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1

Ab initio wall-crossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive supersymmetric quantum mechanics of n BPS objects with 3 n position degrees of freedom and 4 n fermionic partners with SO(4) R-symmetry. The potential terms, essential and sufficient for the index problem for non-threshold BPS states, are universal, and 2( n - 1) dimensional classical moduli spaces {mathcal{M}_n} emerge from zero locus of the potential energy. We emphasize that there is no natural reduction of the quantum mechanics to {mathcal{M}_n} , contrary to the conventional wisdom. Nevertheless, via an index-preserving deformation that breaks supersymmetry partially, we derive a Dirac index on Mn as the fundamental state counting quantity. This rigorously fills a missing link in the "Coulomb phase" wall-crossing formula in literature. We then impose Bose/Fermi statistics of identical centers, and derive the general wall-crossing formula, applicable to both BPS black holes and BPS dyons. Also explained dynamically is how the rational invariant ˜ ?( ?)/ p 2, appearing repeatedly in wall-crossing formulae, can be understood as the universal multiplicative factor due to p identical, coincident, yet unbound, BPS particles of charge ?. Along the way, we also clarify relationships between field theory state countings and quantum mechanical indices.

Kim, Heeyeon; Park, Jaemo; Wang, Zhaolong; Yi, Piljin

2011-09-01

2

Wall crossing, quivers and crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectrum of BPS D-branes on a Calabi-Yau manifold using the 0 + 1 dimensional quiver gauge theory that describes the dynamics of the branes at low energies. We argue that Seiberg dualities of the quiver correspond to crossing the "walls of the second kind" of Kontsevich and Soibelman. There is a large class of examples where the BPS degeneracies of quivers corresponding to one D6 brane bound to arbitrary numbers of D4, D2 and D0 branes are counted by melting crystal configurations. The shape of the crystal is determined by the Calabi-Yau geometry and the background B-field, and its microscopic structure by the quiver Q. We prove that the BPS degeneracies computed from Q and Q' are related by the Kontsevich-Soibelman formula. We also show that, in the limit of infinite B-field, the combinatorics of crystals becomes that of the topological vertex, thus re-deriving the Gromov-Witten/Donaldson-Thomas correspondence.

Aganagic, Mina; Schaeffer, Kevin

2012-10-01

3

Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

Yamazaki, Masahito

2010-02-01

4

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Percolation crossing formulae and conformal field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using conformal field theory, we derive several new crossing formulae at the two-dimensional percolation point. High-precision simulation confirms these results. Integrating them gives a unified derivation of Cardy's formula for the horizontal crossing probability ?h(r), Watts' formula for the horizontal-vertical crossing probability ?hv(r) and Cardy's formula for the expected number of clusters crossing horizontally \\mathcal{N}_h(r) . The main step in our approach implies the identification of the derivative of one primary operator with another. We present operator identities that support this idea and suggest the presence of additional symmetry in c = 0 conformal field theories.

Simmons, Jacob J. H.; Kleban, Peter; Ziff, Robert M.

2007-08-01

5

Presenting numerical mathematical formulas to design composite steel shear walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper behavior of steel shear wall Composited (CSSW) with carbon fiber polymer in different angles have investigated. The present experimental and numerical studies conducted to carry out the effects of fiber polymer, angle of fiber polymer. Results showed that the CFRP enhance the behavior of CSSW. Despite the advantages of CSSW, there are some hardness which is caused the use of CSSW become restricted, as evaluating the shear stiffness and ultimate strength which those parameters will need to design and analysis. Analysis of CSSW, due to their out of plan buckling and post buckling behavior is extremely abstruse. Nonlinear analysis of CSSW is possible with finite element software, but nonlinear geometry and material is difficult and it tacks a long time. According to the problems mentioned representing valid formulas in nonlinear region is quite necessary which the formulas obtained from numerical analysis have suggest in this paper.

Hatami, Farzad; Ragheb, Mahdi; Ghamari, Ali

2012-12-01

6

Application of Characteristic Level Method to Study on Empirical Formulae for Fragment Production Cross Sections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristic level method is used to estimate the parameters of empirical formulae for fragmentation cross-sections. It is shown that with fluctuational approximation the components of empirical formulae describing the dependence of cross-sections o...

E. S. Izosimova Y. P. Yakovlev

1979-01-01

7

Assessment of Design Formulas for In-Plane FRP Strengthening of Masonry Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masonry structures have demonstrated their seismic vulnerability during recent world seismic events. This paper investigates in-plane seismic performance of unreinforced masonry URM walls before and after they are retrofit using fiber-reinforced polymer FRP materials. An assessment of available design formulas for evaluating both the in-plane performance of URM walls and the contribution of FRP strengthening systems was performed. Walls with

Andrea Prota; Gaetano Manfredi; Fabio Nardone

2008-01-01

8

A new simple formula for fusion cross-sections of light nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent ENDF/B VII.0 data are compared with the fitting formula (NRL handbook—Plasma Formulary). The differences between experimental data and the fitting formula for three major fusion cross-sections reveal the need for a replacement to the old 5-parameter fitting formula. The new formula in this paper has only 3 parameters, but its fit with the experimental data is greatly improved because the energy dependence of the incident-channel (deuteron) width is taken explicitly into account through a penetrability function of the Mott form.

Li, Xing Z.; Wei, Qing M.; Liu, Bin

2008-12-01

9

Formula for Proton-Nucleus Reaction Cross Section at Intermediate Energies and Its Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a formula for proton-nucleus total reaction cross section as a function of the mass and neutron excess of the target nucleus and the proton incident energy. We deduce the dependence of the cross section on the mass number and the proton incident energy from a simple argument involving the proton optical depth within the framework of a black sphere approximation of nuclei, while we describe the neutron excess dependence by introducing the density derivative of the symmetry energy, L, on the basis of a radius formula constructed from macroscopic nuclear models. We find that the cross section formula can reproduce the energy dependence of the cross section measured for stable nuclei without introducing any adjustable energy dependent parameter. We finally discuss whether or not the reaction cross section is affected by an extremely low density tail of the neutron distribution for halo nuclei.

Iida, Kei; Kohama, Akihisa; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

2007-04-01

10

An Evaluation of Formula-Based Population Squared Cross-Validity Estimates and Factor Score Estimates in Prediction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight formula-based estimates of population squared cross-validity and nine estimates of factor scores were compared with estimates from the conventional cross-validation procedure. Burket's and Rozeboom's formula-based estimates of population squared cross-validity in combination with a factor score method offer the most for practitioners…

Cotter, Kay Lillig; Raju, Nambury S.

1982-01-01

11

A Model (Formula) for Deriving A Hazard Index of Rail-Highway Grade Crossings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to compile data for use as related information in the education of drivers, and to derive a formula for computing a hazard index for rail-highway intersections. Data for the study were compiled from: (1) all crossings on which field data were collected, (2) reports of 642 accidents, and (3) data collected from…

Coburn, James Minton

12

Wall-crossing, Rogers dilogarithm, and the QK/HK correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When formulated in twistor space, the D-instanton corrected hypermultiplet moduli space in mathcal{N} = {2} string vacua and the Coulomb branch of rigid mathcal{N} = {2} gauge theories on R3 × S 1 are strikingly similar and, to a large extent, dictated by consistency with wall-crossing. We elucidate this similarity by showing that these two spaces are related under a general duality between, on one hand, quaternion-Kähler manifolds with a quaternionic isometry and, on the other hand, hyperkähler manifolds with a rotational isometry, equipped with a canonical hyperholomorphic circle bundle and a connection. We show that the transition functions of the hyperholomorphic circle bundle relevant for the hypermultiplet moduli space are given by the Rogers dilogarithm function, and that consistency across walls of marginal stability is ensured by the motivic wall-crossing formula of Kontsevich and Soibelman. We illustrate the construction on some simple examples of wall-crossing related to cluster algebras for rank 2 Dynkin quivers. In an appendix we also provide a detailed discussion on the general relation between wall-crossing and cluster algebras.

Alexandrov, Sergei; Persson, Daniel; Pioline, Boris

2011-12-01

13

8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

14

Crossed-ratchet effects for magnetic domain wall motion.  

PubMed

We study both experimentally and theoretically the driven motion of domain walls in extended amorphous magnetic films patterned with a periodic array of asymmetric holes. We find two crossed-ratchet effects of opposite sign that change the preferred sense for domain wall propagation, depending on whether a flat or a kinked wall is moving. By solving numerically a simple phi(4) model we show that the essential physical ingredients for this effect are quite generic and could be realized in other experimental systems involving elastic interfaces moving in multidimensional ratchet potentials. PMID:18233032

Pérez-Junquera, A; Marconi, V I; Kolton, A B; Alvarez-Prado, L M; Souche, Y; Alija, A; Vélez, M; Anguita, J V; Alameda, J M; Martín, J I; Parrondo, J M R

2008-01-23

15

ASYMPTOTIC FORMULAE CONCERNING ARITHMETICAL FUNCTIONS DEFINED BY CROSS-CONVOLUTIONS I. DIVISOR-SUM FUNCTIONS AND EULER-TYPE FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We introduce the notion of cross-convolution of arithmetical functions as a special case of Narkiewicz’s regular convolution. We give asymptotic formulae for the summatory,functions of certain generalized divisor-sum functions and Euler-type functions related to cross-convolutions and to arbitrary sets of positive integers. These formulae generalize and unify many known,results concerning the corresponding usual and unitary functions. AMS Subject Classiflcation:

Laszlo Toth

16

(p,?) Reaction Cross Sections Calculations of Fe and Ni Target Nuclei Using New Developed Semi-empirical Formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) are important fusion structural materials in reactor technology. The gas production in the metallic structure arising from many different types of nuclear reactions has been a significant damage mechanism in structural components of fusion reactors. The hydrogen and its isotopes at high temperatures leave out of the metallic lattice but the alpha (?) particles that remain in the lattice generate helium (He) gas bubbles. In other words, the ? particles can cause serious changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the fusion structural materials. In this study, the excitation functions of 54,57Fe(p,?) and 58,60,61,64Ni(p,?) reactions have been investigated in the incident proton energy range of 10-40 MeV to estimate the radiation damage effects on fusion structural materials used in the construction of the first walls and core of the reactor. The calculations of (p,?) reaction cross sections on 54,57Fe and 58,60,61,64Ni have been made by using PCROSS code and CEM95 code. The full exciton and cascade exciton model (CEM95) for pre-equilibrium calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing model for equilibrium calculations are used. Besides, the semi-empirical cross section formula with new coefficient obtained by Tel et al. (Pramana J Phys 74:931-943, 2010) has been applied for (p,?) reactions at 17.9 MeV proton incident energy.

Tel, E.; Akca, S.; Kara, A.; Yi?it, M.; Ayd?n, A.

2013-10-01

17

Constructive Wall-Crossing and Seiberg-Witten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline a comprehensive and first-principle solution to the wall-crossing problem in D = 4N = 2 Seiberg-Witten theories. We start with a brief review of the multi-centered nature of the typical BPS states and of how this allows them to disappear abruptly as parameters or vacuum moduli are continuously changed. This means that the wall-crossing problem is really a bound state formation/dissociation problem. A low energy dynamics for arbitrary collections of dyons is derived, with the proximity to the so-called marginal stability wall playing the role of the small expansion parameter. We discover that the low energy dynamics of such BPS dyons cannot be reduced to one on the classical moduli space, {M}, yet the index can be phrased in terms of {M}. The so-called rational invariant, first seen in Kontsevich-Soibelman formalism of wall-crossing, is shown to incorporate Bose/Fermi statistics automatically. Furthermore, an equivariant version of the index is shown to compute the protected spin character of the underlying D = 4N = 2 theory, where SO(3)J isometry of {M} is identified as a diagonal subgroup of rotation SU(2)L and R-symmetry SU(2)R.

Yi, Piljin

2013-02-01

18

Hypersonic aerodynamics of a flat plate: Bridging formula and wall temperature effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypersonic flow over a flat plate is investigated under a wide range of Mach and Knudsen numbers using both continuum-based approach and DSMC method. The simulated gas is argon thus to isolate the high temperature effects. The Mach number of the flow lies between 5 and 30 whereas the Knudsen number covers the entire flow regime. It is learned that local rarefaction is observed near the leading edge even when the Knudsen number is around 0.001. The continuum breakdown can be identified using a nonequilibrium parameter that evaluates the difference among the temperature components. It is also learned that there is competition between viscous effects and rarefied effects on the skin friction. The total drag on the plate can be well estimated using a bridging formula that connects the results from the continuum and free molecular expressions. In addition, the value of drag depends on the surface temperature. The drag coefficient increases with the surface temperature when the Knudsen number is less than 0.01 but decreases when the Knudsen number is larger than 1.0.

Hu, Yuan; Chen, Song; Sun, Quanhua

2012-11-01

19

The Study of ( n, d) Reaction Cross Sections for New Evaluated Semi-Empirical Formula Using Optical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. The neutron scattering cross sections data have a critical importance on fusion reactor (and in the fusion-fission hybrid) reactors. So, the study of the systematic of ( n, d) etc., reaction cross sections is of great importance in the definition of the excitation function character for reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, non-elastic cross-sections have been calculated by using optical model for ( n, d) reactions at 14-15 MeV energy. The excitation function character and reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the ( n, d) reaction have been investigated. New coefficients have been obtained and the semi-empirical formulas including optical model non-elastic effects by fitting two parameters for the ( n, d) reaction cross-sections have been suggested. The obtained cross-section formulas with new coefficients have been compared with the available experimental data and discussed.

Bölükdemir, M. H.; Tel, E.; Okuducu, ?.; Ayd?n, A.

2009-12-01

20

Formula for calculating partial cross sections for nuclear reactions of nuclei with E approx gt 200 MeV\\/nucleon in hydrogen targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new formula for calculating the partial cross sections for the production of secondary fragments with energy {approx gt}200 MeV\\/nucleon in hydrogen targets. This formula and the systematics of these cross sections are based on fragmentation studies using 42 beams of 12 separate nuclei between {ital Z}=6 and 28. This has resulted in the measurement

J. C. Kish; D. A. Schrier

1990-01-01

21

A Computational Model for Three-Dimensional Incompressible Small Cross Flow Wall Jets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computational model based on H. Keller's box scheme has been used to characterize turbulent incompressible wall jets in the small cross flow approximation prototypic of flows over upper-surface-blown and augmenter wings. Submerged and coflowing cases ar...

N. D. Malmuth R. K. Szeto

1977-01-01

22

In-vitro fermentability of cell walls as influenced by lignin composition and cross-linking.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We assessed how diverse modifications in lignin composition and reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking influence the degradability of cell walls. Cell walls from nonlignified maize cell suspensions were artificially lignified with varying ratios of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alco...

23

Chest wall muscle cross talk in canine costal diaphragm electromyogram.  

PubMed

The present paper describes the influence of cross talk from the abdominal and intercostal muscles on the canine diaphragm electromyogram (EMG). The diaphragm EMG was recorded with bipolar surface electrodes placed on the costal portion of the diaphragm (abdominal side), aligned in the fiber direction, and positioned in a region with a relatively low density of motor end plates. The results indicated that cross talk may occur in the diaphragm EMG, especially during conditions of loaded breathing and light general anesthesia. The cross-talk signals showed characteristics that were entirely different from the diaphragm EMG. Although the diaphragm EMG was typical for signals recorded with electrodes aligned in the fiber direction, the cross-talk signals were characteristic of those obtained with electrode pairs not aligned in the direction of the muscle fibers. Alterations in electrode positioning, interelectrode distance, and/or electrode surface area cannot guarantee the elimination of cross-talk signals, whereas spinal anesthesia at a high thoracic level will paralyze the sources of the cross talk and hence eliminate the cross-talk signals. By taking advantage of the differences in EMG signal characteristics for the diaphragm EMG and cross-talk signals, an index that has the capability to detect cross talk was developed. PMID:8941559

Sinderby, C; Friberg, S; Comtois, N; Grassino, A

1996-11-01

24

Analytic confirmation that the factorized formula for harmonic generation involves the exact photorecombination cross section  

SciTech Connect

High-order-harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in a strong laser field is analyzed theoretically, taking into account atomic potential effects beyond the strong field approximation (SFA). Our analytical derivation extends the time-dependent effective range (TDER) theory, developed previously for a short-range potential supporting only a single bound state, to the case of a potential supporting two bound states having different angular momenta and dynamically interacting with the continuum. In contrast to the SFA and the single-state TDER model, in both of which the HHG rates in the region of the high-energy plateau cutoff involve only the plane-wave (first Born) approximation for the photorecombination cross section, our analytic expression for the HHG rates in the two-state TDER model involves the exact photorecombination cross section for this model. These results justify the factorization of HHG rates in the high-energy plateau region in terms of the electron wave packet and the exact (non-Born) photorecombination cross section, which was suggested previously using only phenomenological arguments.

Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Sarantseva, T. S.; Starace, Anthony F. [Department of Physics, Voronezh State University, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Nebraska, Lincoln Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States)

2011-04-15

25

Cross-polarized excitons in double-wall carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical absorption in double-wall carbon nanotubes for light polarized perpendicular to the tube axis is studied by taking into account exciton effects and depolarization effects within an effective-mass theory. The Coulomb interaction is suppressed by not only intrawall screening effects but also interwall screening, leading to the reduction of exciton binding energies and band gaps. When two tubes are both semiconducting, a clear exciton peak still survives even under depolarization effects for the outer tube, but the exciton peak of the inner tube has an asymmetric Fano line shape due to the coupling with continuum states of the outer tube. When a double-wall nanotube contains a metallic tube, either inner or outer, the exciton of the semiconducting tube loses its peak structure under depolarization effects.

Tomio, Yuh; Suzuura, Hidekatsu; Ando, Tsuneya

2012-12-01

26

Explicit formulas for laminar natural convection heat transfer along vertical cylinders with power-law wall temperature distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural convection heat transfer coefficients for vertical cylinders with variable surface temperature distribution must be found by complex numerical integration of the corresponding system of governing differential equations. Its evaluation for practical heat transfer calculations is always based on more or less complex correlations fitted to numerical or experimental results. This paper presents alternative approximate formulas for the calculation of

José L. Muñoz-Cobo; José M. Corberán; Sergio Chiva

2003-01-01

27

MODEL STUDIES OF FERULATE-CONIFERYL ALCOHOL CROSS PRODUCT FORMATION IN PRIMARY MAIZE WALLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR LIGNIFICATION IN GRASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferulate and diferulates mediate cell wall cross-linking in grasses but little is known about their cross-coupling reactions with monolignols and their role in lignin formation in primary cell walls. Feruloylated primary walls of maize were artificially lignified and then saponified to release ferul...

28

Determinants of Murein Hydrolase Targeting to Cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan*  

PubMed Central

Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide ?-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1?4)-?-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells.

Frankel, Matthew B.; Schneewind, Olaf

2012-01-01

29

Anisotropic cross-tie walls and their confinement in self-organized undulating Fe film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic domain structure and domain wall width within a self-organized undulating Fe film are investigated by Lorentz microscopy and electron holography. SiO2 (15 nm)/Fe (20 nm)/SiO2 (15 nm) trilayers were deposited onto NaCl(110) substrates faceted with (100) and (010) planes. The Fe films exhibited a ridge-and-valley structure with undulation period of approximately 30 nm. Its in-plane uniaxial anisotropy with the easy axis parallel to the ridge is explained in terms of roughness-induced dipolar anisotropy. The wall type in the undulating Fe films was found to be a cross-tie wall. The vortices and antivortices in the cross-tie wall induce angular deviation of the moment as small as 20° from the easy-axis and effectively reduce the wall energy. The domain wall widths were determined to be 13+/-2 and 18+/-4 nm by Lorentz microscopy and electron holography, respectively. The obtained widths, nearly half of the undulation period, were narrower than that observed for a flat Fe film. For comparison, the stable magnetization distribution and the internal structure of the walls were examined by numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The walls are found to be confined between adjacent ridges, i.e., within half an undulation period, due to the strong pinning of magnetization along the easy axis near the ridges, while the vortices and antivortices on the cross-tie walls are formed in the middle continuous part of the undulating film where angular deviation of the moment does not produce stray field.

Fukunaga, Kei-Ichi; Sugawara, Akira

2008-03-01

30

Isodityrosine, a new cross-linking amino acid from plant cell-wall glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

1. Cell-wall hydrolysates from calli of all higher plants tested contained a new phenolic amino acid for which the trivial name isodityrosine is proposed. Isodityrosine was shown to be an oxidatively coupled dimer of tyrosine with the two tyrosine units linked by a diphenyl ether bridge. 2. The amount of isodityrosine in sodium dodecyl sulphate-insoluble cell-wall preparations was proportional to the amount of hydroxyproline. 3. Acidified chlorite split the diphenyl ether bridge of isodityrosine, and concomitantly solubilized the cell-wall glycoprotein. 4. Dithiothreitol inhibited isodityrosine synthesis in vivo, and suppressed in parallel the covalent binding of newly synthesized protein in the cell wall. 5. It is suggested that isodityrosine is an inter-polypeptide cross-link responsible for the insolubility of plant cell-wall glycoprotein. Images Fig. 4.

Fry, S C

1982-01-01

31

Isodityrosine cross-linking mediates insolubilization of cell walls in Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed

Enzymatic removal of the cell wall induces vegetative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells to transcribe wall genes and synthesize new hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) related to the extensins found in higher plant cell walls. A cDNA expression library made from such induced cells was screened with antibodies to an oligopeptide containing the (SP)x repetitive domains found in Chlamydomonas wall proteins. One of the selected cDNAs encodes an (SP)x-rich polypeptide that also displays a repeated YGG motif. Ascorbate, a peroxidase inhibitor, and tyrosine derivatives were shown to inhibit insolubilization of both the vegetative and zygotic cell walls of Chlamydomonas, suggesting that oxidative cross-linking of tyrosines is occurring. Moreover, insolubilization of both walls was concomitant with a burst in H2O2 production and in extracellular peroxidase activity. Finally, both isodityrosine and dityrosine were found in hydrolysates of the insolubilized vegetative wall layer. We propose that the formation of tyrosine cross-links is essential to Chlamydomonas HRGP insolubilization. PMID:7689882

Waffenschmidt, S; Woessner, J P; Beer, K; Goodenough, U W

1993-07-01

32

A study of cross-tie domain walls in cobalt using small-aperture Foucault imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of cross-tie domain wall seen in a cobalt film have been studied by Foucault imaging in the transmission electron microscope. The images are taken with a contrast-forming aperture that subtends a smaller angle than the angular deflections of the electron beam introduced by the magnetization in the sample. The small-aperture Foucault technique is implemented using lens settings that produce high magnification diffraction patterns and a television camera is used to improve the limited image magnifications that are associated with this operating mode. With a small aperture the magnetic induction vector can be assigned with greater accuracy to the bright regions in the Foucault image, and the real-space origins of diffraction features are easy to identify. For the two different types of cross-tie domain wall maps of the magnetic induction are constructed from a series of Foucault images, and diffraction streaks are identified as originating from the domain wall.

Jakubovics, J. P.; Daykin, A. C.; Kim, J. D.

1996-02-01

33

Infant Formula  

MedlinePLUS

... iron-fortified formula. Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow's milk. If your baby seems ... cow's milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula. If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...

34

Current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with a rectangular cross-section  

SciTech Connect

We performed micromagnetic simulations of the current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with rectangular cross-section. In the absence of the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, a threshold current, J{sub c} is required to drive the domain wall moving continuously. We find that J{sub c} is proportional to the maximum cross product of the demagnetization field and magnetization orientation of the domain wall and the domain wall width. With varying both the wire thickness and width, a minimum threshold current in the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} is obtained when the thickness is equivalent to the wire width. With the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, the calculated domain wall velocity {nu} equals to the adiabatic spin transfer velocity u when the current is far above the Walker limit J{sub w}. Below J{sub w}, {nu}=({beta}/{alpha})u, where {beta} is the nonadiabatic parameter and {alpha} is the damping factor. For different {beta}, we find the Walker limit can be scaled as J{sub w}=({alpha}/{beta}-{alpha})J{sub c}. Our simulations agree well with the one dimensional analytical calculation, suggesting the findings are the general behaviors of the systems in this particular geometry.

Ai, J. H.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Hu, An; Ding, H. F. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Rd., Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-11-01

35

Investigation of 14-15 MeV ( n, t) Reaction Cross-sections by Using New Evaluated Empirical and Semi-empirical Systematic Formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the hybrid reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study we have investigated asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 neutron incident energy. It has been discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained empirical and semi-empirical formulas by fitting two parameter for ( n, t) reactions were given. All calculated results have been compared with the experimental data and the other semi-empirical formulas.

Tel, E.; Ayd?n, A.; Kaplan, A.; ?arer, B.

2008-09-01

36

Liquid-wall mass transfer in three phase fluidized beds with cross-flow of electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-wall mass transfer coefficients were computed in a gas–liquid fluidized bed from the limiting current data obtained at the outer surface of different cross electrodes for both the cases of oxidation of ferrocyanide and reduction of ferricyanide ion. Particles of different sizes and densities were used as bed material and electrodes of five different diameters of length 44.5mm were used.

K. V. Ramesh; G. M. J. Raju; C. Bhaskara Sarma; R. V. Subba Raju

2008-01-01

37

Static and rotating domain-wall cross patterns in Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect

For a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a two-dimensional (2D) trap, we introduce cross patterns, which are generated by the intersection of two domain walls (DWs) separating immiscible species, with opposite signs of the wave functions in each pair of sectors filled by the same species. The cross pattern remains stable up to the zero value of the immiscibility parameter {delta}, while simpler rectilinear (quasi-1D) DWs exist only for values of {delta} essentially exceeding those in BEC mixtures (two spin states of the same isotope) currently available to the experiment. Both symmetric and asymmetric cross configurations are investigated, with equal or different numbers N{sub 1,2} of atoms in the two species. In rotating traps, 'propellers' (stable revolving crosses) are found too. A full stability region for the crosses and propellers in the system's parameter space is identified, unstable crosses evolving into arrays of vortex-antivortex pairs. Stable rotating rectilinear DWs are found too, at larger values of {delta}. All the patterns produced by the intersection of three or more DWs are unstable, rearranging themselves into ones with two DWs. Optical 'propellers' are also predicted in a twisted nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber carrying two different wavelengths or circular polarizations, which can be used for applications to switching and routing.

Malomed, Boris A. [Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Nistazakis, H.E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-4515 (United States)

2004-10-01

38

Estimation of erosion/corrosion rate in pipe walls by cross-correlation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In process plants, most pipelines are subject to erosion and/or corrosion due to the presence of aggressive agents, turbulence, or high fluid velocity. Among other causes, changes in process parameters can be considered as an important cause of changes in pipe wall erosion/corrosion rate. Quick detection of these changes by continuous monitoring of the thinning rate of the pipe wall can help prevent further wall damage at early stages of development. In this paper, we apply the cross-correlation technique to ultrasonic signals for accurate estimation of fine changes in the erosion/corrosion rate. The resolution of the cross-correlation technique is increased by combining it with curve fitting methods. The technique is applied to experimental data obtained from a test rig designed for simulating accelerated corrosion in pipes. The results of the new approach are compared with results obtained from a model-based estimation method and very good agreement is observed. The new approach is simple and fast and can be easily incorporated in ultrasonic measurement systems used in process plants.

Honarvar, F.; Salehi, F.; Safavi, V.; Sinclair, A. N.

2012-05-01

39

Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...

40

Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures.  

PubMed

We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected. PMID:21836205

Miguel, J; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Bayer, D; Kurde, J; Heitkamp, B; Piantek, M; Kronast, F; Aeschlimann, M; Dürr, H A; Kuch, W

2009-11-12

41

A wide-band smooth-walled feedhorn with low cross polarization for millimeter astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a smooth-walled feedhorn with cross polarization and reflected power lower than -30 dB across the entire 30% bandwidth. A prototype feedhorn has been fabricated, and the wide-band, low-cross polarization performance has been demonstrated. The feedhorn has a circular aperture and monotonically narrows towards an input waveguide interface. This allows it to be manufactured by progressively milling the profile using a set of custom tools. This is especially useful in applications where a large number of feeds are desired in a planar array format. Such applications include astronomical cameras in millimeter waveband that require large arrays of detectors for future increases in mapping speed and sensitivity. Specifically, large arrays of feedhorns are well-matched to the problem of measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background to search for the faint signature of inflation, as they provide good beam control, the requisite sensitivity, and compatibility with low-noise bolometric detectors.

Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

2010-07-01

42

Cross-sectional distortion behaviors of thin-walled rectangular tube in rotary-draw bending process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-sectional distortion usually appears during rotary-draw bending process of thin-walled rectangular tube with small bending radius. To study the cross-sectional distortion of the tube, a three-dimensional finite-element model of the process was developed based on ABAQUS\\/Explicit code and its reliability was validated by experiment. Then, the cross-sectional distortion behaviors of the tube were investigated. The results show that a

Gang-yao ZHAO; Yu-li LIU; He YANG; Cai-hong LU

2010-01-01

43

Marshak boundary condition recurrence formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marshak boundary condition is applied in the one-dimensional case of thermal radiative heat transport solved by the spherical harmonics method. Recurrence formulae for the Marshak boundary condition are derived for the cases where the absorbing, emitting and scattering material is limited by diffusely emitting, partly diffusely and partly specularly reflecting walls. The recurrence formulae are applied to an example

F. M. B. Andersen

1997-01-01

44

Formulas Poker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this adapted version of poker, learners practice writing chemical formulas by playing this chemistry card game. The game is played as 5-card draw and uses cards that contain an ion, a subscript, or is blank (FREE!). Learners try to make a chemical formula that uses as many of their cards as possible. Learners will keep track of their moves and scores on their own score sheet (a sample is provided).

House, The S.

2013-05-15

45

Quadratic formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The quadratic formula is easy to solve, yet sufficiently sophisticated that it provides insight into oscillations of masses connected by springs, as well as insight into chemical bonds between atoms. The purpose of this video is to illustrate what it means to find the "zeros" or "roots" of the quadratic equation, both using a graphical description, as well as by analytically completing the square to obtain the famous quadratic formula.

Liao, David

46

Fusion barriers using the energy-density formalism: Simple analytical formula and the calculation of fusion cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Fusion barriers are calculated within the sudden approximation, using the Skyrme interaction energy-density model. Both the closed and unclosed shell nuclei are considered and the role of spin-density term is studied in detail. For unclosed shell nuclei, the fusion cross sections are found to decrease by as much as {similar to}50 mb when spin-density effects are included. Very accurate, simple analytical expressions, in terms of only the masses and charges of the reacting nuclei, are obtained for the barrier heights and positions. This introduces a great simplification for the fusion barrier calculations.

Puri, R.K.; Gupta, R.K. (Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India))

1992-04-01

47

Cross section, spin distribution and mean spin analysis of low-energy heavy-ion fusion by closed formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyse the fusion cross sections 0954-3899/22/10/011/img5, partial-wave fusion cross section 0954-3899/22/10/011/img6 and mean angular momenta 0954-3899/22/10/011/img7 of heavy-ion (HI) fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier for a number of pairs of colliding nuclei. This is done by first formulating expressions for 0954-3899/22/10/011/img8 in closed forms. These expressions incorporate only the general characteristics, namely radius, height and curvature of the s-wave potential barrier. The formulation is based on our earlier effective fusion barrier (EFB) transmission model. The values of 0954-3899/22/10/011/img8, 0954-3899/22/10/011/img10 and 0954-3899/22/10/011/img7 calculated around the Coulomb barrier using our expressions provide good fits to the corresponding experimental results in the cases of several HI systems, namely 0954-3899/22/10/011/img12Zr, 0954-3899/22/10/011/img13Mo and 0954-3899/22/10/011/img14Er.

Sahu, Basudeb; Shastry, C. S.

1996-10-01

48

Cross-sectional morphology and minimum canal wall widths in C-shaped roots of mandibular molars.  

PubMed

The cross-sectional canal morphology and minimum widths of buccal and lingual canal walls were studied in 20 mandibular molars with C-shaped roots and canal orifices. The roots were mounted in clear resin blocks and sectioned transversely at 1-mm intervals. A total of 154 cross-sections were evaluated with an image analyzer. Twelve different longitudinal canal configurations were identified. The most prevalent were types 1-2 and 1-2-1 with each type occurring in four roots. Evaluation of the cross-sectional morphology showed that the configurations were complete "C" (27%), incomplete C (64%), and non-C (9%). The mean value for the minimum width of the lingual canal wall was 0.58 +/- 0.21 mm and the buccal wall was 0.96 +/- 0.26 mm. This suggests that there is a higher risk of root perforation at the thinner lingual walls of C-shaped canals during shaping and post canal preparation procedures. Both buccal and lingual canal walls were frequently narrower at mesial locations. PMID:15220648

Chai, Wen Lin; Thong, Yo Len

2004-07-01

49

Effect of activation cross-section uncertainties on the radiological assessment of the MFE\\/DEMO first wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross-sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified.

O. Cabellos; S. Reyes; J. Sanz; A. Rodriguez; M. Youssef; M. Sawan

2006-01-01

50

Marshak boundary condition recurrence formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshak boundary condition is applied in the one-dimensional case of thermal radiative heat transport solved by the spherical harmonics method. Recurrence formulae for the Marshak boundary condition are derived for the cases where the absorbing, emitting and scattering material is limited by diffusely emitting, partly diffusely and partly specularly reflecting walls. The recurrence formulae are applied to an example with good results.

Andersen, F. M. B.

51

Candida albicans cell walls contain the fluorescent cross-linking amino acid dityrosine.  

PubMed Central

Several clinical and laboratory isolates of Candida albicans have a natural blue surface fluorescence when cultured and observed with sensitive optics. The localization and color of the fluorescence are similar to those of the natural fluorescence of sporulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is caused by the generation and surface deposition of the cross-linking amino acid dityrosine. In S. cerevisiae, dityrosine production results from the direct action of at least two genes and is responsible for resistance of the ascospores to lytic enzymes and physicochemical trauma. Among the criteria for the identification of dityrosine is pH sensitivity of the fluorescence intensity and a highly characteristic shift of the fluorescence excitation maximum with a change in pH. Video microscopy of whole Candida organisms revealed the characteristic dityrosine intensity maximum at pH approximately 10 and the intensity minimum at pH approximately 2. Separation of an acid hydrolysate of Candida cell walls by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a fluorescence peak that coelutes with the reagent dityrosine. At pH approximately 10, this peak has a fluorescence excitation maximum of 320 to 325 nm, while at pH approximately 2, the excitation maximum is 285 to 290 nm. This excitation maximum shift and the observed emission maximum of approximately 410 nm are characteristic of dityrosine. Two separate strains of C. albicans were injected intraperitoneally into mice and harvested at 24 h. Blue surface fluorescence was observed, suggesting that dityrosine generation occurs in vivo as well as in vitro. This is the first report of the presence of dityrosine in a human fungal pathogen.

Smail, E H; Briza, P; Panagos, A; Berenfeld, L

1995-01-01

52

Prostate formula  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition providing an all-natural, non-surgical preventative of or improvement to disorders of the prostate gland is described. The invention relates to a composition for the prevention of or improvement of prostatitis, and for relieving symptoms and improving objective signs of prostatitis. The formula of the composition preferably includes the following ingredients each in a therapeutically effective amount: Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, Vitamin E, zinc, glycine, L-alanine, Glutamic acid, Saw palmetto, Pygeum extract, Pumpkin seed, Stinging nettle, Echinacea, garlic, Ginkgo leaves, and selenium.

2001-03-06

53

FIBER DEPOSITION ALONG AIRWAY WALLS: EFFECTS OF FIBER CROSS-SECTION ON ROTATIONAL INTERCEPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Airborne fibers present a threat to human health. athematical model of fiber motion is presented which suggests that significant rotational deposition occurs along airway walls downstream of human lung bifurcations. he predictions are validated by cited experimental data. oth pro...

54

Theoretical analyses of aerosol aging on a substrate without wall-effects by a cross-flow  

SciTech Connect

Long time ({approx}1 day) aging or reactions of aerosol is typically studied using either large aerosol chambers (> 10 m3) or particles supported on a substrate to minimize wall effects. To avoid wall effects in the latter, it is often essential that the wall reactivity be extremely small (<< 10-5 reactions per encounter) and that the particle loadings be very small (< 1 pg/cm2) to eliminate transport-limited trace gas depletion near the particles and substrate. We evaluate here a cross-flow approach, which greatly reduces these constraints. Particles are to be supported on a micromesh ({approx}50% or more open area) through which the reactive gas is drawn at around a few hundred cm/s. The analysis shows how the competitions between flow and diffusion establishes a 'zone of isolation' several microns wide around each reactive particle, outside of which the reactivity of other particles or the substrate are irrelevant to the local reactions. This cross-flow approach reduces the effects of substrate and collective particle reactivity typically orders of magnitude, and will facilitate aging studies of supported aerosols.

Cowin, James P.; Yang, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Iedema, Martin J.

2011-12-12

55

The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells

Axel Fleischer; M. A. ONeill; Rudolf Ehwald

1999-01-01

56

Mechanics analysis of thin-walled box continuous girder with variable cross-sections in considering effect of large deflection and shear lag  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the mechanics behavior of a thin-walled box continuous girder with variable cross-sections, using potential\\u000a variation theories, considering the effect of shear lag of flange’s stress and the nonlinear geometry of vertical displacement,\\u000a and evolving five generalized displacements with the spline function, the large deflection problem of the thin-walled box\\u000a continuous girder with variable cross-section was transformed

Yuji Chen; Qizhi Luo

2009-01-01

57

Profiling of diferulates (plant cell wall cross-linkers) using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recalcitrance of grasses to enzymatic digestion arises to a significant degree from a complex array of phenolic crosslinks between cell wall polysaccharide chains that inhibit their conversion to biofuels and lower their nutritive value for animal feed applications. Polysaccharide esters of ferulic acid are abundant in plant cell walls. Crosslinks between polysaccharides are formed through oxidative dehydrodimerization of ferulates, producing dehydrodiferulates (henceforth termed diferulates). Such ferulates and diferulates further crosslink plant cell walls by radical coupling cross-reactions during lignification. Although cell wall digestibility can be improved by cell wall metabolic engineering, or post-harvest by various pretreatment processes, a more comprehensive understanding of the role and impact of ferulate crosslinking on polysaccharide hydrolysis would be accelerated by availability of analytical methods that can distinguish the various diferulates released during biomass pretreatments, many of which are isomers. In this report, we present an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) strategy for comprehensive separation and identification of diferulate isomers. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra of [M + H](+) ions distinguished various isomers without requiring derivatization. Characteristic product ions for 8-O-4-, 8-8-non-cyclic, 8-8-cyclic, 8-5-cyclic, 8-5-non-cyclic, and 5-5-linked isomers were identified. All diferulates were identified either as di-acids in extracts of NaOH-hydrolyzed corn stover, or as a diverse group of diferulate mono- and di-amides in extracts of Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX™)-treated corn stover. This approach allows for direct analysis of released diferulates with minimal sample preparation, and can serve as the foundation for high-throughput profiling and correlating pretreatment conditions with biomass digestibility in biorefineries producing biofuels and biochemicals. PMID:24040649

Vismeh, Ramin; Lu, Fachuang; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Humpula, James F; Azarpira, Ali; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Ralph, John; Jones, A Daniel

2013-09-30

58

Crossing the wall: the opening of endothelial cell junctions during infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) form a barrier that plays a crucial role in the health and integrity of tissues by regulating the passage of molecules, liquids and immune cells. Dysfunctions or disruption of this barrier leads to edema, inflammation, and associated pathologies. During infection, ECs control transmigration of cells by a complex system of molecules. However pathogens can hijack this pathway to invade ECs and/or tissues. They can also trigger the opening of intercellular junction, apoptosis of ECs or activation of the immune system, which in turn lead to the destruction of the endothelial wall and subsequent edema. Activation of immune cells by pathogens can also enhance the destruction of EC and edema. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge on the key steps of the complex interactions between the endothelial wall, pathogens, and the immune system that lead to the opening of junctions and/or destruction of the wall, enhancing pathology. A better understanding of these points will allow the development of adjunctive treatments to be used in combination with therapies targeting pathogens, with the aim of protecting the wall and improving the recovery of patients with severe infectious diseases. PMID:23538297

Razakandrainibe, Romy; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges E; Jambou, Ronan

2013-03-26

59

Microgimbal torsion beam design using open, thin-walled cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin-film micromolding process enabled the construction of microtorsional springs with unique cross-sectional designs by combining high-aspect-ratio beams with horizontal surface features. Cross sections such as T-bars, pi sections, and channels were utilized in creating torsional springs with low torsional stiffnesses and high in- and out-of-plane bending stiffnesses. Experimental modal analysis was used to determine torsional stiffnesses as low as

Lilac Muller; Albert P. Pisano; Roger T. Howe

2001-01-01

60

Wall shear stress from a rotating cylinder in cross flow using the electrochemical technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wall shear rate from a rotating cylinder in a uniform flow was measured with flush-mounted electrochemical mass transfer probes. The experiments were performed using two rectangular electrodes in a sandwich arrangement. Initially, the frequency response of that probe was numerically studied using an inverse mass transfer method in order to restore the whole wall shear stress in the time domain starting from the measured transfer coefficients given by the split probe. The experiments were performed in the range of velocity ratios 0wall. It is shown that when ?>4, points of zero shear stress on the rotating cylinder vanish, which is in fact consistent with the previous arguments that the cylinder is surrounded by a set of closed streamlines. This experimental study shows that, when their dynamic behaviour is known, the electrochemical probes are able to sense complex fine structures not observed up to now by previous analytical, numerical or experimental methods, even when non-linear effects are not negligible.

Labraga, L.; Bourabaa, N.; Berkah, T.

2002-07-01

61

Cross-Sectional Elastic Imaging of Arterial Wall Using Intravascular Ultrasonography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been several studies on the imaging of the distribution of the elasticity of the arterial wall using intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS). In those studies, the elasticity is estimated only during ventricular diastole. However, the viscous characteristics of the smooth muscle in the media of the arterial wall are also included in the strain measured during diastole. Alternatively, during systole, the smooth muscle has an almost purely elastic characteristic. However, the IVUS probe moves greatly due to the arrival of the pulsatile wave at the beginning of the ejection period. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to compensate for the movement of the IVUS probe in order to precisely measure the regional change in thickness of the arterial wall during one cardiac cycle. Basic experiments using a silicone rubber tube, in which pulsatile flow is generated by an artificial heart, determined the two-dimensional (2-D) distribution of the regional change in thickness and the elasticity. The obtained incremental elastic modulus coincides with that determined by the static pressure-strain test. Furthermore, in an in vitro experiment performed on an extracted human iliac artery, the 2-D distribution of elasticity is obtained and compared with pathological results.

Mita, Hitoshi; Kanai, Hiroshi; Koiwa, Yoshiro; Ichiki, Masataka; Tezuka, Fumiaki

2001-07-01

62

Elastic limit state flexural–torsional postbuckling analysis of bars with open thin-walled cross-sections under axial thrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the elastic limit state flexural–torsional postbuckling analysis of simply supported bars with open thin-walled asymmetric cross-sections under axial thrust. As it is well known stocky bars with the above type of cross-sections always fail by flexural–torsional buckling in the case of asymmetric cross-sections (whose centroid does not coincide with the shear centre), while in the case

G. I. Ioannidis; D. J. Polyzois; A. N. Kounadis

2000-01-01

63

Vortex generation in the cross-flow around a cylinder attached to an end-wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cylinder attached to an end-wall normal to its axis is a common feature of many practical flow systems, e.g. in turbo-machinery or when a bridge is supported by a pillar from the bed of a river. In this situation, the nominally two-dimensional boundary layer flow incident upon the cylinder develops strong three-dimensional features and a very pronounced vortex structure may arise in the upstream flow close to the wall. For the appropriate Reynolds number range, the upstream vortical structure is nominally steady and is commonly referred to as the “horseshoe vortex system”. In contrast, the flow downstream is unsteady and periodic over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and vortices aligned with the cylinder axis are shed at a regular frequency into the wake. The generation of both these vortex systems requires energy to be extracted from the incident flow with the result that the drag force on the cylinder is increased. This paper concentrates on the upstream region of the cylinder and discusses an investigation in which two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to visualise the flow behaviour for a circular cylinder on a plane end-wall. The use of PIV has enabled two orthogonal velocity components to be measured in planes defined by the upstream flow direction and the axis of the cylinder. The third (out-of-plane) velocity component was then calculated by integrating the continuity equation. Subsequently, the velocity field information has been manipulated and converted into time-averaged information. Discussion of the measured results confirms that colour displays are an invaluable aid to understanding this complex fluid flow situation since they reveal substantially more information than grey-scale plots of the same data. In particular, the source of the horseshoe vortex system can be identified when colour plots of the time-averaged velocity and vorticity distributions are obtained. A limited amount of information on the unsteady vortex structures appearing in the end-wall region upstream of the cylinder is also presented. Finally, the experimental findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous workers.

Marakkos, Konstantinos; Turner, John T.

2006-06-01

64

A formula used to subtract the effect of gamma-ray of the others to that of measured reaction in measurement of cross section of nuclear reaction and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the regulation of growing and decay of artificial radioactive nuclide, a formula used to subtract the effect of characteristic ?-ray of the others to that of measured reaction was deduced. And then the cross sections of 120Te (n, 2n)119mTe reaction induced by neutrons around 14 MeV were measured by activation relative to the 93Nb (n, 2n)92mNb. In the process of the cross sections measured to be calculated, it was subtracted that the effect of characteristic ?-ray of 126Te (n, p)126Sb to that of measured 120Te (n, 2n)119mTe reaction using the formula deduced. The experimental results were (689±37) and (750±41) mb at the neutron energies of (13.5±0.3) and (14.6±0.3) MeV, respectively. Measurements were carried out by ?-detection using a coaxial HPGe detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure tellurium powder has been used. The fast neutrons were produced by the T(d, n)4He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements were determined by the method of cross-section ratios between 90Zr (n, 2n) 89m+gZr and 93Nb (n, 2n) 92mNb reactions. Supported by Program for Science & Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province, China (2008 HASTIT032) and Scientific Research Start up Outlay of High-Position Talent in Pingdingshan University in Henan Province, China

Zhou, Feng-Qun; Yang, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Wei-Feng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Fang; Tuo, Fei; Kong, Xiang-Zhong

2008-11-01

65

The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II  

SciTech Connect

The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.

Fleischer, A.; O'Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.

1999-11-01

66

Cross-machine comparison of resonant field amplification and resistive wall mode stabilization by plasma rotation  

SciTech Connect

Dedicated experiments in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion, 42, 614 (2002)], the Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut, R. J. Bickerton, and B. E. Keen, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)], and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] reveal the commonalities of resistive wall mode (RWM) stabilization by sufficiently fast toroidal plasma rotation in devices of different size and aspect ratio. In each device the weakly damped n=1 RWM manifests itself by resonant field amplification (RFA) of externally applied n=1 magnetic fields, which increases with the plasma pressure. Probing DIII-D and JET plasmas with similar ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability properties with externally applied magnetic n=1 fields, shows that the resulting RFA is independent of the machine size. In each device the drag resulting from RFA slows the toroidal plasma rotation and can lead to the onset of an unstable RWM. The critical plasma rotation required for stable operation in the plasma center decreases with increasing q{sub 95}, which is explained by the inward shift of q surfaces where the critical rotation remains constant. The quantitative agreement of the critical rotation normalized to the inverse Alfven time at the q=2 surface in similar DIII-D and JET plasmas supports the independence of the RWM stabilization mechanism of machine size and indicates the importance of the q=2 surface. At low aspect ratio the required fraction of the Alfven velocity increases significantly. The ratio of the critical rotation in similar NSTX and DIII-D plasmas can be explained by trapped particles not contributing to the RWM stabilization, which is consistent with stabilization mechanisms that are based on ion Landau damping. Alternatively, the ratio of the required rotation to the sound wave velocity remains independent of aspect ratio.

Reimerdes, H.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Bialek, J.M.; Garofalo, A.M.; Navratil, G.A.; Sontag, A.C.; Zhu, W. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Hender, T.C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Howell, D F.; Bigi, M.; Vries, P. de [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Chu, M.S.; Jackson, G.L.; La Haye, R.J.; Strait, E.J.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Scoville, J.T. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)] (and others)

2006-05-15

67

Using surface and cross-hole resistivity tomography in an urban environment: An example of imaging the foundations of the ancient wall in Thessaloniki, North Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the application of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique, in both surface and cross-hole modes, for subsurface exploration in an urban environment. The objective was to image the foundations of the Thessaloniki city walls (Region of Macedonia, North Greece) at locations that will be affected by the construction of a new underground Metro line.The surface ERT survey was performed along lines crossing directly over the wall on areas where it had partly collapsed. ERT surveys were also applied at places where the main over ground structure of the walls had been completely destroyed and what is left now is primarily only the ancient subsurface foundations. In addition, the present day ground surface is partially covered by concrete pavement slabs. In both cases, nonconventional electrodes were partially used to carry out a number of ERTs on the ground surface. This was necessary in order not to destroy the pavement slabs and most importantly not to damage in any way the monuments.An example of cross-hole ERT is also presented. Cross-hole ERTs were conducted because detailed measurements employing surface ERT were not possible due to limitations imposed by the urban environment. The way that the boreholes were instrumented is also presented. The combined surface and borehole tomographies produced images of the buried structures allowing the assessment of their geometrical shape and of the dimensions of the foundations of the ancient wall.

Tsokas, G. N.; Tsourlos, P. I.; Vargemezis, G. N.; Pazaras, N. Th.

68

How Do Lignin Composition, Structure, and Cross-Linking Affect Degradability? A Review of Cell Wall Model Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

anisms by which lignin restrict fiber degradation are poorly under- stood. Many aspects of grass cell wall lignification and degradation Hatfield, 1997). These reductions in degradability are are successfully modeled by dehydrogenation polymer-cell wall partly related to the increased lignin content of cell (DHP-CW) complexes formed with primary walls of corn Zea mays walls; however, variations in three-dimensional struc- L.

John H. Grabber

2005-01-01

69

Numerical Formula for the Total Cross Section of the Lepton Pair Production via the Bethe-Heitler Process of a Light Pseudoscalar Particle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We the authors present in detail the calculation of the total cross section for coherent lepton-pair production of a light pseudoscalar particle off a nucleus via the Bethe-Heitler process. For future reference to experiments which are aimed to search for...

B. R. Kim B. H. Cho S. K. Oh C. Stamm R. Rodenberg

1984-01-01

70

Effect of Activation Cross Section Uncertainties on the Radiological Assessment of the MFE/DEMO First Wall  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 60}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.

Cabellos, O; Reyes, S; Sanz, J; Rodriguez, A; Youssef, M; Sawan, M

2005-05-10

71

Designing State Aid Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing…

Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

2009-01-01

72

The Texas Formula System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explained and illustrated is the formula funding system used for colleges and universities in Texas. This system is considerably more complicated than the formulas used in other states. Data for institutions in the state system for fiscal 1978 are presented; actual appropriations are used rather than requests, and formula-produced amounts are…

Steen, Ralph W.; And Others

73

Modified product cubature formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the univariate case, there is a well-developed theory on the error estimation of the quadrature formulae for integrands from the Sobolev classes of functions. It is based on the Peano kernel representation of linear functionals, which yields sharp error bounds for the quadrature remainder. The product cubature formulae are the usual tool for the approximation of a double integral over a rectangular domain. In this paper we suggest a modification of the product cubature formulae, based on blending interpolation of bivariate functions. Besides the usual point evaluations, the modified cubature formulae involve few line integrals. Our approach allows application of the Peano kernel theory for derivation of error bounds for both standard cubature formulae and their modifications. Sufficient conditions for the definiteness of the modified product cubature formulae are given, and some classes of integrands are specified, for which a product cubature formula is inferior to its modified version.

Gushev, Vesselin; Nikolov, Geno

2009-02-01

74

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF BARS WITH ASYMMETRIC OPEN THIN WALLED CROSS-SECTIONS UNDER ECCENTRIC AXIAL THRUST UDC 531.3 539.3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical instability load of pin-ended bars of open asymmetric thin- walled cross-sections subjected to a slightly eccentric thrust is discussed in detail using both linear and non-linear stability analyses.The critical instability load for this case is associated with simultaneous bending and torsion, been always smaller than the classical Euler buckling loads for flexural and torsional buckling. Comparisons of the

G. I. Ioannidis; J. H. Ermopoulos; A. N. Kounadis

75

Cross-Sectional Elasticity Imaging of Arterial Wall by Comparing Measured Change in Thickness with Model Waveform  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the assessment of the elasticity of the arterial wall, we have developed the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791] for measuring the minute change in thickness due to heartbeats and the elasticity of the arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound. For various reasons, for example, an extremely small deformation of

Jiang Tang; Hideyuki Hasegawa; Hiroshi Kanai

2005-01-01

76

Direct relationship between aging and overcrowding in the ED, and a calculation formula for demand projection: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Although it has been suggested that the increase in older population contributes to overcrowding in emergency departments (EDs), there are limited data defining this relationship. This study examines whether patients' mean age per day affects length of ED stay. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis evaluated how patient age affects length of ED stay. The study was conducted at an ED attached to Fujisawa City Hospital, Japan, between 1 November 2009 and 31 October 2010. Patients scheduled to visit for childbirth and patients under age 15 were excluded. The primary outcome measure was the relationship between length of ED stay and patient age. The secondary outcome was the relationship between patient age and patient dispositions indicated by column chart and 100% staked column chart. RESULTS: Over the study period, there were 17 744 patient visits to the ED. The study included 15 840 (89.3%) patients. The mean (SD) age of these patients was 56.9 (21.5) years. In single and multiple linear regression analyses, mean patient age per day was an important factor in length of ED stay for the total number of patients visiting the ED (single linear regression analysis: regression coefficient=1.59 min/year, r(2)=0.005, p<0.001; multiple linear regression analysis: regression coefficient=0.72 min/year, r(2)=0.24, p<0.001). The ratio of admitted and transferred patients increased with patient age. CONCLUSION: The increase in older patients visiting the ED has a direct significant negative effect on overcrowding in the ED. PMID:23302506

Kawano, Takahisa; Nishiyama, Kei; Anan, Hideaki; Tujimura, Yuka

2013-01-01

77

Di-isodityrosine, a novel tetrametric derivative of tyrosine in plant cell wall proteins: a new potential cross-link.  

PubMed Central

A novel amino acid, di-isodityrosine, has been isolated from hydrolysates of cell walls of tomato cell culture. Analysis by UV spectrometry, partial derivatization with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene and mass and NMR spectrometry show that the compound is composed to two molecules of isodityrosine, joined by a biphenyl linkage. The possible reactions involved in the formation of this molecule in vivo are discussed, as is the possibility that it could form an interpolypeptide linkage between cell wall proteins such as extensin, and hence aid in the insolubilization of the protein in the wall.

Brady, J D; Sadler, I H; Fry, S C

1996-01-01

78

Selected Baking Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

Bogdany, Melvin

79

Geometry Formulas and Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rewritten and updated excerpts from the 30th Edition of the CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulas. Covers all of geometry, minus differential geometry. Very complete collection of definitions, formulas, tables and diagrams, divided into two- and three- dimensional geometry, and further into 16 subdivisions such as transformations, polygons, coordinate systems, isometries, polyhedra and spheres.

Levy, Silvio

2007-12-07

80

AJ Geometric Formulas Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solve various attributes of shapes and solids. Includes calculations for circle, parallelogram, rectangle, square, trapezoid, right circular cone, right circular cylinder, rectangular solid, and sphere geometric formulas. Geometry attributes include volume, area, perimeter, surface area, radius, length and circumference.

Raymond, Jimmy

81

A New Euler's Formula for DNA Polyhedra  

PubMed Central

DNA polyhedra are cage-like architectures based on interlocked and interlinked DNA strands. We propose a formula which unites the basic features of these entangled structures. It is based on the transformation of the DNA polyhedral links into Seifert surfaces, which removes all knots. The numbers of components , of crossings , and of Seifert circles are related by a simple and elegant formula: . This formula connects the topological aspects of the DNA cage to the Euler characteristic of the underlying polyhedron. It implies that Seifert circles can be used as effective topological indices to describe polyhedral links. Our study demonstrates that, the new Euler's formula provides a theoretical framework for the stereo-chemistry of DNA polyhedra, which can characterize enzymatic transformations of DNA and be used to characterize and design novel cages with higher genus.

Hu, Guang; Qiu, Wen-Yuan; Ceulemans, Arnout

2011-01-01

82

Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods subject to influence from cross draft.  

