. In addition, these findings provide plausible evidence to defend against possible legal complaints. PMID:22754161

Parnia, Rafi; Ghorbani, Ladan; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

409

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

410

Wall conditioning on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like all tokamaks, ITER will require wall conditioning systems and strategies for successful operation from the point of view of plasma-facing surface preparation. Unlike today's devices however, ITER will have to manage large quantities of tritium fuel, imposing on wall conditioning a major responsibility for tritium inventory control. It will also feature the largest plasma-facing beryllium surface ever used in a tokamak and its high duty cycle and long pulse are expected to lead to the rapid formation of deposited layers in which tritium can accumulate. This paper summarises the currently planned ITER wall conditioning systems and describes the strategy for their use throughout exploitation of the device.

Shimada, Michiya; Pitts, Richard A.

2011-08-01

411

Trace formulae in finite von Neumann algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation is devoted to some aspects of spectral perturbation theory in the context of finite von Neumann algebras. The central results are analogs of the Birman-Schwinger principle and the Birman-Krein formula for the xi-index, a spectral parameter independent counterpart of Krein's spectral shift function. The proofs of the main results are based on diverse properties of the operator logarithm and argument averaged with respect to a normal tracial state that are derived in this work. In addition, formula representations for the xi-index and the xi-function are obtained and the concept of the xi-index is related to that of the spectrum distribution function for some random operators.

Skripka, Anna

412

A flood-flow formula for Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the frequency and magnitude of floods within the Connecticut area is contained in this report. Annual flood discharges for 44 stream-gaging stations whose records range in length from l0 to 40 years are presented and a regional flood-frequency relationship developed based upon the ratios of all floods to the mean annual flood at each of these locations. Definition of this curve for floods of larger recurrence intervals is based upon historical studies of extraordinary floods which have occurred within the area. For ungaged areas, the mean annual flood value may be determined by use of a flood-flow formula based upon the topographic characteristics of drainage area and basin slope. The development of this formula also is included.

Bigwood, B.L.; Thomas, M.P.

1955-01-01

413

Characterization of the cell wall and cell wall proteins of Chromatium vinosum.  

PubMed

Highly purified cell walls of Chromatium vinosum were isolated by differential centrifugation, with or without Triton X-100 extraction. The isolated material had a protein composition similar to that of cell walls obtained by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-two proteins were reproducibly detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A 42-kilodalton protein was shown to account for 65% of the total cell wall protein. The majority of cell wall proteins were solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate at room temperature; however, they existed as high-molecular-weight complexes unless heated to 45 degrees C or above. The cell wall contained one heat-modifiable protein which migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 37,400 when solubilized at 70 degrees C or below, but which migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 52,500 if solubilized at 100 degrees C. The electrophoretic mobility of three proteins was modified by 2-mercaptoethanol. The majority of C. vinosum cell wall proteins had isoelectric points between pH 4.5 and 5.5, and the 42-kilodalton protein focused at pH 4.9. No proteins were detected which were analogous to the lipoprotein or peptidoglycan-associated proteins of the Enterobacteriaceae. Nearest-neighbor analysis with a reducible, cross-linking reagent indicated that three proteins, including the 42-kilodalton protein, associated with themselves. Most of the cell wall proteins were partially accessible to proteases in both intact cells and isolated cell walls. Protease treatment of the whole cell or isolated cell wall digested approximately an 11,000-molecular-weight portion of the 42-kilodalton protein. PMID:6988413

Lane, B C; Hurlbert, R E

1980-03-01

414

Eddy current damping of planar domain wall in bistable amorphous wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact formula for the field produced by the eddy currents induced by transverse movements of a longitudinal planar domain wall in a magnetic cylinder is obtained. The result has been extended to satisfy the situation of bistable iron-rich amorphous wires and compared with the dMav\\/dt pulse of such wires during magnetization reversal. It is shown that the propagating wall

R. P. del Real; C. Prados; D.-X. Chen; A. Hernando; M. Vázquez

1993-01-01

415

On Monotone Formula Closure of SZK  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate structural properties of statisticalzero knowledge (SZK) both in the interactive andin the non-interactive model. Specifically, we lookinto the closure properties of SZK languages undermonotone logical formula composition. This givesrise to new protocol techniques.We show that interactive SZK for random self reduciblelanguages (RSR) (and for co-RSR) is closedunder monotone boolean operations. Namely, wegive SZK proofs for monotone boolean formulaewhose

Alfredo De Santis; Giovanni Di Crescenzo; Giuseppe Persiano; Moti Yung

1994-01-01

416

A Generalized Formula to Determine Pythagorean Triples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note proposes a unique solutions to find out the value of x, y and z which satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. The uniqueness of the proposed formulae is to find the total number of y's and z's at a given value of x. The value of y and z can be calculated by factoring x[superscript 2] or…

Mohapatra, Amar Kumar; Prakash, Nupur

2010-01-01

417

The Yin and Yang of Cell Wall Integrity Control: Brassinosteroid and FERONIA Signaling.  

