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1

Wall Crossing, Quivers and Crystals  

E-print Network

We study the spectrum of BPS D-branes on a Calabi-Yau manifold using the 0+1 dimensional quiver gauge theory that describes the dynamics of the branes at low energies. The results of Kontsevich and Soibelman predict how the degeneracies change. We argue that Seiberg dualities of the quiver gauge theories, which change the basis of BPS states, correspond to crossing the "walls of the second kind." There is a large class of examples, including local del Pezzo surfaces, where the BPS degeneracies of quivers corresponding to one D6 brane bound to arbitrary numbers of D4, D2 and D0 branes are counted by melting crystal configurations. We show that the melting crystals that arise are a discretization of the Calabi-Yau geometry. The shape of the crystal is determined by the Calabi-Yau geometry and the background B-field, and its microscopic structure by the quiver Q. We prove that the BPS degeneracies computed from Q and Q' are related by the Kontsevich Soibelman formula, using a geometric realization of the Seiberg duality in the crystal. We also show that, in the limit of infinite B-field, the combinatorics of crystals arising from the quivers becomes that of the topological vertex. We thus re-derive the Gromov-Witten/Donaldson-Thomas correspondence.

Mina Aganagic; Kevin Schaeffer

2010-06-10

2

Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

Masahito Yamazaki

2010-02-09

3

Wall-crossing in coupled 2d-4d systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new wall-crossing formula which combines and generalizes the Cecotti-Vafa and Kontsevich-Soibelman formulas for supersymmetric 2d and 4d systems respectively. This 2d-4d wall-crossing formula governs the wall-crossing of BPS states in an {N}=2 supersymmetric 4d gauge theory coupled to a supersymmetric surface defect. When the theory and defect are compactified on a circle, we get a 3d theory with a supersymmetric line operator, corresponding to a hyperholomorphic connection on a vector bundle over a hyperkähler space. The 2d-4d wall-crossing formula can be interpreted as a smoothness condition for this hyperholomorphic connection. We explain how the 2d-4d BPS spectrum can be determined for 4d theories of class {S} , that is, for those theories obtained by compactifying the six-dimensional (0, 2) theory with a partial topological twist on a punctured Riemann surface C. For such theories there are canonical surface defects. We illustrate with several examples in the case of A 1 theories of class {S} . Finally, we indicate how our results can be used to produce solutions to the A 1 Hitchin equations on the Riemann surface C.

Gaiotto, Davide; Moore, Gregory W.; Neitzke, Andrew

2012-12-01

4

Wall-Crossing in Genus Zero Landau-Ginzburg Theory  

E-print Network

We study genus zero wall-crossing for a family of moduli spaces introduced recently by Fan-Farvis-Ruan. The family has a wall and chamber structure relative to a positive rational parameter. For a Fermat quasi-homogeneous polynomial W (not necessarily Calabi-Yau type), we study natural generating functions of invariants associated to these moduli spaces. Our wall-crossing formula relates the generating functions by showing that they all lie on the same Lagrangian cone associated to the Fan-Jarvis-Ruan-Witten theory of W. For arbitrarily small parameter, a specialization of our generating function is a hypergeometric series called the big I-function which determines the entire Lagrangian cone. As a special case of our wall-crossing, we obtain a new geometric interpretation of the Landau-Ginzburg mirror theorem.

Dustin Ross; Yongbin Ruan

2014-02-26

5

Framed BPS states, moduli dynamics, and wall-crossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate supersymmetric low energy dynamics for BPS dyons in strongly-coupled N = 2 Seiberg-Witten theories, and derive wall-crossing formulae thereof. For BPS states made up of a heavy core state and n probe (halo) dyons around it, we derive a reliable supersymmetric moduli dynamics with 3 n bosonic coordinates and 4 n fermionic superpartners. Attractive interactions are captured via a set of supersymmetric potential terms, whose detail depends only on the charges and the special Kähler data of the underlying N = 2 theories. The small parameters that control the approximation are not electric couplings but the mass ratio between the core and the probe, as well as the distance to the marginal stability wall where the central charges of the probe and of the core align. Quantizing the dynamics, we construct BPS bound states and derive the primitive and the semi-primitive wall-crossing formulae from the first principle. We speculate on applications to line operators and Darboux coordinates, and also about extension to supergravity setting.

Lee, Sungjay; Yi, Piljin

2011-04-01

6

Fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a general relation between the steady bubble-wall velocity set by friction effects at a first-order phase transition in a theory with a slightly nondegenerate potential, and an equilibrium correlation function in a theory where the potential is strictly degenerate. The correlation function is expressed through the imaginary, dissipative part of the equilibrium self-energy of the order parameter (a scalar field). We present a sample calculation in a model where parameters were chosen to justify the perturbative evaluation of the self-energy. Our estimate for the electroweak phase transition suggests that, if this transition is of first order, the bubble wall propagates at a nonrelativistic velocity.

Khlebnikov, S. Yu.

1992-10-01

7

Cross sections from computer experiments. [Hauser-Feshbach formula  

SciTech Connect

The use of the width fluctuation corrected Hauser-Feshbach formula is summarized and recent evidence which supports it as compared to other proposed formulas is reviewed. A new formula for the channel fluctuation degree of freedom parameter is given, and other recent developments are summarized.

Moldauer, P.A.

1980-01-01

8

Designing Precast Concrete Cross Wall Joints Against Progressive Collapse  

E-print Network

Designing Precast Concrete Cross Wall Joints Against Progressive Collapse Researcher: Mohamad concrete cross wall constructions. Ronan Point Collapse (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronan_Point) #12;Due gap is listed as follows: · Limited number of studies for designing precast concrete cross wall

Birmingham, University of

9

Instanton Correction, Wall Crossing And Mirror Symmetry Of Hitchin's Moduli Spaces  

E-print Network

We study two instanton correction problems of Hitchin's moduli spaces along with their wall crossing formulas. The hyperkahler metric of a Hitchin's moduli space can be put into an instanton-corrected form according to physicists Gaiotto, Moore and Neitzke. The problem boils down to the construction of a set of special coordinates which can be constructed as Fock-Goncharov coordinates associated with foliations of quadratic differentials on a Riemann surface. A wall crossing formula of Kontsevich and Soibelman arises both as a crucial consistency condition and an effective computational tool. On the other hand Gross and Siebert have succeeded in determining instanton corrections of complex structures of Calabi-Yau varieties in the context of mirror symmetry from a singular affine structure with additional data. We will show that the two instanton correction problems are equivalent in an appropriate sense via the identification of the wall crossing formulas in the metric problem with consistency conditions in the complex structure problem. This result provides examples of Calabi-Yau varieties where the instanton correction (in the sense of mirror symmetry) of metrics and complex structures can be determined.

Wenxuan Lu

2010-10-17

10

EFFECTS OF JOINT DETAILS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CROSS WALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclinometer readings of a deep excavation project are presented in this paper to show that joint details could have significant effects on the behavior of cross\\/buttress walls. It is found that both T-shaped and clean contact joints are capable of limiting the lateral displacement of perimeter diaphragm wall to less than 10 mm in this case. On the other hand,

Hsii-Sheng Hsieh; Yi-Chih Lu; Ting-Mei Lin

11

Cell Wall Antibiotics Provoke Accumulation of Anchored mCherry in the Cross Wall of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

A fluorescence microscopy method to directly follow the localization of defined proteins in Staphylococcus was hampered by the unstable fluorescence of fluorescent proteins. Here, we constructed plasmid (pCX) encoded red fluorescence (RF) mCherry (mCh) hybrids, namely mCh-cyto (no signal peptide and no sorting sequence), mCh-sec (with signal peptide), and mCh-cw (with signal peptide and cell wall sorting sequence). The S. aureus clones targeted mCh-fusion proteins into the cytosol, the supernatant and the cell envelope respectively; in all cases mCherry exhibited bright fluorescence. In staphylococci two types of signal peptides (SP) can be distinguished: the +YSIRK motif SPlip and the ?YSIRK motif SPsasF. mCh-hybrids supplied with the +YSIRK motif SPlip were always expressed higher than those with ?YSIRK motif SPsasF. To study the location of the anchoring process and also the influence of SP type, mCh-cw was supplied on the one hand with +YSIRK motif (mCh-cw1) and the other hand with -YSIRK motif (mCh-cw2). MCh-cw1 preferentially localized at the cross wall, while mCh-cw2 preferentially localized at the peripheral wall. Interestingly, when treated with sub-lethal concentrations of penicillin or moenomycin, both mCh-cw1 and mCh-cw2 were concentrated at the cross wall. The shift from the peripheral wall to the cross wall required Sortase A (SrtA), as in the srtA mutant this effect was blunted. The effect is most likely due to antibiotic mediated increase of free anchoring sites (Lipid II) at the cross wall, the substrate of SrtA, leading to a preferential incorporation of anchored proteins at the cross wall. PMID:22253886

Yu, Wenqi; Gotz, Friedrich

2012-01-01

12

Sturdivan's formula revisited: MRI assessment of anterior chest wall thickness for injury risk prediction of blunt ballistic impact trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe thickness and composition of the chest wall are important quantities in multiparametric trauma models for the assessment of injury severity due to blunt ballistic chest impact. While ballistic parameters of non-penetrating projectiles can routinely be measured with high accuracy, data on the thickness of the anterior chest wall is unreliable. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to

Matthias Frank; Volker Schorge; Katrin Hegenscheid; Anselm Angermaier; Axel Ekkernkamp; Norbert Hosten; Ralf Puls; Soenke Langner

2011-01-01

13

Instantaneous response of elastic thin-walled structures with arbitrary open cross section to rapid heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized modeling and analysis approach of thermally-induced coupled vibrations of elastic thin-walled configurations with arbitrary open cross sections are presented in conjunction with a unified implicit transient methodology. Limited research appears in literature which takes into account the influence of rapid thermal heating effects on structures involving various forms of coupling. As a consequence, the dynamic response of such thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross section due to rapid heating are described here. Effects involving triple, double, and no coupling between bending and torsional vibrations caused by sudden heating on these structures are examined. Numerical test cases are presented which describe the influence of sudden heating on elastic thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross sections.

Chen, Xiaoqin; Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

1992-01-01

14

Cross-Linked Peptidoglycan Mediates Lysostaphin Binding to the Cell Wall Envelope of Staphylococcus aureus†  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus simulans bv. staphylolyticus secretes lysostaphin, a bacteriocin that cleaves pentaglycine cross bridges in the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. The C-terminal cell wall-targeting domain (CWT) of lysostaphin is required for selective binding of this bacteriocin to S. aureus cells; however, the molecular target for this was unknown. We used purified green fluorescent protein fused to CWT (GFP-CWT) to reveal species-specific association of the reporter with staphylococci. GFP-CWT bound S. aureus cells as well as purified peptidoglycan sacculi. The addition of cross-linked murein, disaccharides linked to interconnected wall peptides, blocked GFP-CWT binding to staphylococci, whereas murein monomers or lysostaphin-solubilized cell wall fragments did not. S. aureus strain Newman variants lacking the capacity for synthesizing polysaccharide capsule (capFO), poly-N-acetylglucosamine (icaAC), lipoprotein (lgt), cell wall-anchored proteins (srtA), or the glycolipid anchor of lipoteichoic acid (ypfP) bound GFP-CWT similar to wild-type staphylococci. A tagO mutant strain, defective in the synthesis of polyribitol wall teichoic acid attached to the cell wall envelope, displayed increased GFP-CWT binding. In contrast, a femAB mutation, reducing both the amount and the length of peptidoglycan cross-linking (monoglycine cross bridges), showed a dramatic reduction in GFP-CWT binding. Thus, the CWT domain of lysostaphin directs the bacteriocin to cross-linked peptidoglycan, which also serves as the substrate for its glycyl-glycine endopeptidase domain. PMID:16547033

Grundling, Angelika; Schneewind, Olaf

2006-01-01

15

Isodityrosine cross-linking mediates insolubilization of cell walls in Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic removal of the cell wall induces vegetative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells to transcribe wall genes and synthesize new hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) related to the extensins found in higher plant cell walls. A cDNA expression library made from such induced cells was screened with antibodies to an oligopeptide containing the (SP)x repetitive domains found in Chlamydomonas wall proteins. One of the selected cDNAs encodes an (SP)x-rich polypeptide that also displays a repeated YGG motif. Ascorbate, a peroxidase inhibitor, and tyrosine derivatives were shown to inhibit insolubilization of both the vegetative and zygotic cell walls of Chlamydomonas, suggesting that oxidative cross-linking of tyrosines is occurring. Moreover, insolubilization of both walls was concomitant with a burst in H2O2 production and in extracellular peroxidase activity. Finally, both isodityrosine and dityrosine were found in hydrolysates of the insolubilized vegetative wall layer. We propose that the formation of tyrosine cross-links is essential to Chlamydomonas HRGP insolubilization. PMID:7689882

Waffenschmidt, S; Woessner, J P; Beer, K; Goodenough, U W

1993-01-01

16

A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.

Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

2009-01-01

17

A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.

Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

2009-01-01

18

A study of cross-tie domain walls in cobalt using small-aperture Foucault imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of cross-tie domain wall seen in a cobalt film have been studied by Foucault imaging in the transmission electron microscope. The images are taken with a contrast-forming aperture that subtends a smaller angle than the angular deflections of the electron beam introduced by the magnetization in the sample. The small-aperture Foucault technique is implemented using lens settings that produce high magnification diffraction patterns and a television camera is used to improve the limited image magnifications that are associated with this operating mode. With a small aperture the magnetic induction vector can be assigned with greater accuracy to the bright regions in the Foucault image, and the real-space origins of diffraction features are easy to identify. For the two different types of cross-tie domain wall maps of the magnetic induction are constructed from a series of Foucault images, and diffraction streaks are identified as originating from the domain wall.

Daykin, A. C.; Kim, J. D.; Jakubovics, J. P.

1996-02-01

19

'Atometry': Retrieval of Quantitative Empirical Chemical Formulas of Inaccessible Substances through Metal Walls by Means of Elementary Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tagged 14 MeV neutrons from D + T arrow ? + n + 17.6 MeV, produced in a sealed-tube (120 KV DC accelerator), undergo inelastic scattering with nuclei X of the interrogated substance imbedded in 2 cm thick steel, 1 m away: n + X arrow X + ? + n'. Prompt ? rays (4 < E_? < 6.2 MeV), passing through steel are detected by a high purity germanium detector in coincidence with ('s from neutron production reaction. Gamma amplitudes from C, N, and O are digitized into a triangle whose axes are relative atomic concentrations - squared, C'^2, N'^2 and O'^2; intersection point yields the empirical chemical formula: C_C'N_N'O_O'. H is not measurable. Electronic imaging in x,y is obtained from position of ? (emitted at ~ 180^0 to n) detected by a phosphor; time-of-flight between ? and ? yields z. For urea (explosive simulant) alone and urea in steel shell we get: C1_(± .09) N2.02_(± 0.21) O_1(± .048) and C_1.08 (±.09) N_1.95(± 0.17) O_1(± 0.20), respectively; compared to the exact formula, CN_2OH_4. For SiO2 in soil, we get SiO_2.013.

Maglich, Bogdan C.; Powell, Charles W.; Kani, Kian; Beyerle, Albert; Scott, Dan W.; Maier, Michael; Tinsley, James; Hurley, Paul

1999-10-01

20

A Simple Formula for the Third Integral of Motion of Disk-crossing Stars in the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple analytical formula for an approximated third integral of motion associated with nearly equatorial orbits in the Galaxy: I_{3}=Z\\Sigma _{I}^{1/3}, where Z(R) is the vertical amplitude of the orbit at galactocentric distance R and ? I (R) is the integrated dynamical surface mass density of the disk, a quantity which has recently become measurable. We also suggest that this relation is valid for disk-crossing orbits in a wide variety of axially symmetric galactic models, which range from razor-thin disks to disks with non-negligible thickness, whether or not the system includes bulges and halos. We apply our formalism to a Miyamoto-Nagai model and to a realistic model for the Milky Way. In both cases, the results provide fits for the shape of nearly equatorial orbits which are better than the corresponding curves obtained by the usual adiabatic approximation when the orbits have vertical amplitudes comparable to the disk's scale height. We also discuss the role of this approximate third integral of motion in modified theories of gravity.

Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier

2014-05-01

21

Cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with energies up to 1 GeV: Analytical formulas  

SciTech Connect

Analytical formulas are presented for the easy calculation of cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of neutral atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. Each formula contains a number of parameters that are characteristic of the element, the active electron shell and the projectile particle. The values of these parameters were determined by fitting the cross section values in an extensive database that was calculated recently by means of a composite algorithm that combines the distorted-wave and plane-wave Born approximations. Tables of parameter values are given for all elements, from hydrogen (Z=1) to einsteinium (Z=99). The proposed analytical expressions yield ionization cross sections that agree with those in the numerical database to within about 1%, except for projectiles with near-threshold energies.

Bote, David [Facultat de Fisica (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Salvat, Francesc [Facultat de Fisica (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: cesc@ecm.ub.es; Jablonski, Aleksander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Powell, Cedric J. [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8370 (United States)

2009-11-15

22

Current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with a rectangular cross-section  

SciTech Connect

We performed micromagnetic simulations of the current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with rectangular cross-section. In the absence of the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, a threshold current, J{sub c} is required to drive the domain wall moving continuously. We find that J{sub c} is proportional to the maximum cross product of the demagnetization field and magnetization orientation of the domain wall and the domain wall width. With varying both the wire thickness and width, a minimum threshold current in the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} is obtained when the thickness is equivalent to the wire width. With the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, the calculated domain wall velocity {nu} equals to the adiabatic spin transfer velocity u when the current is far above the Walker limit J{sub w}. Below J{sub w}, {nu}=({beta}/{alpha})u, where {beta} is the nonadiabatic parameter and {alpha} is the damping factor. For different {beta}, we find the Walker limit can be scaled as J{sub w}=({alpha}/{beta}-{alpha})J{sub c}. Our simulations agree well with the one dimensional analytical calculation, suggesting the findings are the general behaviors of the systems in this particular geometry.

Ai, J. H.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Hu, An; Ding, H. F. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Rd., Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-11-01

23

Wall shear rates and stagnation mass transfer on a plate in axisymmetric and cross impinging jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a study on the wall shear rate and mass transfer of impinging jets on a flat plate in the vicinity of stagnation point. The performance of a cross-shaped orifice nozzle was compared with a reference convergent circular nozzle having similar equivalent diameter. An array of electrodiffusion micro probes inserted into the plate was used for wall shear rates measurements. Mass transfer in the impinging region was calculated from the measured wall shear rates for a Reynolds number around 5500 and over a range of streamwise distances between the nozzle and the impinging plane within 1 to 5 nozzle equivalent diameters. The most important observation in the present investigation is that the wall shear rates and the mass transfer in the impingement region of the cross-shaped orifice nozzle are up to 175% and 40%, respectively, higher than that of the convergent nozzle. The performance of the cross-shaped orifice jet is probably related to its particular vortex dynamics characteristic of the near exit region. All the results confirm that the jet passive control enhance the mass transfer.

Meslem, A.; Kristiawan, M.; Nastase, I.; Sobolik, V.

2012-11-01

24

Investigation of 14-15 MeV ( n, t) Reaction Cross-sections by Using New Evaluated Empirical and Semi-empirical Systematic Formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the hybrid reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study we have investigated asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 neutron incident energy. It has been discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained empirical and semi-empirical formulas by fitting two parameter for ( n, t) reactions were given. All calculated results have been compared with the experimental data and the other semi-empirical formulas.

Tel, E.; Ayd?n, A.; Kaplan, A.; ?arer, B.

2008-09-01

25

Developing steady laminar flow through uniform straight tubes with varying wall cross curvature.  

PubMed

Numerical calculations are used to determine not only the wall shear stress but also the entry length in a laminar steady flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid. The fluid is conveyed through rigid straight tubes with axially uniform cross sections, which mimic collapsed vessels. For each tube configuration, the "Navier-Stokes" equations are solved using the finite element method. The numerical tests are performed with the same value of the volume flow-rate whatever the tube configuration for three "Reynolds numbers". The wall shear stress is computed and determined along the axis of the tube, then the entry length is estimated by introducing two indexes by using: (i) the axial fluid velocity, and (ii) the wall shear stress. The results are analysed in order to exhibit the mechanical environment of cultured endothelial cells in the flow chamber for which the test conditions will be well-defined. For example, in a tube configuration where the opposite walls are in contact for which the inner perimeter and the area of the cross section are respectively given by 45 mm and 37.02 mm(2), the computed entry lengths with the criteria defined by (i) and (ii) are equals to about 118 and 126 mm, respectively for R(e0) = 500. PMID:15621652

Naili, S; Thiriet, M; Ribreau, C

2004-12-01

26

Notes on wall crossing and instanton in compactified gauge theory with matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the quantum effects on the Coulomb branch of SU(2) super-symmetric Yang-Mills with fundamental matters compactified on , and extract the explicit perturbative and leading non-perturbative corrections to the moduli space metric predicted from\\u000a the recent work of Gaiotto, Moore and Neitzke on wall-crossing [1]. We verify the predicted metric by computing the leading\\u000a weak coupling instanton contribution to

Heng-Yu Chen; Kirill Petunin

2010-01-01

27

Geochemistry of wall rock alteration at the Golden Cross deposit, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Cross is a volcanic-hosted, low-sulfidation, epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Hauraki Goldfield. Irrespective of the rock type (andesite versus dacite), hydrothermally altered wall rocks are enriched in K, Rb, As and Sb around Au-Ag mineralised veins of the Empire Vein System and stockwork. Sodium and Sr are strongly depleted around these veins, whereas Mg and Fe are locally depleted.

MP Simpson; JL Mauk

28

Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT). This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder in all children. Mean bladder wall thickness (MBWT) and mean bladder volume (BV) were also calculated. Results: In this study, we included 82 children (40 boys and 42 girls). Patients’ mean age was 6.43 ± 2.89 years, mean weight was 21.32 ± 8.40 kg, mean height was 111.57 ± 20.51 cm, and mean Body Mass Index was 17.12 ± 4.93. Mean lateral bladder wall thickness (LBWT) was 1.75 ± 0.32 mm and mean posterior bladder wall thickness (PBWT) was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. Mean BV was 111.65 ± 72.11 ml and MBWT was 1.67 ± 0.28 mm. BVW all Index (BVWI) was 1249.05 ± 701.67. Conclusions: LBWT was1.75 ± 0.32 mm and PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. PMID:25250302

Adibi, Atoosa; Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali

2014-01-01

29

Estimation of erosion/corrosion rate in pipe walls by cross-correlation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In process plants, most pipelines are subject to erosion and/or corrosion due to the presence of aggressive agents, turbulence, or high fluid velocity. Among other causes, changes in process parameters can be considered as an important cause of changes in pipe wall erosion/corrosion rate. Quick detection of these changes by continuous monitoring of the thinning rate of the pipe wall can help prevent further wall damage at early stages of development. In this paper, we apply the cross-correlation technique to ultrasonic signals for accurate estimation of fine changes in the erosion/corrosion rate. The resolution of the cross-correlation technique is increased by combining it with curve fitting methods. The technique is applied to experimental data obtained from a test rig designed for simulating accelerated corrosion in pipes. The results of the new approach are compared with results obtained from a model-based estimation method and very good agreement is observed. The new approach is simple and fast and can be easily incorporated in ultrasonic measurement systems used in process plants.