PubMed

The effects of draft on the flow and spillage characteristics of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were investigated. A specially designed draft generator that could supply low-swirl air current was used to provide "cross draft" from three directions, lateral (? = 0(o)), oblique (? = 45(o)), and front (? = 90(o)), with respect to the center point of the range hoods. Flow characteristics of oil mist were inspected through visualization of smoke flows with light scattering (laser light sheet-assisted visualization of smoke flow). The leakage mechanisms, which were closely related to the flow features, were studied by examining both movies and still pictures showing smoke-flow evolution. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas concentration detection method was employed to measure the capture indices. The results showed that the lateral draft pushed the pollutants generated under the hood in the opposite direction and induced serious spillage. The oblique draft pushed the pollutants toward both the rear wall and opposite side and induced more serious spillage than did the lateral draft. The frontal draft forced the pollutants to bifurcate into streams moving toward the left and the right, and induced the most serious pollutant spillage among the three tested drafts. Pollutant spillage became critically significant as the cross draft velocity was increased to greater than 0.2 m/sec. Spillage of pollutants increased as the velocity of the cross draft was increased. Increasing the suction flow rate of the range hood may increase resistance to the draft, but the benefits were limited at draft velocities greater than 0.2 m/sec. Both range hoods had a similarly low capture index under the influence of the lateral draft. For the oblique and frontal drafts, the jet-isolated range hood demonstrated a higher capture index than did the wall-mounted range hood. PMID:22150435

Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Peng, Kuan-Lin

2012-01-01

83

Quantum Efficiency and Capture Cross Section of First and Second Excitonic Transitions of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Measured through Photoconductivity.  

PubMed

Comparing photoconductivity measurements, using p-n diodes formed along individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), with modeling results, allows determination of the quantum efficiency, optical capture cross section, and oscillator strength of the first (E11) and second (E22) excitonic transitions of SWNTs. This is in the infrared region of the spectrum, where little experimental work on SWNT optical absorption has been reported to date. We estimate quantum efficiency (?) ?1-5% and provide a correlation of ?, capture cross section, and oscillator strength for E11 and E22 with nanotube diameter. This study uses the spectral weight of the exciton resonances as the determining parameter in optical measurements. PMID:23899132

Malapanis, Argyrios; Perebeinos, Vasili; Sinha, Dhiraj Prasad; Comfort, Everett; Lee, Ji Ung

2013-08-02

84

Estimating fundamental periods of steel plate shear walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic design codes generally specify empirical formulae to estimate the fundamental vibration periods of buildings. Currently, most building codes provide the same empirical formula to estimate the fundamental periods for steel plate shear walls and reinforced concrete shear walls. The work presented in this paper shows that the code formula predicts periods that are generally shorter than the periods obtained

Anjan K. Bhowmick; Gilbert Y. Grondin; Robert G. Driver

2011-01-01

85

Budget Formulas and Model Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected budget formulas currently in use for university operations are described as a background for examining a budgetary model that would provide for the integration of separate formulas. Data on the formulas were collected from states with system-wide coordinating boards that are responsible for budgetary reviews. The most common formula

Cope, Robert G.

86

Dependence of field driven domain wall velocity on cross-sectional area in Ni65Fe20Co15 nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity of vortex domain walls (DWs) was measured versus magnetic field in Ni65Fe20Co15 nanowires with different widths and thicknesses using time-resolved anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements. The Walker breakdown field, which separates translational and precessional DW propagation regimes, decreases for wider and thicker nanowires. On the contrary, the peak velocity at the Walker breakdown field is independent of the nanowire width and thickness. The Gilbert damping parameter ? was measured independently and was found to be insensitive to nanowire width but decreased with increasing wire thickness. From these data the transverse anisotropy field and dynamical DW width could be determined.

Moriya, Rai; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Thomas, Luc; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

2010-10-01

87

A Simple Approach to the Landau-Zener Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Landau-Zener formula provides the probability of non-adiabatic transitions occurring when two energy levels are swept through an avoided crossing. The formula is derived here in a simple calculation that emphasizes the physics responsible for non-adiabatic population transfer. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Vutha, Amar C.

2010-01-01

88

Hyperresolution for guarded formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of hyperresolution as a decision procedure and model builder for guarded formulae. In general hyperresolution is not a decision procedure for the entire guarded fragment. However we show that there are natural fragments which can be decided by hyperresolution. In particular, we prove decidabil- ity of hyperresolution with or without splitting for the fragment GF1

Lilia Georgieva; Ullrich Hustadt; Renate A. Schmidt

2003-01-01

89

Lesson 14: Quadratic Formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completing the square is applied to the general quadratic to derive the quadratic formula. Before an area application example is given there is a quick review of the four methods that have been presented for solving quadratic equations. Complex numbers are introduced before the discriminant is presented.

2011-01-01

90

The Formula Essay Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

Haluska, Jan

2012-01-01

91

The Formula Essay Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as…

Haluska, Jan

2012-01-01

92

Roles of Tyrosine-Rich Precursor Glycoproteins and Dityrosine- and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Mediated Protein Cross-Linking in Development of the Oocyst Wall in the Coccidian Parasite Eimeria maxima  

PubMed Central

The oocyst wall of apicomplexan parasites protects them from the harsh external environment, preserving their survival prior to transmission to the next host. If oocyst wall formation could be disrupted, then logically, the cycle of disease transmission could be stopped, and strategies to control infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage (macrogamete) of Eimeria maxima are proteolytically processed into smaller glycoproteins, which are then incorporated into the developing oocyst wall. The identification of high concentrations of dityrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in oocyst extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography, together with the detection of a UV autofluorescence in intact oocysts, implicates dityrosine- and possibly DOPA-protein cross-links in oocyst wall hardening. In addition, the identification of peroxidase activity in the wall-forming bodies of macrogametes supports the hypothesis that dityrosine- and DOPA-mediated cross-linking might be an enzyme-catalyzed event. As such, the mechanism of oocyst wall formation in Eimeria, is analogous to the underlying mechanisms involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrices in a number of organisms, widely distributed in nature, including insect resilin, nematode cuticles, yeast cell walls, mussel byssal threads, and sea urchin fertilization membranes.

Belli, Sabina I.; Wallach, Michael G.; Luxford, Catherine; Davies, Michael J.; Smith, Nicholas C.

2003-01-01

93

Hadron mass formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical hadron mass formula based on the rishon hypothesis of Harari is proposed. The calculated masses for 1- mesons and 32+ baryons are found to be in good agreement with available data. We predict M?(tt¯)=39.06 GeV and if a fourth generation exists, m?(b'b¯')=103.80 GeV and m?(t't¯')=356 GeV.

Singh, C. P.; Sharma, Avinash

1982-11-01

94

Density of states, Poisson's formula of summation and Walfisz's formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Poisson's formula for summation, we obtain an expression for the density of states of the d-dimensional scalar Helmholtz equation under various boundary conditions. Likewise, we also obtain formulas of Walfisz type. It becomes evident that the formulas obtained by Pathria et al. in connection with ideal bosons in a finite system are exactly the same as those obtained by utilizing the formulas for the density of states. Permanent address.

Pu, Fucho

1981-01-01

95

Relationship between the occiput-wall distance and physical performance in the elderly: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The occiput-wall distance (OWD), a measure of kyphosis, has been associated with postural instability, osteoporosis, disability and depression. The association between OWD and measures of physical performance was evaluated. Methods Data from the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study on home-dwelling people were used. People younger than 65 years and with overt disability at baseline assessment were excluded. The sample population was divided into three groups according to the OWD distribution (1st quartile: short OWD; 2nd and 3rd quartiles: medium OWD; 4th quartile: long OWD). Performance scores were expressed as the percentage of the best performance in this population. Results 783 persons (55% women) were studied. The mean age for men was 73.8 (SD 6.34) and 75.0 (SD 6.85) for women. In men, a longer OWD was associated with reduced balance and walking speed, but not with impaired performance at the chair standing test. Overall, the association between increased OWD and reduced physical function was weak. In women, OWD was associated with a reduced walking speed, expressed as a percentage of the best performance (mean [SD]: 77% [12], 72% [14], 66% [15] in short, medium and long OWD groups, respectively), and impaired balance (mean [SD]: 97% [11], 95% [13], 90% [21] for short, medium and long OWD groups, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that OWD is an easily measurable marker of poor physical function in women. Further research should verify whether OWD predicts incident disability.

Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele; Pedone, Claudio; Cesari, Matteo; Di Iorio, Angelo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

2009-01-01

96

Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes  

PubMed Central

Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH) has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected) and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES) and post-elongation stem (PES) internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV) regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs), the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggested co-expression of some neighbouring genes on Medicago chromosomes. Conclusions The problems associated with transcript profiling in alfalfa stems using the Medicago GeneChip as a CSH platform were mitigated by masking probes targeting ISV regions and SFPs. Using this masking protocol resulted in the identification of numerous candidate genes that may contribute to differences in cell wall concentration and composition of stems of two alfalfa genotypes.

2010-01-01

97

New Optical Rotation Dispersion Formula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new dispersion formula for the rotatory power is obtained in the framework of Kubo formalism for transport coefficients. Unlike the well known Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion law, this formula is consistent with the free electron gas asymptotic behavior. (A...

I. Kimel

1981-01-01

98

Absolute Realizability of Predicate Formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of an absolutely realizable predicate formula is introduced. It can be regarded as a certain refinement of the concept of a constructively generally valid formula in predicate logic. It is proved that the class of all absolutely realizable formulas is a \\Pi^1_1-complete set.Bibliography: 16 titles.

Plisko, V. E.

1984-04-01

99

Assessing Readability: Formulas and Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that readability formulas are strictly text-based and therefore do not reflect the interactive nature of the reading process, this paper argues that many of the instructional material evaluations for which such formulas are used are inappropriate and offers more reader-based alternatives to the use of formulas. The first half of the paper…

Rush, R. Timothy

100

Degree formulae for offset curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present three different formulae for computing the degree of the offset of a real irreducible affine plane curve C given implicitly, and we see how these formulae particularize to the case of rational curves. The first formula is based on an auxiliary curve, called S, that is defined depending on a non-empty Zariski open subset of

Fernando San Segundo; J. Rafael Sendra

2005-01-01

101

Hadron mass formula  

SciTech Connect

An empirical hadron mass formula based on the rishon hypothesis of Harari is proposed. The calculated masses for 1/sup -/ mesons and 3/2/sup +/ baryons are found to be in good agreement with available data. We predict m/sub( Upsilont/t-bar) = 39.06 GeV and if a fourth generation exists, m/sub( Upsilonb//sup prime/b-bar/sup prime/) = 103.80 GeV and m/sub( Upsilont//sup prime/t-bar/sup prime/) = 356 GeV.

Singh, C.P.; Sharma, A.

1982-11-01

102

Physical aspects of sound insulation through walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simplified summary, expository in nature, of the theory of airborne sound insulation of walls. The normal incidence mass law for both single and double walls is derived and suitably approximated to give easily usable forms. The frequency dependence of transmission loss is explained and approximate formulae for calculation of the resonance frequency of a double wall

K. K. Schiller

1967-01-01

103

Positive quadrature formulas III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

Peherstorfer, Franz

2008-12-01

104

The Happiness Formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Measuring something as subjective as the feeling or state of happiness is a tricky business. While some may take pleasure in closing a big financial merger, others may be content to watch a babbling brook as they sip lemonade. The BBC has never shied away from taking on such weighty matters and they have recently created this website to complement their ongoing series titled "The Happiness Formula". Users may wish to orient themselves to the site by viewing some of the short video clips featured on the right-hand side of the site's homepage. The site also contains material on the relationship between economic success and overall happiness levels and the health benefits of happiness. The site is rounded out by a place where visitors can offer their own suggestions for improving happiness and another area where they can take a quiz on happiness.

2006-01-01

105

Water and formula fluoride concentrations: significance for infants fed formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The independent contributions of formula and water to the total fluoride (F) intake from the diet of formula-fed infants is not fully documented. Although the precise tim- ing and mechanism by which dental fluorosis occurs has not been fully defined, water F levels can be an important consideration in the risk of dental fluorosis for formula-fed infants. An assessment ofl,308

Samina Van Winkle; Steven M. Levy; Mary C. Kiritsy; Judy R. Heilman; James S. Wefel; Teresa Marshall

1995-01-01

106

Carotid cross-sectional wall area is significantly associated with serum leptin levels, independent of body mass index: the SABPA study.  

PubMed

Hypertension and obesity are serious health burdens in sub-Saharan Africa. Urbanized Africans seem to be more susceptible to the development of these diseases than Caucasians. Current research suggests that leptin may be an important contributor to the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate leptin levels and their associations with cardiovascular function in urbanized Africans and Caucasians. Serum leptin, ambulatory blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness were measured, and the cross-sectional wall area (CSWA) was calculated. The results showed that Africans had higher leptin levels (P<0.001), ambulatory blood pressure (P<0.001), carotid intima-media thickness (P<0.01) and CSWA (P<0.01) than Caucasians. As we found no interaction between ethnicity and gender for the association between leptin and the cardiovascular variables, we focused mainly on the total group of Africans and Caucasians. In single, partial and multiple regression analyses, positive associations of ambulatory systolic blood pressure (?=0.256; P<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (?=0.143; P=0.012), pulse pressure (?=0.327; P<0.001) and CSWA (?=0.107; P=0.038) with leptin were observed. Even after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), the association between CSWA (?=0.107; P=0.038) and leptin remained. Our findings therefore suggest that leptin may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, independent of BMI. PMID:22932876

Pieterse, Chiné; Schutte, Alta E; Mels, Carina; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph

2012-08-30

107

A Practical Note on Readability Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares the readability formulas devised by Fry and McLaughlin to the Dale-Chall formula and reports similar results with the Fry and Dale-Chall formulas, but variant results using the McLaughlin formula. Bibliography. (MD)|

Pauk, Walter

1969-01-01

108

Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.

Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

2009-09-01

109

Two Novel Techniques for Determination of Polysaccharide Cross-Links Show that Crh1p and Crh2p Attach Chitin to both ?(1-6)- and ?(1-3)Glucan in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall? †  

PubMed Central

Previous work, using solubilization of yeast cell walls by carboxymethylation, before or after digestion with ?(1-3)- or ?(1-6)glucanase, followed by size chromatography, showed that the transglycosylases Crh1p and Crh2p/Utr2p were redundantly required for the attachment of chitin to ?(1-6)glucan. With this technique, crh1? crh2? mutants still appeared to contain a substantial percentage of chitin linked to ?(1-3)glucan. Two novel procedures have now been developed for the analysis of polysaccharide cross-links in the cell wall. One is based on the affinity of curdlan, a ?(1-3)glucan, for ?(1-3)glucan chains in carboxymethylated cell walls. The other consists of in situ deacetylation of cell wall chitin, generating chitosan, which can be extracted with acetic acid, either directly (free chitosan) or after digestion with different glucanases (bound chitosan). Both methodologies indicated that all of the chitin in crh1? crh2? strains is free. Reexamination of the previously used procedure revealed that the ?(1-3)glucanase preparation used (zymolyase) is contaminated with a small amount of endochitinase, which caused erroneous results with the double mutant. After removing the chitinase from the zymolyase, all three procedures gave coincident results. Therefore, Crh1p and Crh2p catalyze the transfer of chitin to both ?(1-3)- and ?(1-6)glucan, and the biosynthetic mechanism for all chitin cross-links in the cell wall has been established.

Cabib, Enrico

2009-01-01

110

On generalized averaged Gaussian formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple numerical method for constructing the optimal (generalized) averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas which are the optimal stratified extensions of Gauss quadrature formulas. These extensions exist in many cases in which real positive Kronrod formulas do not exist. For the Jacobi weight functions w(x)equiv w^{(alpha,beta)}(x)D(1-x)^alpha(1+x)^beta ( alpha,beta>-1 ) we give a necessary and sufficient condition on the parameters alpha and beta such that the optimal averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas are internal.

Spalevic, Miodrag M.

2007-09-01

111

A simple formula for low-energy sputtering yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple formula for low-energy sputtering yields of elemental targets is presented. The formula follows directly from Sigmund's theory but includes a modified form of the functiona(Mt\\/Mp) and an accurate expression for the nuclear stopping cross section. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained for the projectiles Ne, Ar, Kr sputtering not too reactive surfaces at energies ?1 keV. Further

Ch. Steinbrüchel

1985-01-01

112

Schaefli Formula and Einstein Manifolds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The celebrated formula of Schlafli relates the variation of the dihedral angles of a smooth family of polyhedra in a space form and the variation of volume. We give a smooth analogue of this classical formula - our result relates the variation of the volu...

I. Rivin J. M. Schlenker

1998-01-01

113

Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula  

MedlinePLUS

... Infants Food Safety and Handwashing: WHO: Safe preparation, storage and handling of powdered infant formula guidelines [PDF - 361KB] Foodsafety.gov: Baby food and infant formula Handwashing: Clean hands Save Lives , hand- and water-related hygiene tips Put Your Hands Together [PODCAST - ...

114

Pricing Formulae for Barrier Caps  

Microsoft Academic Search

in this paper, we present pricing formulae for barrier caps. To lower the cost of vanilla caps we x a barrier in such a way that when hit, the protection is totally or partially suppressed. Quasi explicit formulae are given. The term structure of interest rates is given by a standard one factor model. A numerical analysis is performed which

Laurent Chr

115

Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [Mij, Mkl] = [Mkj, Mil] (e.g. [M11, M22] = [M21, M12]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: \\det(\\partial_z-L_Gaudin(z)), \\det(1-e^{-\\partial_z}T_Yangian(z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U_crit(\\widehat{gl_n})) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system.

Chervov, A.; Falqui, G.

2008-05-01

116

Tensile Properties of Arabidopsis Cell Walls Depend on Both a Xyloglucan Cross-Linked Microfibrillar Network and Rhamnogalacturonan II-Borate Complexes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of plant organs depend upon anatomical structure, cell-cell adhesion, cell turgidity, and the mechanical properties of their cell walls. By testing the mechanical responses of Arabidopsis mutants, it is possible to deduce the contribution that polymers of the cell wall make to organ strength. We developed a method to measure the tensile parameters of the expanded regions

Peter Ryden; Keiko Sugimoto-Shirasu; Andrew Charles Smith; Kim Findlay; Wolf-Dieter Reiter; Maureen Caroline

2003-01-01

117

Transcript Profiling of Two Alfalfa Genotypes with Contrasting Cell Wall Composition in Stems Using a Cross-Species Platform: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stem cell walls of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa] genotype 252 have high cellulose and lignin concentrations, while stem cell walls of genotype 1283 have low cellulose and lignin concentrations. The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable pla...

118

Generalized gas gain formula for proportional counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical consideration of gas amplification in proportional counters has indicated that ?/N, the ratio of the first Townsend coefficient to the gas density, is generally expressed in the form, ?/N = KSmexp(- L/S1-m), where S = E/N is the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas density, and K, L and m (0 <= m <= 1) are constants characteristic of the gas. When m = 0 the ?/N formula reduces to the analytical form used by Williams and Sara, and when m = 1 it reduces to that assumed by Diethorn. A gas gain formula derived from the ?/N formula fitted the experimental gas gain data by Charles for a mixture of Ar + 10% CH4 and by Hendricks for a mixture of Xe + 5% CO2 when m = 1/2 was assumed. Theoretical justification for m = 1/2 was confirmed from the data of the total cross section for electrons in these gases and the characteristic energy of electrons in an electric field.

Aoyama, Takahiko

1985-01-01

119

A note on generalized averaged Gaussian formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently proposed a very simple numerical method for constructing the averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas. These formulas exist in many more cases than the real positive Gauss?Kronrod formulas. In this note we try to answer whether the averaged Gaussian formulas are an adequate alternative to the corresponding Gauss?Kronrod quadrature formulas, to estimate the remainder term of a Gaussian rule.

Spalevic, Miodrag

2007-11-01

120

TreeWidth for First Order Formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce tree-width for first order formulae ', fotw('). We show that computing fotw is fixed-parameter tractable with parame- ter fotw. Moreover, we show that on classes of formulae of bounded fotw, model checking is fixed parameter tractable, with parameter the length of the formula. This is done by translating a formula ' with fotw(') < k into a formula

Isolde Adler; Mark Weyer

2009-01-01

121

Discontinuity Formulas for Multiparticle Amplitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality...

H. P. Stapp

1976-01-01

122

Area-Depth Rainfall Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Area-depth formulas, expressing average precipitation over an area as a function of the area, have been proposed by half a dozen investigators in as many forms, involvinghe , 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, or other powers of the area, its logarithm, o.r its exponential. Comparison of these formulas reveals unsuspected similarities as well as restrictions. General. Area-depth relations for showers and larger

Arnold Court

1961-01-01

123

A formula for charmonium suppression  

SciTech Connect

In this work a formula for charmonium suppression obtained by Matsui in 1989 is analytically generalized for the case of complex cc-barpotential described by a 3-dimensional and isotropic time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO). It is suggested that under certain scheme the formula can be applied to describe J/{psi} suppression in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SPS, RHIC, and LHC with the advantage of analytical tractability.

Pena, C., E-mail: pena@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Blaschke, D., E-mail: blaschke@ift.uni.wroc.pl [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Poland)

2012-07-15

124

27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol...USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided...

2013-04-01

125

Classification of resonance Regge trajectories and a modified Mulholland formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ a simple potential model to analyze the effects which a Regge trajectory, correlating with a bound or a metastable state at zero angular momentum, has on an integral cross section. A straightforward modification of the Mulholland formula of Macek et al. (2004, 2009) [2] is proposed for more efficient separation of the resonance contribution.

Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

2011-08-01

126

GENERAL FORMULAS FOR GAP-EXCITED LINEAR DUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>Equations allowing determination of the electric and magnetic fields ; nt each point within a gap-excited metallic duct are derived. With the ; application to accelerators in mind, formulas are established for the enengy and ; lateral momentum kicks to which a particle is subjected upon crossing the gap ; region. The configuration where the gap is in a plane

Van Bladel

1958-01-01

127

Leonardo da Vinci's "A skull sectioned": skull and dental formula revisited.  

PubMed

What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing "A skull sectioned" (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned paranasal sinuses and ductus nasolacrimalis. A dissected lateral wall of the maxilla is also present. Furthermore, at the level of the foramen mentale, the drawing displays compact and spongious bony components, together with a cross-section through the foramen mentale and its connection with the canalis mandibulae. Leonardo was the first to describe a correct dental formula (6424) and made efforts to place this formula above the related dental elements. However, taking into account, the morphological features of the individual elements of the maxilla, it can be suggested that Leonardo sketched a "peculiar dental element" on the position of the right maxillary premolar in the dental sketch. The fact that the author did not make any comment on that special element is remarkable. Leonardo could have had sufficient knowledge of the precise morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars, since the author depicted these elements in the dissected skull. The fact that the author also had access to premolars in situ corroborates our suggestion that "something went wrong" in this part of the drawing. The present study shows that historical anatomical drawings are very useful for interactive learning of detailed anatomy for students in medicine and dentistry. PMID:22431331

Gerrits, Peter O; Veening, Jan G

2012-03-19

128

Tweedie's Formula and Selection Bias.  

PubMed

We suppose that the statistician observes some large number of estimates z(i), each with its own unobserved expectation parameter ?(i). The largest few of the z(i)'s are likely to substantially overestimate their corresponding ?(i)'s, this being an example of selection bias, or regression to the mean. Tweedie's formula, first reported by Robbins in 1956, offers a simple empirical Bayes approach for correcting selection bias. This paper investigates its merits and limitations. In addition to the methodology, Tweedie's formula raises more general questions concerning empirical Bayes theory, discussed here as "relevance" and "empirical Bayes information." There is a close connection between applications of the formula and James-Stein estimation. PMID:22505788

Efron, Bradley

2012-01-24

129

[Tolerance of new dietary formulas].  

PubMed

Recently, with pharmaceutical technology, special diets have been developed which may shorten the critical phase between parenteral nutrition and normal food. With special methods of production, it is possible to find compatible diets with acceptable flavour which are helpful in clinical and private practice. The present paper will report on the compatability of a new formula diet. 30 patients with different gastro-enterological diseases have been interrogated about the compatibility of a new formula diet which is available in vanilla, chocolate and coffee flavour. The new diet is compatible without any serious side effects. In no case a break off of treatment was necessary. PMID:821862

Heiný, B M

1976-08-01

130

Formulae for Insect Wingbeat Frequency  

PubMed Central

A formula is developed connecting the wingbeat frequency of insects with their masses and wing areas. It is derived first theoretically, using dimensional analysis, and then it is compared with published measurements. The formula discovered involves two parameters which dimensional analysis alone cannot determine. One of these is evaluated using one among many proposed semi-empirical relationships (the only one that stands scrutiny); the other by fitting a published dataset. It is found that the resulting equation, applying to insects in general, accords well with observation, and indeed is very close to being optimal (in a sense to be defined).

Deakin, Michael A B

2010-01-01

131

Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…

McClintock, David L.

132

Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

Olson, Arthur V.

133

Impact on cardiovascular risk follow-up from a shift to the CKD-EPI formula for eGFR reporting: a cross-sectional population-based primary care study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact on cardiovascular risk factor management in primary care by the introduction of chronic kidney disease epidemiological collaboration (CKD-EPI) for estimated-glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reporting. Design and setting Cross-sectional study of routine healthcare provision in 47 primary care practices in The Netherlands with Modification of Diet and Renal Disease Study eGFR reporting. Methods eGFR values were recalculated using CKD-EPI in patients with available creatine tests. Patients reclassified from CKD stage 3a to CKD stage 2 eGFR range were compared to those who remained in stage 3a for differences in demographic variables, blood pressure, comorbidity, medication usage and laboratory results. Results Among the 60?673 adult patients (37% of adult population) with creatine values, applying the CKD-EPI equation resulted in a 16% net reduction in patients with CKD stage 3 or worse. Patients reclassified from stage 3a to 2 had lower systolic blood pressure (139.7 vs 143.3?mm?Hg p<0.0001), higher diastolic blood pressure (81.5 vs 78.4?mm?Hg p<0.0001) and higher cholesterol (5.4 vs 5.1?mmol/L p<0.0001) compared to those who remained in stage 3a. Of those reclassified out of a CKD diagnosis 463 (32%) had no comorbidities that would qualify for annual CVD risk factor assessment and 20 (12% of those with sufficient data) had a EuroSCORE CVD risk >20% within 10?years. Conclusions Use of the CKD-EPI equation will result in many patients being removed from CKD registers and the associated follow-up. Current risk factor assessment in this group may be lacking from routine data and some patients within this group are at an increased risk for cardiovascular events.

van Gelder, Vincent A; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke D; de Grauw, Wim J C; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Wetzels, Jack F M; Lasserson, Daniel S

2013-01-01

134

Quadrature formulae for classes of functions of low smoothness  

SciTech Connect

For Sobolev and Korobov spaces of functions of several variables a quadrature formula with explicitly defined coefficients and nodes is constructed. This formula is precise for trigonometric polynomials with harmonics from the corresponding step hyperbolic cross. The error of the quadrature formula in the classes W{sup {alpha}}{sub p}[0,1]{sup n}, E{sup {alpha}}[0,1]{sup n} is o((ln M){sup {beta}}/M{sup {alpha}}), where M is the number of nodes and {beta} is a parameter depending on the class. The problem of the approximate calculation of multiple integrals for functions in W{sup {alpha}}{sub p}[0,1]{sup n} is considered in the case when this class does not lie in the space of continuous functions, that is, for {alpha}{<=}1/p.