PubMed

Understanding how developmental and environmental signals control plant cell expansion requires an intimate knowledge of the architecture of the primary cell wall and the chemo-rheological processes that underlie cell wall relaxation. In this review I discuss recent findings that reveal a more prominent role than previously suspected for covalent bonds and pectin cross-links in primary cell wall architecture. In addition, genetic studies have uncovered a role for receptor kinases in the control of cell wall homeostasis in growing cells. The emerging view is that, upon cell wall disruption, compensatory changes are induced in the cell wall through the interplay between the brassinosteroid signaling module, which positively regulates wall extensibility and receptor kinases of the CrRLKL1 family, which may act as negative regulators of cell wall stiffness. These findings lift the tip of the veil of a complex signaling network allowing normal homeostasis in walls of growing cells but also crisis management under stress conditions. PMID:25481004

Höfte, Herman

2015-02-01

418

Detecting domain walls of axionlike models using terrestrial experiments.  

PubMed

Stable topological defects of light (pseudo)scalar fields can contribute to the Universe's dark energy and dark matter. Currently, the combination of gravitational and cosmological constraints provides the best limits on such a possibility. We take an example of domain walls generated by an axionlike field with a coupling to the spins of standard-model particles and show that, if the galactic environment contains a network of such walls, terrestrial experiments aimed at the detection of wall-crossing events are realistic. In particular, a geographically separated but time-synchronized network of sensitive atomic magnetometers can detect a wall crossing and probe a range of model parameters currently unconstrained by astrophysical observations and gravitational experiments. PMID:23383890

Pospelov, M; Pustelny, S; Ledbetter, M P; Jackson Kimball, D F; Gawlik, W; Budker, D

2013-01-11

419

Coronary artery wall imaging.  

PubMed

Like X-Ray contrast angiography, MR coronary angiograms show the vessel lumens rather than the vessels themselves. Consequently, outward remodeling of the vessel wall, which occurs in subclinical coronary disease before luminal narrowing, cannot be seen. The current gold standard for assessing the coronary vessel wall is intravascular ultrasound, and more recently, optical coherence tomography, both of which are invasive and use ionizing radiation. A noninvasive, low-risk technique for assessing the vessel wall would be beneficial to cardiologists interested in the early detection of preclinical disease and for the safe monitoring of the progression or regression of disease in longitudinal studies. In this review article, the current state of the art in MR coronary vessel wall imaging is discussed, together with validation studies and recent developments.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25303707

Keegan, Jennifer

2014-10-01

420

Introduction: Investigating Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of educational activities and investigations provides ideas on how to teach art, history, geography, language arts, math, and science using the opportunities and examples provided by stone walls.

421

Materials physics: Reactive walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domain walls are natural borders in ferromagnetic, ferroelectric or ferroelastic materials. It seems that they can also be reactive areas that produce crystallographic phases never before observed in bulk materials. See Letter p.379

Ghosez, Philippe; Triscone, Jean-Marc

2014-11-01

422

Designing a Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 5 of PDF), young learners investigate how materials and design contribute to the strength of a structure, particularly walls. Learners use different materials to construct "walls" and then test the strength of each by setting up a ramp near the wall and releasing a car from the top of the ramp. Learners also watch a video clip and develop a fair test to compare the strength of the different walls they have constructed. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Keep Out Cows." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

2012-06-26

423

Wall Street Journal Interactivo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dow Jones & Company created the Spanish-language business news resource Wall Street Journal Interactivo "to serve the needs of Latin American businesspeople." This comprehensive site draws on content from the Spanish news agency EFE, Reuters NewMedia Inc., and The Wall Street Journal Americas, among other sources, to provide continuous online financial news as well as Diarios de la Region -- links to current headlines from top Latin American dailies by country.

424

24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases are intended to be employed to provide information on...

2010-04-01

425

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

2012-10-01

426

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

2013-10-01

427

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

2010-10-01

428

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

2011-10-01

429

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section...

2014-10-01

430

A pocket calculator program for using Pozen's formula.  

PubMed

Pozen's formula has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy in patients with acute chest pain. This paper describes a short program for the HP-41CV calculator which reliably calculates acute ischemic heart disease probabilities using Pozen's formula. PMID:3514111

Hagen, M D

1986-01-01

431

75 FR 38797 - Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EDUCATION [CFDA No. 84.031P] Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new...awards for FY 2010 for the Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program (PBI Notice). The PBI Notice incorrectly...

2010-07-06

432

27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

2012-04-01

433

27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

2011-04-01

434

27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

2014-04-01

435

27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...because the product is neither a medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126. No...

2013-04-01

436

Cell wall polysaccharides from fern leaves: evidence for a mannan-rich Type III cell wall in Adiantum raddianum.  