Honarvar, F.; Salehi, F.; Safavi, V.; Sinclair, A. N.

2012-05-01

30

New Evaluated Semi-Empirical Formula Using Optical Model for 14-15 MeV ( n, t) Reaction Cross Sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the next century the world will face the need for new energy sources. Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and thus will not contribute to global warming or acid rain. Achieving acceptable performance for a fusion power system in the areas of economics, safety and environmental acceptability, is critically dependent on performance of the blanket and diverter systems which are the primary heat recovery, plasma purification, and tritium breeding systems. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. The hybrid reactor is a combination of the fusion and fission processes. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, we have calculated non-elastic cross-sections by using optical model for ( n, t) reactions at 14-15 MeV energy. We have investigated the excitation function character and reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have obtained new coefficients for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including optical model nonelastic effects by fitting two parameters for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 MeV. We have discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained cross-section formulas with new coefficients have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Ayd?n, A.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Kaplan, A.; Okuducu, ?.

2009-12-01

31

IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS  

SciTech Connect

DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties. Currently, the genes underlying AX feruloylation have not been identified and the isolation of such genes could be of great importance in manipulating ferulates accretion to the wall. Mutation of the feruloyl transferase gene(s) should lead to less ferulates secreted to the cell wall and reduced ferulate cross-linking. Our current research is based on the hypothesis that controlling the level of total feruloylation will have a direct impact on the level of cross-linking and in turn impact biomass utility for forage and biofuel production. Our results/accomplishments for this project so far include: 1. Mutagenised Brachypodium population. We have developed EMS mutagenized populations of model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. EMS populations have been developed from over 28,000 mutagenized seeds generating 5,184 M2 families. A total of 20,793 plants have been screened and 1,233 were originally selected. 2. Selected Brachypodium mutants: Potential mutants on their levels of cell wall ferulates and cell wall AX ? have been selected from 708 M2 families. A total of 303 back-crosses to no-mutagenized parental stock have been done, followed by selfing selected genotypes in order to confirm heritability of traits and to remove extraneous mutations generated by EMS mutagenesis. We are currently growing 12 F5 and F6 populations in order to assess CW composition. If low level of ferulates are confirmed in the candidate lines selected the mutation could be altered in different in one or several kinds of genes such as genes encoding an AX feruloyl transferase; genes encoding the arabinosyl transferase; genes encoding the synthesis of the xylan backbone; genes encoding enzymes of the monolignol pathway affecting FA formation or genes encoding transcription factors that control feruloylation. So it will require further investigations to confirm if we have a mutation on the ferulloyltransferase gene(s). We have also identified severe phenotypes which showed a significant change in the level of cell wall ferulates and sugars and have not survived. As this genotype did not reach flowering stage there was no seed production and so further analysis could not be done. 3. Candidate Gene Approach: Because of the likely long time expected to generate and identify candidate with mutation(s) on the feruloyltransferase gene, from our screening, we have in addition taken a bioinformatics approach in order to try to identify candidates gene(s) involved in feruloylation. Homologues of the rice feruloyl transferase genes belonging to Pfam PF02458 family were identified in Brachypodium distachyon by blasting EST sequences of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes against Brachypodium and homologous sequences identified were tested for their expression level in Brachypodium. Sequences of the two Brachypodium genes, which showed highest expression and similarity to rice sequences, were used to design primers for construction of RNAi and over-expression vectors. These were transformed into Brachypodium using Agrobacterium transformation and plants generated have been analyzed for levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates over generations T0 to T2 or T3. Our data shows a significant reduction if ferulates monomers and dimers from plants generated from RNAi::BdAT2 over 2-3 generations indicating that this gene might be a positive candidate for feruloylation in Brachypodium. However when BdAT2 was up regulated there was not much increase in the level of ferulates as would be expected. This lack of effect on the level of cell wall ferulates could be due to the CaMV::35S promoter used to drive the expression of the putative BdAT2 gene. We have shown previously that Aspergillus FAEA expression in tall fescue under CaMV::35S resulted in 1.9 fold decrease in activity compared to ac

de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

2013-10-16

32

Wall paintings studied using Raman spectroscopy: a comparative study between various assays of cross sections and external layers.  

PubMed

This work describes a comparative study between in situ applications of portable Raman spectroscopy and direct laboratory measurements using micro-Raman spectroscopy on the surface of small samples and of cross sections. The study was performed using wall paintings from different sites of the Alcazar of Seville. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer due to the presence of an acrylic polymer, calcium oxalate, calcite and gypsum that was formed or deposited on the surface. The pigments responsible for different colours, except cinnabar, were not detected by the micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the surface of small samples taken from the wall paintings due to the presence of surface contaminants. The pigments and plaster were characterised using cross sections. The black colour consisted of carbon black. The red layers were formed by cinnabar and white lead or by iron oxides. The green and white colours were composed of green emerald or atacamite and calcite, respectively. Pb3O4 has also been characterised. The white layers (plaster) located under the colour layers consisted of calcite, quartz and feldspars. The fresco technique was used to create the wall paintings. A wall painting located on a gypsum layer was also studied. The Naples yellow in this wall painting was not characterised due to the presence of glue and oils. This study showed the advantage of studying cross sections to completely characterise the pigments and plaster in the studied wall paintings. PMID:24216251

Perez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Robador, Maria Dolores; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Siguenza, Belinda; Duran, Adrian

2014-01-01

33

Useful Analytical Formulae for Near-Field Monostatic Radar Cross Section Under the Physical Optics: Far-Field Criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar cross section (RCS) is usually defined in the far-field zone. In this case, RCS is independent of the range of the radar from the object. However, in several scenarios, like for military applications or measurements led in anechoic chambers, the object is located in the near-field zone. From the physical optics (PO) approximation and from some simplifying assumptions, this

Christophe Bourlier; Philippe Pouliguen

2009-01-01

34

Reconstitution of peptidoglycan cross-linking leads to improved fluorescent probes of cell wall synthesis.  

PubMed

The peptidoglycan precursor, Lipid II, produced in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis differs from Lipid II found in Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli by a single amidation on the peptide side chain. How this difference affects the cross-linking activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that assemble peptidoglycan in cells has not been investigated because B. subtilis Lipid II was not previously available. Here we report the synthesis of B. subtilis Lipid II and its use by purified B. subtilis PBP1 and E. coli PBP1A. While enzymes from both organisms assembled B. subtilis Lipid II into glycan strands, only the B. subtilis enzyme cross-linked the strands. Furthermore, B. subtilis PBP1 catalyzed the exchange of both D-amino acids and D-amino carboxamides into nascent peptidoglycan, but the E. coli enzyme only exchanged D-amino acids. We exploited these observations to design a fluorescent D-amino carboxamide probe to label B. subtilis PG in vivo and found that this probe labels the cell wall dramatically better than existing reagents. PMID:25036369

Lebar, Matthew D; May, Janine M; Meeske, Alexander J; Leiman, Sara A; Lupoli, Tania J; Tsukamoto, Hirokazu; Losick, Richard; Rudner, David Z; Walker, Suzanne; Kahne, Daniel

2014-08-01

35

Cell Wall Antibiotics Provoke Accumulation of Anchored mCherry in the Cross Wall of Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorescence microscopy method to directly follow the localization of defined proteins in Staphylococcus was hampered by the unstable fluorescence of fluorescent proteins. Here, we constructed plasmid (pCX) encoded red fluorescence (RF) mCherry (mCh) hybrids, namely mCh-cyto (no signal peptide and no sorting sequence), mCh-sec (with signal peptide), and mCh-cw (with signal peptide and cell wall sorting sequence). The S.

Wenqi Yu; Friedrich Götz

2012-01-01

36

Trajectory measurements of a wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step entering a cross-flow.  

PubMed

This study examines a horizontal wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step in a cross-flow. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments in a water channel indicate that the wall-jet flow after impinging onto the step, becomes a vertical jet with an elliptical cross section. Experiments indicate that the jet trajectory scales with the perimeter of the elliptical jet issuing vertically into the cross-flow. The trajectory consists of three regions: the near-field region which is well described by a power law with an exponent of 1/2, the mid-field region where the jet is fully bent over which is described by a power law with an exponent of 1/3, and a far-field region where the jet is dominated by the cross-flow. This paper provides a prediction of the plume behaviour based on the geometric and initial conditions of the jet (diameter, step height, distance from jet to step, and velocity ratio) alone. The Briggs entrainment model for a round jet was also used to predict the trajectories of the jet in the cross-flow. It was found that the entrainment coefficients, alpha and beta, for the elliptical jet case had average values of 0.15 and 0.58 respectively. PMID:20005038

Langer, D C; Fleck, B A; Wilson, D J

2010-04-15

37

Theoretical analyses of aerosol aging on a substrate without wall-effects by a cross-flow  

SciTech Connect

Long time ({approx}1 day) aging or reactions of aerosol is typically studied using either large aerosol chambers (> 10 m3) or particles supported on a substrate to minimize wall effects. To avoid wall effects in the latter, it is often essential that the wall reactivity be extremely small (<< 10-5 reactions per encounter) and that the particle loadings be very small (< 1 pg/cm2) to eliminate transport-limited trace gas depletion near the particles and substrate. We evaluate here a cross-flow approach, which greatly reduces these constraints. Particles are to be supported on a micromesh ({approx}50% or more open area) through which the reactive gas is drawn at around a few hundred cm/s. The analysis shows how the competitions between flow and diffusion establishes a 'zone of isolation' several microns wide around each reactive particle, outside of which the reactivity of other particles or the substrate are irrelevant to the local reactions. This cross-flow approach reduces the effects of substrate and collective particle reactivity typically orders of magnitude, and will facilitate aging studies of supported aerosols.

Cowin, James P.; Yang, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Iedema, Martin J.

2011-12-12

38

Aminoguanidine Prevents Diabetes-Induced Arterial Wall Protein Cross-Linking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-associated increases in collagen cross-linking and accumulation of advanced glycosylation products are both accelerated by diabetes, suggesting that glucose-derived cross-link formation may contribute to the development of chronic diabetic complications as well as certain physical changes of aging. Aminoguanidine, a nucleophilic hydrazine compound, prevented both the formation of fluorescent advanced nonenzymatic glycosylation products and the formation of glucose-derived collagen cross-links

M. Brownlee; H. Vlassara; A. Kooney; P. Ulrich; A. Cerami

1986-01-01

39

The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells

Axel Fleischer; M. A. ONeill; Rudolf Ehwald

1999-01-01

40

Tensile Properties of Arabidopsis Cell Walls Depend on Both a Xyloglucan Cross-Linked Microfibrillar  

E-print Network

Charles Smith*, Kim Findlay, Wolf-Dieter Reiter, and Maureen Caroline McCann2 Department of Food Materials Science, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UA, United Kingdom (P as a liquid-filled foam (Gibson and Ashby, 1996). Cell walls act as struts or beams: the conductivity of me

Reiter, Wolf-Dieter

41

Profiling of diferulates (plant cell wall cross-linkers) using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recalcitrance of grasses to enzymatic digestion arises to a significant degree from a complex array of phenolic crosslinks between cell wall polysaccharide chains that inhibit their conversion to biofuels and lower their nutritive value for animal feed applications. Polysaccharide esters of ferulic acid are abundant in plant cell walls. Crosslinks between polysaccharides are formed through oxidative dehydrodimerization of ferulates, producing dehydrodiferulates (henceforth termed diferulates). Such ferulates and diferulates further crosslink plant cell walls by radical coupling cross-reactions during lignification. Although cell wall digestibility can be improved by cell wall metabolic engineering, or post-harvest by various pretreatment processes, a more comprehensive understanding of the role and impact of ferulate crosslinking on polysaccharide hydrolysis would be accelerated by availability of analytical methods that can distinguish the various diferulates released during biomass pretreatments, many of which are isomers. In this report, we present an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) strategy for comprehensive separation and identification of diferulate isomers. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra of [M + H](+) ions distinguished various isomers without requiring derivatization. Characteristic product ions for 8-O-4-, 8-8-non-cyclic, 8-8-cyclic, 8-5-cyclic, 8-5-non-cyclic, and 5-5-linked isomers were identified. All diferulates were identified either as di-acids in extracts of NaOH-hydrolyzed corn stover, or as a diverse group of diferulate mono- and di-amides in extracts of Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX™)-treated corn stover. This approach allows for direct analysis of released diferulates with minimal sample preparation, and can serve as the foundation for high-throughput profiling and correlating pretreatment conditions with biomass digestibility in biorefineries producing biofuels and biochemicals. PMID:24040649

Vismeh, Ramin; Lu, Fachuang; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Humpula, James F; Azarpira, Ali; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Ralph, John; Jones, A Daniel

2013-11-01

42

Inlet turbulence intensity level and cross-stream distribution effects on the heat transfer in plane wall jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the turbulence intensity level and its cross-stream distribution at the inlet on the numerical prediction of the heat transfer in a two-dimensional turbulent-wall jet was investigated. The investigation was carried out within the framework of the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model. The predicted Nusselt number showed the influence of the turbulence intensity level and its cross-stream distribution at the inlet to be significant but restricted to the first 15 slot widths from the inlet slot. Beyond this location, all the predictions were observed to collapse onto a single curve which exhibited a maximum over-prediction of about 30 percent when compared with the available experimental data.