Nursultanov, E D [Kazakhstan Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Astana (Kazakhstan); Tleukhanova, N T [Eurasian National University named after L.N.Gumilev, Astana (Kazakhstan)

2003-10-31

135

Trace formula for broken symmetry  

SciTech Connect

We derive a trace formula for systems that exhibit an approximate continuous symmetry. It interpolates between the sum over continuous families of periodic orbits that holds in the case of exact continuous symmetry, and the discrete sum over isolated orbits that holds when the symmetry is completely broken. It is based on a simple perturbation expansion of the classical dynamics, centered around the case of exact symmetry, and gives an approximation to the usual Gutzwiller formula when the perturbation is large. We illustrate the computation with some 2-dimensional examples: the deformation of the circular billiard into an ellipse, and anisotropic and anharmonic perturbations of a harmonic oscillator. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Creagh, S.C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Unversitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

1996-05-01

136

Nuclear cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear cross sections, sigmaij,i=pi+\\/-, K+, K-, p, p, A; j=p, A have been derived for all energies. A new expression for the average charged particle multiplicity together with new empirical formulas for elastic and inelastic pp cross sections have been derived and used to determine the nuclear cross sections. Extrapolations to high and superhigh energies are given. For instance, at

Arne Liland

1993-01-01

137

The effect of the heat exchanger arrangement and wind-break walls on the performance of natural draft dry-cooling towers subjected to cross-winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most full scale dry-cooling towers rectangular heat exchanger bundles are arranged either vertically around the circumference of the tower or horizontally in the inlet cross-section of the tower. A numerical procedure is used in the present paper to investigate the influence of the particular arrangement on the performance of a tower in windy conditions with the results being verified

A. F. du Preez; D. G. Kröger

1995-01-01

138

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas...The volume and alcohol content of the beer base; (ii) The maximum volumes of...content of the finished product. (d) Beer base formulas. You must refer in...

2013-04-01

139

How to write a long formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Standard mathematical notation works well for short formulas, but not for the longer ones often written by computer scientists. Notations are pro-posed to make one or two-page formulas easier to read and reason about.

L. Lamport

1993-01-01

140

27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS ...compound, or treat spirits in a manner which results in a change of character, composition...are obsolete. (b) Change in formula. Any change in an approved formula...

2013-04-01

141

Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.|

Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

2010-01-01

142

15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a)...

2009-01-01

143

15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a)...

2010-01-01

144

15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a)...

2013-01-01

145

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cell wall epitopes of the insect pathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi: differential binding to fungal surfaces and cross-reactivity with host hemocytes and basement membrane components.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated against epitopes on yeast-like hyphal bodies and hyphae of the entomopathogenic hyphomycete, Nomuraea rileyi. Two MAbs (4C10, 2H4) bind to epitopes common to both hyphal bodies and hyphae, whereas MAb 4E9 binds only to hyphal surfaces. 4C10 and 2H4 appear to be directed towards carbohydrate portions of cell surface mannoproteins, as evidenced by similarities in staining patterns between these MAbs and Concanavalin A on Western blots of N. rileyi cell wall extracts. These MAbs cross-react with antigens on blastospore and hyphal surfaces of two other entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus in fluorescence microscopy assays, but do not cross-react with a non-entomopathogenic strain of Candida albicans or with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. MAb 4C10 also cross-reacts with immunocompetent granular hemocytes from Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) larvae and with S. exigua plasmatocytes. Electron microscopy revealed that this MAb binds to a component in cytoplasmic granules in the hemocytes, and that surface labeling may be due to the release of this MAb-positive component upon degranulation. MAb 2H4 does not cross-react with granular hemocytes, but does bind to plasmatocytes and hemocytes that tightly adhere to the substrate in monolayer assays. Additionally, MAb 4C10 specifically labels a basement membrane epitope on S. exigua fat body, suggesting that this antibody binds to mannose residues on extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Cross-reactivity of these N. rileyi MAbs with insect hemocyte and tissue components indicates that fungal surface epitopes can mimic host surface molecules, which could explain why N. rileyi hyphal bodies are not recognized by granulocytes and are able to circulate freely in the hemolymph without binding to basement membranes lining the hemocoel. PMID:9548369

Pendland, J C; Boucias, D G

1998-02-01

146

Distance Formula (length of a segment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach you how to find the length of a segment using the distance formula. Use the following link to learn the distance formula: Distance Formula (Length of a Line Segment) Now for some practice. Do problems 1-4 on the following practice quiz: Distance Formula Practice OK! You are set for the homework! Assignment #4 on the following link: Class Zone Geometry Textbook ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-08-24

147

A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

Cramer, Eugene H.

1978-01-01

148

A switching formula for optimal gait transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a simple, closed-form switching formula for determining the optimal gait transition speeds of legged robots. For robots with even-numbered legs that are arranged symmetrically along the direction of locomotion, the formula determines the forward locomotion speed at which running (gallop) becomes more efficient than walking (trot). The accuracy of the switching formula is empirically evaluated through a

Hyuk Kang; Byungchul An; F. C. Park

2010-01-01

149

27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section 20.91 Alcohol...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article made with...

2013-04-01

150

The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…

Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.

2008-01-01

151

Refractive Index Formulae for Radio Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radio refractive index formula adopted in 1963 by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) is being reviewed. Forty years ago, this formula was essential for the reduction of distances measured with microwave EDM instruments. Since then, long-range EDM has been replaced by the Global Positioning System (GPS). Today, the formulae

Jean M. RÜEGER

2002-01-01

152

Nuclear mass formulas for astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the Hartree Fock Bogolyubov mass models of the Brussels Montreal group and compare their suitability for astrophysical purposes with three other modern mass formulas: the FRDM of Möller et al., the KUTY model of Koura et al., and the Duflo Zuker 1995 model. In addition to considering the quality of their respective fits to the data of the atomic mass evaluation of December 2003, we also compare their extrapolations out towards the neutron drip line. The implications for fission barriers and the role of the equation of state of neutron matter are both discussed.

Pearson, J. M.; Goriely, S.

2006-10-01

153

Whiteness formula in CIELAB uniform color space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to standardize the calculation of whiteness. Whiteness formulas currently in use satisfactorily characterize the appearance of commercial whiteness. However, they have poor correlations with the observers' evaluations, and are often unsuccessful in assessing tinted white samples. A whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space is developed in this paper. Several whiteness formulas are analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space agrees well with the visual ranking, and it is superior to the CIE whiteness formula and the others in visual correlativity, uniformity and applicability.

He, Guoxin; Zhou, Mingxun

2007-07-01

154

Wall Turbulence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

Hanratty, Thomas J.

1980-01-01

155

Wall Tension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, develops the relationship between tension, pressure, and radius in a balloon. The same ideas are then applied to the walls of spherical and cylindrical containers. Several links provide further information.

Nave, Carl R.

2007-11-15

156

An electron paramagnetic resonance study of the tetragonally distorted [Formula: see text] ion in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text].  

PubMed

Chromium-doped [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] have been studied by both EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy. [Formula: see text] ions enter the fluorite structure in distorted substitution cation sites. In both matrices the distortion observed is tetragonal. X- and Q-band EPR measurements at temperatures between 4 and 300 K allowed us to determine the ion symmetry and the following spin-Hamiltonian parameters: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text]; and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text]. For [Formula: see text], the weak superhyperfine interaction of [Formula: see text] with the surrounding [Formula: see text] ions has been studied by both EPR and ENDOR techniques for [Formula: see text]. No ENDOR signals were detected for [Formula: see text]. The results are tentatively explained in terms of a Jahn - Teller effect corresponding to [Formula: see text] coupling strongly stabilized by lattice stresses, although other possible origins for the distortion cannot be completely ruled out. PMID:22146385

Oliete, P B; Orera, V M; Alonso, P J

1996-09-16

157

Rectangular Flat-Pack Lids under External Pressure: Improved Formulas for Screening and Design. Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earlier work is improved and extended to provide formulas for the maximum tensile stress in the lid-to-wall seal, the maximum lid deflection, and the lid collapsing pressure for a rectangular flat-pack under external pressure. It is shown how these formul...

C. Libove

1979-01-01

158

Rectangular Flat-Pack Lids under External Pressure: Improved Formulas for Screening and Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earlier work is improved and extended to provide formulas for the maximum tensile stress in the lid-to-wall seal, the maximum lid deflection, and the lid collapsing pressure for a rectangular flat pack under external pressure. It is shown how these formul...

C. Libove

1976-01-01

159

Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants  

PubMed Central

Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120

Berseth, Carol Lynn; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Marunycz, John D; Vanderhoof, Jon

2009-01-01

160

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110 Section 990.110 Housing...FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1)...

2010-04-01

161

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110 Section 990.110 Housing...FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1)...

2013-04-01

162

27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225...PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on...

2013-04-01

163

27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55 Alcohol...PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on...

2013-04-01

164

27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas disapproved for drawback. 17.137 Section...USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.137 Formulas disapproved for...

2013-04-01

165

Generalizations of the Fermi-Segrè formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase-integral formulas obtained by Fröman, Fröman, and the present author for the limit of uN(l,E,r)/rl+1 as r-->0, where uN(l,E,r) is a normalized nonrelativistic wave function for bound or unbound states, are compared with corresponding formulas obtained by Pratt and co-workers from analytical perturbation theory. It is demonstrated that the phase-integral formulas are practically always advantageous to the perturbation-theory formulas. If one substitutes the perturbation-theory approximation for the energy into the respective phase-integral formula for the limit of uN/rl+1 as r-->0 and performs approximations according to a well-defined scheme, the approximate perturbation-theory formulas for the limit of uN/rl+1 as r-->0 are obtained. For bound s states the phase-integral formula and the perturbation-theory formula coincide with the Fermi-Segrè formula in the nonrelativistic approximation.

Yngve, Staffan

1986-01-01

166

Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution Formula A  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Product name: Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution Formula A Manufacturer: Gambro BCT Inc, Lakewood, Colorado Intended Use: Only with ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

167

Dynamic time scale for the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model based on Rice's formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic formulation of Smagorinsky's subgrid-scale model for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) requires averaging to avoid instability due to extreme fluctuations. For complex-geometry flows a Lagrangian approach is often useful [see Meneveau, Lund, and Cabot, JFM 319 (1996)]. However, an ad-hoc choice of the relaxation timescale must be made, often based on resolved strain-rates and stresses at the grid- scale. Recently, Park and Mahesh [Phys. Fluids 21, 065106 (2009)] proposed the attractive notion of using statistics of the error signal itself to determine a timescale dynamically. We extend this approach by using Rice's formula to dynamically estimate the time between mean-crossings of the error signal and set the averaging timescale to be twice this value. The approach requires accumulating Lagrange-averaged square error and its time-derivative squared, which is done using the Eulerian approximation as proposed in the original model. For validation, LES of flow in a channel and through an array of cubes are compared with experimental results. Distributions of the dynamic coefficient, error, and dynamic timescale are shown as a function of distance from the wall. Computational efficiency and memory requirements are also discussed.

Verhulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

2011-11-01

168

Hadrian's Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hadrian's Wall is an historical monument built by the Romans in Britain and spans more than 2,000 years of history. Standing as a "reminder of past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations," the Wall is equipped with museums, forts, and events that bring Roman history to life. Designed by the World Heritage Site, this Web site offers tourist information (such as travel and hotel arrangements) for anyone interested in visiting this historical landmark that ranks along with the great wonders of the world.

1998-01-01

169

Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that

Xu Huang; Wentao Liang; Sulin Zhang

2011-01-01

170

Transient Resistive Wall Wake for Very Short Bunches  

SciTech Connect

The catch up distance for the resistive wall wake in a round pipe is approximately equal to the square of the pipe radius divided by the bunch length. The standard formulae for this wake are applicable at distances much larger than the catch up distance. In this paper, we calculate the resistive wall wake at distances compared with the catch up distance assuming a constant wall conductivity.

Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

2005-05-13

171

The Steiner formula for Minkowski valuations  

PubMed Central

A Steiner type formula for continuous translation invariant Minkowski valuations is established. In combination with a recent result on the symmetry of rigid motion invariant homogeneous bivaluations, this new Steiner type formula is used to obtain a family of Brunn–Minkowski type inequalities for rigid motion intertwining Minkowski valuations.

Parapatits, Lukas; Schuster, Franz E.

2012-01-01

172

Formulas in Physics Have a ``Standard'' Form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the importance of the ordering of symbols in physics formulas and identify implicit conventions that govern the ``standard'' form for how formulas are written and interpreted. An important part of writing and reading this form is understanding distinctions among constants, parameters, and variables. We delineate these conventions and encourage instructors to make them explicit for students.

Moelter, Matthew J.; Jackson, Martin

2012-11-01

173

The Processing of Malformed Formulaic Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The prevalence of formulaicity in naturally occurring language use points to an important role in the way language is acquired, processed, and used. It is widely recommended that second-language instruction should ensure that learners develop a rich repertoire of formulaic sequences. If this is justified, it follows that learner failure to use…

Millar, Neil

2011-01-01

174

Formula Funding in Higher Education: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews formula funding in higher education literature, including purpose, historical perspectives, definition and development, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and future trends. In light of citizen demands, the formula approach seems the best method to ensure a satisfactory relationship between state government and state…

Noe, Roger C.

1986-01-01

175

Formulas for asymmetric lead and lag compensators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead and lag compensators are commonly used for classical loop shaping and as weighting functions for automated controller synthesis algorithms. The existing formulas for these compensators provide the capability of selecting phase at the frequency of maximum phase lead such that the phase peak or notch is symmetrical on the Bode plot phase chart. This paper develops easy-to-use formulas for

William Messner

2009-01-01

176

Alternative Derivations for the Poisson Integral Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poisson integral formula is revisited. The kernel in the Poisson integral formula can be derived in a series form through the direct BEM free of the concept of image point by using the null-field integral equation in conjunction with the degenerate kernels. The degenerate kernels for the closed-form Green's function and the series form of Poisson…

Chen, J. T.; Wu, C. S.

2006-01-01

177

A Partition Formula for Fibonacci Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a partition formula for the even index Fibonacci numbers. The formula is motivated by the appearance of these Fibonacci numbers in the representation theory of the socalled 3-Kronecker quiver, i.e., the oriented graph with two vertices and three arrows in the same direction.

Philipp Fahr; Claus Michael Ringerl

2008-01-01

178

An asymptotic formula for the Koornwinder polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formula for the large-degree asymptotics of Koornwinder's multivariate Askey-Wilson polynomials is presented. In the special case of a single variable, this asymptotic formula agrees with the known leading asymptotics of the Askey-Wilson polynomials determined by Ismail and Wilson.

van Diejen, J. F.

2005-06-01

179

Formulas in Physics Have a "Standard" Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We discuss the importance of the ordering of symbols in physics formulas and identify implicit conventions that govern the "standard" form for how formulas are written and interpreted. An important part of writing and reading this form is understanding distinctions among constants, parameters, and variables. We delineate these conventions and…

Moelter, Matthew J.; Jackson, Martin

2012-01-01

180

On Turing's formula for word probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. M. Turing, in a 1941 personal communication to I. J. Good, suggested a formula for estimating probabilities of words in text and, more generally, of species in a mixed population of various species. It is remarkable that Turing's formula can be obtained by significantly different statistical methods; we compare three ways to obtain it.

Arthur Nádas

1985-01-01

181

Intelligent techniques for cigarette formula design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel intelligent system for improving product formula design with sensory evaluation. The analyses and tests we carried out have shown that the proposed intelligent system is efficient for cigarette quality management, formula maintenance and new product design. Genetic algorithms, neural networks, support vector machines (SVMs) and fuzzy set method have been combined with expert knowledge in

Tian-jin Feng; Lin-tao Ma; Xiang-qian Ding; Ning Yang; Xiezhong Xiao

2008-01-01

182

Approximate Formulas for Photoelectric Counting Distributions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The validity of a simple approximate formula for the photoelectric counting probability in a thermal optical field, which was proposed by one of us (L.M.) in 1959, is investigated. The formula is based on a generalization of the Bose-Einstein distribution...

G. Bedard J. C. Chang L. Mandel

1967-01-01

183

Wall Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

McGinley, Connie Q.

2004-01-01

184

An IMT-type quadrature formula with the same asymptotic performance as the DE formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an IMT-type quadrature formula which achieves the same asymptotic error estimate as the DE formula. The point of the idea is to optimize the parameters of the IMT-type transformation depending on the number of sampling points. We also show the performance of our IMT-type quadrature formula by numerical examples.

Ooura, Takuya

2008-03-01

185

Teaching Structural Formulas in Chemistry: How Students Relate Structural Formulas to the Solubility of Substances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Structural formulas give professional chemists information about physical and chemical properties of corresponding compounds. In chemistry education at secondary schools, structural formulas are introduced in the context of chemical bonding. Structural formulas are not introduced as representations of the properties of chemical compounds. This…

Goedhart, Martin; van Duin, Yvonne

186

The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenböck formula and superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenböck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenböck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenböck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) ? U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Élie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenböck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.

Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M.; Neto, José Abdala Helayël

2013-01-01

187

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Guide & connecting walls, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Guide & connecting walls, timber guide walls - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

188

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Guide & connecting walls, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Guide & connecting walls, connecting walls - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

189

Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall  

PubMed Central

The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of ?1,3- and ?1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, ?1,3- and ?1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins.

Orlean, Peter

2012-01-01

190

TRANSVERSE EFFECTS DUE TO RANDOM DISPLACEMENT OF RESISTIVE WALL SEGMENTS AND FOCUSING ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we study the single bunch transverse beam dynamics in the presence of random displacements of resistive wall segments and focusing elements. Analytical formulas are obtained for long-range resistive wall wake, together with numerical results for short-range resistive wall wake. The results are applied to the LCLS project and some other proposed accelerators.

Jean Delayen; Juhao Wu

2007-06-18

191

Seismic Response Of Masonry Plane Walls: A Numerical Study On Spandrel Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of a numerical investigation on masonry walls subjected to in-plane seismic loads. This research aims to verify the formulae of shear and flexural strength of masonry spandrels which are given in the recent Italian Standards [1]. Seismic pushover analyses have been carried out using finite element models of unreinforced walls and strengthened walls introducing reinforced

Michele Betti; Luciano Galano; Andrea Vignoli

2008-01-01

192

Unbiased diffusion in tubes with corrugated walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is devoted to unbiased motion of a point Brownian particle in a tube with corrugated walls made of conical sections of a varying length. Effective one-dimensional description in terms of the generalized Fick-Jacobs equation is used to derive a formula which gives the effective diffusion coefficient of the particle as a function of the geometric parameters of the tube. Comparison with the results of Brownian dynamics simulations allows us to establish the domain of applicability of both the one-dimensional description and the formula for the effective diffusion coefficient.

Dagdug, Leonardo; Vazquez, Marco-Vinicio; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

2010-07-01

193

Lesson 26: The Distance and Midpoint Formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins by associating the distance between two points with the right triangle that may be formed by joining the points and extending horizontal and vertical lines through the points. This linking is generalized to derive the distance formula for any two points in the plane. The midpoint formula is then derived by taking the average of the coordinates of the two points. Using the distance formula, the equation for circle is derived and then examples follow for finding the equation of a given circle.

2011-01-01

194

Correction to Moliere's formula for multiple scattering  

SciTech Connect

The semiclassical correction to Moliere's formula for multiple scattering is derived. The consideration is based on the scattering amplitude obtained with the first semiclassical correction taken into account for an arbitrary localized but not spherically symmetric potential. Unlike the leading term, the correction to Moliere's formula contains the target density n and thickness L not only in the combination nL (areal density). Therefore, this correction can be referred to as the bulk density correction. It turns out that the bulk density correction is small even for high density. This result explains the wide range of applicability of Moliere's formula.

Lee, R. N., E-mail: R.N.Lee@inp.nsk.su; Milstein, A. I. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: A.I.Milstein@inp.nsk.su

2009-06-15

195

The power formula for atmospheric Stirling engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new proposed formula allows the evaluation of the indicated power of an atmospheric Stirling engine by means of minimum working fluid volume, mean arithmetical pressure difference and correction factors for dead space and compression ratio, grounded on the simplest geometrical and design characteristics. The practical example given in this paper presents the comparison among the Beale formula and other similar equations, developed by other authors, showing various degrees of accuracy. Closer approximation has been reached by the proposed formula in comparison with other expressions.

Kolin, Ivo; Lista, Paolo; Naso, Vincenzo

196

Earth Pressures Behind a Counterfort Abutment Wall.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 45 foot high counterfort abutment wall was instrumented with eleven total earth pressure cells. Four vertical cross sections were instrumented, two sections between the counterforts and two sections on the counterforts. The pressure cells were the vibra...

C. J. Churilla J. Diviney

1979-01-01

197

Area Formulas on Isometric Dot Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrated is the use of isometric graph paper in the discovery of nonstandard area formulas. The use of definitions, geometric construction, record keeping, and conjectures about triangles, rhombuses, hexagons, parallelograms, isosceles trapezoids, rectangles, and trapezoids are described. (YP)

Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

1989-01-01

198

Organic Turmeric, Bowel Care Formula, Tulsi, Flexibility ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... site at the Internet address http://www.omorganics.com and has determined that the products “Organic Turmeric,” “Bowel Care FormulaTM,” “Tulsi ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

199

Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Derives the general Doppler formula in a nonstatic universe using assumptions of special relativity, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Examples of applications to physical cosmology are given. (SL)|

Gross, Peter G.

1977-01-01

200

Letter - Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution Formula A ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... section SOS(i)/pursuant to section 505(j)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution Formula A. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

201

Practical Formulas of Strength of Association Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Practical formulas for several analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs and models are presented which make it possible for readers to compute strength of association measures without the use of complete ANOVA tables. (Author/PN)|

Charter, Richard A.

1982-01-01

202

25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.31 Distribution formula. (a) Funds shall be...

2013-04-01

203

Discovering Functional Formulas through Changing Representation Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with computer generation of numerical functional formulas describing results of scientific experiments (measurements). It describes the methodology for generating functional physical laws called COPER (Kokar 1985a). This method generates only so called \\

Mieczyslaw M. Kokar

1986-01-01

204

Product formulas for exponentials of commutators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a recursive method for systematically constructing product formula approximations to exponentials of commutators, giving approximations that are accurate to arbitrarily high order. Using these formulas, we show how to approximate unitary exponentials of (possibly nested) commutators using exponentials of the elementary operators, and we upper bound the number of elementary exponentials needed to implement the desired operation within a given error tolerance. By presenting an algorithm for quantum search using evolution according to a commutator, we show that the scaling of the number of exponentials in our product formulas with the evolution time is nearly optimal. Finally, we discuss applications of our product formulas to quantum control and to implementing anticommutators, providing new methods for simulating many-body interaction Hamiltonians.

Childs, Andrew M.; Wiebe, Nathan

2013-06-01

205

Newton Binomial Formulas in Schubert Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove Newton's binomial formulas for Schubert Calculus to determine numbers of base point free linear series on the projective line with prescribed ramification divisor supported at given distinct points.

Jorge Cordovez; Letterio Gatto; Taise Santiago

2008-01-01

206

Belief-Function Formulas for Audit Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article relates belief functions to the structure of audit risk and provides formulas for audit risk under certain simplifying\\u000a assumptions. These formulas give plausibilities of error in the belief-function sense.\\u000a \\u000a We believe that belief-function plausibility represents auditors’ intuitive understanding of audit risk better than ordinary\\u000a probability. The plausibility of a statement, within belief-function theory, measures the extent to which

Rajendra P. Srivastava; Glenn R. Shafer

2008-01-01

207

Empirical formulas for nucleon separation energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we improve previous formulas of one-nucleon separation energies in terms of N/Z [K. Vogt, T. Hartmann, and A. Zilges, Phys. Lett. BPYLBAJ0370-269310.1016/S0370-2693(01)01014-0 517, 255 (2001)] by considering corrections related to the symmetry energy and refined pairing interactions. The linear correlation between separation energies and valence nucleon numbers, which was found to be locally applicable, is unified by our formulas.

Bao, M.; He, Z.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

2013-04-01

208

Fourier transform general formula for systematic potentials.  

PubMed

For calculating molecular integrals of systematic potentials, a three-dimensional (3D) Fourier transform general formula can be derived, by the use of the Abel summation method. The present general formula contains all 3D Fourier transform formulas which are well known as Bethe-Salpeter formulas (Bethe and Salpeter, Handbuch der Physik, Bd. XXXV, 1957) as special cases. It is shown that, in several of the Bethe-Salpeter formulas, the integral does not converge in the meaning of the Riemann integral but converges in the meaning of a hyper function as the Schwartz distribution. For showing an effectiveness of the present general formula, the convergence condition of molecular integrals is derived generally for all of the present potentials. It is found that molecular integrals can be converged in the meaning of the Riemann integral for the present potentials, except for those for extra super singular potentials. It is also found that the convergence condition of molecular integrals over the Slater-type orbitals is exactly the same as that of the corresponding integrals over the Gaussian-type orbitals for the present systematic potentials. For showing more effectiveness, the molecular integral over the gauge-including atomic orbitals is derived for the magnetic dipole-same-dipole interaction. PMID:22298234

Ishida, Kazuhiro

2012-02-01

209

Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.

Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

2012-01-01

210

27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 38-F. 21.68 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.68...

2013-04-01

211

27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B. 21.36 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.36...

2013-04-01

212

27 CFR 21.58 - Formula No. 31-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 31-A. 21.58 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.58...

2013-04-01

213

27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 40-B. 21.76 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.76...

2013-04-01

214

27 CFR 21.39 - Formula No. 6-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 6-B. 21.39 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.39...

2013-04-01

215

27 CFR 21.70 - Formula No. 39-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39-A. 21.70 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.70...

2013-04-01

216

24 CFR 990.160 - Overview of calculating formula expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Overview of calculating formula expenses. 990.160 Section 990.160...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.160 Overview of calculating formula expenses. (a) General....

2013-04-01

217

27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and processes. 17.125 Section 17...USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of...

2009-04-01

218

27 CFR 21.67 - Formula No. 38-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 38-D. 21.67 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.67...

2013-04-01

219

27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 24.81 Section 24.81 Alcohol, Tobacco...Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each...

2013-04-01

220

27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate products. 17.126 Section...USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The...

2013-04-01

221

28 CFR 31.3 - Formula grant plan and applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formula grant plan and applications. 31.3 Section...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT PROGRAMS Formula Grants General Provisions § 31.3 Formula grant plan and applications....

2013-07-01

222

27 CFR 21.73 - Formula No. 39-D.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39-D. 21.73 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.73...

2013-04-01

223

27 CFR 21.72 - Formula No. 39-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39-C. 21.72 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.72...

2013-04-01

224

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.220 Section 26...FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled...

2013-04-01

225

75 FR 32495 - Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information...which assistance is determined using a formula approach under the Operating Fund Program...Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula. OMB Approval Number:...

2010-06-08

226

27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and processes. 17.125 Section 17...USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of...

2013-04-01

227

27 CFR 21.53 - Formula No. 27-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 27-A. 21.53 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.53...

2013-04-01

228

Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.|

Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

2012-01-01

229

24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Calculation of formula income. 990.195 Section 990.195...HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Calculating Formula Income § 990.195 Calculation of formula income. (a) General. For the...

2013-04-01

230

27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Amended or revised formulas. 17.122 Section 17.122 Alcohol...IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.122 Amended or revised formulas. Except as provided in this...

2013-04-01

231

27 CFR 21.77 - Formula No. 40-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 40-C. 21.77 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.77...

2013-04-01

232

27 CFR 21.66 - Formula No. 38-C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 38-C. 21.66 Section 21...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.66...

2013-04-01

233

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50 Formulas for liquors...shipped to the United States from Puerto Rico. If a formula is...

2013-04-01

234

Bound state transformation walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In four dimensional N = 2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We find that there are two distinct phenomena that can take place on these walls, which we call recombination and conjugation. The latter is associated to the presence of singularities at finite distance in moduli space. Consistency of conjugation and wall-crossing rules near these singularities leads to new constraints on the BPS spectrum. Singular loci supporting massless vector bosons are particularly subtle in this respect. We argue that the spectrum at such loci necessarily contains massless magnetic monopoles, and that bound states around them transform by intricate hybrids of conjugation and recombination.

Andriyash, Evgeny; Denef, Frederik; Jafferis, Daniel L.; Moore, Gregory W.

2012-03-01

235

Cooling wall  

SciTech Connect

Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

Nosenko, V.I. [Triangle Trading and Technology Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

236

Use of soy protein-based formulas in infant feeding.  

PubMed

Soy protein-based formulas have been available for almost 100 years. Since the first use of soy formula as a milk substitute for an infant unable to tolerate a cow milk protein-based formula, the formulation has changed to the current soy protein isolate. Despite very limited indications for its use, soy protein-based formulas in the United States may account for nearly 25% of the formula market. This report reviews the limited indications and contraindications of soy formulas. It will also review the potential harmful effects of soy protein-based formulas and the phytoestrogens contained in these formulas. PMID:18450914

Bhatia, Jatinder; Greer, Frank

2008-05-01

237

Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enr...