PubMed

Primary cell walls from plants are composites of cellulose tethered by cross-linking glycans and embedded in a matrix of pectins. Cell wall composition varies between plant species, reflecting in some instances the evolutionary distance between them. In this work the monosaccharide compositions of isolated primary cell walls of nine fern species and one lycophyte were characterized and compared with those from Equisetum and an angiosperm dicot. The relatively high abundance of mannose in these plants suggests that mannans may constitute the major cross-linking glycan in the primary walls of pteridophytes and lycophytes. Pectin-related polysaccharides contained mostly rhamnose and uronic acids, indicating the presence of rhamnogalacturonan I highly substituted with galactose and arabinose. Structural and fine-structural analyses of the hemicellulose fraction of leaves of Adiantum raddianum confirmed this hypothesis. Linkage analysis showed that the mannan contains mostly 4-Man with very little 4,6-Man, indicating a low percentage of branching with galactose. Treatment of the mannan-rich fractions with endo-?-mannanase produced characteristic mannan oligosaccharides. Minor amounts of xyloglucan and xylans were also detected. These data and those of others suggest that all vascular plants contain xyloglucans, arabinoxylans, and (gluco)mannans, but in different proportions that define cell wall types. Whereas xyloglucan and pectin-rich walls define Type I walls of dicots and many monocots, arabinoxylans and lower proportion of pectin define the Type II walls of commelinoid monocots. The mannan-rich primary walls with low pectins of many ferns and a lycopod indicate a fundamentally different wall type among land plants, the Type III wall. PMID:21955619

Silva, Giovanna B; Ionashiro, Mari; Carrara, Thalita B; Crivellari, Augusto C; Tiné, Marco A S; Prado, Jefferson; Carpita, Nicholas C; Buckeridge, Marcos S

2011-12-01

437

Raman imaging of cell wall polymers in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present chemical images of Arabidopsis thaliana stem cross-sections acquired by confocal Raman microscopy. Using green light (532nm) from a continuous wave laser, the spatial distributions of cell wall polymers in Arabidopsis are visualized for the first time with lateral resolution that is sub-?m. Our results facilitate the label-free in situ characterization and screening of cell wall composition in this

Martin Schmidt; Adam M. Schwartzberg; Andrew Carroll; Adisorn Chaibang; Paul D. Adams; P. James Schuck

2010-01-01

438

A generalized Debye scattering formula and the Hankel transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffracted intensity of an x-ray or neutron diffraction experiment is expressed as an integral over an atomic position distribution function. A generalized Debye scattering formula results. Since this distribution function is expanded into a series of spherical harmonics, an inverse Hankel transform of the intensity allows the calculation of the expansion coefficients which describe the atomic arrangement completely. The connections between the generalized Debye scattering formula and the original Debye formula as well as the Laue scattering formula are derived.

Wieder, Thomas

1999-05-01

439

An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research creates an empirically derived, pedagogically useful list of formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing, comparable with the Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000), called the Academic Formulas List (AFL). The AFL includes formulaic sequences identified as (i) frequent recurrent patterns in corpora of written and spoken language,…

Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Ellis, Nick C.

2010-01-01

440

On Postnikov's Hook Length Formula for Binary Trees  

E-print Network

On Postnikov's Hook Length Formula for Binary Trees William Y.C. Chen1 and Laura L.M. Yang2 Center@hotmail.com Abstract. We present a combinatorial proof of Postnikov's hook length formula for binary trees. AMS Classification: 05A15, 05A19 Keywords: Binary tree, labeled tree, Postnikov's hook length formula Corresponding

Chen, Bill

441

Hook length formulas for integer partitions and planar trees  

E-print Network

Hook length formulas for integer partitions and planar trees Guo-Niu Han IRMA, Strasbourg Journ´ees de Combinatoire de Bordeaux - 27 Janvier 2010 1 #12;Hook length formulas for partitions and trees Summary: · Some well-known examples · How to discover new hook formulas ? · The Main Theorem

Marckert, Jean-François

442

An alternative derivation of Einstein's Doppler shift and aberration formulae  

E-print Network

I propose an alternative, purely kinematical, derivation of Einstein's Doppler formula. It is valid for periodic signals of any shape that propagate with the velocity of light. The formula is asymptotic in a parameter proportional to the relative variation of the distance source-receiver during one period. As a by-product, I also derive an alternative proof of Einstein's aberration formulae.

Jean Reignier

2009-02-06

443

The elusive universal post-mortem interval formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen,

Arpad A. Vass; Arpad Alexander

2011-01-01

444

Use of Formulaic Sequences in Monologues of Chinese EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on formulaic language lacks sufficient research on how L2 learners make progress in native-like formulaicity of their target language. This study analyzed the use of formulaic sequences (FSs) by 56 Chinese university English majors in their prepared monologues at the beginning and end of a three-year period and compared the student…

Qi, Yan; Ding, Yanren

2011-01-01

445

Quantifier elimination for formulas constrained by quadratic equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is given for constructing a quantifier free formula (a boolean expression of polynomial equations and inequalities) equivalent to a given formula of the form: (% c R)[azzz + alz + a. = O A F], where F is a quantifier free formula in Z1, . . . . z~, z, and az, al, ao are polynomials in z

Hoon Hong

1993-01-01

446

-Species and the -Mehler Formula Hung Quang Ngo  

E-print Network

extension of the £ -Mehler formula. The basic idea to obtain this proof comes from generalizing a result -Species and the ¡ -Mehler Formula Hung Quang Ngo ¢ Abstract In this paper, we present a bijective proof of the £ -Mehler formula. The proof is in the same style as Foata's proof of the Mehler

Ngo, Hung Q.

447

PSpecies and the qMehler Formula Hung Quang Ngo  

E-print Network

extension of the q­Mehler formula. The basic idea to obtain this proof comes from generalizing a resultP­Species and the q­Mehler Formula Hung Quang Ngo #3; Abstract In this paper, we present a bijective proof of the q­Mehler formula. The proof is in the same style as Foata's proof of the Mehler

Ngo, Hung Q.