Adeniji-Fashola, A. A.

1989-01-01

43

Bubble Formation on a Wall in Cross-Flowing Liquid and Surrounding Fluid Motion,With and Without Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems for space-based thermal management and for the HEDS program demands a precise control of bubble size distribution in liquid. The necessity of bulk liquid motion for controlling bubble size and frequency in the space environment has been suggested by recent studies on pool, forced convection boiling and bubble formation in flowing liquid. The present work, consisting of two parts, explores bubble generation at wall in a cross-flowing liquid, i.e., in a forced convection boiling configuration. A schematic is shown. The first part looks into the bubble formation process under isothermal conditions in a reduced gravity environment, by injecting gas through a hole in the wall of a flowing liquid channel. In the latter part with channel wall heating, flow and temperature fields near a single bubble are studied under normal (1-g) and micro-gravity (mu-g) conditions. The objective of the isothermal experiments is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross-flow velocity, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter on bubble formation. Data were taken mainly under reduced gravity conditions but some data were taken in normal gravity for comparison. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted aboard the NASA DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The results show that the process of bubble formation and detachment depends on gravity, the orifice diameter (D(sub N)), the gas flow rate (Q(sub g)), and the liquid cross-flow velocity (U(sub L)). The reduced gravity data are shown. The data are analyzed based on a force balance, and two different detachment mechanisms are identified. When the gas momentum is large, the bubble detaches from the injection orifice as the gas momentum overcomes the attaching effects of liquid drag and inertia. The surface tension force is much reduced because a large part of the bubble pinning edge at the orifice is lost as the bubble axis is tilted by the liquid flow. When the gas momentum is small, the force balance in the liquid flow direction is important, and the bubble detaches when the bubble axis inclination exceeds a certain angle. With wall heating, liquid motion around an air bubble in cross-flowing 2cs silicone oil is experimentally investigated in 1-g. A spectral element based steady 2D numerical model is also developed. The traces of particles from experimental flow visualization and the corresponding computed streamlines are shown. At the upstream side of the bubble facing the cross-flow, thermocapillary and forced convection create liquid motion away from the wall, up along the surface. At the downstream side, a competing interaction between the two creates a recirculation cell, causing the bulk liquid to stagnate on the surface and separate thereafter. The important dimensionless parameters are - Surface tension and local cross-flow Reynolds numbers R(sub sigma)(U(sub ref)a/v) and Re(sub loc)(U(sub L)a/v), respectively based on reference thermocapillary U(sub ref)(sigma(sub T)Delta.T/mu, Delta T=T(sub wall)-T(sub liquid)) and local cross-flow velocity U(sub L), Prandtl number P(sub r) and Grashoff number Gr(rho.g.beta.DeltaTa(sup 3)/mu.v). Variation of the stagnation point with R(sub sigma) and Re(sub loc) is shown. Also shown are good agreement between experimental and numerical results in 1-g. The computational model is extended to mu-g condition to investigate temperature and velocity on the bubble surface, stagnation and reattachment points of the recirculation cell and wall heat transfer. It is observed that wall heating significantly alters the flow field around the bubble and thus the forces acting on the bubble, which control its detachment. Thus a combination of heating and liquid cross-flow can be utilized to precisely control bubble formation in a mu-g environment.

Bhunia, Avijit; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Nahra, Henry K.

2000-01-01

44

Cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte containing multi-wall carbon nanotubes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte composed of poly (ethylene oxide-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl glycidyl ether-co-allyl glycidyl ether, ?-butyrolactone, LiI and I2, mixed with functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The electrolyte was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, conductivity measurements and Raman spectroscopy. Due to its nature, the terpolymer was chemically cross-linked during DSSC assembly to give rise to quasi-solid state solar cells. The gel polymer electrolyte containing 1 wt% of MWCNT exhibited conductivity values higher than 10-3 S cm-1. An increase in MWCNT content provided a smaller concentration of polyiodide species, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The highest photocurrent (8.74 mA cm-2) was achieved by DSSC based on the cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte containing 1 wt% of MWCNT compared to DSSC based on non-cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes (7.93 mA cm-2). The incorporation of 3 wt% of MWCNT into the gel polymer electrolyte promoted a decrease in both Jsc and Voc, probably due to poorer light transmittance of the electrolyte in the visible range and higher charge recombination losses, respectively. Thus, the highest efficiency in this work was achieved by using electrolyte containing 1 wt% of MWCNT. After the cross-linking process, the dimensional stability of the gel composite electrolyte was improved and the conversion efficiency of DSSC was only slightly affected, changing from 3.37% (before cross-linking) to 3.35%.

Benedetti, João E.; Corrêa, Aline A.; Carmello, Mayara; Almeida, Luiz C. P.; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S.; Nogueira, Ana F.

2012-06-01

45

Photoluminescence studies of cross-polarized absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama  

E-print Network

Maruyama Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-shapes are compared with cross-polarized version of the Kataura plot. References: [1] S. Maruyama and Y. Miyauchi, AIP Conf. Proc. 786, 2005, 100-105. [2] Y. Miyauchi and S. Maruyama, cond-mat/0508232. [3] V. Perebeinos, J

Maruyama, Shigeo

46

Noncovalent functionalization of DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes with platinum-based DNA cross-linkers.  

PubMed

A method for noncovalent functionalization of DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using platinum-based DNA cross-linkers is investigated. In particular, cisplatin and potassium tetrachloroplatinate are shown to bind to DNA that encapsulates SWNTs in aqueous solution. The bound platinum salt can then be reduced to decorate the DNA-encapsulated SWNTs with platinum nanoparticles. The resulting SWNT/DNA/Pt hybrids are investigated by optical absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The unique combination of catalytic activity of nanoscale platinum, biological functionality of DNA, and optoelectronic properties of SWNTs suggests a myriad of applications including fuel cells, catalysts, biosensors, and electrochemical devices. PMID:18646876

Ostojic, Gordana N; Ireland, John R; Hersam, Mark C

2008-09-01

47

The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II  

SciTech Connect

The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.

Fleischer, A.; O'Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.

1999-11-01

48

A formula used to subtract the effect of gamma-ray of the others to that of measured reaction in measurement of cross section of nuclear reaction and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the regulation of growing and decay of artificial radioactive nuclide, a formula used to subtract the effect of characteristic ?-ray of the others to that of measured reaction was deduced. And then the cross sections of 120Te (n, 2n)119mTe reaction induced by neutrons around 14 MeV were measured by activation relative to the 93Nb (n, 2n)92mNb. In the process of the cross sections measured to be calculated, it was subtracted that the effect of characteristic ?-ray of 126Te (n, p)126Sb to that of measured 120Te (n, 2n)119mTe reaction using the formula deduced. The experimental results were (689±37) and (750±41) mb at the neutron energies of (13.5±0.3) and (14.6±0.3) MeV, respectively. Measurements were carried out by ?-detection using a coaxial HPGe detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure tellurium powder has been used. The fast neutrons were produced by the T(d, n)4He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements were determined by the method of cross-section ratios between 90Zr (n, 2n) 89m+gZr and 93Nb (n, 2n) 92mNb reactions. Supported by Program for Science & Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province, China (2008 HASTIT032) and Scientific Research Start up Outlay of High-Position Talent in Pingdingshan University in Henan Province, China

Zhou, Feng-Qun; Yang, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Wei-Feng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Fang; Tuo, Fei; Kong, Xiang-Zhong

2008-11-01

49

Absorption cross section and interfacial thermal conductance from an individual optically excited single-walled carbon nanotube.  

PubMed

The heat generation and dissipation of an individual optically excited metallic single-walled carbon nanotube is characterized using a thermal sensor thin film of Al(0.94)Ga(0.06)N embedded with Er(3+). The absorption cross section from an individual SWCNT excited at 532 nm is revealed from the steady-state temperature of the thermal sensor film. A maximum temperature of 4.3 K is observed when the SWCNT is excited with parallel polarization and an average intensity of 7 × 10(10) W/m(2). From this temperature measurement, we determine an absorption cross section for the SWCNT of 9.4 × 10(-17) m(2)/?m using parallel polarization and 2.4 × 10(-17) m(2)/?m for perpendicular polarization. We establish a temperature difference between the SWCNT and the substrate of 315 K by converting the G band shift of the SWCNT into the local SWCNT temperature and scaling the measured film temperature to the local non-resolution-limited temperature rise. From the temperature difference and heat flux, we deduce a value of 6.6 MW/m(2)·K for the thermal interfacial conductance of a SWCNT sitting on a thin film of amorphous Al(0.94)Ga(0.06)N. PMID:21834578

Wang, Dan; Carlson, Michael T; Richardson, Hugh H

2011-09-27

50

Flow Characteristics and Spillage Mechanisms of Wall-Mounted and Jet-Isolated Range Hoods Subject to Influence from Cross Draft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of draft on the flow and spillage characteristics of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were investigated. A specially designed draft generator that could supply low-swirl air current was used to provide “cross draft” from three directions, lateral (? = 0), oblique (? = 45), and front (? = 90), with respect to the center point of the range

Jia-Kun Chen; Rong Fung Huang; Kuan-Lin Peng

2012-01-01

51

LytN, a Murein Hydrolase in the Cross-wall Compartment of Staphylococcus aureus, Is Involved in Proper Bacterial Growth  

E-print Network

LytN, a Murein Hydrolase in the Cross-wall Compartment of Staphylococcus aureus, Is Involved of the staphylococcal cell cycle. Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections, sepsis Staphylococ- cus aureus requires the coordinated synthesis and remodeling of peptidoglycan. The majority

52

Using surface and cross-hole resistivity tomography in an urban environment: An example of imaging the foundations of the ancient wall in Thessaloniki, North Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the application of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique, in both surface and cross-hole modes, for subsurface exploration in an urban environment. The objective was to image the foundations of the Thessaloniki city walls (Region of Macedonia, North Greece) at locations that will be affected by the construction of a new underground Metro line. The surface ERT survey was performed along lines crossing directly over the wall on areas where it had partly collapsed. ERT surveys were also applied at places where the main over ground structure of the walls had been completely destroyed and what is left now is primarily only the ancient subsurface foundations. In addition, the present day ground surface is partially covered by concrete pavement slabs. In both cases, nonconventional electrodes were partially used to carry out a number of ERTs on the ground surface. This was necessary in order not to destroy the pavement slabs and most importantly not to damage in any way the monuments. An example of cross-hole ERT is also presented. Cross-hole ERTs were conducted because detailed measurements employing surface ERT were not possible due to limitations imposed by the urban environment. The way that the boreholes were instrumented is also presented. The combined surface and borehole tomographies produced images of the buried structures allowing the assessment of their geometrical shape and of the dimensions of the foundations of the ancient wall.