J. P. Kincaid R. P. Fishburne R. L. Rogers B. S. Chissom

1975-01-01

238

Modified Paik–Mansour formula for ultimate strength calculations of ship hulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to develop a modified Paik–Mansour formula for the ultimate strength calculations of ship hulls subject to vertical bending moments. The method is based on a credible bending stress distribution over the hull cross-section presumed at the ultimate limit state. The accuracy of this method is demonstrated through comparison with computations obtained using more refined

J. K. Paik; D. K. Kim; D. H. Park; H. B. Kim; A. E. Mansour; J. B. Caldwell

2012-01-01

239

Effects of Polymeric Formula vs Elemental Formula in Neonatal Piglets With Short Bowel Syndrome.  

PubMed

Background: Intestinal adaptation is important for recovery in short bowel syndrome (SBS). This process is dependent on the presence of enteral nutrition (EN) and trophic factors, such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). In clinical practice, elemental formula is often used to feed neonates with SBS, whereas animal studies suggest polymeric formula promotes better intestinal adaptation. In neonatal piglet models of SBS, with or without ileum, we compared the elemental with the polymeric formula, including the effect on endogenous GLP-2. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight piglets underwent 75% mid-intestinal resection with jejunoileal anastomosis, 75% distal-intestinal resection with jejunocolic anastomosis (JC), or sham without resection. Parenteral nutrition (PN) started postoperatively, tapering as EN was increased, according to clinical criteria, based on diarrhea and weight. Within groups, piglets were randomized to an isocaloric/isonitrogenous elemental (amino acid) or polymeric (intact protein) diet. Plasma GLP-2 and histology for adaptation were measured at 14 days. Results: Within both SBS and control groups, no difference in adaptation was observed according to diet. A difference was observed only within the JC piglet group with regard to clinical outcomes. In these piglets, compared with elemental formula, the polymeric formula was associated with more diarrhea (P = .023) and longer duration of PN support (P = .047). Conclusion: An overall benefit of the polymeric formula over the elemental formula on gut adaptation was not observed. Furthermore, SBS piglets without ileum had less ability to tolerate polymeric formula, contributing to more days of PN support. PMID:23690158

Hua, Zheng; Turner, Justine M; Mager, Diana R; Sigalet, David L; Wizzard, Pamela R; Nation, Patrick N; Ball, Ron O; Pencharz, Paul B; Wales, Paul W

2013-05-20

240

Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

2012-01-01

241

Mass formula for quasi-black holes  

SciTech Connect

A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.

Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B. [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica-CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico - IST, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa - UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Astronomical Institute of Kharkov V.N. Karazin National University, 35 Sumskaya Street, Kharkov, 61022 (Ukraine)

2008-12-15

242

A probabilistic derivation of Stirling's formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stirling's formula is one of the most frequently used results from asymptotics. It is used in probability and statistics, algorithm analysis and physics. In this thesis, we shall give a new probabilistic derivation of Stirling's formula. Our motivation comes from sampling randomly with replacement from a group of n distinct alternatives. Usually a repetition will occur before we obtain all n distinct alternatives consecutively. We shall show that Stirling's formula can be derived and interpreted as follows: as n approaches infinity the expected total number of distinct alternatives we must sample before all n are obtained consecutively is asymptotically equal to the expected number of attempts we make to obtain all n distinct alternatives consecutively times the expected number of distinct alternatives obtained per attempt.

Li, Hsin-Yun

1991-03-01

243

Evaluating Online Health Information: Beyond Readability Formulas  

PubMed Central

Although understanding health information is important, the texts provided are often difficult to understand. There are formulas to measure readability levels, but there is little understanding of how linguistic structures contribute to these difficulties. We are developing a toolkit of linguistic metrics that are validated with representative users and can be measured automatically. In this study, we provide an overview of our corpus and how readability differs by topic and source. We compare two documents for three groups of linguistic metrics. We report on a user study evaluating one of the differentiating metrics: the percentage of function words in a sentence. Our results show that this percentage correlates significantly with ease of understanding as indicated by users but not with the readability formula levels commonly used. Our study is the first to propose a user validated metric, different from readability formulas.

Leroy, Gondy; Helmreich, Stephen; Cowie, James R.; Miller, Trudi; Zheng, Wei

2008-01-01

244

A simplification of the Kovarik formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let P,Q be two idempotents on a Hilbert space. Z.V. Kovarik (Z.V. Kovarik, Similarity and interpolation between projectors, Acta Sci. Math. (Szeged) 39 (1977) 341-351) showed that when P+Q-I is invertible, the formula K(P,Q)=P(P+Q-I)-2Q gives the only idempotent such that , , where and denote the nullspace and the range of a bounded linear operator T on a Hilbert space, respectively. This formula was later extended to the context of Banach algebras and used in 1983 by J. Esterle to show that two homotopic idempotents may always be connected by a polynomial idempotent valued path. In the present paper, we give a simplification of Kovarik's original formula and one natural generalization of it.

Chen, Yan-Ni; Du, Hong-Ke; Pang, Yong-Feng

2007-07-01

245

Quadrature Formulae for the WISE Passbands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I give linear quadrature formulae for WISE magnitudes in the form m = -2.5 log10([w1 F?(?1) +...+ wn F?(?n)]/F0) for the WISE passbands. With n=1, this formula can be exact for two different SEDs because there are two adjustable parameters, w1 and ?1. Choosing these SEDs to be a constant F? and Vega, these parameters give the isophotal wavelength and isophotal F0 given in Wright et al. (2010). But for very wide passbands like W3, n=1 does not give great accuracy for SEDs that differ from a constant F? or Vega. Wright et al. gives flux correction factors for such spectra, but for model spectra that are the sum of many different SEDs each term of the sum needs its own flux correction factor, making the magnitude difficult to compute. The linear quadrature formulae simplify the computation since the model can be computed without flux correction factors and then the quadrature formula can be applied. This is particularly useful for thermophysical models of asteroids, such as the rotating cratered model of Wright (2007) which gives the flux as a sum of over 60,000 weighted blackbodies of various temperatures. In this case the quadrature formula can be 1000 times faster than evaluating the response integral. The n=2 quadrature formulae are accurate to better than 0.5% for a wide range of power laws and blackbody temperatures for W1, W2 and W4. But n=3 is needed to reach this accuracy for W3.

Wright, Edward L.

2013-01-01

246

Comparison between laboratory measurements, simulations, and analytical predictions of the transverse wall impedance at low frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of the transverse wall beam impedance at the first unstable betatron line (8 kHz) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is of paramount importance for understanding and controlling the related coupled-bunch instabilities. Until now only novel analytical formulas were available at this frequency. Recently, laboratory measurements and numerical simulations were performed to cross-check the analytical predictions. The experimental results based on the measurement of the variation of a probe coil inductance in the presence of (i) sample graphite plates, (ii) stand-alone LHC collimator jaws, and (iii) a full LHC collimator assembly are presented in detail. The measurement results are compared to both analytical theories and simulations. In addition, the consequences for the understanding of the LHC impedance are discussed.

Roncarolo, F.; Caspers, F.; Kroyer, T.; Métral, E.; Mounet, N.; Salvant, B.; Zotter, B.

2009-08-01

247

Implementing a new faculty workload formula.  

PubMed

The severe shortage of nursing faculty in recent years has led to changes in faculty mix, with nursing programs relying on increased numbers of faculty members prepared at the master's level for coverage of nursing courses. To address the impact of these changes on faculty workload, one nursing program established a Workload Task Force to develop a workload formula that would recognize teaching, scholarship, and service contributions of all faculty members and help ensure equity in workload assignments. Details of the workload formula are offered, along with recommendations for gaining the support of faculty and ensuring transparency in implementation. PMID:17715802

Durham, Susan; Merritt, Janet; Sorrell, Jeanne

248

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

SciTech Connect

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

249

Efficient computation of the Zassenhaus formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new recursive procedure to compute the Zassenhaus formula up to high order is presented, providing each exponent in the factorization directly as a linear combination of independent commutators and thus containing the minimum number of terms. The recursion can be easily implemented in a symbolic algebra package and requires much less computational effort, both in time and memory resources, than previous algorithms. In addition, by bounding appropriately each term in the recursion, it is possible to get a larger convergence domain of the Zassenhaus formula when it is formulated in a Banach algebra.

Casas, Fernando; Murua, Ander; Nadinic, Mladen

2012-11-01

250

Cell Wall Organization and Wall Growth in the Filamentous Green Algae Cladophora and Chaetomorpha. II. Spiral Structure and Spiral Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The side walls of filaments of Chaetomorpha melagonium, Ch. princeps, Cladophora prolifera and Cl. rupestris are examined to detect changes in the crossed-microfibrillar structure associated with cell extension, using X-ray diffraction analysis together with light and electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the outermost wall layers may be cracked or even torn apart so that the wall must be stretched

Eva Frei; R. D. Preston

1961-01-01

251

27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.24 Section 21.24...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20....

2013-04-01

252

Liquid Wall Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions

2011-01-01

253

Chromosome Formulae of North American Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome formulae (diploid chromosome and chromosome arm number) are listed for 309 North American fish species, including representatives from 145 genera in 54 families. This updates earlier lists by more than 130 entries. In addition the list displays the presence of microelements or sex chromosomes in the complements of several species. The source of taxa was the Third Edition (1970)

J. R. Gold; W. J. Karel; M. R. Strand

1980-01-01

254

The entropy formula for linear heat equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the entropy formula for the linear heat equaiton on complete Riemannian manifolds with nonnegative Ricci curvature. As applications, we study the relation between the value of entropy and the volume of balls of various scales. The results are simpler version, without Ricci flow, of Perelman's recent results on volume non-collapsing.

Lei Ni

2003-01-01

255

A Closed Form Formula for Valuing Mortgages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a closed form formula for the value of a fixed-rate residential mortgage that includes the provision that the borrower can prepay at any time with no penalty. The value of the mortgage equals the expectation, under the risk neutral probability measure, of the future cash flows. We model future cash flows by estimating an empirical model of prepayment

P. Collin-Dufresne; John P. Harding

1999-01-01

256

Higher Chain Formula proved by Combinatorics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an elementary combinatorial proof of a formula to express the higher partial derivatives of composite functions in terms of those of factor functions. 1. Introduction. Consider h : x ? X ? R? f ??y ? Y ? Rµ g ??z ? R where X,Y are open subsets of R?, Rµ respectively and f,g are sufficiently smooth functions.

Tsoy-Wo Ma

2009-01-01

257

An elementary proof of the hook formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hook-length formula is a well known result expressing the number of stan- dard tableaux of shape in terms of the lengths of the hooks in the diagram of . Many proofs of this fact have been given, of varying complexity. We present here an elementary new proof which uses nothing more than the fundamental theorem of algebra. This proof

Jason Bandlow

2008-01-01

258

The Economic Vitality Formula of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…

Konopnicki, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

259

Formula management: in search of magic solutions.  

PubMed

Formula management is the unjustified reliance on a set of rules or prescribed behaviors--a management formula, fad, or "flavor-of-the-month"--as the answer to an organization's needs. It is the manifestation of a tendency to believe that the essence of management can be proceduralized, that the art of management can be replaced with an expanding science of management. This tendency has been repeatedly demonstrated in the application of concepts such as management by objectives (MBO) and the variants of total quality management (TQM). All of management's "formulas" have their place; however, none of them provide all of management's needed answers. To view any of the specifically delineated "kinds of management"--all of which are highly susceptible to misapplication and resistance to change both blatant and subtle--as a cure-all is fully as inappropriate as denying their value out of hand. Formula or not, organizational results will continue to depend on the practice of the art, as well as the science, of management. PMID:10174446

McConnell, C R

1997-12-01

260

Conventional speech act formulae in HPSG1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumptions that we will make about formulae are compatible with the idea that they are conventions of usage as discussed by Morgan (1978). However, Morgan and most subsequent authors are vague on the precise characterization of convention and the empirical criteria by which something is to be classified as conventional. Our own work is based on a corpus of

Ann Copestake; Marina Terkourafi

261

Modular forms and generalized anomaly cancellation formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we generalize the anomaly cancellation formulas given by Alvarez-Gaumé and Witten (1983), Liu (1995) and Han and Zhang (2004) [1,2,7] to the cases where an auxiliary bundle W and a complex line bundle ? are involved with no conditions on the first Pontryagin forms being assumed.

Han, Fei; Liu, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiping

2012-05-01

262

Design formula for axially compressed perforated plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with post-buckling behaviour and the ultimate load capacity of perforated plates with different boundary conditions and subjected to uniaxial or biaxial compression. Plates were analysed using the finite element method (FEM), and extensive studies were carried out covering parameters such as plate slenderness, opening size, boundary conditions and the nature of loading. A design formula to

N. E Shanmugam; V Thevendran; Y. H Tan

1999-01-01

263

Intrabeam scattering formulas for high energy beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive completely integrated formulas for emittance growth times due to intrabeam scattering for charged particle beams in the high energy limit, including the effect of lattice parameters that vary around the accelerator ring. Using accelerator lattices for the prototype damping ring called the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and those for two proposed International Linear Collider damping rings, we

Kiyoshi Kubo; Sekazi K. Mtingwa; Andrzej Wolski

2005-01-01

264

Quantum Ito's formula and stochastic evolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using only the Boson canonical commutation relations and the Riemann-Lebesgue integral we construct a simple theory of stochastic integrals and differentials with respect to the basic field operator processes. This leads to a noncommutative Ito product formula, a realisation of the classical Poisson process in Fock space which gives a noncommutative central limit theorem, the construction of solutions of certain

R. L. Hudson; K. R. Parthasarathy

1984-01-01

265

Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

2005-01-01

266

Examining Preservice Teachers’ Knowledge of Area Formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to examine preservice teachers’ knowledge of area formulae. Clinical interview technique was employed to collect the data. This paper reports the analysis of the responses of eight preservice teachers related to a particular task, Task 8. In Task 8, preservice teachers were asked to show a Form One student the way to develop area

Wun Thiam Yew; Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed Zamri; Lim Hooi Lian

2010-01-01

267

Another Look at the Quadratic Formula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploration of a problem called solving quadratic congruences modulo p is detailed and is built around an alternate method of deriving the quadratic formula. Three practical pedagogical values that have been experienced by students and instructor when the material was presented to classes are noted. (MP)

Obermeyer, Dean D.

1982-01-01

268

Neutron Cross Sections of Americium241  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron cross sections of Am are evaluated in the energy region of 1 keV–15MeV, by using optical and statistical model calculations. Existing experimental data for this nuclide are very scarce, except for the fission cross section. An empirical formula for the fission cross section is used to reproduce the experimental data. The cross sections on (n, 2n) and (n, 3n)

Sin-iti IGARASI

1977-01-01

269

Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.  

PubMed

Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. PMID:22325867

Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

2011-10-25

270

On the Error in a Certain Interpolation Formula and in the Gaussian Integration Formula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proved that if a set of polynomials satisfied an orthogonality relation with respect to integration, the set also satisfied an orthogonality relation with respect to summation. This result is then used to derive the Gaussian quadrature formula. The ...

Y. L. Luke

1972-01-01

271

In-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and its effect on total nuclear reaction cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenomenological formula for in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section is presented, in which nuclear matter density and incident energy dependencies are included. This formula is used to study total nuclear reaction cross section based on Coulomb-modified Glauber model. The calculated results can reproduce experimental total reaction cross section induced by the stable nuclei and the exotic nuclei over a wide energy

Cai Xiangzhou; Feng Jun; Shen Wenqing; Ma Yugang; Wang Jiansong; Ye Wei

1998-01-01

272

Enthalpy and entropy wall functions of adiabatic compressible turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthalpy (or temperature) and entropy wall functions on thermal insulation boundary are first time derived on the basis of boundary layer equations of compressible turbulence. The influence of Prandtl number on the functions are considered. Enthalpy, temperature and entropy are decreasing when Pr increases, and the results calculated by this paper's formula in internal layer flow are agreeable with practical

Hongsheng Liu; Manchu Ge

1991-01-01

273

Specific heat of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a force constant model, we have calculated the phonon spectrum and specific heat of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes. Compared with carbon nanotubes, boron nitride nanotubes have a larger specific heat. The fitting formulas for diameter and chirality dependence of specific heat at 300 K are given.

Y. Xiao; X. H. Yan; J. Xiang; Y. L. Mao; Y. Zhang; J. X. Cao; J. W. Ding

2004-01-01

274

Luttinger liquid behavior in single-wall nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport properties of metallic single-wall nanotubes are examined based on the Luttinger liquid theory. Focusing on a nanotube transistor setup, the linear conductance is computed from the Kubo formula using perturbation theory in the lead-tube tunnel conductances. For sufficiently long nanotubes and high temperature, phonon backscattering should lead to an anomalous temperature dependence of the resistivity.

Komnik, Andrei; Egger, Reinhold

1999-09-01

275

Elastic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical expressions for the velocities of the longitudinal and the torsional sound waves in single-walled carbon nanotubes are derived using Born's perturbation technique within a lattice-dynamical model. These expressions are compared to the formulas for the velocities of the sound waves in an elastic hollow cylinder from the theory of elasticity to obtain analytical expressions for the Young's and shear

V. N. Popov; V. E. Van Doren; M. Balkanski

2000-01-01

276

Natural periods of steel plate shear wall systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most seismic building codes, the design base acceleration is computed using the natural period of vibration of the structure. Design specifications provide empirical formula to estimate the fundamental natural period of a system. In this study a class of steel plate shear walls, that have uniform properties through their height, was considered. The fundamental natural periods of this class

Cem Topkaya; Can Ozan Kurban

2009-01-01

277

Limit molecular formulas and target formulas determination for feldspar porcelain glazes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is with a view to glazes designed for industrial glost fast firing of feldspar porcelain. In this case, limit “molecular” formulas have to assure a transparent glaze obtaining, for glost fast firing (10°C\\/min, 5h from cold to cold) at maximum temperature, in range between 1360 and 1390°C, what is realised through the entire “molecular” formulas balancing. There were

Roxana Lucia Dumitrache; Ion Teoreanu; Adrian Volceanov

2007-01-01

278

Nuclear Cross Sections at Low Energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The note is concerned with estimates of the accuracy of the one-term formula for the energy dependence of the reaction cross section for charged particles. The second term in an expansion of the cross section in powers of the energy is worked out for a one-body model. Comparison with data of Sawyer and Phillips on the bombardment of Li and

J. L. Johnson; H. M. Jones

1954-01-01

279

A generalized von Karman interpolation formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parametrized family of three-dimensional angle-averaged spectral functions is proposed that well approximates existing formulas for the energy-containing portion of the spectrum (low-k) in free shear turbulence. The family includes the von Karman interpolation formula as a special case, and is based on it. Varying the parameter allows the height and width of the spectral peak to be varied smoothly, while maintaining the smooth interpolation between origin and inertial subrange behavior. The properties of this family of spectra are presented in a convenient non-dimensionalized form. As an example of the usefulness of the family of spectra, it is applied to the centerline turbulent energy of an axisymmetric jet in the far field to illustrate the effect of low-k spectral shape on the shift of the peak with Reynolds number (Re) when the energy is constant with Re.

Carhart, R. A.; Kostinski, A. B.

1988-11-01

280

Specific heat and quantized thermal conductance of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal properties of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes are calculated. It is found that boron nitride nanotubes have a larger specific heat than that of carbon nanotubes. The fitting formulas for diameter and chirality dependence of specific heat at 300 K are given. Moreover, thermal conductance of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes exhibits a universal quantization at low temperature, which is

Y. Xiao; X. H. Yan; J. X. Cao; J. W. Ding; Y. L. Mao; J. Xiang

2004-01-01

281

The entropy formula for linear heat equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the entropy formula for the linear heat equation on general Riemannian manifolds and prove that it is monotone non-increasing\\u000a on manifolds with nonnegative Ricci curvature. As applications, we study the relation between the value of entropy and the\\u000a volume of balls of various scales. The results are simpler version, without Ricci flow, of Perelman ’s recent results on

Lei Ni

2004-01-01

282

Cluster expansion formulas and perfect matchings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study cluster algebras with principal coefficient systems that are associated to unpunctured surfaces. We give a direct\\u000a formula for the Laurent polynomial expansion of cluster variables in these cluster algebras in terms of perfect matchings\\u000a of a certain graph G\\u000a \\u000a T,?\\u000a that is constructed from the surface by recursive glueing of elementary pieces that we call tiles. We also

Gregg Musiker; Ralf Schiffler

2010-01-01

283

Feature Models, Grammars, and Propositional Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature models are used to specify members of a product-line. Despite years of progress, contemporary tools provide limited support for fea- ture constraints and offer little or no support for debugging feature models. We integrate prior results to connect feature models, grammars, and propositional formulas. This connection allows arbitrary propositional constraints to be defined among features and enables off-the-shelf satisfiability

Don S. Batory

2005-01-01

284

The coarea formula for Sobolev mappings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend Federer's coarea formula to mappings $f$ belonging to the Sobolev class $W^{1,p}(R^n;R^m)$, $1 \\\\le m m$, and more generally, to mappings with gradient in the Lorentz space $L^{m,1}(R^n)$. This is accomplished by showing that the graph of $f$ in $R^{n+m}$ is a Hausdorff $n$-rectifiable set.

Jan Maly; David Swanson; William P. Ziemer

2001-01-01

285

A Generalized Formula to Determine Pythagorean Triples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This note proposes a unique solutions to find out the value of x, y and z which satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. The uniqueness of the proposed formulae is to find the total number of y's and z's at a given value of x. The value of y and z can be calculated by factoring x[superscript 2] or…

Mohapatra, Amar Kumar; Prakash, Nupur

2010-01-01

286

Vibration mode frequency formulae for micromechanical scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A torsional scan mirror suspended with two flexure beams can be used in various display, imaging and other scanning applications. Using various mirror shapes and flexure dimensions as parameters, a set of analytical formulae is presented to predict the natural frequency of the first five vibration modes, which are torsion, in-plane and out-of-plane sliding modes and in-plane and out-of-plane rocking

Hakan Urey; Cihan Kan; Wyatt O. Davis

2005-01-01

287

Intrabeam Scattering Formulas for High Energy Beams  

SciTech Connect

We derive completely integrated formulas for emittance growth times due to intrabeam scattering for charged particle beams in the high energy limit, including the effect of lattice parameters that vary around the accelerator ring. Using accelerator lattices for the prototype damping ring called the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and those for two proposed International Linear Collider damping rings, we compare our results with other calculations.

Kubo, Kiyoshi; Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Wolski, Andrzej

2005-08-12

288

Intrabeam scattering formulas for high energy beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive completely integrated formulas for emittance growth times due to intrabeam scattering for charged particle beams in the high energy limit, including the effect of lattice parameters that vary around the accelerator ring. Using accelerator lattices for the prototype damping ring called the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and those for two proposed International Linear Collider damping rings, we compare our results with other calculations.

Kubo, Kiyoshi; Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Wolski, Andrzej

2005-08-01

289

A general formula for channel capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formula for the capacity of arbitrary single-user channels without feedback (not necessarily information stable, stationary, etc.) is proved. Capacity is shown to equal the supremum, over all input processes, of the input-output inf-information rate defined as the liminf in probability of the normalized information density. The key to this result is a new converse approach based on a simple

Sergio Verdú; Te Sun Han

1994-01-01

290

The health implications of soy infant formula.  

PubMed

Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF). Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility of estrogenic effects of isoflavones contained in SF. There are few studies of children who were fed SF, and thus insufficient data are available to judge if SF feeding results in clinically significant developmental effects and if there are any long-term health consequences (adverse or beneficial). However, the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a prospective longitudinal study comparing growth, development, and health of breastfed children with formula-fed (SF and MF) children from birth through age 6 y. After 5 y of study, children in all 3 groups (n > 300) are growing and developing within normal limits, and there are no indications of adverse effects in the soy-fed children. Neonatal pig studies comparing SF, MF, and breast milk (BM) have shown diet-specific gene expression profiles in various target tissues. Therefore, although SF differed significantly from BM, MF also differed from BM, and SF differed from MF. Nonetheless, these animals grew and developed normally, and SF piglets had several health benefits (eg, increased bone quality) and no observable adverse effects. Thus, to date, our results suggest that SF supports normal growth and may have advantages in promoting bone development. PMID:19357221

Badger, Thomas M; Gilchrist, Janet M; Pivik, R Terry; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Chen, Jin-Ran; Ronis, Martin J

2009-04-08

291

Generalization of Green's Formulae In Thermoelasticity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Generalization of Greenâs functions and Greenâs formulae onto a case of boundary value problems in the classical theory of static and dynamical thermal stresses are suggested i this article.These result has been obtained for the first time and are the generalization of the well known Greenâs integral formulae for the theories of heat conduction and elasticity onto static and dynamical theories of uncoupled thermoelastisity . They can also be explained as a generalization of a classical integral Mayselâs formulae onto those cases when the temperature field satisfies the equation of heat conduction, the field being caused by the internal heat source and temperature or heat flux prescribed on the boundary. The advantage is that it allows us to unite the two-stage process of solving the boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses (the first stage comprise the determination of temperature fields and second stage comprises the determination of thermoplastic displacements). The investigations have shown that the possibilities of realizing the concrete solutions which have the form given generalization are so vast that they could be a subject for a whole handbook on influence functions and integral solutions of boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses. They are, for example, the solutions for locally mixed boundary value problems for canonic elastic bodies for Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, spherical and other systems of orthogonal coordinate. In doing so most of them can be expressed in terms of elementary functions, that are very important for practical calculations.

Sheremet, Victor; Sheremet, Adrian

2004-08-31

292

The formula for survival in resuscitation.  

PubMed

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Advisory Statement on Education and Resuscitation in 2003 included a hypothetical formula - 'the formula for survival' (FfS) - whereby three interactive factors, guideline quality (science), efficient education of patient caregivers (education) and a well-functioning chain of survival at a local level (local implementation), form multiplicands in determining survival from resuscitation. In May 2006, a symposium was held to discuss the validity of the formula for survival hypothesis and to investigate the influence of each of the multiplicands on survival. This commentary combines the output from this symposium with an updated illustration of the three multiplicands in the FfS using rapid response systems (RRS) for medical science, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for local implementation, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for educational efficiency. International differences between hospital systems made it difficult to assign a precise value for the multiplicand medical science using RRS as an example. Using bystander CPR as an example for the multiplicand educational efficiency, it was also difficult to provide a precise value, mainly because of differences between compression-only and standard CPR. The local implementation multiplicand (exemplified by therapeutic hypothermia) is probably the easiest to improve, and is likely to have the most immediate improvement in observed survival outcome in most systems of care. Despite the noted weaknesses, we believe that the FfS will be useful as a mental framework when trying to improve resuscitation outcome in communities worldwide. PMID:23917078

Søreide, Eldar; Morrison, Laurie; Hillman, Ken; Monsieurs, Koen; Sunde, Kjetil; Zideman, David; Eisenberg, Mickey; Sterz, Fritz; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Soar, Jasmeet; Nolan, Jerry P

2013-08-03

293

Building Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

294

Cavitands with Mobile Walls  

PubMed Central

Deep cavitands having three fixed walls and one mobile wall were prepared. The longer wall, built from a quinoxaline spacer, showed enhanced NMR spectra of guests, but the shorter wall based on a benzene spacer showed tighter binding and slower exchange of guests.

Xiao, Shengxiong; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius

2009-01-01

295

Altered Extent of Cross-Linking of b1,6-Glucosylated Mannoproteins to Chitin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants with Reduced Cell Wall b1,3Glucan Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast cell wall contains b1,3-glucanase-extractable and b1,3-glucanase-resistant mannoproteins. The b1,3-glucanase-extractable proteins are retained in the cell wall by attachment to a b1,6-glucan moiety, which in its turn is linked to b1,3-glucan (J. C. Kapteyn, R. C. Montijn, E. Vink, J. De La Cruz, A. Llobell, J. E. Douwes, H. Shimoi, P. N. Lipke, and F. M. Klis, Glycobiology 6:337-345,

J. C. KAPTEYN; A. F. J. RAM; E. M. GROOS; R. KOLLAR; R. C. MONTIJN; H. VAN DEN ENDE; A. LLOBELL; E. CABIB; F. M. KLIS

1997-01-01

296

Wall surveyor project report  

SciTech Connect

A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

1996-02-22

297

Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Duct with a Moving Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow and heat transfer are studied numerically in a duct of rectangular cross section with a moving wall. The temperature of the moving wall is assumed to be constant while the other three walls are insulated. This boundary condition has important applications in the design of oil-cooled friction pairs. Results are presented for wall Reynolds numbers of 0, 100, 500,

Parviz Payvar; P. Majumdar

1994-01-01

298

How to Write a Long Formula (Short Communication)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard mathematical notation works well for short formulas, but not for the longer ones often written by computer scientists. Notations are proposed to make one or two-page formulas easier to read and reason about.