448

Rice Formula for processes with jumps and applications Federico Dalmao  

E-print Network

Rice Formula for processes with jumps and applications Federico Dalmao Ernesto Mordecki December 24, 2012 Abstract We extend Rice Formula for a process that is the sum of a smooth process and a pure jump give a generalization, to the non-stationary case, of Borovkov-Last's Rice Formula for Piecewise

449

Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

2008-01-01

450

Miniature Laser Doppler Velocimeter for Measuring Wall Shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature optoelectronic instrument has been invented as a nonintrusive means of measuring a velocity gradient proportional to a shear stress in a flow near a wall. The instrument, which can be mounted flush with the wall, is a variant of a basic laser Doppler velocimeter. The laser Doppler probe volume can be located close enough to the wall (as little as 100 micron from the surface) to lie within the viscosity-dominated sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The instrument includes a diode laser, the output of which is shaped by a diffractive optical element (DOE) into two beams that have elliptical cross sections with very high aspect ratios.

Gharib, Morteza; Modarress, Darius; Forouhar, Siamak; Fourguette, Dominique; Taugwalder, Federic; Wilson, Daniel

2005-01-01

451

Improvements in the slotted-wall boundary condition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the form of the slotted wind tunnel wall boundary condition can be obtained directly from the ideal slot conditions without specification of the cross-sectional geometry of the slot. The treatment of flat slots is generalized so that configurations with sidewalls in the plenum can be treated. It is shown that these variations do not change the slotted-wall boundary condition significantly. It is concluded that the effects of slot sidewalls and separation in the plenum on the coefficient of the slotted-wall boundary condition are small compared to the effect of the slat on the tunnel side.

Barnwell, R. W.

1976-01-01

452

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

453

Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…

Kincaid, J. P.; And Others

454

Generalization of Green's Formulae In Thermoelasticity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Generalization of Green’s functions and Green’s formulae onto a case of boundary value problems in the classical theory of static and dynamical thermal stresses are suggested i this article.These result has been obtained for the first time and are the generalization of the well known Green’s integral formulae for the theories of heat conduction and elasticity onto static and dynamical theories of uncoupled thermoelastisity . They can also be explained as a generalization of a classical integral Maysel’s formulae onto those cases when the temperature field satisfies the equation of heat conduction, the field being caused by the internal heat source and temperature or heat flux prescribed on the boundary. The advantage is that it allows us to unite the two-stage process of solving the boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses (the first stage comprise the determination of temperature fields and second stage comprises the determination of thermoplastic displacements). The investigations have shown that the possibilities of realizing the concrete solutions which have the form given generalization are so vast that they could be a subject for a whole handbook on influence functions and integral solutions of boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses. They are, for example, the solutions for locally mixed boundary value problems for canonic elastic bodies for Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, spherical and other systems of orthogonal coordinate. In doing so most of them can be expressed in terms of elementary functions, that are very important for practical calculations.

Sheremet, Victor

2004-08-31

455

Inter-wall bridging induced peeling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes during tensile failure in aluminum matrix composites.  

PubMed

In situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of a tensile test was performed to investigate the fracturing behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in powder metallurgy Al matrix composites. A multiple peeling phenomenon during MWCNT fracturing was clearly observed. Its formation mechanism and resultant effect on the composite strength were examined. Through transition electron microscopy characterizations, it was observed that defective structures like inter-wall bridges cross-linked adjacent walls of MWCNTs. This structure was helpful to improve the inter-wall bonding conditions, leading to the effective load transfer between walls and resultant peeling behaviors of MWCNTs. These results might provide new understandings of the fracturing mechanisms of carbon nanotube reinforcements for designing high-performance nanocomposites. PMID:25437849

Chen, Biao; Li, Shufeng; Imai, Hisashi; Umeda, Junko; Takahashi, Makoto; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

2015-02-01

456

Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions.  

PubMed

We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus. PMID:25383018

Eilbeck, J Chris; England, Matthew; Onishi, Yoshihiro

2014-11-01

457

Classical Radiation Formula in the Rindler Frame  

E-print Network

In a preceding paper [T. Hirayama, Prog. Theor. Phys. 106 (2001), 71], the power of the classical radiation emitted by a moving charge was evaluated in the Rindler frame. In this paper, we give a simpler derivation of this radiation formula, including an estimation of the directional dependence of the radiation. We find that the splitting of the energy-momentum tensor into a bound part I' and an emitted part II' is consistent with the three conditions introduced in the preceding paper, also for each direction within the future light cone.

Toru Hirayama

2001-12-19

458

Wald entropy formula and loop quantum gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline how the Wald entropy formula naturally arises in loop quantum gravity based on recently introduced dimension-independent connection variables. The key observation is that in a loop quantization of a generalized gravity theory, the analog of the area operator turns out to measure, morally speaking, the Wald entropy rather than the area. We discuss the explicit example of (higher-dimensional) Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and comment on recent work on finding the correct numerical prefactor of the entropy by comparing it to a semiclassical effective action.

Bodendorfer, N.; Neiman, Y.

2014-10-01

459

75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...information collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant formula labeling, quality control...