Tsokas, G. N.; Tsourlos, P. I.; Vargemezis, G. N.; Pazaras, N. Th.

53

Effect of Activation Cross Section Uncertainties on the Radiological Assessment of the MFE/DEMO First Wall  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 60}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.

Cabellos, O; Reyes, S; Sanz, J; Rodriguez, A; Youssef, M; Sawan, M

2005-05-10

54

A reduced model for domain walls in soft ferromagnetic films at the cross-over from symmetric to asymmetric wall types  

E-print Network

We study the Landau-Lifshitz model for the energy of multi-scale transition layers -- called "domain walls" -- in soft ferromagnetic films. Domain walls separate domains of constant magnetization vectors $m^\\pm \\in \\mathbb{S}^2$ that differ by an angle $2\\alpha$. Assuming translation invariance tangential to the wall, our main result is the rigorous derivation of a reduced model for the energy of the optimal transition layer, which in a certain parameter regime confirms the experimental, numerical and physical predictions: The minimal energy splits into a contribution from an asymmetric, divergence-free core which performs a partial rotation in $\\mathbb{S}^2$ by an angle $2\\theta$, and a contribution from two symmetric, logarithmically decaying tails, each of which completes the rotation from angle $\\theta$ to $\\alpha$ in $\\mathbb{S}^1$. The angle $\\theta$ is chosen such that the total energy is minimal. The contribution from the symmetric tails is known explicitly, while the contribution from the asymmetric core is analyzed in [7]. Our reduced model is the starting point for the analysis of a bifurcation phenomenon from symmetric to asymmetric domain walls. Moreover, it allows for capturing asymmetric domain walls including their extended tails (which were previously inaccessible to brute-force numerical simulation).

Lukas Döring; Radu Ignat; Felix Otto

2013-09-10

55

Designing State Aid Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

2009-01-01

56

Higher Education Funding Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

1999-01-01

57

Cross-hole radar scanning of two vertical, permeable, reactive-iron walls at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A pilot-scale study was conducted by the U.S. Army National Guard (USANG) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to assess the use of a hydraulic-fracturing method to create vertical, permeable walls of zero-valent iron to passively remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The study was conducted near the source area of the Chemical Spill-10 (CS-10) plume, a plume containing chlorinated solvents that underlies the MMR. Ground-water contamination near the source area extends from about 24 m (meters) to 35 m below land surface. The USANG designed two reactive-iron walls to be 12 m long and positioned 24 to 37 m below land surface to intersect and remediate part of the CS-10 plume.Because iron, as an electrical conductor, absorbs electromagnetic energy, the US Geological Survey used a cross-hole common-depth, radar scanning method to assess the continuity and to estimate the lateral and vertical extent of the two reactive-iron walls. The cross-hole radar surveys were conducted in boreholes on opposite sides of the iron injection zones using electric-dipole antennas with dominant center frequencies of 100 and 250 MHz. Significant decreases in the radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans that traversed the injection zones were interpreted by comparing field data to results of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical models and laboratory-scale physical models.The numerical and physical models simulate a wall of perfectly conducting material embedded in saturated sand. Results from the numerical and physical models show that the amplitude of the radar pulse transmitted across the edge of a conductive wall is about 43 percent of the amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted across background material. The amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted through a hole in a conductive wall increases as the aperture of the hole increases. The modeling results indicate that holes with an aperture of less than 40 percent of the dominant wavelength of the radar pulse are not likely to be detected.Based on the results of the numerical and physical modeling, the decreases in radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans traversing the injection zones are interpreted as electrically conductive zones that outline the distribution of iron. The area interpreted as iron in the northern A-wall contains two zones -- an upper zone about 10 m wide, extending from about 25 to 31 m below land surface, and a lower zone about 8 m wide, extending from 31.5 to 34.5 m below land surface. The area interpreted as iron in the southern B-wall is about 9 m wide, extending from about 27 to 34.5 m below land surface. No discrete holes were interpreted in either the A- or B-wall zones.The interpretation of the field data suggests that (1) the hydraulic-fracturing method introduced iron into the subsurface, but not in the dimensions originally proposed; (2) the iron within the treatment zones is distributed in a generally continuous manner; and (3) excluding the discontinuity in the A-wall, holes within the iron treatment zone, if any, exist at scales smaller than about 10 cm, the resolution limit of the radar antennas and acquisition geometry used for this study. The cross-hole radar method appears to have been an effective method for delineating the distribution of iron in the two walls; however, the veracity of the results cannot be ascertained without excavation or drilling into the treatment zone.

Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Savoie, J.G.

2001-01-01

58

QTLs for agronomic and cell wall traits in a maize RIL progeny derived from a cross between an old Minnesota13 line and a modern Iodent line.  

PubMed

In order to contribute to the inventory of genomic areas involved in maize cell wall lignification and degradability, QTL analyses were investigated in a RIL progeny between an old Minnesota13 dent line (WM13) and a modern Iodent line (RIo). Significant variation for agronomic- and cell wall-related traits was observed for the RIL per se (plants without ears) and topcross (whole plants) experiments after crossing with both old (Ia153) and modern tester (RFl) lines. Three QTLs for stover (plant without ear) yield were observed in per se experiments, with alleles increasing yield originating from RIo in two genomic locations with the highest effects. However, no QTL for whole plant yield was detected in topcross experiments, despite the fact that two QTLs for starch content were shown with increasing alleles originating from the modern RIo line. Fifteen lignin QTLs were shown, including a QTL for Klason lignins in per se experiments, located in bin 2.04, which explained 43 % of the observed genetic variation. Thirteen QTLs for p-hydroxycinnamic acid contents and nine QTLs related to the monomeric composition of lignin were shown in per se experiments, with syringaldehyde and diferulate QTLs explaining nearly 25 % of trait variations. Nine and seven QTLs for cell wall digestibility were mapped in per se and topcross experiments, respectively. Five of the per se QTLs explained more than 15 % of the variation, up to nearly 25 %. QTL positions in bins 2.06, 5.04, 5.08 and 8.02 for ADL/NDF, IVNDFD, lignin structure and/or p-hydroxycinnamic acid contents have not been previously shown and were thus first identified in the RIo × WM13 progeny. Based on QTL colocalizations, differences in cell wall degradability between RIo and WM13 were less often related to acid detergent lignin (ADL) content than in previous RIL investigations. QTL colocalizations then highlighted the probable importance of ferulate cross linkages in variation for cell wall digestibility. No colocalizations of QTL for cell wall phenolic-related traits were shown with genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis or polymerization. In contrast, colocalizations were most often shown with MYB and NAC transcription factors, including orthologs of master genes involved in Arabidopsis secondary wall assembly. QTL colocalizations also strengthened the probable involvement of members of the CoA-dependent acyltransferase PF02458 family in the feruloylation of arabinoxylan chains. PMID:22437492

Barrière, Yves; Méchin, Valérie; Lefevre, Bruno; Maltese, Stéphane

2012-08-01

59

Selected Baking Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

Bogdany, Melvin

60

Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods subject to influence from cross draft.  

PubMed

The effects of draft on the flow and spillage characteristics of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were investigated. A specially designed draft generator that could supply low-swirl air current was used to provide "cross draft" from three directions, lateral (? = 0(o)), oblique (? = 45(o)), and front (? = 90(o)), with respect to the center point of the range hoods. Flow characteristics of oil mist were inspected through visualization of smoke flows with light scattering (laser light sheet-assisted visualization of smoke flow). The leakage mechanisms, which were closely related to the flow features, were studied by examining both movies and still pictures showing smoke-flow evolution. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas concentration detection method was employed to measure the capture indices. The results showed that the lateral draft pushed the pollutants generated under the hood in the opposite direction and induced serious spillage. The oblique draft pushed the pollutants toward both the rear wall and opposite side and induced more serious spillage than did the lateral draft. The frontal draft forced the pollutants to bifurcate into streams moving toward the left and the right, and induced the most serious pollutant spillage among the three tested drafts. Pollutant spillage became critically significant as the cross draft velocity was increased to greater than 0.2 m/sec. Spillage of pollutants increased as the velocity of the cross draft was increased. Increasing the suction flow rate of the range hood may increase resistance to the draft, but the benefits were limited at draft velocities greater than 0.2 m/sec. Both range hoods had a similarly low capture index under the influence of the lateral draft. For the oblique and frontal drafts, the jet-isolated range hood demonstrated a higher capture index than did the wall-mounted range hood. PMID:22150435

Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Peng, Kuan-Lin

2012-01-01

61

AJ Geometric Formulas Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solve various attributes of shapes and solids. Includes calculations for circle, parallelogram, rectangle, square, trapezoid, right circular cone, right circular cylinder, rectangular solid, and sphere geometric formulas. Geometry attributes include volume, area, perimeter, surface area, radius, length and circumference.

Raymond, Jimmy

62

Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

Rygiel, Mary Ann

1982-01-01

63

Cross-polarized optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes probed by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, UV-Vis-IR and polarized Raman Scatterings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the depolarization effect, or so-called antenna effect, optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is weak when excited by light polarized perpendicular to the nanotube axis. However, in photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectra of isolated SWNTs, PL peaks due to cross-polarized excitation can be clearly identified. By decomposing the cross-polarized component, the optical transition energy of E12 or E21 can be? measured, and the smaller exciton binding energy for perpendicular excitations is concluded [1]. Cross-polarized absorption is dominant in the absorption of a vertically aligned film of SWNTs [2] when excited from the top of the film. In our previous study, a pi-plasmon absorption at 5.25 eV was revealed in contrast to 4.5 eV for parallel excitation [3]. Resonant Raman scattering from such a film is also influenced by the cross-polarized excitation [4]. Even though a Kataura plot for the E33 and E44 range has been proposed by using such a vertically aligned film [5], polarized Raman scattering spectra reveal more complicated features in the system because of the small bundle size, typically 5-8 nanotubes [6]. References: [1] Y. Miyauchi, M. Oba, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006) 205440. [2] Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385 (2004) 298. [3] Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 087402. [4] Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 085403. [5] P. T. Araujo, S. K. Doorn, S. Kilina, S. Tretiak, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Chacham, M. A. Pimenta, A. Jorio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2007) 067401. [6] E. Einarsson, H. Shiozawa, C. Kramberger, M. H. Ruemmeli, A. Gruneis, T. Pichler, S. Maruyama, J. Phys. Chem. C (2007) published on Web.

Maruyama, Shigeo

2008-03-01

64

A Formula for Factoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests use of the quadratic formula to build understanding that connections between factors and solutions to equations work both ways. Making use of natural connections among concepts allows students to work more efficiently. Presents four sample problems showing the roots of equations. Messy quadratic equations with rational roots can be solved…

Roebuck, Kay I. Meeks

1997-01-01

65

The Mystical "Quadratic Formula."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)

March, Robert H.

1993-01-01

66

The Formula Essay Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

Haluska, Jan

2012-01-01

67

Lesson 14: Quadratic Formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completing the square is applied to the general quadratic to derive the quadratic formula. Before an area application example is given there is a quick review of the four methods that have been presented for solving quadratic equations. Complex numbers are introduced before the discriminant is presented.

2011-01-01

68

Research Timeline: Formulaic language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

Wray, Alison

2013-01-01

69

2007 Formula SAE pedal box  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is the design and implementation of the pedal box for the 2007 MIT Formula SAE car. Formula SAE is a collegiate competition in which groups of degree seeking students design and manufacture small ...