Leslie Lamport

1994-01-01

299

27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false New and superseding formulas...58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... (1) Create an entirely new fermented product that requires a formula; (2) Add new ingredients to an...

2013-04-01

300

27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...formulas. 5.28 Section 5.28 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas §...

2013-04-01

301

24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases are intended to be employed to provide information on...

2013-04-01

302

48 CFR 32.304-3 - Asset formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for which the contractor would be entitled to payment on performance or termination. The formula shall...and (3) Cash collateral or bank deposit balances. (b) Progress payments are deducted from the asset formula....

2011-10-01

303

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are included. (b) Formula 1 is used for calculation of 50% skywave field strength values. Formula 1. Skywave field strength, 50% of the time (at SS+6): The skywave field strength, F c (50), for a characteristic...

2010-10-01

304

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are included. (b) Formula 1 is used for calculation of 50% skywave field strength values. Formula 1. Skywave field strength, 50% of the time (at SS+6): The skywave field strength, F c (50), for a characteristic...

2009-10-01

305

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 21.60 Formula No. 33. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Thirty pounds of gentian violet or gentian violet, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat...

2013-04-01

306

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 21.60 Formula No. 33. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Thirty pounds of gentian violet or gentian violet, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat...

2009-04-01

307

The Euler-Maclaurin Formula and Extensions - An Elementary Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This note offers a derivation of the Euler-Maclaurin formula that is simple and elementary. In addition, the paper shows that the derivation provides Euler-Maclaurin formulas for a variety of functionals other than the trapezoid rule.|

Gearhart, W. B.; Qian, Maijian

2005-01-01

308

40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630...Requirements § 1065.630 1980 international gravity formula. The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g , varies depending on your...

2013-07-01

309

Period Formulas for Moment-Resisting Frame Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most seismic codes specify empirical formulas to estimate the fundamental vibration period of buildings. Evaluated first in this paper are the formulas specified in present U.S. codes using the available data on the fundamental period of buildings \\

Rakesh K. Goel; Anil K. Chopra

1997-01-01

310

Elementary Derivation and Properties of Shovelton'S Interpolation Formula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general approach to smooth-junction interpolation used by actuarial writers is briefly described and three typical interpolation formulas are given. One of them, Shovelton's formula, is derived in an elementary manner and some of its properties are st...

G. H. Andrews T. N. E. Greville

1969-01-01

311

The use of readability formulas in health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Readability formulas are being increasingly used to measure the understandability of written information in clinical and health settings. This paper examines the most commonly used formulas (Dale-Chall Formula, Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Formula, Fog Index, Fry Readability Graph, and SMOG Grading). Their reliability and validity when used in health-related areas are discussed, and findings resulting from their use are described.

P. Ley; T. Florio

1996-01-01

312

Development and application of wall-function treatments for turbulent forced and mixed convection flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

CFD calculations of turbulent flow near smooth walls generally employ one of two broad strategies to resolve the very influential, complex, but thin near-wall viscosity-affected sub-layer. One approach uses a fine numerical mesh and a turbulence model incorporating viscous influences; the other employs “wall functions”—formulae that attempt to account for the overall resistance of the sublayer to momentum and heat

T. J. Craft; S. E. Gant; A. V. Gerasimov; H. Iacovides; B. E. Launder

2006-01-01

313

Effects of Neurological Damage on Production of Formulaic Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous…

Sidtis, Diana; Canterucci, Gina; Katsnelson, Dora

2009-01-01

314

The elusive universal post-mortem interval formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen,

Arpad A. Vass; Arpad Alexander

2011-01-01

315

Use of Formulaic Sequences in Monologues of Chinese EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature on formulaic language lacks sufficient research on how L2 learners make progress in native-like formulaicity of their target language. This study analyzed the use of formulaic sequences (FSs) by 56 Chinese university English majors in their prepared monologues at the beginning and end of a three-year period and compared the student…

Qi, Yan; Ding, Yanren

2011-01-01

316

Effects of Neurological Damage on Production of Formulaic Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous…

Sidtis, Diana; Canterucci, Gina; Katsnelson, Dora

2009-01-01

317

An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research creates an empirically derived, pedagogically useful list of formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing, comparable with the Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000), called the Academic Formulas List (AFL). The AFL includes formulaic sequences identified as (i) frequent recurrent patterns in corpora of written and spoken…

Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Ellis, Nick C.

2010-01-01

318

27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.79...

2013-04-01

319

27 CFR 21.50 - Formula No. 25.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 25. 21.50 Section 21.50...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.50...

2013-04-01

320

27 CFR 21.38 - Formula No. 4.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section 21.38...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38...

2013-04-01

321

27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section 21.46...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.46...

2013-04-01

322

27 CFR 21.43 - Formula No. 18.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 18. 21.43 Section 21.43...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.43...

2013-04-01

323

27 CFR 21.81 - Formula No. 46.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 46. 21.81 Section 21.81...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.81...

2013-04-01

324

48 CFR 32.304-3 - Asset formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asset formula. 32.304-3 Section 32.304-3...Defense Production 32.304-3 Asset formula. (a) Under guaranteed loans made...limit the guarantee, by use of an asset formula, to an amount that does not...

2012-10-01

325

27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20.115 Alcohol...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use...

2013-04-01

326

27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section 21.64...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.64...

2013-04-01

327

27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45 Section 21.45...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45...

2013-04-01

328

Ultradiscrete soliton equations derived from ultradiscrete permanent formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose formulae of ultradiscrete permanent. Utilizing the formulae, ultradiscrete soliton equations and their multi-soliton solutions are obtained by a simple process. Changing variables and parameters of the formulae, we can derive the ultradiscrete Toda, KdV and hungry Lotka-Volterra equations. An extended version of the ultradiscrete hungry Lotka-Volterra equation is also proposed.

Nakamura, Shinya

2011-07-01

329

Soy-Based Formulae and Infant Growth and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy-based infant formulae, initially developed for infants who were lactose intolerant or allergic to cow's milk-based formulae, now account for >25% of the infant formulae sold in the United States. Formulations have changed over the years to improve digestibility, the stability and availability of minerals, and protein quality. Recent con- cerns have been raised regarding the phytoestrogenic isofla- vone content

Michelle A. Mendez; Mary S. Anthony; Lenore Arab

330

A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to have more reliable predictions of nuclear masses at the neutron drip line, we here go beyond the recent mass formula HFBCS-1 and present a new mass formula, HFB-1, based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. As with the HFBCS-1 mass formula, we use a 10-parameter Skyrme force along with a 4-parameter /?-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. However, with the original HFBCS-1 Skyrme force (MSk7), the rms error becomes unacceptably large and a new force fit is required. With the isoscalar and isovector effective masses constrained to be equal, the remaining 15 degrees of freedom are fitted to the masses of all the 1754 measured nuclei with /A>=16, /N-Z>2 given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation. The rms error with respect to the masses of all the 1888 measured nuclei with /Z,N>=8 is /0.764 MeV. A complete mass table, HFB-1 (available on the Web), has been constructed, giving all nuclei lying between the two drip lines over the range /Z,N>=8 and /Z<=120. A comparison between HFB-1 and HFBCS-1 mass tables shows that the HFBCS model is a very good approximation of the HFB theory, in particular for masses, the extrapolated masses never differing by more than 2 MeV below /Z<=110. We also find that the behaviour of shell gaps far away from the region of beta stability does not depend on whether the HFBCS or HFB methods are used, in particular, no quenching of astrophysical interest arises from replacing the BCS method by the Bogoliubov method.

Samyn, M.; Goriely, S.; Heenen, P.-H.; Pearson, J. M.; Tondeur, F.

2002-03-01

331

Infant formula companies battle for breast.  

PubMed

The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465

1996-01-01

332

New approximate formula for Arrhenius temperature integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a more precise approximate formula for Arrhenius temperature integral, i.e., ?lnP(u)=0.37773896+1.89466100lnu+1.00145033u, is proposed, by using two-step linearly fitting process: (i) the linear dependence of dlnp(u)\\/du on 1\\/u and (ii) the linear dependence of (lnp(u)?clnu) on u. Values of p(u) at different u were directly obtained from numerical integration of temperature integral without derivation from any approximating infinite

Wanjun Tang; Yuwen Liu; Hen Zhang; Cunxin Wang

2003-01-01

333

Classical Radiation Formula in the Rindler Frame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a preceding paper [T. Hirayama, Prog. Theor. Phys. 106} (2001), 71], the power of the classical radiation emitted by a moving charge was evaluated in the Rindler frame. In this paper, we give a simpler derivation of this radiation formula, including an estimation of the directional dependence of the radiation. We find that the splitting of the energy-momentum tensor into a bound part I and an emitted part II is consistent with the three conditions introduced in the preceding paper, also for each direction within the future light cone.

Hirayama, T.

2002-10-01

334

The Orthogonal Weingarten Formula in Compact Form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a compact formulation of the orthogonal Weingarten formula, with the traditional quantity {I(i_1,ldots,i_{2k}:j_1,ldots,j_{2k})=int_{O_n}u_{i_1j_1}\\cdots u_{i_{2k}j_{2k}} du} replaced by the more advanced quantity {I(a)=int_{O_n}Pi u_{ij}^{a_{ij}} du}, depending on a matrix of exponents {ain M_n(mathbb{N})}. Among consequences, we establish a number of basic facts regarding the integrals I( a): vanishing conditions, possible poles, asymptotic behavior.

Banica, Teodor

2010-02-01

335

The Orthogonal Weingarten Formula in Compact Form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a compact formulation of the orthogonal Weingarten formula, with the traditional quantity {I(i_1,ldots,i_{2k}:j_1,ldots,j_{2k})=int_{O_n}u_{i_1j_1}\\cdots u_{i_{2k}j_{2k}} du} replaced by the more advanced quantity {I(a)=int_{O_n}Pi u_{ij}^{a_{ij}} du}, depending on a matrix of exponents {ain M_n(mathbb{N})}. Among consequences, we establish a number of basic facts regarding the integrals I(a): vanishing conditions, possible poles, asymptotic behavior.

Banica, Teodor

2009-11-01

336

The Orthogonal Weingarten Formula in Compact Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a compact formulation of the orthogonal Weingarten formula, with the traditional quantity $${I(i_1,\\\\ldots,i_{2k}:j_1,\\\\ldots,j_{2k})=\\\\int_{O_n}u_{i_1j_1}\\\\cdots u_{i_{2k}j_{2k}}\\\\,{\\\\rm d}u}$$ replaced by the more advanced quantity $${I(a)=\\\\int_{O_n}\\\\Pi u_{ij}^{a_{ij}}\\\\,{\\\\rm d}u}$$, depending on a matrix of exponents $${a\\\\in M_n(\\\\mathbb{N})}$$. Among consequences, we establish a number of basic facts regarding the integrals I(a): vanishing conditions, possible poles, asymptotic behavior.

Teodor Banica

2010-01-01

337

Fusion cross-sections for inertial fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of selective resonant tunneling model is extended from d 1 t fusion to other light nucleus fusion reactions, such as d 1 d fusion and d 1 3 He. In contrast to traditional formulas, the new formula for the cross-section needs only a few parameters to fit the experimental data in the energy range of interest. The features

XING ZHONG LI; BIN LIU; SI CHEN; QING MING WEI; HEINRICH HORA

2004-01-01

338

Momentum Kicks for Particles Crossing a Gap at an Angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulas are derived for the longitudinal and lateral momentum kicks to which a particle is subjected upon crossing an accelerating gap. The angle &egr; between the particle's trajectory and the axis of the accelerator tube is assumed to be small, and terms of order higher than the first in &egr; are neglected in the formulas.

J. Van Bladel

1959-01-01

339

MOMENTUM KICKS FOR PARTICLES CROSSING A GAP AT AN ANGLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulas are derived for the longitudinal and lateral momentum kicks to ; which a particle is subjected upon crossing an accelerating gap. The angle ; between the particle s trajectory and the axis of the accelerator tube is assumed ; to be small, and terms of order higher than the first in are neglected in ; the formulas. (auth);

Van Bladel

1959-01-01

340

Longitudinal Formulas to Estimate GFR in Children with CKD  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Whereas current GFR estimating equations approximate direct GFR measurement at a single time point, formulas that capitalize on changes in easily measured biologic parameters could improve the accuracy and precision of GFR estimation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Cohort (aged 1 to 16 yr), we measured GFR by plasma disappearance of iohexol (iGFR) and biomarkers in the first two annual visits. Models took the form GFR2 = a[GFR1/40]b[X2/X1]c, where GFR2 and GFR1 represented the current and previous years' iGFR, 40 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was the cohort mean, and X2/X1 was the change in predictors over time. Using data from 360 participants with a median age of 12.1 yr, we evaluated the predictive performance of a past GFR measurement and 20 other variables using a two-thirds random sample of the data. A one-third sample was reserved for validation. Results: Previous iGFR measurements were strongly predictive of subsequent iGFR and adding change in height/serum creatinine significantly improved the explanatory power to 78%. In the validation set, the correlation between estimated and measured GFR was 0.88, and 48 and 88% of estimated GFRs were within 10 and 30% of observed iGFRs. When the past GFR measurement was not used, addition of change in markers to a cross-sectional model did not improve prediction. Conclusions: Longitudinal formulas to estimate iGFR capitalize on the high predictive power of previous iGFR measurements and in this study yielded a parsimonious prediction model with the potential for assessing progression in the clinical setting.

Schwartz, George J.; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley A.; Munoz, Alvaro

2009-01-01

341

Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. Produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithiumceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.

1982-08-17

342

Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…

Kincaid, J. P.; And Others

343

Lovelock gravity and Weyl's tube formula  

SciTech Connect

In four space-time dimensions, there are good theoretical reasons for believing that general relativity is the correct geometrical theory of gravity, at least at the classical level. If one admits the possibility of extra space-time dimensions, what would we expect classical gravity to be like? It is often stated that the most natural generalization is Lovelock's theory, which shares many physical properties with general relativity. But there are also key differences and problems. A potentially serious problem is the breakdown of determinism, which can occur when the matrix of coefficients of second time derivatives of the metric degenerates. This can be avoided by imposing inequalities on the curvature. Here it is argued that such inequalities occur naturally if the Lovelock action is obtained from Weyl's formulas for the volume and surface area of a tube. Part of the purpose of this article is to give a treatment of the Weyl tube formula in terminology familiar to relativists and to give an appropriate (straightforward) generalization to a tube embedded in Minkowski space.

Willison, Steven [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

2009-09-15

344

Mathematical formula recognition using graph grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes current results of Ofr, a system for extracting and understanding mathematical expressions in documents. Such a tool could be really useful to be able to re-use knowledge in scientific books which are not available in electronic form. We currently also study use of this system for direct input of formulas with a graphical tablet for computer algebra system softwares. Existing solutions for mathematical recognition have problems to analyze 2D expressions like vectors and matrices. This is because they often try to use extended classical grammar to analyze formulas, relatively to baseline. But a lot of mathematical notations do not respect rules for such a parsing and that is the reason why they fail to extend text parsing technic. We investigate graph grammar and graph rewriting as a solution to recognize 2D mathematical notations. Graph grammar provide a powerful formalism to describe structural manipulations of multi-dimensional data. The main two problems to solve are ambiguities between rules of grammar and construction of graph.

Lavirotte, Stephane; Pottier, Loic

1998-04-01

345

75 FR 23777 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...collection regarding the manufacture of infant formula, including infant formula labeling, quality control procedures,...

2010-05-04

346

Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. A total of 166

Yang Cao; Antonia M Calafat; Daniel R Doerge; David M Umbach; Judy C Bernbaum; Nathan C Twaddle; Xiaoyun Ye; Walter J Rogan

2009-01-01

347

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Razand, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul E.; Technology, National I.

348

Optimum design of single core shear walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of reinforced concrete thin walled open sections subjected to combined loading such as axial force, biaxial bending moment and torsional moment is cumbersome. This is due to the fact that such structures possess very little torsional rigidity and the plane cross section does not remain plane after the deformation. In this study, an algorithm is developed for the optimum

S. S. Al-Mosawi; M. P. Saka

1999-01-01

349

8. Interior view of bedroom north wall, with typical doors ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Interior view of bedroom north wall, with typical doors and moldings (note chimney flue - upper right hand corner) - High Island Bridge Tender's Station, Residence, State Highway 124 Crossing of Mud Bayou, High Island, Galveston County, TX

350

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

351

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) Bald ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

352

View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner of lock, view towards east - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

353

TIMBER GUIDE WALL AT DOWNSTREAM (SOUTHEAST) CORNER OF LOCK, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TIMBER GUIDE WALL AT DOWNSTREAM (SOUTHEAST) CORNER OF LOCK, WITH US HIGHWAY 27 (FL 720) BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTH - Moore Haven Lock, Hurricane Gate No. 1, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

354

OBLIQUE VIEW OF TIMBER GUIDE WALL AT NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF TIMBER GUIDE WALL AT NORTHWEST CORNER OF LOCK, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH - Moore Haven Lock, Hurricane Gate No. 1, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

355

Convolution formulae for functions of Rayleigh type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N Kishore (1963 Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 14 527) considered the Rayleigh functions 0305-4470/31/46/022/img1, 0305-4470/31/46/022/img2, where the 0305-4470/31/46/022/img3 are the (non-zero) zeros of the Bessel function 0305-4470/31/46/022/img4 and provided a convolution-type sum formula for finding 0305-4470/31/46/022/img5 in terms of 0305-4470/31/46/022/img6. Here we investigate corresponding expressions for sums of reciprocal powers of zeros 0305-4470/31/46/022/img7 of derivatives and other functions related to Bessel functions. It turns out that we can get results similar to Kishore's expressing 0305-4470/31/46/022/img7 in terms of 0305-4470/31/46/022/img9 and 0305-4470/31/46/022/img10.

Muldoon, Martin E.; Raza, Asad

1998-11-01

356

Black-Scholes Formula in Subdiffusive Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the classical approach the price of an asset is described by the celebrated Black-Scholes model. In this paper we consider a generalization of this model, which captures the subdiffusive characteristics of financial markets. We introduce a subdiffusive geometric Brownian motion as a model of asset prices exhibiting subdiffusive dynamics. We find the corresponding fractional Fokker-Planck equation governing the dynamics of the probability density function of the introduced process. We prove that the considered model is arbitrage-free and incomplete. We find the corresponding subdiffusive Black-Scholes formula for the fair prices of European options and show how these prices can be evaluated using Monte-Carlo methods. We compare the obtained results with the classical ones.

Magdziarz, Marcin

2009-08-01

357

Polyakov-Wiegmann formula and multiplicative gerbes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unambiguous definition of Feynman amplitudes in the Wess-Zumino-Witten sigma model and the Chern-Simon gauge theory with a general Lie group is determined by a certain geometric structure on the group. For the WZW amplitudes, this is a (bundle) gerbe with connection of an appropriate curvature whereas for the CS amplitudes, the gerbe has to be additionally equipped with a multiplicative structure assuring its compatibility with the group multiplication. We show that for simple compact Lie groups the obstruction to the existence of a multiplicative structure is provided by a 2-cocycle of phases that appears in the Polyakov-Wiegmann formula relating the Wess-Zumino action functional of the product of group-valued fields to the sum of the individual contributions. These phases were computed long time ago for all compact simple Lie groups. If they are trivial, then the multiplicative structure exists and is unique up to isomorphism.

Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad

2009-09-01

358

Antibody localization of extensin in cell walls of carrot storage roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation and cross-linking of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) in cell walls of dicotyledonous plants has been correlated with a number of wall-strengthening phenomena. Polyclonal antibodies raised against glycosylated extensin-1, the most abundant HRGP in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell walls, recognize this antigen on gel and dot blots and on thin sections of epoxy-embedded carrot-root cell walls. Since wall labeling

Joel P. Stafstrom; L. Andrew Staehelin

1988-01-01

359

Adsorption Properties of Multi?wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of multi?wall carbon nanotubes by means of arc?discharge in He atmosphere was worked out and optimized. Electron micrographs show that electrode deposit consists of crossed multi?wall carbon nanotubes. For study of adsorption properties of multi?wall carbon nanotubes, the thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of different classes organic compounds at small coverage were determined by gas chromatography and compared with those

V. Ya. Davydov; E. V. Kalashnikova; V. L. Karnatsevich; A. I. Kirillov

2005-01-01

360

Potential of a plasma bound between two biased walls  

SciTech Connect

An analytical study is presented for an one-dimensional, steady-state plasma bound between two perfectly absorbing walls that are biased with respect to each other. Starting from a description of the plasma sheaths formed at both walls, an expression relating the bulk plasma potential to the wall currents is derived, showing that the plasma potential undergoes an abrupt transition when currents cross a critical value. This result is confirmed by numerical simulations performed with a particle-in-cell code.

Loizu, J.; Dominski, J.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-08-15

361

Micro-magnetic structures of planar charged walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy structure and internal magnetic field distributions for the cross section of a planar charged wall [1] have been calculated by direct numerical integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with minimal physical approximations [2]. Head-to-head (and tail-to-tail) charged wall structures have been computed for a wide range of material parameters. Results indicate that the charged wall structures depend on a

C. C. Shir; Y. S. Lin

1979-01-01

362

Great wall...and lesser wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What nature has covered up, humans have again exposed. Using images from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), researchers have found remnants of two generations of the Great Wall of China buried beneath desert sands, 700 km west of Beijing. Erosion and wind storms had shielded parts of both walls from view, but the foundation now has been laid bare by remote sensors.

363

The Torsion of Thick-Walled Box-Beams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present methods of calculation of restrained torsion in box-beams are applicable to thin-walled cross-sections and provide rather inaccurate results for thick-walled box-beams of actual structures. In this investigation, there are presented two theori...

V. Penttala

1978-01-01

364

Wall of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Cape Town University, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

2011-02-15

365

Cross-flow heat transfer in fixed bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radial flow reactor operated at cross-flow heat transfer is focused for large scale methanol synthesis. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on the cross-flow heat transfer were investigated and results show that the temperature profile of the area in front of the heating pipe is slightly affected by all the operating conditions. The main area whose temperature profile is influenced is located behind the heating pipe. The heat transfer direction is related to the direction of the flow. In order to obtain the basic parameters for radial flow reactor designing calculation, the dimensionless number group method was used for data fitting of the bed effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient which were calculated by the mathematical model with the product of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The comparison of experimental data and calculated values shows that the calculated values fit the experimental data satisfactorily and the formulas can be used for reactor designing calculation.

Ma, Hongfang; Zhang, Haitao; Ying, Weiyong; Fang, Dingye

2013-06-01

366

24 CFR 1000.314 - What is formula current assisted stock?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is formula current assisted stock? 1000.314 Section...NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.314 What is formula current assisted stock? Formula...

2013-04-01

367

An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.

2004-01-01

368

Climbing Rates of Microtubules Propelled by Dynein after Collision with Microfabricated Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a method to characterize the effect of micrometer-scale walls on the motion of microtubules propelled by dynein, a motor protein. The walls were made of resist polymers, such as OEBR1000, SAL601, and PMGI, using e-beam lithography. The pattern of the walls was designed to make microtubules collide with the wall perpendicularly and the number of microtubules crossing over the wall was counted from sequential images obtained with a fluorescence microscope. It was found that the wall, which was higher than approximately 800 nm, stops microtubules from crossing over the wall. The wall made of OEBR1000 prevents microtubules from crossing it more effectively than that made of SAL601 and the overhang is also useful for guiding the microtubule motion.

Ashikari, Norihiko; Shitaka, Yuji; Fujita, Kosuke; Kojima, Hiroaki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Takahagi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi

2012-02-01

369

Integral formula for supersymmetric scattering amplitudes in three dimensions.  

PubMed

We propose a new integral formula for all tree-level scattering amplitudes of N = 6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory. It resembles the Roiban-Spradlin-Volovich-Witten formula for N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory based on a twistor string theory formulation. Our formula implies that the (2k)-point tree-level amplitude is closely related to degree (k-1) curves in CP(k-1). PMID:23215372

Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Sangmin

2012-11-08

370

Quadrature formulas for functions with a boundary-layer component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrature formulas for one-variable functions with a boundary-layer component are constructed and studied. It is assumed that the integrand can be represented as the sum of a regular and a boundary-layer component, the latter having high gradients that reduce the accuracy of classical quadrature formulas, such as the trapezoidal and Simpson rules. The formulas are modified so that their error is independent of the gradients of the boundary-layer component. Results of numerical experiments are presented.

Zadorin, A. I.; Zadorin, N. A.

2011-11-01

371

On some representation formulas involving moduli of Blaschke products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from an integral formula in harmonic analysis, we derive some representation formulas for (1| B(z)|2)\\/(1| z|2) in terms of the zeros of the underlying interpolating Blaschke product B. We use our formula to show that for every interpolating Blaschke product B there exists another interpolating Blaschke product C, with zeros distinct from those of B, such that C is

Alan Gluchoff; Pamela Gorkin; Raymond Mortini

2007-01-01

372

Decreased Regurgitation with a Soy Formula Containing Added Soy Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this randomized study was to determine if fiber-supplemented soy formula reduced regurgitation in young infants. We compared regurgitation in 179 infants randomly assigned cow's milk-based (CM, 90) formula or soy formula with fiber (SF, 89). Initial daily incidence was similar (CM, 3.6; SF, 3.9 episodes), but significantly lower after 7 days on SF (CM, 3.4; SF, 2.3;

Karin M. Ostrom; Joan R. Jacobs; Russell J. Merritt; Robert D. Murray

2006-01-01

373

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24

374

A permanent formula for the Jones polynomial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permanent of a square matrix is defined in a way similar to the determinant, but without using signs. The exact computation of the permanent is hard, but there are Monte Carlo algorithms that can estimate general permanents. Given a planar diagram of a link L with n crossings, we define a 7n×7n matrix whose permanent equals the Jones polynomial

Martin Loebl; Iain Moffatt

2011-01-01

375

A permanent formula for the Jones polynomial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permanent of a square matrix is defined in a way similar to the determinant, but without using signs. The exact computation of the permanent is hard, but there are Monte-Carlo algorithms that can estimate general permanents. Given a planar diagram of a link L with $n$ crossings, we define a 7n by 7n matrix whose permanent equals to the

Martin Loebl; Iain Moffatt

2007-01-01

376

Elementary Discontinuity Formulas and Mueller's Regge Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to interpret Mueller's recent work on inclusive cross sections in terms of the elementary discontinuity equations for multiparticle scattering amplitudes. The paths of continuations for obtaining these discontinuities are given. We find that, in order to make our identification meaningful, the emergence of anomalous thresholds is necessary to \\

Chung-I. Tan

1971-01-01

377

Power formula for open-channel flow resistance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper evaluates various power formulas for flow resistance in open channels. Unlike the logarithmic resistance equation that can be theoretically derived either from Prandtl's mixing-length hypothesis or von Karman's similarity hypothesis, the power formula has long had an appearance of empiricism. Nevertheless, the simplicity in the form of the power formula has made it popular among the many possible forms of flow resistance formulas. This paper reexamines the concept and rationale of the power formulation, thereby addressing some critical issues in the modeling of flow resistance.

Chen, Cheng-Lung

1988-01-01

378

Physicians, formula companies, and advertising. A historical perspective.  

PubMed

The recent advent of new advertising campaigns for infant formulas aimed at the general public via television commercials, newspapers, free formula coupons, and lay periodicals has disrupted a comfortable symbiotic relationship between infant food manufacturers and the medical profession that has endured for more than 50 years. In the late 19th century, physicians were concerned about the advertising claims of these products and generally felt that indications and directions for their use should be the province of the physician. Between 1929 and 1932, the American Medical Association, through its Committee on Foods and "Seal of Acceptance," essentially required the entire formula industry to advertise only to the medical profession. Since 1932, the US formula industry has developed into a $1.6 billion market. In 1988, Nestlé (absent from the US infant formula industry since the 1940s) acquired the Carnation Company and launched an advertising campaign to the general public for its formula products. Bristol Myers/Mead Johnson, in cooperation with Gerber Products Company, quickly followed suit. These actions threaten to once again remove the realm of infant feeding from the exclusive supervision of the medical profession. The new multimedia public advertising campaigns may increase the cost of infant formula to the general public and have a negative impact on the incidence of breast-feeding. In addition, formula advertising campaigns will likely increase the danger of advertising hyperbole and affect the level of financial support by formula companies for scientific meetings, medical research, education, and social events at medical meetings. PMID:1781817

Greer, F R; Apple, R D

1991-03-01

379

Glycation products in infant formulas: chemical, analytical and physiological aspects.  