2010-05-04

460

The expression of several cell wall-related genes in Arabidopsis roots is down-regulated under boron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell wall is a dynamic structure that is of fundamental importance in plant growth and development, as well as in the response to environmental stresses. There is direct evidence for a role of boron (B) in cross-linking of cell wall rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) and pectin assembly, which shows that B is essential for cell wall structure and function. The

Juan J. Camacho-Cristóbal; María Begoña Herrera-Rodríguez; Víctor M. Beato; Jesús Rexach; María T. Navarro-Gochicoa; José M. Maldonado; Agustín González-Fontes

2008-01-01

461

An investigation on near wall transport characteristics in an adiabatic upward gas-liquid two-phase slug flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-wall transport characteristics, inclusive of mass transfer coefficient and wall shear stress, which have a great effect on gas-liquid two-phase flow induced internal corrosion of low alloy pipelines in vertical upward oil and gas mixing transport, have been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated in this paper. Based on the analyses on the hydrodynamic characteristics of an upward slug unit, the mass transfer in the near wall can be divided into four zones, Taylor bubble nose zone, falling liquid film zone, Taylor bubble wake zone and the remaining liquid slug zone; the wall shear stress can be divided into two zones, the positive wall shear stress zone associated with the falling liquid film and the negative wall shear stress zone associated with the liquid slug. Based on the conventional mass transfer and wall shear stress characteristics formulas of single phase liquid full-pipe turbulent flow, corrected normalized mass transfer coefficient formula and wall shear stress formula are proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The shear stress and the mass transfer coefficient in the near wall zone are increased with the increase of superficial gas velocity and decreased with the increase of superficial liquid velocity. The mass transfer coefficients in the falling liquid film zone and the wake zone of leading Taylor bubble are lager than those in the Taylor bubble nose zone and the remaining liquid slug zone, and the wall shear stress associated falling liquid film is larger than that associated the liquid slug. The mass transfer coefficient is within 10-3 m/s, and the wall shear stress below 103 Pa. It can be concluded that the alternate wall shear stress due to upward gas-liquid slug flow is considered to be the major cause of the corrosion production film fatigue cracking.

Zheng, Donghong; Che, Defu

2007-08-01

462

Universal behavior of the [Formula: see text] transition form factors.  

PubMed

The photon transition form factors of ?, ? and [Formula: see text] are discussed in view of recent measurements. It is shown that the exact axial anomaly sum rule allows a precise comparison of all three form factors at high-[Formula: see text] independent of the different structures and distribution amplitudes of the participating pseudoscalar mesons. We conclude: (i) The ?? form factor reported by Belle is in excellent agreement with the nonstrange [Formula: see text] component of the ? and [Formula: see text] form factors obtained from the BaBar measurements. (ii) Within errors, the ?? form factor from Belle is compatible with the asymptotic pQCD behavior, similar to the ? and [Formula: see text] form factors from BaBar. Still, the best fits to the data sets of ??, ??, and [Formula: see text] form factors favor a universal small logarithmic rise [Formula: see text]. PMID:23226917

Melikhov, Dmitri; Stech, Berthold

2012-12-01

463

Playing Robinson's Wall Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students study a stone wall by carefully sketching it and observing color, grain size, sedimentary structures, weathering characteristics, and possible origin of the stones. As an alternative to save time, the instructor can provide a sketch of part of the wall. A simple skeleton sketch that depicts the outline of each block in the area of interest is shown as an example. Another way to make such a sketch is to photograph the wall and trace the outlines of the stone blocks onto a sheet of tracing paper. The drawing can then be enlarged using a photocopier. Follow-up discussions include simple comparisons of weathering characteristics or more advanced comparisons of grain size and composition between the stones.

464

Thermal treatment wall  

DOEpatents

A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

465

Musculoskeletal chest wall pain  

PubMed Central

The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

1985-01-01

466

Fetal abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. PMID:24342556

Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

2014-04-01

467

A new analytical formula for neutron capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes in radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Photoneutrons are produced in radiation therapy with high energy photons. Also, capture gamma rays are the byproduct of neutrons interactions with wall material of radiotherapy rooms. Aim In the current study an analytical formula was proposed for capture gamma dose calculations in double bend mazes in radiation therapy rooms. Materials and methods A total of 40 different layouts with double-bend mazes and a 18 MeV photon beam of Varian 2100 Clinac were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo (MC) code. Neutron capture gamma ray dose equivalent was calculated by the MC method along the maze and at the maze entrance door of all the simulated rooms. Then, all MC resulted data were fitted to an empirical formula for capture gamma dose calculations. Wu–McGinley analytical formula for capture gamma dose equivalent at the maze entrance door in single-bend mazes was also used for comparison purposes. Results For capture gamma dose equivalents at the maze entrance door, the difference of 2–11% was seen between MC and the derived equation, while the difference of 36–87% was found between MC and the Wu–McGinley methods. Conclusion Our results showed that the derived formula results were consistent with the MC results for all of 40 different geometries. However, as a new formula, further evaluations are required to validate its use in practical situations. Finally, its application is recommend for capture gamma dose calculations in double-bend mazes to improve shielding calculations. PMID:24377027