Schiller, Brad W

2007-01-01

70

Formula di Stirling Tiziano Vargiolu  

E-print Network

Formula di Stirling Tiziano Vargiolu Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata via Trieste, 63 - 35121 Padova email: vargiolu@math.unipd.it 16 maggio 2012 1 Formula di Stirling Scopo di questa nota `e grande, con la cosiddetta formula di Stirling n! 2n n e n (1) dove e = 2.71 . . . `e il numero di

Vargiolu, Tiziano

71

Calculations of Laminar Heat Transfer Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section and Transpiration-Cooled Walls with Application to Turbine Blade Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate method for the development of flow and thermal boundary layers in the laminar region on cylinders with arbitrary cross section and transpiration-cooled walls is obtained by the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation and an analogous heat-flow equation. Incompressible flow with constant property values throughout the boundary layer is assumed. The velocity and temperature profiles within the boundary layer are approximated by expressions composed of trigonometric functions. Shape parameters for these profiles and functions necessary for the solution of the boundary-layer equations are presented as graphs so that the calculation for any specific case is reduced to the solution of two first-order differential equations. This method is applied to determine local heat-transfer coefficients and surface temperatures in the laminar flow region of the transpiration-cooled turbine blades for a given coolant flow rate, or to calculate the coolant flow distribution which is necessary in order to keep the blade temperature uniform along the surface.

Eckert, E R G; Livingood, J N B

1955-01-01

72

Water and formula fluoride concentrations: significance for infants fed formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The independent contributions of formula and water to the total fluoride (F) intake from the diet of formula-fed infants is not fully documented. Although the precise tim- ing and mechanism by which dental fluorosis occurs has not been fully defined, water F levels can be an important consideration in the risk of dental fluorosis for formula-fed infants. An assessment ofl,308

Samina Van Winkle; Steven M. Levy; Mary C. Kiritsy; Judy R. Heilman; James S. Wefel; Teresa Marshall

1995-01-01

73

The Happiness Formula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Measuring something as subjective as the feeling or state of happiness is a tricky business. While some may take pleasure in closing a big financial merger, others may be content to watch a babbling brook as they sip lemonade. The BBC has never shied away from taking on such weighty matters and they have recently created this website to complement their ongoing series titled "The Happiness Formula". Users may wish to orient themselves to the site by viewing some of the short video clips featured on the right-hand side of the site's homepage. The site also contains material on the relationship between economic success and overall happiness levels and the health benefits of happiness. The site is rounded out by a place where visitors can offer their own suggestions for improving happiness and another area where they can take a quiz on happiness.

2006-01-01

74

A Practical Note on Readability Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the readability formulas devised by Fry and McLaughlin to the Dale-Chall formula and reports similar results with the Fry and Dale-Chall formulas, but variant results using the McLaughlin formula. Bibliography. (MD)

Pauk, Walter

1969-01-01

75

Comparison of the glomerular filtration rate in children by the new revised Schwartz formula and a new generalized formula.  

PubMed

The most widely used formula for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in children is the Schwartz formula. It was revised in 2009 using iohexol clearances with measured GFR (mGFR) ranging between 15 and 75?ml/min × 1.73?m(2). Here we assessed the accuracy of the Schwartz formula using the inulin clearance (iGFR) method to evaluate its accuracy for children with less renal impairment comparing 551 iGFRs of 392 children with their Schwartz eGFRs. Serum creatinine was measured using the compensated Jaffe method. In order to find the best relationship between iGFR and eGFR, a linear quadratic regression model was fitted and a more accurate formula was derived. This quadratic formula was: 0.68 × (Height (cm)/serum creatinine (mg/dl))-0.0008 × (height (cm)/serum creatinine (mg/dl))(2)+0.48 × age (years)-(21.53 in males or 25.68 in females). This formula was validated using a split-half cross-validation technique and also externally validated with a new cohort of 127 children. Results show that the Schwartz formula is accurate until a height (Ht)/serum creatinine value of 251, corresponding to an iGFR of 103?ml/min × 1.73?m(2), but significantly unreliable for higher values. For an accuracy of 20 percent, the quadratic formula was significantly better than the Schwartz formula for all patients and for patients with a Ht/serum creatinine of 251 or greater. Thus, the new quadratic formula could replace the revised Schwartz formula, which is accurate for children with moderate renal failure but not for those with less renal impairment or hyperfiltration. PMID:23254901

Gao, Anja; Cachat, Francois; Faouzi, Mohamed; Bardy, Daniel; Mosig, Dolores; Meyrat, Blaise-Julien; Girardin, Eric; Chehade, Hassib

2013-03-01

76

The Remainder in Taylor's Formula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a mean-value theorem that generalizes the Taylor-Lagrange formula. Discussed is the asymptotic behavior of the remainder term of the formula. Several numerical schemes are derived to approximate the solution to initial-valued first order differential equations. (KR)

Poffald, Esteban I.

1990-01-01

77

A formula for charmonium suppression  

SciTech Connect

In this work a formula for charmonium suppression obtained by Matsui in 1989 is analytically generalized for the case of complex cc-barpotential described by a 3-dimensional and isotropic time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO). It is suggested that under certain scheme the formula can be applied to describe J/{psi} suppression in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SPS, RHIC, and LHC with the advantage of analytical tractability.

Pena, C., E-mail: pena@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Blaschke, D., E-mail: blaschke@ift.uni.wroc.pl [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Poland)

2012-07-15

78

Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas  

E-print Network

We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.

B. Georgeot; O. Giraud

2008-01-30

79

Computation of wall effects in ventilated transonic wind tunnels.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for computing interference effects due to ventilated wind-tunnel walls on lifting transonic airfoils is presented. Differences between the present method based on nonlinear transonic theory and the classical correction formulae from linear subsonic theory are discussed. Computed results are presented for an NACA 0012 in solid and perforated wall tunnels. The solid wall calculations are compared with data.

Murman, E. M.

1972-01-01

80

A Dozen Proofs of Stirling's Formula Steven R. Dunbar  

E-print Network

Stirling's Formula Steven R. Dunbar Supporting Formulas Stirling's Formula Proof Methods A Dozen Proofs of Stirling's Formula Steven R. Dunbar March 31, 2012 1 / 15 #12;Stirling's Formula Steven R. Dunbar Supporting Formulas Stirling's Formula Proof Methods Wallis' Formula Wallis' Formula

Dunbar, Steve

81

Down to Business - Rewriting Formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students often do not see the point in solving formulas for a particular variable when there are no values given. This lab is not designed to teach how to solve literal equations, but rather to give students an understanding of why one might need to do so. This lab has students substitute values into the basic interest formula and then solve for the missing value. After solving several problems in this form, they solve the formula for that variable and then evaluate it by substituting in the given information. Students discover for themselves that it is sometimes better to solve for the variable first and then input the values when solving several problems for the same variable.

2011-01-01

82

Drude model and Lifshitz formula  

E-print Network

Since nearly 10 years, it is known that inserting the permittivity of the Drude model into the Lifshitz formula for free energy causes a violation of the third law of thermodynamics. In this paper we show that the standard Matsubara formulation for free energy contains a contribution that is non-perturbative in the relaxation parameter. We argue that the correct formula must have a perturbative expansion and conclude that the standard Matsubara formulation with the permittivity of the Drude model inserted is not correct. We trace the non-perturbative contribution in the complex frequency plane, where it shows up as a self-intersection or a bifurcation of the integration path.

M. Bordag

2011-10-21

83

Anomalous Transport from Kubo Formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chiral anomalies have profound impact on the transport properties of relativistic fluids. In four dimensions there are different types of anomalies, pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies. They give rise to two new non-dissipative transport coefficients, the chiral magnetic conductivity and the chiral vortical conductivity. They can be calculated from the microscopic degrees of freedom with the help of Kubo formulae. We review the calculation of the anomalous transport coefficients via Kubo formulae with a particular emphasis on the contribution of the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly.

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Peña-Benitez, Francisco

84

Anomalous Transport from Kubo Formulae  

E-print Network

Chiral anomalies have profound impact on the transport properties of relativistic fluids. In four dimensions there are different types of anomalies, pure gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies. They give rise to two new non-dissipative transport coefficients, the chiral magnetic conductivity and the chiral vortical conductivity. They can be calculated from the microscopic degrees of freedom with the help of Kubo formulae. We review the calculation of the anomalous transport coefficients via Kubo formulae with a particular emphasis on the contribution of the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly.

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2012-07-24

85

Analytical solution of the Brazier problem for thin-wall pipes with initial cross-sectional shape imperfection in the case of action of pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method is proposed for the solution of geometrically nonlinear Brazier problem for thin-mall pipes with initial\\u000a cross-sectional shape imperfection in the case of action of pressure. Geometrical equations relating displacement components\\u000a to strains and equilibrium equations taking into account change in the curvature of pipe cross section and axis have been\\u000a derived. A solution in a first approximation

I. V. Orynyak; S. A. Radchenko

2008-01-01

86

Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

Olson, Arthur V.

87

Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…

McClintock, David L.

88

Color-tolerance data and the tentative CIE 1976 L a b formula.  

PubMed

In response to general request of CIE Technical Committee TC 1.3 for evaluation of the proposed small-color-difference formula, tentative CIE 1976 L a b, unit color-difference contours generated this formula have been calculated and compared to cross sections in the chromaticity diagram of ellipsoids fitted nearly optimally to relevant visual color-tolerance data. PMID:932844

Kuehni, R G

1976-05-01

89

formula society of automotive engineers  

E-print Network

a formula race car. Through the use of modern computer-aided drafting technology, computational force students apply the principles of engineering to build a well-designed and powerful race car to develop a safe, high-performance, efficient and innovative race car by: » Finite-Element Analysis (FEA

Subramanian, Venkat

90

formula society of automotive engineers  

E-print Network

completely design and fabricate a formula race car. Through the use of modern computer-aided drafting race car. With a commitment to exploring the frontiers of innovation and technology, Wash U Racing the laws of physics and engineering to develop a safe, high-performance, efficient and innovative race car

Subramanian, Venkat

91

formula society of automotive engineers  

E-print Network

University comprises a group of enthusiastic students who completely design and fabricate a formula race car the principles of engineering to build a well-designed and powerful race car. With a commitment to exploring to develop a safe, high-performance, efficient and innovative race car by: » Finite-Element Analysis (FEA

Stormo, Gary

92

Recurrence Formulas for Fibonacci Sums  

E-print Network

In this article we present a new recurrence formula for a finite sum involving the Fibonacci sequence. Furthermore, we state an algorithm to compute the sum of a power series related to Fibonacci series, without the use of term-by-term differentiation theorem

Adilson J. V. Brandao; Joao L. Martins

2008-05-18

93

A Comprehensive Fundamental Electrical Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a letter on ``Fundamental Physical Concepts'' which appeared in NATURE of August 13, I suggested that it should be possible to dispense with magnetic considerations in fundamental physical theory, and to express the forces acting on elementary electric charges at rest and in uniform or accelerated motion by a single comprehensive formula; and I was very glad to learn

C. V. Drysdale

1938-01-01

94

Surface diffuseness correction in global mass formula  

E-print Network

By taking into account the surface diffuseness correction for unstable nuclei, the accuracy of the macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved. The rms deviation with respect to essentially all the available mass data falls to 298 keV, crossing the 0.3 MeV accuracy threshold for the first time within the mean-field framework. Considering the surface effect of the symmetry potential which plays an important role in the evolution of the "neutron skin" toward the "neutron halo" of nuclei approaching the neutron drip line, we obtain an optimal value of the symmetry energy coefficient J=30.16 MeV. With an accuracy of 258 keV for all the available neutron separation energies and of 237 keV for the alpha-decay Q-values of super-heavy nuclei, the proposed mass formula is particularly important not only for the reliable description of the r-process of nucleosynthesis but also for the study of the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei.