PubMed

Infant formulas are milk-based products, which are adapted to the composition of human milk. To ensure microbiological safety and long shelf life, infant formulas usually undergo rigid heat treatment. As a consequence of the special composition and the heat regimen, infant formulas are more prone to thermally induced degradation reactions than regular milk products. Degradation reactions observed during milk processing comprise lactosylation yielding the Amadori product lactulosyllysine, the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and protein-free sugar degradation products, as well as protein or lipid oxidation. Several methods have been developed to estimate the heat impact applied during the manufacturing of infant formulas, including indirect methods such as fluorescence analysis as well as the analysis of defined reaction products. Most studies confirm a higher degree of damage in infant formulas compared to regular milk products. Differences between various types of infant formulas, such as liquid, powdered or hypoallergenic formulas depend on the analyzed markers and brands. A considerable portion of protein degradation products in infant formulas can be avoided when process parameters and the quality of the ingredients are carefully controlled. The nutritional consequences of thermal degradation products in infant formulas are largely unknown. PMID:20953645

Pischetsrieder, Monika; Henle, Thomas

2010-10-16

380

Systematic Studies of (n,p) Reaction Cross Sections for 14.5 MeV Neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new semi-empirical formula for the calculation of the (n,p) cross section at 14.5 MeV neutron energy is obtained. Derived from the evaporation statistical model, the new formula includes five parameters and shows for the first times a strong dependence of the (n,p) cross section on terms of the parameter (2Z-1)/A. Fitting this formula to the existing cross section data on 161 nuclei with 40<=A<=209, the adjustable parameters have been determined and the systematics of the (n,p) reaction have been studied. The predictions of this formula are compared with those of the existing formulae and with the experimental data. The formula with five parameters is found to give a better fit to the data than the previous comparable formulae.

Belgaid, M.; Kadem, F.; Arezki, A.

2006-04-01

381

Appraisal of formulas for stresses in bilayered dental ceramics subjected to biaxial moment loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to compare three existing sets of formulas predicting stresses in a thin circular plate subjected to biaxial moment loading, such that limitations for each set of formulas could be understood. These formulas include American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) formulas for monolayered plates, Roark's formulas for bilayered plates, and Hsueh et al.'s formulas

Chun-Hway Hsueh; G. A. Thompson

2007-01-01

382

Analysis of particle penetration length into the wall crevices  

SciTech Connect

The present work investigates the effects of the surface roughness on the plasma-wall interactions via kinetic simulations of an initial value problem using the particle-in-cell code VPIC[K. J. Bowers et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 055703 (2008)]. Collisionless plasma immersed in parallel to the wall magnetic field is self-consistently interacting with a nonflat surface, whose roughness is varied relative to the thermal ion gyroradius. The analysis of the numerical results and analytical estimates yields a scaling of the penetration length that can be described by an analytical formula.

Krasheninnikova, Natalia S. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2010-11-15

383

Chao Formalism & Kondratenko Crossing Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently started testing Chao's proposed new matrix formalism for describing the spin dynamics due to a single spin resonance; this seems to be the first generalization of the Froissart-Stora equation since it was published in 1960. The Chao matrix formalism allows one to calculate analytically the polarization's behavior inside a resonance, which is not possible using the Froissart-Stora equation. We recently tested some Chao formalism predictions using a 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY. We swept an rf dipole's frequency through 200 Hz while varying the distance from the sweep's end frequency to an rf-induced spin resonance's central frequency. While the Froissart-Stora formula can make no prediction in this case, the data seem to support the Chao formalism. We also started investigating the new Kondratenko method to preserve beam polarization during a spin resonance crossing; the method uses 3 rapid changes of the crossing rate near the resonance. With a proper choice of crossing parameters, Kondratenko Crossing may better preserve the polarization than simple fast crossing. We tested Kondratenko's idea using 2.1 GeV/c polarized protons stored in COSY; the frequency of a ferrite rf dipole was swept though an rf-induced spin resonance using Kondratenko's crossing shape. We have not yet observed a significant advantage of Kondratenko Crossing over simple fast crossing. We plan to study it further by choosing better crossing parameters and a smaller momentum spread.

Raymond, R. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Schnase, A.; Stockhorst, H.; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.; Kondratenko, A. M.

2007-06-01

384

Micromechanics of Cell Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we discuss the mechanical properties of primary and secondary cell walls with regard to cell wall structure\\u000a and composition. The first sections of the chapter are devoted to defining the mechanical terms used and to giving a general\\u000a introduction into the mechanical behaviour of composites. The specific structure–property relationships of primary and secondary\\u000a cell walls are then

Ingo Burgert; John W. C. Dunlop

385

Domain wall nanoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domains in ferroelectrics were considered to be well understood by the middle of the last century: They were generally rectilinear, and their walls were Ising-like. Their simplicity stood in stark contrast to the more complex Bloch walls or Néel walls in magnets. Only within the past decade and with the introduction of atomic-resolution studies via transmission electron microscopy, electron holography, and atomic force microscopy with polarization sensitivity has their real complexity been revealed. Additional phenomena appear in recent studies, especially of magnetoelectric materials, where functional properties inside domain walls are being directly measured. In this paper these studies are reviewed, focusing attention on ferroelectrics and multiferroics but making comparisons where possible with magnetic domains and domain walls. An important part of this review will concern device applications, with the spotlight on a new paradigm of ferroic devices where the domain walls, rather than the domains, are the active element. Here magnetic wall microelectronics is already in full swing, owing largely to the work of Cowburn and of Parkin and their colleagues. These devices exploit the high domain wall mobilities in magnets and their resulting high velocities, which can be supersonic, as shown by Kreines’ and co-workers 30 years ago. By comparison, nanoelectronic devices employing ferroelectric domain walls often have slower domain wall speeds, but may exploit their smaller size as well as their different functional properties. These include domain wall conductivity (metallic or even superconducting in bulk insulating or semiconducting oxides) and the fact that domain walls can be ferromagnetic while the surrounding domains are not.

Catalan, G.; Seidel, J.; Ramesh, R.; Scott, J. F.

2012-01-01

386

Illuminating the wall  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls are the most abundant biomaterials on Earth and serve a multitude of purposes in human society. These complex extracellular matrices are mainly composed of polysaccharides, including cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins, which cannot be cytologically examined using conventional techniques. Click chemistry, which exploits a bio-orthogonal cycloaddition reaction between alkynyl and azido groups, has proven to be useful for the metabolic incorporation and detection of modified sugars in polysaccharides in animals, fungi, and bacteria, but its use to interrogate the biosynthesis or dynamics of plant cell walls has not been previously reported. Recently, we found that an alkynylated analog of fucose can be metabolically incorporated into Arabidopsis thaliana cell walls and click labeled with fluorescent probes, facilitating imaging of cell wall carbohydrates. Despite the presence of fucose in several classes of wall polysaccharides, fucose-alkyne was primarily incorporated into rhamnogalacturonan-I, a type of pectin. Using timecourse and pulse-labeling experiments, we observed the dynamics of pectin delivery and reorganization in expanding cell walls. The use of click chemistry to investigate plant cell wall architecture should help bridge the gap between biochemical characterization of isolated cell wall components and an understanding of how those components interact in intact cell walls.

Anderson, Charles T.; Wallace, Ian S.

2012-01-01

387

Cross-training hospital nurses to reduce staffing costs.  

PubMed

There are advantages and disadvantages of cross-training hospital nurses. The financial benefit of reducing reliance on supplemental agency staff can be quantified. Cross-training policies can be compared. Simulation shows that the strategic cross-training principle of chaining performs particularly well. Practical formulas (that can be solved in a spreadsheet) are provided for quickly evaluating the economic performance of staffing and cross-training scenarios. PMID:15923914

Inman, Robert R; Blumenfeld, Dennis E; Ko, Arthur

388

Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-feeding Behaviors among Formula-feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveFormula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain.

Katherine F. Kavanagh; Roberta J. Cohen; M. Jane Heinig; Kathryn G. Dewey

2008-01-01

389

Prediction of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Missiles with Circular and Noncircular Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an engineering method is presented for computing the aerodynamic characteristics of missiles with circular, square, rectangular and elliptical cross sections. To predict the normal force coecient values for a rectangular body, a formula was developed to modify Cdn values for noncircular cross sections. This semi-empirical method was applied to predict viscous separation cross flow and potential cross

Habip ASAN

390

WallSwitch 1.2.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maybe you're growing tired of your desktop wallpaper. Never fear, as WallSwitch can prevent things from getting stale. Visitors can use their photo folders or other images as fodder for the WallSwitch program, which will cycle them through at various intervals. Also, there is a collage mode, which offers another way to display images. The program also has cross-fading transitions and the ability to apply color effects to the selected images. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

2012-11-04

391

New formulae for switch ed?capacitor band pass filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The governing equations for switched?capacitor band pass filters are greatly simplified into a new set of much simpler equations, with no approximation involved. For sharp band pass filters with narrow bandwidths, we expand the new set, cancel out many leading terms, and get a set of new formulae. Based on these formulae, we obtain and tabulate numerical design data for

1992-01-01

392

A simple formula for the thermal pair annihilation line emissivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a simple and convenient fitting formula for the thermal annihilation line from pair plasmas in cosmic sources. The fitting formula is accurate to 0.04% and is valid at all photon energies and temperatures of interest. The commonly used Gaussian line profile is not a good approximation for broader lines.

Roland Svensson; Stefan Larsson; Juri Poutanen

1996-01-01

393

Delay and Noise Formulas for Capacitively Coupled Distributed RC Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple yet useful analytical formulas for delay, slope and crosstalk noise amplitude for capacitively coupled two-, three- and infinite-line systems are derived assuming bus lines and other signal lines in deep-submicron VLSI's. The calculated results using the derived formulas are extensively compared with SPICE simulation results to demonstrate the validity of the analytical expressions. Two modes have been studied; the

Hiroshi Kawaguchi; Takayasu Sakurai

1998-01-01

394

Fast formulae for the time integral in binary collision calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotic and numerical formulae for the time integral ? which is required in the simulation of a binary collision encounter are developed for some screened Coulomb potentials. These formulae are much faster to evaluate than those calculated by numerical integration and more accurate than the commonly used hard sphere approximation.

Body, Giles; Smith, Roger

1994-03-01

395

The Processing of Formulaic Sequences by Second Language Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of researchers have suggested that formulaic sequences are stored and processed holistically (Altenberg, 1998; Raupach, 1984; Schmitt & Carter, 2004; Spottl & McCarthy, 2004). However, the evidence for this hypothesis has not been conclusive. The present study examined the representation and processing of formulaic sequences in two…

Jiang, Nan; Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

2007-01-01

396

27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Uses § 21.48 Formula No. 23-F. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Three pounds of salicylic acid, U.S.P., 1 pound of resorcinol (resorcin), U.S.P., and 1 gallon of bergamot oil, N.F. XI,...

2013-04-01

397

Formula for Use in Unabsorbed Overhead Claims in Government Contracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is a continuation of the research conducted by First Lieutenant Timothy Edem in 1985. While Edem's research studied the accuracy of a variety of formulas, this thesis concentrated on development of a new formula and its comparison to the two m...

F. R. Groseth

1986-01-01

398

Geometrical simplification of the dipole-dipole interaction formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice as large. The physical facts are

Ladislav Kocbach; Suhail Lubbad

2010-01-01

399

27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Eight gallons of acetone, U.S.P., and 1.5 gallons of methyl isobutyl ketone. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

2013-04-01

400

27 CFR 21.52 - Formula No. 27.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Authorized Uses § 21.52 Formula No. 27. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of rosemary oil, N.F. XII, and 30 pounds of camphor, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

2013-04-01

401

Evaporation from flowing channels ( mass-transfer formulas).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stability-dependent and Dalton-type mass transfer formulas are determined from experimental evaporation data in ambient and heated channels and are shown to have similar performance in prediction of evaporation. The formulas developed are compared with those proposed by other investigators for lakes and flowing channels. -from ASCE Publications Information

Fulford, J. M.; Sturm, T. W.

1984-01-01

402

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192.105 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel...

2009-10-01

403

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192.105 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel...

2010-10-01

404

Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)|

Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine

1982-01-01

405

But Can They Read It? A Look at Readability Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines six science books in reference to their reading levels as determined by the Fry, SMOG, and Fog formulas. A disparity in calculated values is noted and explained to be the result of the use of different comprehension levels by the formulas. Suggestions concerning the selection of science reading materials for the classroom are provided.…

Ricker, Kenneth S.

1978-01-01

406

AN APPROXIMATE FREQUENCY FORMULA FOR PIEZOELECTRIC CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL SHELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an approach for investigating vibration characteristics of piezoelectric cylindrical shells under transverse vibration modes is presented. It is an extension of the related work for elastic shells. A formula for estimating transverse frequencies of the piezoelectric cylindrical shells is obtained. Because of its simplicity and clarity, the formula can be used to investigate the influence of electromechanical

P. Lu; K. H. LEE; W. Z. LIN; F. Shen; S. P. LIM

2001-01-01

407

How Effective is Redistribution Under the Social Security Benefit Formula?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses earnings histories obtained from the Social Security Administration and linked to the survey responses for participants in the Health and Retirement Study to investigate redistribution under the current social security benefit formula. We find that as advertised, at the level of the individual respondent, the benefit formula is progressive. When individuals are arrayed by indexed lifetime earnings,

Alan L. Gustman; Thomas L. Steinmeier

2000-01-01

408

A pilot study describing infant formula preparation and feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants. This observational study collected pilot data on formula preparation practices of 15 mothers of infants under the age of 7 months. A site survey tool was developed, based upon existing instruments. A trained observer traveled to the participants' homes to observe formula preparation and feeding. Some

Nancie H. Herbold; Elizabeth Scott

2008-01-01

409

Shear modulus at all pressures: Generalized Guinan–Steinberg formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Guinan–Steinberg (GS) formula for the shear modulus at all pressures is widely used in material strength studies. As we demonstrate here, the GS formula predicts a value for the shear modulus that is higher than its actual value at low to moderate compressions, even if it has the correct ultrahigh pressure limit. We show that the reason for this

Leonid Burakovsky; Dean L. Preston

2006-01-01

410

A More Intuitive Version of the Lorentz Velocity Addition Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Lorentz velocity addition formula for one-dimensional motion presents a number of problems for beginning students of special relativity. In this paper we suggest a simple rewrite of the formula that is easier for students to memorize and manipulate, and furthermore is more intuitive in understanding the correction necessary when adding…

Devlin, John F.

2009-01-01

411

Evidence for a Satisfiability Threshold for Random 3CNF Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical evidence of a satisfiability threshold in random3CNF formulas. The paper also expands on and supports the conjecture of Mitchell,Selman, and Levesque [13] that hard randomly generated CNF formulas will be hardfor any reasonable satisfiability algorithm. We report statistics for a much largerset of variables than have been previously reported; in particular, we show that foreach clause

Tracy Larrabee; Yumi Tsuji

1993-01-01

412

Geometrical Simplification of the Dipole-Dipole Interaction Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice…

Kocbach, Ladislav; Lubbad, Suhail

2010-01-01

413

Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement  

SciTech Connect

In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed.

Zhang, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)][Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

1996-10-01

414

Geometrical Simplification of the Dipole-Dipole Interaction Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice…

Kocbach, Ladislav; Lubbad, Suhail

2010-01-01

415

Two geometric character formulas for reductive Lie groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we prove two formulas for the characters of representations of reductive groups. Both express the character of a representation in terms of the same geometric data attached to it. When specialized to the case of a compact Lie group, one of them reduces to Kirillov's character formula in the compact case, and the other, to an application

Wilfried Schmid; Kari Vilonen

1998-01-01

416

A general formula for decay rates of nonlinear dissipative systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is concerned with stabilization of hyperbolic systems by a nonlinear feedback which can be localized on part of the boundary or locally distributed. We present here a general formula which gives the energy decay rates in terms of the behavior of the nonlinear feedback close to the origin. This formula allows us to unify for instance the cases

Fatiha Alabau-Boussouira

2004-01-01

417

A More Intuitive Version of the Lorentz Velocity Addition Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lorentz velocity addition formula for one-dimensional motion presents a number of problems for beginning students of special relativity. In this paper we suggest a simple rewrite of the formula that is easier for students to memorize and manipulate, and furthermore is more intuitive in understanding the correction necessary when adding…

Devlin, John F.

2009-01-01

418

Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)

Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine

1982-01-01

419

Funding formulas for public health allocations: federal and state strategies.  

PubMed

Public health funding formulas have received less scrutiny than those used in other government sectors, particularly health services and public health insurance. We surveyed states about their use of funding formulas for specific public health activities; sources of funding; formula attributes; formula development; and assessments of political and policy considerations. Results show that the use of funding formulas is positively correlated with the number of local health departments and with the percentage of public health funding provided by the federal government. States use a variety of allocative strategies but most commonly employ a "base-plus" distribution. Resulting distributions are more disproportionate than per capita or per-person-in-poverty allotments, an effect that increases as the proportion of total funding dedicated to equal minimum allotments increases. PMID:22635184

Ogden, Lydia L; Sellers, Katie; Sammartino, Cara; Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M

420

Analytical Dielectric Spectrum Formula Based on Representative Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to experimental data available for the complex refractive index of particular dielectrics, a dielectric spectrum formula is proposed by the least square fitting technique combined with selected natural frequencies. From the dielectric spectrum formula, the spectra of optical and dielectric constants can be obtained in the whole frequency region. Three dielectrics, water, ethanol, and toluene, are taken as examples. In the region where the experimental data are available, the spectra of the optical constants calculated by the formula are in good agreement with the real refractive spectrum obtained by Kramers-Kronig (K-K) transform and the experimental imaginary refractive spectrum. In the region where no experimental data are available, the extrapolation of our formula can make predictions. The merits of the present treatment are that we are able to get the uniform spectrum formula, without splitting into different frequency sections, and the analytical form of the dielectric spectra will be useful in the theoretical description of solvation dynamics.

Kong, Bo; Fu, Ke-xiang; Shan, Min-hua; Li, Xiang-yuan

2009-06-01

421

Maize stem tissues: ferulate deposition in developing internode cell walls.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that ferulates are only deposited in the primary cell wall of grasses. To test this hypothesis, the fourth elongating, above-ground internode of maize (Zea mays l.) was sampled from three maize hybrids throughout development. Cell wall composition was determined by the Uppsala Dietary Fibre method. Ester- and ether-linked ferulates were determined by HPLC analysis of ferulic acid released from the internodes by low and high temperature alkaline treatments. Internode length increased from 9 to 152 mm over 96 days of growth, with elongation being complete in the first 12 days. More than half of the cell wall material in the maize internodes accumulated after elongation had ended. Deposition of cell wall material appeared to reach its maximum extent 40 days after sampling began, well before physiological maturity of the maize plants. Galactose and arabinose began to accumulate early in cell wall development which was presumed to be associated with primary wall growth during internode elongation. The major secondary wall constituents (analyzed as glucose, xylose, and Klason lignin) did not begin to accumulate rapidly until shortly before internode elongation ended. Ferulate ester deposition began before ferulate ethers were observed in the cell wall, but both forms of ferulate continued to accumulate in secondary cell walls, long after internode elongation had ceased. These data clearly show that contrary to the hypothesis, ferulate deposition was not restricted to the primary wall and that active lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking mediated by ferulates occurs in the secondary wall. PMID:12809714

Jung, Hans-Joachim G

2003-07-01

422

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

423

Dynamic dilatonic domain walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the “universe as a brane” idea, we investigate the motion of a (D?2)-brane (or domain wall) that couples to bulk matter. Usually one would expect the space-time outside such a wall to be time dependent however we show that in certain cases it can be static, with consistency of the Israel equations yielding relationships between the bulk metric

H. A. Chamblin; H. S. Reall

1999-01-01

424

Domain wall filters  

SciTech Connect

We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

Oliver Baer; Rajamani Narayanan; Herbert Neuberger; Oliver Witzel

2007-03-15

425

Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

426

Flagellar propulsion near walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive

Arthur Evans; Eric Lauga

2010-01-01

427

Gauss-Legendre Quadrature Formula in Runge-Kutta Method with Modified Model of Newton Cooling Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce, the so called 'Open Formula', two points formula, three points formula, four points formula, five points formula and six points formula of the Runge-Kutta method to solve the initial value problem of the ordinary differential equation. These formulas use the points and weights from the Gauss-Legendre Quadrature formulas for finding the value of the definite

Maitree Podisuk

428

Kinetic study of wall collisions in a coaxial Hall discharge.  

PubMed

Coaxial Hall discharges (also known as Hall thrusters, stationary plasma thrusters, and closed-drift accelerators) are cross-field plasma sources under development for space propulsion applications. The importance of the electron-wall interaction to the Hall discharge operation is studied the through analysis of experimental data and simulation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) inside the discharge channel. Experimental time-average plasma property data from a laboratory Hall discharge are used to calculate the electron conductivity and to estimate the rate of wall-loss collisions. The electron Boltzmann equation is then solved in the local field limit, using the experimental results as inputs. The equation takes into account ionization and wall collisions, including secondary electrons produced at the wall. Local electron balances are used to calculate the sheath potential at the insulator walls. Results show an EEDF depleted at high energy due to electron loss to the walls. The calculated EEDFs agree well with experimental electron temperature data when the experimentally determined effective collision frequency is used for electron momentum transport. The electron wall-loss and wall-return frequencies are extremely low compared to those predicted by a Maxwellian of equal average energy. The very low frequency of wall collisions suggests that secondary electrons do not contribute to cross-field transport. This conclusion holds despite significant experimental uncertainty. PMID:12366261

Meezan, Nathan B; Cappelli, Mark A

2002-09-11

429

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

430

A tandem synthesis of functionalized azet-2[Formula: see text]-ones and azet-2[Formula: see text]-thiones.  

PubMed

Highly functionalized azet-2(1[Formula: see text]-ones and azet-2(1[Formula: see text]-thiones are obtained via a copper-catalyzed tandem reaction of readily available terminal alkynes, sulfonyl azides, and heterocummulenes in moderate to good yields. PMID:24043583

Yavari, Issa; Nematpour, Manijeh; Bayat, Mohammad J

2013-09-17

431

Developmental status of one year old infants fed breast-milk, cow's milk formula or soy formula  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although soy formula has been reported to support normal growth, concerns exist regarding potential adverse effects of phytochemicals associated with soy protein. This study characterized growth, body composition, and behavioral development of breast-fed (BF), milk-based formula-fed (MF), or soy pro...

432

Double wall underground storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids

E. B. Jr. Canaan; J. R. Wiegand; D. H. Bartlow

1993-01-01

433

Test of the Glauber formula for nucleon-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies  

SciTech Connect

A high-precision test of the Glauber formula for the amplitude of nucleon-deuteron scattering is performed. Nucleon-nucleon amplitudes used in the calculations depend on the spins of interacting particles, phase shifts, and mixing parameters. These amplitudes were derived by using the Njim I, Njim II, Njim 93, and Reid 93 realistic potentials. The differential cross sections for nucleon-deuteron scattering were calculated for the projectile-nucleon energies of 65, 95, 135, 150, 190, and 250 MeV, and the results of these calculations were compared with experimental data.

Kovalchuk, V. I., E-mail: sabkiev@gmail.com [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine)

2012-01-15

434

Critical domain walls in the Ashkin-Teller model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the fractal properties of interfaces in the 2d Ashkin-Teller model. The fractal dimension of the symmetric interfaces is calculated along the critical line of the model in the interval between the Ising and the four-states Potts models. Using Schramm's formula for crossing probabilities we show that such interfaces cannot be related to the simple SLE?, except for the Ising point. The same calculation on non-symmetric interfaces is performed in the four-states Potts model: the fractal dimension is compatible with the result coming from Schramm's formula, and we expect a simple SLE? in this case.

Caselle, M.; Lottini, S.; Rajabpour, M. A.

2011-02-01

435

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

436

Monte Carlo study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube materials: The effect of different scattering models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials for beam energies of ~0.3 to 30 keV is presented based on event-by-event Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories using state-of-the-art scattering cross sections. The importance of different analytic approximations for computing the elastic and inelastic electron-scattering cross sections for MWCNTs is emphasized. We offer a simple parameterization for the total and differential elastic-scattering Mott cross section, using appropriate modifications to the Browning formula and the Thomas-Fermi screening parameter. A discrete-energy-loss approach to inelastic scattering based on dielectric theory is adopted using different descriptions of the differential cross section. The sensitivity of electron penetration and backscattering parameters to the underlying scattering models is examined. Our simulations confirm the recent experimental backscattering data on MWCNT forests and, in particular, the steep increase of the backscattering yield at sub-keV energies as well as the sidewalls escape effect at high-beam energies.

Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Nojeh, Alireza; Moscovitch, Marko

2013-02-01

437

The short-range resistive wall wakefields  

SciTech Connect

In an accelerator when the bunch length becomes comparable to a characteristic distance s{sub 0}, one which depends on the radius and the conductivity of the beam tube and in typical structures is on the order of tens of microns, the usual formulas for the resistive wall wakefield do not apply. In this report the authors derive the short-range resistive wall wakefields of an ultra-relativistic point particle in a metallic, cylindrical tube, both for a model in which the wall conductivity is taken to be independent of frequency and for one in which a frequency dependence is included. On this scale the wakefield is found to be dominated by a damped, high frequency resonator component. For the case of constant conductivity the resonant frequency is given by {omega} = {radical}(3 c/s{sub 0}) and the Q-factor equals {radical}(3/2). They provide a physical model to explain these results. For the case of a frequency dependent conductivity the resonator parameters depend also on the relaxation time of the metal {tau}. For c{tau}/s{sub 0} {approx_gt} 0.5 the frequency {omega} {approx} {radical}(2{omega}{sub p}c/b), with {omega}{sub p} the plasma frequency of the free electrons in the metal and b the tube radius, and the 1/e damping time becomes 4{tau}. Finally, they calculate the wakefield and loss factor of a short Gaussian bunch.

Bane, K.L.F.; Sands, M.

1995-12-01

438

Dietary fluoride intake from infant and toddler formulas in Poland.  

PubMed

Risk of enamel fluorosis associated with excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood has been widely reported in literature. Results of several studies indicate that infant formula consumption, especially in the form of powdered concentrate, may appreciably increase children's fluoride exposure in optimally fluoridated communities. The aim of the study was to measure fluoride content of infant and toddler formulas available in Poland and to discuss implications of the results. Twenty nine brands of powdered formulas were evaluated. Analyzes were performed with the use of ionselective fluoride electrode (09-37 type) and a RAE 111 chloride-silver reference electrode (MARAT). Results revealed that concentration of fluoride in all products was low (mean 29.0 ?g/100 g), and that the formula itself is not a significant source of fluoride exposure. However, when reconstituted with water containing more than 0.5 ppm of fluoride, starting formulas and follow-on formulas may provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis. Thus, fully formula-fed infants consuming mother milk substitutes prepared with optimally fluoridated water may be at increased risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:21554919

Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna; Opydo, Jadwiga

2011-04-27

439

Analytical study of turbulent Poiseuille flow with wall transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An incompressible, pressure-driven, fully developed turbulent flow between two parallel walls, with an extra constant transverse velocity component, is considered. A closure condition is formulated, which relates the shear stress to the first and the second derivatives of the longitudinal mean velocity. The closure condition is derived without invoking any special hypotheses on the nature of turbulent motion, only taking advantage of the fact that the flow depends on a finite number of governing parameters. By virtue of the closure condition, the momentum equation is reduced to the boundary-value problem for a second-order differential equation, which is solved by the method of matched asymptotic expansions at high values of the logarithm of the Reynolds number based on the friction velocity. There are three characteristic flow regions in the channel: the core region and two wall regions near injection and suction walls. For each region, the solution is constructed. The asymptotic matching gives formulas for the wall shear stress and the maximum mean velocity. A limit transpiration velocity is obtained, such that the shear stress at the injection wall vanishes, while the maximum point on the velocity profile approaches the suction wall. In this case, a sublayer near the suction wall appears where the mean velocity is proportional to the square root of the distance from the wall. A friction law for Poiseuille flow with transpiration is found, which makes it possible to describe the relation between the wall shear stress, the Reynolds number, and the transpiration velocity by a function of one variable. A velocity defect law, which generalizes the classical law for the core region in a channel with impermeable walls to the case of transpiration, is also established. In similarity variables, the mean velocity profiles across the whole channel width outside viscous sublayers can be described by a one-parameter family of curves. The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with available direct numerical simulation data.