Ghiasi, Hosein; Mesbahi, Asghar

2012-01-01

468

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

469

Lovelock gravity and Weyl's tube formula  

SciTech Connect

In four space-time dimensions, there are good theoretical reasons for believing that general relativity is the correct geometrical theory of gravity, at least at the classical level. If one admits the possibility of extra space-time dimensions, what would we expect classical gravity to be like? It is often stated that the most natural generalization is Lovelock's theory, which shares many physical properties with general relativity. But there are also key differences and problems. A potentially serious problem is the breakdown of determinism, which can occur when the matrix of coefficients of second time derivatives of the metric degenerates. This can be avoided by imposing inequalities on the curvature. Here it is argued that such inequalities occur naturally if the Lovelock action is obtained from Weyl's formulas for the volume and surface area of a tube. Part of the purpose of this article is to give a treatment of the Weyl tube formula in terminology familiar to relativists and to give an appropriate (straightforward) generalization to a tube embedded in Minkowski space.

Willison, Steven [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

2009-09-15

470

Wall Street Journal Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wall Street Journal includes the content of the print version, as well as weather and sports sections. The content can be accessed by section or by a general index that can be found under Table of Contents on the home page. Stories that mention companies contain hypertext links that allow the reader to obtain more information about a company, including latest news stories, a 20 minute delayed company stock report, and a "briefing book" on the company which includes background information, a financial overview, stock performance measures, previous Wall St. Journal articles about that company, and company press releases. Walter Mossberg's popular Personal Technology column is also available.

1996-01-01

471

Primary chest wall tumors.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of chest wall tumors is diverse, including both benign and malignant lesions (primary and malignant), local extension of adjacent disease, and local manifestations of infectious and inflammatory processes. Primary chest wall tumors are best classified by their primary component: soft tissue or bone. Work-up consists of a thorough history, physical examination and imaging to best assess location, size, composition, association with surrounding structures, and evidence of any soft tissue component. Biopsies are often required, especially for soft tissue masses. Treatment depends on histological subtype and location, but may include chemotherapy and radiotherapy in addition to surgical resection. PMID:20974433

Smith, Shona E; Keshavjee, Shaf

2010-11-01

472

The WAIS-R Index for Estimating Premorbid Intelligence: Cross-Validation and Clinical Utility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses proposed new demographic information formulas for estimating premorbid Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Revised Intelligence Quotient scores. Investigated cross-validation of this index on a neurologically normal but clinically relevant criterion group and determined the neuropsychological utility of the formulas to discriminate between…

Eppinger, Michael G.; And Others

1987-01-01

473

Follow the Family Food and Fitness Formula.  

E-print Network

your breath. Increase Muscular Endurance Muscular endurance exercises involve working against moderate resistance for a prolonged time. Start slowly and gradually work up to 1 to 3 minutes per exercise. Try some of these: ? Wall Sits - Stand..., jogging, bicycling, swimming, jump ing rope and other activ..e sports and games. Aerobic exercises are great calorie burners, but remember that you must use 3,500 calories to lose a pound! That is where "eating fit" becomes so important to your total...

Cooksey, Dymple; Haggard, Marilyn; Hunt, Alice; Sweeten, Mary; Heussner, Mary Ann

1984-01-01

474

Micro-grooved heat transfer combustor wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas turbine engine hot section combustor liner is provided a non-film cooled portion of a heat transfer wall having a hot surface and a plurality of longitudinally extending micro-grooves disposed in the portion of the wall along the hot surface in a direction parallel to the direction of the hot gas flow. The depth of the micro-grooves is very small and on the order of magnitude of a predetermined laminar sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The micro-grooves are sized so as to inhibit heat transfer from the hot gas flow to the hot surface of the wall while reducing NOx emissions of the combustor relative to an otherwise similar combustor having a liner wall portion including film cooling apertures. In one embodiment the micro-grooves are about 0.001 inches deep and have a preferred depth range of from about 0.001 inches to 0.005 inches and which are square, rectangular, or triangular in cross-section and the micro-grooves are spaced about one width apart.

Ward, Steven D. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

475

Advanced Glycation End Products in Infant Formulas Do Not Contribute to Insulin Resistance Associated with Their Consumption  

PubMed Central

Introduction Infant formula-feeding is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity. In rodents and healthy humans, advanced glycation end product (AGE)-rich diets exert diabetogenic effects. In comparison with human breast-milk, infant formulas contain high amounts of AGEs. We assessed the role of AGEs in infant-formula-consumption-associated insulin resistance. Methods Total plasma levels of N?-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), AGEs-associated fluorescence (?ex?=?370 nm/?em?=?445 nm), soluble adhesion molecules, markers of micro- binflammation (hsCRP), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostanes) and leptinemia were determined, and correlated with insulin sensitivity in a cross-sectional study in 166 healthy term infants aged 3-to-14 months, subdivided according to feeding regimen (breast-milk- vs. infant formula-fed) and age (3-to-6-month-olds, 7-to-10-month-olds, and 11-to-14-month-old infants). Effects of the consumption of low- vs. high-CML-containing formulas were assessed. 36 infants aged 5.8±0.3 months were followed-up 7.5±0.3 months later. Results Cross-sectional study: 3-to-6-month-olds and 7-to-10-month-old formula-fed infants presented higher total plasma CML levels and AGEs-associated fluorescence (p<0.01, both), while only the 3-to-6-month-olds displayed lower insulin sensitivity (p<0.01) than their breast-milk-fed counterparts. 3-to-6-month-olds fed low-CML-containing formulas presented lower total plasma CML levels (p<0.01), but similar insulin sensitivity compared to those on high-CML-containing formulas. Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, levels of leptin and adhesion molecules did not differ significantly between the groups. Follow-up study: at initial investigation, the breast-milk-consuming infants displayed lower total plasma CML levels (p<0.01) and AGEs-associated fluorescence (p<0.05), but higher insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) than the formulas-consuming infants. At follow-up, the groups did not differ significantly in either determined parameter. Conclusions In healthy term infants, high dietary load with CML does not play a pathophysiological role in the induction of infant formula-associated insulin resistance. Whether a high load of AGEs in early childhood affects postnatal programming remains to be elucidated. PMID:23301020