Ning Wang; Min Liu; Xizhen Wu; Jie Meng

2014-05-12

95

Surface diffuseness correction in global mass formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By taking into account the surface diffuseness correction for unstable nuclei, the accuracy of the macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved. The rms deviation with respect to essentially all the available mass data falls to 298 keV, crossing the 0.3 MeV accuracy threshold for the first time within the mean-field framework. Considering the surface effect of the symmetry potential which plays an important role in the evolution of the “neutron skin” toward the “neutron halo” of nuclei approaching the neutron drip line, we obtain an optimal value of the symmetry energy coefficient J=30.16 MeV. With an accuracy of 258 keV for all the available neutron separation energies and of 237 keV for the ?-decay Q-values of super-heavy nuclei, the proposed mass formula is particularly important not only for the reliable description of the r process of nucleosynthesis but also for the study of the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei.

Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Wu, Xizhen; Meng, Jie

2014-06-01

96

Impact on cardiovascular risk follow-up from a shift to the CKD-EPI formula for eGFR reporting: a cross-sectional population-based primary care study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact on cardiovascular risk factor management in primary care by the introduction of chronic kidney disease epidemiological collaboration (CKD-EPI) for estimated-glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reporting. Design and setting Cross-sectional study of routine healthcare provision in 47 primary care practices in The Netherlands with Modification of Diet and Renal Disease Study eGFR reporting. Methods eGFR values were recalculated using CKD-EPI in patients with available creatine tests. Patients reclassified from CKD stage 3a to CKD stage 2 eGFR range were compared to those who remained in stage 3a for differences in demographic variables, blood pressure, comorbidity, medication usage and laboratory results. Results Among the 60?673 adult patients (37% of adult population) with creatine values, applying the CKD-EPI equation resulted in a 16% net reduction in patients with CKD stage 3 or worse. Patients reclassified from stage 3a to 2 had lower systolic blood pressure (139.7 vs 143.3?mm?Hg p<0.0001), higher diastolic blood pressure (81.5 vs 78.4?mm?Hg p<0.0001) and higher cholesterol (5.4 vs 5.1?mmol/L p<0.0001) compared to those who remained in stage 3a. Of those reclassified out of a CKD diagnosis 463 (32%) had no comorbidities that would qualify for annual CVD risk factor assessment and 20 (12% of those with sufficient data) had a EuroSCORE CVD risk >20% within 10?years. Conclusions Use of the CKD-EPI equation will result in many patients being removed from CKD registers and the associated follow-up. Current risk factor assessment in this group may be lacking from routine data and some patients within this group are at an increased risk for cardiovascular events. PMID:24071463

van Gelder, Vincent A; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke D; de Grauw, Wim J C; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Wetzels, Jack F M; Lasserson, Daniel S

2013-01-01

97

Discretization formulas for unstructured grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galerkin weighted residual technique using linear triangular weight functions is employed to develop finite difference formula in cartesian coordinates for the Laplacian operator, first derivative operators and the function for unstructured triangular grids. The weighted residual coefficients associated with the weak formulation of the Laplacian operator are shown to agree with the Taylor series approach on a global average. In addition, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the Voronoi (finite difference) area of an unstructured grid.

Baumeister, Kenneth J.

1988-01-01

98

A Comprehensive Fundamental Electrical Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. C. V. DRYSDALE has pointed out that his formula1 can be applied to the calculation of what are usually called `electromagnetic forces' and it then becomes an expression (in vector notation) for the generally accepted principle called the Biot-Savart law. But the experiments to which I referred in NATURE of August 7, 1937, have shown that the Biot-Savart law

W. F. Dunton

1939-01-01

99

Carrageenan analysis. Part 1: Characterisation of the carrageenan test material and stability in swine-adapted infant formula.  

PubMed

A method was developed and validated in support of a 28-day feeding study of swine-adapted infant formula stabilised with carrageenan administered to neonatal piglets. Carrageenan concentrations in the test formulations were 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 mg kg(-1) formula. Extraction of carrageenan from swine-adapted infant formula was achieved by breaking carrageenan-protein cross-linkages using saturated sodium chloride, followed by separation of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction via centrifugation. The extraction of carrageenan from formula was successful with respect to consistent recovery of the non-gelling carrageenan fraction from both test and control formula samples. Molecular weight analysis (Mw) of the recovered carrageenan fractions from the test and control formula samples confirmed that the carrageenan used to manufacture the formula was not degraded during the infant formula production process and subsequent storage for 4 months covering the 28-day piglet dietary feeding study. Carrageenan has excellent stability in infant formulations. PMID:25167218

Blakemore, William R; Davis, Steven R; Hroncich, Maggie M; Vurma, Mustafa

2014-10-01

100

Wonderful Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

Greenman, Jim

2006-01-01

101

Cell wall monoglycine cross-bridges and methicillin hypersusceptibility in a femAB null mutant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

The femAB operon is involved in the formation of the characteristic pentaglycine side chain of the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Allele replacement of the femAB operon with the tetracycline resistance determinant tetK in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain resulted in impaired growth, methicillin hypersusceptibility, and lysostaphin resistance. The usual pentaglycine cross-bridges were replaced by monoglycine bridges exclusively, and cross-linking of the peptidoglycan strands was drastically reduced. Complementation of the femAB null mutant by either femA or femAB resulted in the extension of the cross-bridges to a triglycine or a pentaglycine, respectively. This finding suggests that FemA is responsible for the formation of glycines 2 and 3, and FemB is responsible for formation of glycines 4 and 5, of the pentaglycine side chain of the peptidoglycan precursor. Moreover, it can be deduced that addition of the first glycine must occur by a femAB-independent mechanism. PMID:8981974

Strandén, A M; Ehlert, K; Labischinski, H; Berger-Bächi, B

1997-01-01

102

15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a)...

2010-01-01

103

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas...The volume and alcohol content of the beer base; (ii) The maximum volumes of...content of the finished product. (d) Beer base formulas. You must refer in...

2012-04-01

104

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas...The volume and alcohol content of the beer base; (ii) The maximum volumes of...content of the finished product. (d) Beer base formulas. You must refer in...

2011-04-01

105

10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to...

2010-01-01

106

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

...during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas...ingredients containing alcohol, you must explicitly...formula you must state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the...

2014-04-01

107

27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...during, or after fermentation). (3) For formulas...ingredients containing alcohol, you must explicitly...formula you must state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of the...

2013-04-01

108

Discrete matrix Riccati equations with superposition formulas  

E-print Network

An ordinary differential equation is said to have a superposition formula if its general solution can be expressed as a function of a finite number of particular solution. Nonlinear ODE's with superposition formulas include matrix Riccati equations. Here we shall describe discretizations of Riccati equations that preserve the superposition formulas. The approach is general enough to include $q$-derivatives and standard discrete derivatives.

Alexei V. Penskoi; Pavel Winternitz

2003-05-25

109

The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…

Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.

2008-01-01

110

Precise transfer matrix formulae considering axial forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two precise transfer matrix formulas of different forms for the analysis of shaft element with constant section parameters are derived, taking axial forces and shearing deformation into account. Both formulas are applied to a practical example. A comparison between calculation results and experimental data shows that the formulas are highly accurate and that considerable axial forces have a nonnegligible effect

Yan Li

1992-01-01

111

The limited validity of the Kubo formula  

E-print Network

The limited validity of the Kubo formula for thermal conduction J. Gemmer, UniversitË?at Osnabr; Transport phenomena and Kubo formula Normal transport phenomena: ``field driven'' j = L F F electric current (#) F = -#V Kubo formula (KF): L F (#) = 1 V # # 0 dt e -i#t # # 0 d# Tr{â??# 0 â?? j(0) â?? j(t + i

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

112

An asymptotic formula for models with caustics  

E-print Network

We introduce an asymptotic formula for calculating quantum mechanical and quantum theoretical models with caustics, like the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio(NJL) model. This asymptotic formula is given by the form attached the extra term, which suppresses the divergence induced because of caustics, to the leading term of the WKB approximation. This formula guarantees validity of the mean field approximation of models with caustics.

T. Sakaguchi

2004-12-08

113

A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

Cramer, Eugene H.

1978-01-01

114

Antibody-Independent, Interleukin-17A-Mediated, Cross-Serotype Immunity to Pneumococci in Mice Immunized Intranasally with the Cell Wall Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Serotype-specific immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae is conferred by antibodies to the capsular polysaccharides, which define the 90 known serotypes. Whether antibody to the species-common cell wall polysaccharide (C-Ps) is protective has been a matter of controversy. Here we show that C-Ps given intranasally with mucosal adjuvant increased the resistance of mice to experimental nasopharyngeal colonization by capsulated S. pneumoniae of serotype 6B. This immunity could be induced in mice congenitally lacking immunoglobulin but was dependent upon CD4+ T cells. Elimination of the charged amino group on the polymer backbone by N acetylation of C-Ps reduced the immunity, as did treatment of the mice with antibody to the cytokine interleukin-17A at the time of challenge, both consistent with the hypothesis of T-cell activation due to the zwitterionic motif of the polymer. C-Ps also protected in a model of fatal aspiration pneumonia by heavily capsulated serotype 3. These findings suggest a novel immunization strategy against S. pneumoniae. PMID:16552049

Malley, Richard; Srivastava, Amit; Lipsitch, Marc; Thompson, Claudette M.; Watkins, Claire; Tzianabos, Arthur; Anderson, Porter W.

2006-01-01

115

The influences of transverse magnetic anisotropy on field-induced domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domain wall (DW) propagation in magnetic nanowires is an important subject in nanomagnetism because of its fundamental interest and potential applications in spintronic devices. It is well known that a head-to-head (or tail-to-tail) domain wall in a nanowire will propagate along the wire under an axial magnetic field. In this talk, we shall show that a new velocity-field formula can fit well with numerical results obtained from the open-source micromagnetic simulation package OOMMF. The fitting parameters have clear physical meanings that relate to the transverse magnetic anisotropy. How the transverse magnetic anisotropy, which can be modified by both transverse magnetic field and the aspect ratio of wire cross section, affects the DW structure and hence the DW propagation velocity will be discussed systematically.

Lu, Jie; Yan, Peng; Wang, Xiangrong

2009-03-01

116

Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. METHODS: The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to

Carol Lynn Berseth; Susan Hazels Mitmesser; Ekhard E Ziegler; John D Marunycz; Jon Vanderhoof

2009-01-01

117

Formulaic Language in Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of productive language in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have focused on formal testing of syntax and semantics but have directed less attention to naturalistic discourse and formulaic language. Clinical observations suggest that individuals with AD retain the ability to produce formulaic language long after other cognitive abilities have deteriorated. Aims This study quantifies production of formulaic expressions in the spontaneous speech of individuals with AD. Persons with early- and late-onset forms of the disease were compared. Methods & Procedures Conversational language samples of individuals with early- (n = 5) and late-onset (n = 6) AD and healthy controls (n = 5) were analyzed to determine whether formulaic language, as measured by the number of words in formulaic expressions, differs between groups. Outcomes & Results Results indicate that individuals with AD, regardless of age of onset, used significantly more formulaic expressions than healthy controls. The early- and late-onset AD groups did not differ on formulaic language measures. Conclusions These findings contribute to a dual process model of cerebral function, which proposes differing processing principles for formulaic and novel expressions. In this model, subcortical areas, which remain intact into late in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, play an important role in the production of formulaic language. Applications to clinical practice include identifying preserved formulaic language and providing informed counseling to patient and family. PMID:24187417

Bridges, Kelly Ann; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

2013-01-01

118

27 CFR 19.460 - Conversion of denatured alcohol formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Conversion of denatured alcohol formulas. 19.460 Section... § 19.460 Conversion of denatured alcohol formulas. (a) Conversion...Formula No. 1. Any specially denatured alcohol, except Formulas No....