Vigdorovich, Igor; Oberlack, Martin

2008-05-01

440

Multiview LCD wall system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle construction of the unique autostereoscopic 3D LCD wall is considered. This glasses-free 3D LCD wall provides presentation of high-quality stereo images for many users simultaneously. The technical characteristics of the 3D LCD wall are compared with the corresponding parameters of the multiview 3D projection wall. The general equation for the evaluation of the multiview stereo image in this 3D LCD wall will be presented and all of its parameters are analysed. We introduce here the fundamental matrices, in which will be contained the information about the contribution of the different views in every subpixel. The properties of these matrices as well as their use for the evaluation of the stereo-image are considered. The problem of the adjustment of the stereoscopic image on the 3D LCD wall is also discussed and different types of adjustment are considered. For some of them the corresponding equations are given. The presented approach may be applied also to the case of the multiview autostereoscopic 3D plasma wall.

Relke, I.

2006-02-01

441

Retaining wall and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A retaining wall secured to a portion of earth, comprising a plurality of blocks stacked in longitudinally extending, vertically spaced tiers to define a retaining wall, each of the blocks defining a laterally oriented passageway extending between a pair of opposing sides thereof and having an exterior face orientated outwardly of the portion of the earth, the passageways being substantially aligned in each tier to define a channel within the tier of the retaining wall at least one tieback rod for being embedded at one end in a portion of earth to be covered by the retaining wall and having a protruding end extending therefrom towards the retaining wall at least one elongate member disposed within a portion of one of the channels in the tiers of blocks, the elongate member defining a slot through which the protruding end of the tieback rod extends and a mechanism for connecting the tieback rod to the elongate member to secure the retaining wall to the portion of earth. A method of constructing a retaining wall is disclosed.

Rainey; Thomas L. (Duluth, GA)

1999-07-13

442

The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.  

PubMed

These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley's First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer's quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer's quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses. PMID:10719561

Malone, A J; Kearney, P J; Duggan, P F

1999-09-01

443

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

444

Strong subadditivity and the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Headrick and Takayanagi showed that the Ryu-Takayanagi holographic entanglement entropy formula generally obeys the strong subadditivity (SSA) inequality, a fundamental property of entropy. However, the Ryu-Takayanagi formula only applies when the bulk spacetime is static. It is not known whether the covariant generalization proposed by Hubeny, Rangamani, and Takayanagi (HRT) also obeys SSA. We investigate this question in three-dimensional AdS-Vaidya spacetimes, finding that SSA is obeyed as long as the bulk spacetime satisfies the null energy condition. This provides strong support for the validity of the HRT formula.

Callan, Robert; He, Jianyang; Headrick, Matthew

2012-06-01

445

The aluminium content of infant formula and tea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea and infant formulae have been examined for the presence of aluminium. Concentrations in 13 different tea infusions ranged from 2.2 mg\\/l to 4.5 mg\\/l. In cows’ milk?based infant formulae as made up for consumption, aluminium levels of between 0.03 mg\\/l and 0.20 mg\\/l were detected. Higher amounts were present in soya?based formulae with concentrations ranging from 0.64 mg\\/l to

M. J. Baxter; J. A. Burrell; R. C. Massey

1990-01-01

446

Direct Evidence for Inversion Formula in Multifractal Financial Volatility Measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inversion formula for conservative multifractal measures was unveiled mathematically a decade ago, which is however not well tested in real complex systems. We propose to verify the inversion formula using high-frequency turbulent financial data. We construct conservative volatility measure based on minutely S&P 500 index from 1982 to 1999 and its inverse measure of exit time. Both the direct and inverse measures exhibit nice multifractal nature, whose scaling ranges are not irrelevant. Empirical investigation shows that the inversion formula holds in financial markets.

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

2009-02-01

447

Crushing Strength of Aluminum Honeycomb with Thinning Cell Wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the crash safety of automobiles, various collision tests are performed by the auto industry. In the offset frontal collision test and the side collision test, the target is an aluminum honeycomb material which has thinning cell walls. In this study, based on the analyses of the shock absorption mechanism, a new crushing strength formula is proposed. First, load-displacement curves obtained from compression tests in quasi-static condition showed an almost linear relation between a thinning rate of cell walls and a crushing strength. Second, based on Wierzbicki's theory, a new formula was proposed, which can estimate a crushing strength of a honeycomb material with thinning wall. In addition, a correcting equation which considered an elastic deformation was also proposed. Third, parametric analyses were carried out with a FE model which can simulate a delamination between cell walls. The results obtained from the theory and FEM almost corresponded to each other for a wide range of the thinning rate. Fourth, impact tests were carried out, in which the weight was dropped freely at the speed used for the automobile tests. Those results almost agreed well with the sum of the theoretical crush strength and the inside air pressure.

Ogasawara, Nagahisa; Chiba, Norimasa; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kikuchi, Yuji

448

Systematics Studies of (n,{alpha}) reaction cross sections at 14.5 MeV neutrons energy  

SciTech Connect

A new semi-empirical formula for the calculation of the (n,{alpha}) cross section at 14.5 MeV neutron energy is obtained. It is based on the pre-equilibrium exciton and evaporation models and uses the Droplet model of Myers and Swiatecki to express the reaction energy Q(n,{alpha}). The systematics behavior of the different terms of the Droplet model involved in Q(n,{alpha}) was checked individually before choosing the pertinent terms and setting up the formula. Fitting this formula to the existing cross section data on 120 nuclei with 40{<=}A{<=}209, the adjustable parameters have been determined and the systematics of the (n,{alpha}) reaction have been studied. The predictions of this formula are compared with those of the existing formulae and with the experimental data. The formula with five parameters is found to give a better fit to the data than the previous comparable formulae.

Belgaid, M.; Kadem, F.; Amokrane, A. [Faculte de physique USTHB, BP 32 EL-Alia, BEZ Alger (Algeria)

2008-05-12

449

Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23141821

Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

2012-11-08

450

Wall Turbulence Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of ...

S. P. Wilkinson A. M. Lindemann G. B. Beeler C. B. McGinley W. L. Goodman

1986-01-01

451

Flagellar propulsion near walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here we use simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model eukaryotic flagella. We show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella which results in a decrease of their propulsive force near a no-slip wall.

Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

2010-11-01

452

Designing a Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 5 of PDF), young learners investigate how materials and design contribute to the strength of a structure, particularly walls. Learners use different materials to construct "walls" and then test the strength of each by setting up a ramp near the wall and releasing a car from the top of the ramp. Learners also watch a video clip and develop a fair test to compare the strength of the different walls they have constructed. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Keep Out Cows." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

Kids, Pbs

2006-01-01

453

Morphogenesis of walled cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. In this talk I will discuss the interplay between growth and mechanics in shaping a walled cell, in the particularly simple geometry of tip-growing cells, which elongate via the assembly and expansion of cell wall in the apical region of the cell. Using only conservation laws and describing the observed irreversible expansion of the cell wall during growth as the extension of an inhomogeneous viscous fluid shell under the action of turgor pressure, we determine theoretically the radius of the cell and its growth velocity in terms of the turgor pressure and the secretion rate and rheology of the cell wall material. Moreover, we derive simple scaling laws for the geometry of the cell and find that a single dimensionless parameter, which characterizes the relative roles of cell wall assembly and expansion, is sufficient to explain the observed variation in shapes of tip-growing cells. Our work shows that the physics of cell wall expansion tightly constrains cell shape, providing a unified explanation of the characteristic morphologies of tip-growing cells across species that span several kingdoms, even though their underlying molecular mechanisms of cell morphogenesis are very different. More generally, our description provides a general framework to understand cell growth and remodeling in plants (pollen tubes, root hairs, etc.), fungi (hyphal growth and fission and budding yeast) and some bacteria.

Campas, Otger

2011-03-01

454

HVDC wall bushing studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted to determine the performance of HVDC wall bushings in different wetting conditions. The in-service behavior of these wall bushing on HVDC systems at voltages of {plus minus}450 kV and above is first described to establish the conditions under which flashovers have occurred. Laboratory tests made at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center confirm that

H. M. Schneider; A. E. Lux; D. R. Howes

1990-01-01

455

Measuring Wall Insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the only way for homeowners to learn about the effectiveness of their home insulation is to hire an energy auditor. This difficulty deters homeowners from taking action to improve energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device to measure wall insulation by measuring the temperature difference between the wall surface and the interior air. This device is effective in diagnosing cases of low insulation.

Parks, Beth; Kurkel, Kevin; Zranchev, Amanda; Brown, Clayton

2011-03-01

456

Tables of normalized cutoff wavenumbers of elliptic cross section resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methods to evaluate the mode resonance of elliptic cross section resonators are cumbersome for design purposes. In this paper, tables for the cutoff wavenumbers of TE(sub nm) and TM(sub nm) modes for both even and odd modes are tabulated in a new way, that reveals a simple relation to the equivalent circular cross section resonator and makes interpolation results accurate. These tables range for n = 0,..,3 for even modes and n = 1,...4 for odd modes, with m = 1,..,5 for both. The tables cover 80 different modes for eccentricity in the range of 0 less than EQ c less than EQ 0.99. Asymptotic formulae are given for higher modes and approximate formulae are given for small eccentricity 0 less than EQ c less than EQ 0.2. The accuracy of interpolation, approximate formulae and asymptotic formulae are compared with published results.

Alhargan, Fayez A.; Judah, Sunil R.

1994-02-01

457

27 CFR 19.460 - Conversion of denatured alcohol formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...460 Section 19.460 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and...460 Conversion of denatured alcohol formulas. (a)...

2010-04-01

458

27 CFR 19.460 - Conversion of denatured alcohol formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...460 Section 19.460 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and...460 Conversion of denatured alcohol formulas. (a)...

2009-04-01

459

A natural interpolation formula for Prandtl's singular integrodifferential equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural interpolation formula is developed for the approximation of the unknown function when numerically solving the singular integrodifferential equation of Prandtl (1918). The approach taken is an analogy to the method of Nystrom (1930) for Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, and is based on the error terms of the quadrature rules used for the reduction of the Prandtl equation to a system of linear equations. The formula derived is compared to a Lagrangian interpolation formula in numerical experiments and shown to give better results in most cases. It is predicted that the improved interpolation formula will facilitate the application of the Prandtl equation to fluid-mechanical problems of airfoils and propellers.

Ioakimidis, N. I.

1984-03-01

460

42 CFR 51.3 - Formula for determining allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements § 51.3 Formula for determining allotments. The...

2012-10-01

461

42 CFR 51.3 - Formula for determining allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements § 51.3 Formula for determining allotments. The...

2011-10-01

462

49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR GRANTS TO AID STATE PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation...

2011-10-01

463

27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...essences showing the formula number, quantities of spirits and herbs used, and the amount produced; (g) The quantity of essences...A record of the receipt and use or other disposition of all herbs, aromatics, essences, extracts, or other flavoring...

2013-04-01

464

An exact inversion formula for cone beam vector tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an exact inversion formula for the cone beam transform of vector fields. This transform is the mathematical model for vector tomography with cone beam data. The cone beam data consist of line integrals of a vector field along rays which emanate from points on a given source trajectory. It is known that an exact reconstruction of the solenoidal part of the searched for vector field is possible if the trajectory satisfies the Tuy condition of order 3. We derive an inversion formula under the assumption that the source trajectory satisfies Tuy’s condition of order 3 and the vector field is smooth and compactly supported. This formula thus represents an analogue of the known inversion formulas for the scalar cone beam transform.

Katsevich, Alexander; Schuster, Thomas

2013-06-01

465

Use of High Calcium Infant Formula to Prevent Plumbism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored an alternative form of primary prevention of lead poisoning in children using the nutritional supplement calcium glycerophosphate added to infant formula to reduce lead absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Subjects were children...

J. D. Sargent

1992-01-01

466

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative...allocation formula. (a) General. HUD...jurisdiction located within a state an amount equal...participating jurisdiction: (i) Has a total population of...allocation that would have otherwise been...

2013-04-01

467

A Decoding Study of the Line-Formula Chemical Notation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of a study designed to determine the ease and accuracy of decoding from Wiswesser line-formula notation to conventional structural diagrams, and to identify difficulties encountered in using the system. The tests complement a previous...

W. J. Wiswesser

1965-01-01

468

Universal calculation formula and calibration method in Fourier transform profilometry  

SciTech Connect

We propose a universal calculation formula of Fourier transform profilometry and give a strict theoretical analysis about the phase-height mapping relation. As the request on the experimental setup of the universal calculation formula is unconfined, the projector and the camera can be located arbitrarily to get better fringe information, which makes the operation flexible. The phase-height calibration method under the universal condition is proposed, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. It makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the measurement velocity. A computer simulation and experiment are conducted to verify its validity. The calculation formula and calibration method have been applied to measure an object of 22.00 mm maximal height. The relative error of the measurement result is only 0.59%. The experimental results prove that the three-dimensional shape of tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and the system has better universality.

Wen Yongfu; Li Sikun; Cheng Haobo; Su Xianyu; Zhang Qican

2010-12-01

469

Exempt Infant Formulas Marketed in the United States By ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

This page provides all of the products classified as exempt infant formulas that FDA believes are currently available (to date) on the US retail market. More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

470

Improved Recursive Formula for Calculating Shock Response Spectra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Currently used recursive formulas for calculating the shock response spectra are based on an impulse invariant digital simulation of a single degree of freedom system. This simulation can result in significant errors when the natural frequencies are great...

D. O. Smallwood

1980-01-01

471

34 CFR 303.730 - Formula for State allocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Formula for State allocations. 303...OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND...TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Monitoring and Enforcement...Islands, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands in...

2013-07-01

472

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI...

2009-04-01

473

The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula  

SciTech Connect

The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL

2011-01-01

474

Percentage Composition and Empirical Formula--A New View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the logical relationship between percentage composition and an empirical formula using a technique that depends on determining a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the mass percent of each element. (DDR)

Gilbert, George L.

1998-01-01

475

The elusive universal post-mortem interval formula.  

PubMed

The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy. PMID:20554133

Vass, Arpad A

2011-01-30

476

Design formulas for generalized 180 deg hybrid ring couplers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design formulas for a generalized 180 deg hybrid ring coupler are presented. Features allowing both compact size and wide bandwidth are outlined. A design procedure is proposed and measurements are presented.

Murgulescu, M.-H.; Penard, E.; Zaquine, I.

1994-03-01

477

Data Sharing of Mechanical Design Formulas Using Semantic Web Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speed and efficiency are necessary in the field of mechanical design. CAD/CAM/CAE technologies have advanced and attention has also been paid to increasing the efficiency of data sharing and agent processes in the web environment. In this paper, Semantic Web technology is used to enable the sharing of metadata. The metadata consists of design documents and design formulas, with additional semantic information inserted. Mathematical information is expressed by adding metadata into conventional mechanical design formulas using a Resource Description Framework (RDF). The design formulas are later written in MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) for the sake of data sharing. In this way, data sharing and advanced searching is made easy, because the relevant information is made machine readable in the web environment. The calculation of design formulas is made possible using a mathematical processing system, thus increasing the efficiency of mechanical design.

Zhou, Jun; Watanuki, Keiichi

478

Readability Formulas as Applied to College Economics Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Determines from empirical information on the application of four readability formulas to a group of widely used college economics textbooks that there is no consistency in the absolute reading levels or the rank orderings of these books. (AEA)|

McConnell, Campbell R.

1982-01-01

479

Dilute Suspensions near Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precise account of particle-wall hydrodynamic interactions is important for modelling the motion of dilute suspensions near walls. Particles considered here are solid, spherical and small enough for the Reynolds number of the flow around each particle to be small compared with unity. At first order in Reynolds number, Stokes equations apply. Ambient flow fields are expressed as polynomials in terms of the coordinates. Various flow fields perturbed by a spherical particle near a wall may be superimposed by linearity of Stokes equations. Their solutions are recalled; they were calculated with the bispherical coordinates technique, providing precise results for the drag and torque on a particle. For particles in a gas, particle inertia may be important even though for low Reynolds number fluid inertia is negligible. It is shown that collision of a particle on a wall is not possible in creeping flow even if particle inertia is not negligible. At second order in the low Reynolds number, a small fluid inertia appears. For a sphere moving in a linear shear flow and a quadratic shear flow along a wall, there is then a lift force. The various pair couplings between sphere translation, rotation and the shear flows provide contributions to the lift. For a particle moving normal to a wall in a quiescent fluid at constant velocity, fluid inertia provides steady and unsteady contributions to the drag force.

Feuillebois, F.; Yahiaoui, S.

2008-10-01

480

Moving walls accelerate mixing.  

PubMed

Mixing in viscous fluids is challenging, but chaotic advection in principle allows efficient mixing. In the best possible scenario, the decay rate of the concentration profile of a passive scalar should be exponential in time. In practice, several authors have found that the no-slip boundary condition at the walls of a vessel can slow down mixing considerably, turning an exponential decay into a power law. This slowdown affects the whole mixing region, and not just the vicinity of the wall. The reason is that when the chaotic mixing region extends to the wall, a separatrix connects to it. The approach to the wall along that separatrix is polynomial in time and dominates the long-time decay. However, if the walls are moved or rotated, closed orbits appear, separated from the central mixing region by a hyperbolic fixed point with a homoclinic orbit. The long-time approach to the fixed point is exponential, so an overall exponential decay is recovered, albeit with a thin unmixed region near the wall. PMID:22060498

Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Dauchot, Olivier

2011-09-20

481

Analyzing power formula and application to low energy nuclear reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

General formulas of analyzing powers in nuclear reactions are derived in a model-independent way, decomposing the analyzing powers by the rank of tensors in the spin space by the invariant-amplitude method. The validity of the formulas is examined in low energy reactions, the 3He(d-->,p)4He reaction at the 430-keV resonance and 1H(d-->,gamma)3He reactions at energies below 80 keV, for which the

M. Tanifuji; H. Kameyama

1999-01-01

482

Biopterin and neopterin in various milks and infant formulas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopterin and neopterin concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography in milks of man, cow, rabbit, cat, and rat and in commercial formulas widely used in North America. There was wide variation of concentration among species. Higher concentrations of biopterin were present in human milk (392.0 ± 158.6 pmol\\/ml) than were present in all milk formulas analyzed (2.6-50.6

Yoichi Matsubara; Gerald E Gaull

483

Deser-Goldberger-Baumann-Thirring formula for ?-p atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent measurement of the level shift in the ?-p atom obtains a value in apparent contradiction with the currently accepted ?-p scattering length. The inferred equivalence of level shift and scattering length involved the use of the Deser-Goldberger-Baumann-Thirring formula. We have checked this formula for the case of ?-p atoms and find that it is accurate well beyond the degree of the present discrepancy. Thus the disagreement between the recent experiment and previous analyses persists.

Kaufmann, W. B.; Gibbs, W. R.

1987-02-01

484

A trade-off formula in designing asymmetric neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that for asymmetric neural networks the symmetric degree ? of the synaptic coupling can be related to the two main network parameters, the storage capacity ? and another designing parameter ? by the formula ? = ??2. Such a relation has been well verified by the simulations of our neural network designing. The formula suggests that we cannot improve the network performances by tuning the parameters ? and ? simultaneously. The result may provide useful information for optimizing the designing of asymmetric neural networks.

Xiong, Daxing; Zhao, Hong

2013-11-01

485

A Formulae-as-Types Notion of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programming language Scheme contains the con- trol construct call\\/cc that allows access to the cur- rent continuation (the current control context). This, in effect, provides Scheme with first-class labels and jumps. We show that the well-known formulae-as- types correspondence, which relates a constructive proof of a formula a to a program of type (Y, can be extended to a

Timothy G. Griffin

1990-01-01

486

Microscopic formula for transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics.  

PubMed

The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient, and corresponding relaxation times. PMID:17677204

Koide, T

2007-06-21

487

Anti-diabetic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine formula.  

PubMed

An anti-diabetic TCM formula consisting of Schizandra chinensis Baill. (SC), Coptis chinensis (CC), Psidium guajava L. leaves (PG) and Morus alba L. leaves (MA) was developed based on its ?-glucosidase, DPP-4 and AGE inhibitory activities in vitro using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the in vivo study was carried out to confirm the anti-diabetic function of the formula. RSM results showed that the optimum anti-diabetic TCM formula is the combination SC (3000 ?g mL(-1)), CC (80 ?g mL(-1)), PG (374.56 ?g mL(-1)) and MA (480 ?g mL(-1)). For the in vivo study, insulin resistant mice were induced by high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) feeding for 6 weeks. Administration of the developed formula significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose in the HF/HS diet mice. Moreover, the formula decreased blood glucose levels in the insulin tolerance test. These results indicated that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the formula might be due to decreased insulin resistance. The serum fructosamine level in the high dose group was significantly lower than the HF/HS and normal control groups, indicating that the formula could improve middle term glucose levels and reduce the risk of complications. The contents of berberine and 1-deoxynojirimycin in the formula were 4.7 ± 0.4 and 77.1 ± 1.1 ?g mL(-1), respectively. These two compounds can be used as indicators for quality control during production. PMID:22899105

Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang

2012-11-01

488

A rational surgery formula for the LMO invariant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We write a formula for the LMO invariant of a rational homology sphere presented as a rational surgery on a link inS\\u000a 3. Our main tool is a careful use of the Århus integral and the (now proven) “Wheels” and “Wheeling” conjectures of B-N, Garoufalidis,\\u000a Rozansky and Thurston. As steps, side benefits and asides we give explicit formulas for the

Dror Bar-Natan; Ruth Lawrence

2004-01-01

489

Microscopic formula for transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient, and corresponding relaxation times.

Koide, T.

2007-06-01

490

Computational aspects of Worm-Like-Chain interpolation formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the polynomial Worm-Like-Chain (WLC) interpolation formula introduced in [C. Bouchiat, M.D. Wang, J.-F. Allemand, T. Strick, S.M. Block, V. Croquette, Estimating the persistence length of a Worm-Like Chain molecule from force–extension measurements, Biophys. J. 76 (1) (1999) 409–413] in order to improve data fitting with respect to the WLC interpolation formula in [C. Bustamante, J.F. Marko, E.D.

Ray W. Ogden; Giuseppe Saccomandi; Ivonne Sgura

2007-01-01

491

Specific heats of dilute neon inside a long single-walled carbon nanotube  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elegant formula for coordinates of carbon atoms in a unit cell of a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) is presented and the potential of neon (Ne) inside an infinitely long SWNT is analytically derived under the condition of the Lennard-Jones potential between Ne and carbon atoms. Specific heats of dilute Ne inside a long (20, 20) SWNT are calculated at different

Z. C. Tu; Z. C. Ou-Yang

2003-01-01

492

Role of mandrel in NC precision bending process of thin-walled tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin-walled tube NC bending process is a much complex physical process with multi-factors coupling interactive effects. The mandrel is the key to improve bending limit and to achieve high quality. In this study, one analytical model of the mandrel (including mandrel shank and balls) has been established and some reference formulas have been deduced in order to select the

Li Heng; Yang He; Zhan Mei; Sun Zhichao; Gu Ruijie

2007-01-01

493

The effects of rinsing enteral delivery sets on formula contamination.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether rinsing enteral delivery sets before formula addition affects formula contamination. Both a simulated and a clinical phase were conducted. In the simulated phase, Osmolite (Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH) was infused continuously through 52 delivery sets into a flask via enteral infusion pumps for 24 hours. The delivery sets were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size. One group was rinsed with tap water before new formula was added at 8 and 16 hours, and the other group was not rinsed. At 8, 16, and 24 hours, samples of formula were collected from the delivery sets, and bacteria counts were obtained. In the clinical phase, 23 critically ill patients receiving Osmolite continuously were randomly assigned to a rinse or no-rinse group. The same formula addition and rinse protocol from phase I was used. Formula samples were obtained at 24 hours. In both phases, there were no significant differences between the rinse and no-rinse groups with respect to bacteria counts at any time period. The findings suggest that rinsing may be unnecessary if delivery sets are used continuously for 24 hours or less; however, the possibility of a type II error because of the small sample size of this study must be recognized. PMID:9016145

Kohn-Keeth, C; Shott, S; Olree, K

1996-12-01

494

NMR investigations of Li(+) ion dynamics in the NASICON ionic conductors [Formula: see text].  

PubMed

NMR studies of (7)Li and (31)P nuclei are reported in the 150-900 K temperature range for the [Formula: see text] NASICON compounds with x = 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.3. Magic angle spinning (MAS mode) experiments were performed at room temperature on the (7)Li and (31)P nuclei. The linewidth and the spin lattice relaxation times of these nuclei are studied versus temperature in the static mode. The spectra recorded in the MAS mode show that the (7)Li ions occupy three chemical sites, the occupation of which being very sensitive to the x values but not sensitive to the coexistence of the two varieties [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] observed at room temperature in compounds with x?0.5. On the other hand, the (31)P nucleus MAS spectra are very sensitive to lithium content but also to the variety coexistence. T(1) measurements were performed in a static mode on the (7)Li and (31)P nuclei. In all the compounds, the (7)Li spin lattice relaxation time exhibits two branches with several minima, indicating the complex dynamics for this ion. One of these minima appears in the same temperature range as the minimum of the (31)P nucleus T(1), strongly suggesting a cross-relaxation process between these nuclei. T(1?) measurements on (7)Li (static mode) allow us to show a slow motion different from the one probed by the T(1). The analysis of the T(1?) behaviour with temperature and composition allows us to ascribe the motion probed by this time to the oxygen ion motion which monitors the opening and closing of the lithium pathways. A qualitative interpretation of the (7)Li  T(1) results is done; it takes into account the cross-relaxation phenomena between (31)P and (7)Li and quadrupolar fluctuations. PMID:21825419

Barré, Maud; Emery, Joël; Florian, Pierre; Le Berre, Françoise; Crosnier-Lopez, Marie-Pierre; Fourquet, Jean-Louis

2009-03-30

495

Resistance formulas in hydraulics-based models for routing debris flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The one-dimensional, cross-section-averaged flow equations formulated for routing debris flows down a narrow valley are identical to those for clear-water flow, except for the differences in the values of the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor, resistance coefficient, and friction slope. Though these flow parameters for debris flow in channels with cross-sections of arbitrary geometric shape can only be determined empirically, the theoretical values of such parameters for debris flow in wide channels exist. This paper aims to derive the theoretical resistance coefficient and friction slope for debris flow in wide channels using a rheological model for highly-concentrated, rapidly-sheared granular flows, such as the generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model. Formulating such resistance coefficient or friction slope is equivalent to developing a generally applicable resistance formula for routing debris flows. Inclusion of a nonuniform term in the expression of the resistance formula proves useful in removing the customary assumption that the spatially varied resistance at any section is equal to what would take place with the same rate of flow passing the same section under conditions of uniformity. This in effect implies an improvement in the accuracy of unsteady debris-flow computation.

Chen, Cheng-lung; Ling, Chi-Hai

1997-01-01

496

78 FR 15374 - Notice of Formula Allocations and Program Requirements for Neighborhood Stabilization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ACTION: Notice of Formula Allocations...the ``Notice of Formula Allocations...formula, application process and program requirements...include the provision of corrective action(s) or sanctions among HUD's remedial...the Housing and Economic Recovery Act...

2013-03-11

497

21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107.220 Section 107.220 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of...

2013-04-01

498

27 CFR 20.118 - Rubbing alcohol general-use formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Rubbing alcohol general-use formula. 20.118 Section 20.118 Alcohol...DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.118 Rubbing alcohol...

2013-04-01

499

24 CFR 1000.302 - What are the definitions applicable for the IHBG formula?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the definitions applicable for the IHBG formula? 1000.302 Section 1000.302...AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.302 What are the definitions applicable for the IHBG formula? Allowable Expense Level...

2010-04-01

500

27 CFR 26.221 - Formulas for articles, eligible articles and products manufactured with denatured spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Formulas for articles, eligible articles and...FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.221 Formulas for articles, eligible articles...

2009-04-01