Klenovics, Kristína Simon; Boor, Peter; Somoza, Veronika; Celec, Peter; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Šebeková, Katarína

2013-01-01

476

12. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING THE WIDTH OF THE FACINGS AND BACKINGS THAT FORMED THE BASE OF THE WALL AT THE WESTERN END, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

477

Experimental study on the seismic performance of new sandwich masonry walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandwich masonry walls are widely used as energy-saving panels since the interlayer between the outer leaves can act as an insulation layer. New types of sandwich walls are continually being introduced in research and applications, and due to their unique bond patterns, experimental studies have been performed to investigate their mechanical properties, especially with regard to their seismic performance. In this study, three new types of sandwich masonry wall have been designed, and cyclic lateral loading tests were carried out on five specimens. The results showed that the specimens failed mainly due to slippage along the bottom cracks or the development of diagonal cracks, and the failure patterns were considerably influenced by the aspect ratio. Analysis was undertaken on the seismic response of the new walls, which included ductility, stiffness degradation and energy dissipation capacity, and no obvious difference was observed between the seismic performance of the new walls and traditional walls. Comparisons were made between the experimental results and the calculated results of the shear capacity. It is concluded that the formulas in the two Chinese codes (GB 50011 and GB 50003) are suitable for the calculation of the shear capacity for the new types of walls, and the formula in GB 50011 tends to be more conservative.

Xiao, Jianzhuang; Pu, Jie; Hu, Yongzhong

2013-03-01

478

Cafe Wall Illusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun and interactive online exhibit, the straight lines of a tile wall appear to curve. The learner moves the rows of tiles and changes the color of the grout to achieve the intriguing effect. Although the exhibit requires a computer, the concept can be adapted into a longer, hands-on exploration of optical illusions.

Exploratorium

2012-06-26

479

Primary chest wall tumors.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of 53 primary chest wall tumors, 26 benign and 27 malignant, was carried out to review their clinical radiological and pathological features. Forty-nine of the 53 lesions presented in the ribs and the remaining 4, in the sternum. The overall 5-year survival for patients with primary malignant neoplasms of the chest wall was 33.3%, and the 10-year survival was 18.5%. All of the deaths were disease related. All of the patients with benign tumors were treated by excision without recurrence or death. Distinction between benign and malignant chest wall tumors was not possible using radiographic criteria unless cortical destruction and involvement of soft tissues were visualized. On the basis of our analysis, we believe that all tumors of the chest wall should be considered malignant until proven otherwise and that wide excision should be carried out. This is necessary not only to obtain an adequate diagnosis but also to provide the best chance for cure in both benign and malignant lesions. PMID:3966836

Sabanathan, S; Salama, F D; Morgan, W E; Harvey, J A

1985-01-01

480

Radio Wall Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radio Wall Street, brought to you by Investor Broadcast Network, offers current financial news for investors. RealAudio files are organized in sections including top stories, technology news, IPOs, and mutual funds. Special sections provide interviews with leading CEOs and investment analysts. Daily features and popular programs are listed at the bottom of the site.

481

Wall of Winows Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Bryce Canyon's Wall of Windows, a series of sandstone arches and hoodoos in the Bryce Amphitheater. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates for the dolom...

482

A Wall of Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

Stevens, Lori

2008-01-01

483

Great Wall Historic  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Nothing says "Do Not Disturb" more effectively than a 3,000-mile fortification of brick and mortar. The Great Wall of China, or chang cheng, was begun over 1,000 years ago by Qin Shi Huang Di, the first Emperor...

Hacker, Randi

2010-04-07

484

The Wall Coverings Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

485

27 CFR 20.116 - Low alcohol general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Low alcohol general-use formula. 20.116 Section 20.116...OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.116 Low alcohol general-use formula. Low alcohol...

2014-04-01

486

24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is formula current assisted stock? 1000.314 Section...NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.314 What is formula current assisted stock? Formula...

2012-04-01

487

27 CFR 20.116 - Low alcohol general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Low alcohol general-use formula. 20.116 Section 20.116...OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.116 Low alcohol general-use formula. Low alcohol...

2013-04-01

488

24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is formula current assisted stock? 1000.314 Section...NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.314 What is formula current assisted stock? Formula...

2014-04-01

489

24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is formula current assisted stock? 1000.314 Section...NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.314 What is formula current assisted stock? Formula...

2013-04-01

490

24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is formula current assisted stock? 1000.314 Section...NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.314 What is formula current assisted stock? Formula...

2011-04-01

491

24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is formula current assisted stock? 1000.314 Section...NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.314 What is formula current assisted stock? Formula...

2010-04-01

492

The natural frequency of the pressure oscillations inside a water-wave entrapped air pocket on a rigid wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slamming events consisting of an air pocket which is entrapped between a free-surface wave and a rigid structure are considered. This type of impacts occurs during sloshing at a high filling level and as breaking waves impact on sea walls. The air pressure inside this type of air pockets is nearly uniform in space and oscillates in time qualitatively like the free oscillations of a mass-spring system. New analytical natural-frequency formulas are derived for an entrapped air pocket on a vertical wall and for the entrapped air pocket at the upper corner of a sloshing tank. The formulas are verified through comparison with the boundary element method. A comparison between the new analytical formula for entrapped air pockets at the upper corner of a sloshing tank and experiments shows good agreement. The new analytical formula for the entrapped air pocket at a vertical wall is compared with experiments and an existing formula by Topliss et al. (1993). None of the analytical formulas could accurately estimate the natural frequency for this problem. Improved results were obtained by a boundary element method when the geometry of the air pocket and the free surface were fitted accurately. This work shows that the natural frequency is sensitive to both the assumed shape of the air pocket and the shape of the free surface outside the air pocket.

Abrahamsen, B. C.; Faltinsen, O. M.

2012-11-01

493

4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

494

Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

495

DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

496

Wind tunnels with adapted walls for reducing wall interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic principle of adaptable wind tunnel walls is explained. First results of an investigation carried out at the Aero-Space Institute of Berlin Technical University are presented for two dimensional flexible walls and a NACA 0012 airfoil. With five examples exhibiting very different flow conditions it is demonstrated that it is possible to reduce wall interference and to avoid blockage at transonic speeds by wall adaptation.

Ganzer, U.

1979-01-01

497

A representation formula for maps on supermanifolds  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the notion of morphisms of rings of superfunctions which is the basic concept underlying the definition of supermanifolds as ringed spaces (i.e., following Berezin, Leites, Manin, etc.). We establish a representation formula for all (pull-back) morphisms from the algebra of functions on an ordinary manifolds to the superalgebra of functions on an open subset of a superspace. We then derive two consequences of this result. The first one is that we can integrate the data associated with a morphism in order to get a (nonunique) map defined on an ordinary space (and uniqueness can be achieved by restriction to a scheme). The second one is a simple and intuitive recipe to compute pull-back images of a function on a manifold M by a map from a superspace to M.

Helein, Frederic [Institut de Mathematiques de Jussieu, UMR 7586, Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, Case 7012, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

2008-02-15

498

The Waring formula and fusion rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential that generates the cohomology ring of the Grassmannian is given in terms of the elementary symmetric functions using the Waring formula that computes the power sum of roots of an algebraic equation in terms of its coefficients. As a consequence, the fusion potential for su( N) K is obtained. This potential is the explicit Chebyshev polynomial in several variables of the first kind. We also derive the fusion potential for sp( N) K from a reciprocal algebraic equation. This potential is identified with another Chebyshev polynomial in several variables. We display a connection between these fusion potentials and generalized Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. In the case of su( N) K the generating function for the generalized Fibonacci numbers obtained are in agreement with Lascoux using the theory of symmetric functions. For sp( N) K, however, the generalized Fibonacci numbers are obtained from new sequences.

Chair, Noureddine

2001-02-01

499

Black-Scholes Formula in Subdiffusive Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the classical approach the price of an asset is described by the celebrated Black-Scholes model. In this paper we consider a generalization of this model, which captures the subdiffusive characteristics of financial markets. We introduce a subdiffusive geometric Brownian motion as a model of asset prices exhibiting subdiffusive dynamics. We find the corresponding fractional Fokker-Planck equation governing the dynamics of the probability density function of the introduced process. We prove that the considered model is arbitrage-free and incomplete. We find the corresponding subdiffusive Black-Scholes formula for the fair prices of European options and show how these prices can be evaluated using Monte-Carlo methods. We compare the obtained results with the classical ones.

Magdziarz, Marcin

2009-08-01

500

Perturbative Semiclassical Trace Formulae for Harmonic Oscillators  

E-print Network

Already 100 years ago Bohr used classical mechanics to build a model for a quantum system, the hydrogen atom. Although Bohr only included the circular classical orbits, the calculated energy spectrum from his model showed remarkable agreement with measurements. In this article we expand the known semiclassical models by including more general perturbative potentials of the harmonic oscillator in arbitrary spatial dimensions. Our starting point is a radial harmonic potential with an arbitrary even monomial perturbation, which we use to study the resulting $U(D)$ to $O(D)$ symmetry breaking. We derive the gross structure of the semiclassical spectrum from periodic orbit theory, in the form of a perturbative ($\\hbar \\rightarrow 0$) trace formula. We then show how to apply the results to even order polynomial potentials, possibly including mean-field terms. We have drawn the conclusion that the gross structure of the quantum spectrum is determined from only classical circular- and diameter-orbits for this class of systems.

J. Moller-Andersen; M. Ogren

2014-09-01