2010-04-01

119

Hadrian's Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hadrian's Wall is an historical monument built by the Romans in Britain and spans more than 2,000 years of history. Standing as a "reminder of past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations," the Wall is equipped with museums, forts, and events that bring Roman history to life. Designed by the World Heritage Site, this Web site offers tourist information (such as travel and hotel arrangements) for anyone interested in visiting this historical landmark that ranks along with the great wonders of the world.

1998-01-01

120

Chemistry 365: Stirling's Formula David Ronis  

E-print Network

Chemistry 365: Stirling's Formula © David Ronis McGill University There is a simple way to obtain;Chemistry 365 -2- Stirling's Formula x!(2 )1/2 xx+1/2 e-x , (4) which implies that ln(x!)x ln(x) - x + ln[(2 of Stirling's formula ln(x!)x[ln(x) - 1], is obtained. With a little extra effort you can work out the next

Ronis, David M.

121

Wall Covering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

1978-01-01

122

Superfluid Kubo Formulas from Partition Function  

E-print Network

Linear response theory relates hydrodynamic transport coefficients to equilibrium retarded correlation functions of the stress-energy tensor and global symmetry currents in terms of Kubo formulas. Some of these transport coefficients are non-dissipative and affect the fluid dynamics at equilibrium. We present an algebraic framework for deriving Kubo formulas for such thermal transport coefficients by using the equilibrium partition function. We use the framework to derive Kubo formulas for all such transport coefficients of superfluids, as well as to rederive Kubo formulas for various normal fluid systems.

Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

2013-01-01

123

Superfluid Kubo Formulas from Partition Function  

E-print Network

Linear response theory relates hydrodynamic transport coefficients to equilibrium retarded correlation functions of the stress-energy tensor and global symmetry currents in terms of Kubo formulas. Some of these transport coefficients are non-dissipative and affect the fluid dynamics at equilibrium. We present an algebraic framework for deriving Kubo formulas for such thermal transport coefficients by using the equilibrium partition function. We use the framework to derive Kubo formulas for all such transport coefficients of superfluids, as well as to rederive Kubo formulas for various normal fluid systems.

Shira Chapman; Carlos Hoyos; Yaron Oz

2013-10-08

124

Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions  

PubMed Central

We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that removing several innermost walls causes even more drastic cross-sectional polygonization of the MWCNTs. The predicted cross-sectional configurations agree with prior experimental observations. We attribute the radial corrugations to the compressive stresses induced by the excessive inter-wall vdW energy release of the MWCNTs. The stable cross-sectional configurations provide fundamental guidance to the design of single MWCNT-based devices and shed lights on the mechanical control of electrical properties.

2011-01-01

125

Tolerance of an enteral formula with insoluble and prebiotic fiber in children with compromised gastrointestinal function.  

PubMed

The effects of adding fiber to the tolerance of a peptide-based formula have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of a peptide-based formula with insoluble and prebiotic fiber in children with compromised gut function. During January 2005 to June 2006, a 6-week randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study was conducted to compare stool frequency, stool consistency, and tolerance (abdominal pain, abdominal distension, vomiting, weight gain, and intake) between a formula with or without 3.5 g fructo-oligosaccharides and 3.8 g insoluble fiber/L. Fourteen children with gastrointestinal dysmotility (n=9), Crohn's disease (n=3), or mild short bowel syndrome (n=2) were randomized to receive one of two formulas for 2 weeks followed by a 5-day washout period and then the second diet for another 2 weeks. Means and standard deviations of daily stool frequency and consistency were calculated and compared using intent-to-treat analysis. Linear mixed models were applied to each outcome variable. Stool frequency did not differ by formula. Stool consistency did differ with more soft "mushy" stools (less hard stools) occurring with use of fiber (P<0.001) and more watery stools occurring with control formula (P<0.01). The extremes of stool consistency were normalized with the fiber formula. No significant differences were observed in vomiting, abdominal pain, feeding intakes, or weight gain between the two formulas. This study showed that a peptide-based formula containing fiber was as well-tolerated as a fiber-free formula in a small population of children with gastrointestinal impairments. Longer-term effects of the fiber formula need to be studied. PMID:21034888

Khoshoo, Vikram; Sun, Shumei S; Storm, Heidi

2010-11-01

126

Berlin Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You and your classmates have been sent to Germany to learn about the Berlin Wall. At the end of the trip you will return to your school and be asked questions about your experiences and what you have learned. You will read your task first, then go and read the process you will follow, next read through the learning advice, use the resources provided to answer the questions, and after you have finished all those steps go to the conclusion. Good Luck and have a FUN trip!!! TASK Your task is to visit sites related to the Berlin Wall and find the answers to the following questions at these sites. 1. What four countries occupied parts of Berlin? 2. What country was in charge of the area surrounding Berlin? 3. What was the Berlin Blockade? Why did it end? 4. Why was ...

B, Miss

2007-06-21

127

CLIMATE ACTION PLANNING TOOL FORMULAS AND ASSUMPTIONS  

E-print Network

FORMULAS AND ASSUMPTIONS Formulas For each year of the energy conservation plan: Gas(Energy Conservation) = Gas(Initial) Ã? (Energy Conservation %/Years of plan) Ã? Year After Years of the Plan is complete conservation plan begins at year 1. An energy conservation plan is implemented over a specific number of "Years

128

On Turing's formula for word probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. M. Turing, in a 1941 personal communication to I. J. Good, suggested a formula for estimating probabilities of words in text and, more generally, of species in a mixed population of various species. It is remarkable that Turing's formula can be obtained by significantly different statistical methods; we compare three ways to obtain it.

Arthur Nádas

1985-01-01

129

Chemistry 593: Stirling's Formula David Ronis  

E-print Network

Chemistry 593: Stirling's Formula © David Ronis McGill University There is a simple way to obtain) Winter, 2014 #12;Chemistry 593 -2- Stirling's Formula which implies that ln(x!)x ln(x) - x + ln[(2 x)1/2 ]. (4') Clearly, for xO(1023 ), the last logarithm is negligible, and the simple form of Stirling

Ronis, David M.

130

Formula Funding in Higher Education: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews formula funding in higher education literature, including purpose, historical perspectives, definition and development, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and future trends. In light of citizen demands, the formula approach seems the best method to ensure a satisfactory relationship between state government and state…

Noe, Roger C.

1986-01-01

131

A Choice of a New Funding Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the fiscal neutrality of three funding formulas that have been proposed to replace the current funding formula for Oklahoma's common schools in an attempt to have greater equity in the distribution of funds to the various districts. Using data from SY-03 to SY-07, calculations of state aid for the 540- districts and fiscal…

Hancock, Kenneth

2008-01-01

132

Lead content of milk and infant formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's

1980-01-01

133

Emergence String and Mass Formulas of Hadrons  

E-print Network

Assume that hadrons are formed from the emergence string. Usual string should possess two moving states: oscillation and rotation, so we propose corresponding potential and the equation of the emergence string, whose energy spectrum is namely the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. These are some relations between the string and observable experimental data.

Yi-Fang Chang

2011-07-19

134

Derivation of Refraction Formulas Paul S. Heckbert  

E-print Network

Derivation of Refraction Formulas Paul S. Heckbert ABSTRACT We derive three alternative formulas for the refracted ray direction in ray tracing in order to prove their equivalence and to demonstrate the process refract when they strike an interface between two different transpar­ ent media, such as air­water, air

Treuille, Adrien

135

Gullied Wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

13 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies on northern wall of a south mid-latitude crater.

Location near: 35.8oS, 220.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

136

Teaching Structural Formulas in Chemistry: How Students Relate Structural Formulas to the Solubility of Substances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural formulas give professional chemists information about physical and chemical properties of corresponding compounds. In chemistry education at secondary schools, structural formulas are introduced in the context of chemical bonding. Structural formulas are not introduced as representations of the properties of chemical compounds. This…

Goedhart, Martin; van Duin, Yvonne

137

Staffing Formula Worksheet: How to Choose a Staffing Formula for Your Class Staffing Formulas, also known as Course Classifications, determine the character and size of your class.  

E-print Network

1 Staffing Formula Worksheet: How to Choose a Staffing Formula for Your Class Staffing Formulas of this worksheet for further information. C78: Non-traditional instruction, examination, or evaluation (workload

de Lijser, Peter

138

The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) Circled-Times U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Elie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenboeck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.

Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M. [Departamento de Fisica dos Solidos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica dos Solidos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Neto, Jose Abdala Helayeel [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-160 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)] [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-160 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

2013-01-15

139

Collective magnetism at multiferroic vortex domain walls.  

PubMed

Cross-coupled phenomena of multiferroic domains and domain walls are of fundamental scientific and technological interest. Using cryogenic magnetic force microscopy, we find alternating net magnetic moments at ferroelectric domain walls around vortex cores in multiferroic hexagonal ErMnO(3), which correlate with each other throughout the entire vortex network. This collective nature of domain wall magnetism originates from the uncompensated Er(3+) moments at domain walls and the self-organization of the vortex network. Our results demonstrate that the collective domain wall magnetism can be controlled by external magnetic fields and represent a major advancement in the manipulation of local magnetic moments by harnessing cross-coupled domain walls. PMID:23151028

Geng, Yanan; Lee, N; Choi, Y J; Cheong, S-W; Wu, Weida

2012-12-12

140

Cauchy's formulas for random walks in bounded domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cauchy's formula was originally established for random straight paths crossing a body B subset {R}n and basically relates the average chord length through B to the ratio between the volume and the surface of the body itself. The original statement was later extended in the context of transport theory so as to cover the stochastic paths of Pearson random walks with exponentially distributed flight lengths traversing a bounded domain. Some heuristic arguments suggest that Cauchy's formula may also hold true for Pearson random walks with arbitrarily distributed flight lengths. For such a broad class of stochastic processes, we rigorously derive a generalized Cauchy's formula for the average length travelled by the walkers in the body, and show that this quantity depends indeed only on the ratio between the volume and the surface, provided that some constraints are imposed on the entrance step of the walker in B. Similar results are also obtained for the average number of collisions performed by the walker in B.

Mazzolo, Alain; de Mulatier, Clélia; Zoia, Andrea

2014-08-01

141

Approximation formulae for the acoustic radiation impedance of a cylindrical pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Useful approximation formulae for radiation impedance are given for the reflection coefficients of both infinitely flanged and unflanged rigid-walled cylindrical ducts. The expressions guarantee that simple but necessary physical and mathematical principles are met, like Hermitian symmetry for the reflection coefficient (identical behaviour of positive and negative frequencies) and causality for the impulse response. A non-causal but more accurate expression is also proposed that is suitable for frequency-domain applications. The formulae are obtained by analytical and numerical fitting to reference results from Levine and Schwinger for the unflanged case and extracted from the radiation impedance matrix given by Zorumski for the infinite flanged case.

Silva, F.; Guillemain, Ph.; Kergomard, J.; Mallaroni, B.; Norris, A. N.

2009-04-01

142

Asymptotic unbounded root loci - Formulas and computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new geometric way of computing the asymptotic behavior of unbounded root loci of a strictly proper linear time-invariant control system as loop gain goes to infinity is presented. Properties of certain restricted linear maps and nested restrictions of linear maps are developed, and formulas are obtained for the leading coefficient of the asymptotic values of the unbounded multivariable root loci are obtained in terms of eigenvalues of those maps. Published results and a certain simple null structure assumption are used to relate these asymptotic values to the structure at infinity of the Smith-McMillan form of the open loop transfer function. Explicit matrix formulas for the more abstract derived formulas are given and additional geometric insights are developed with orthogonal projections and singular value decomposition. Formulas for the pivots of the unbounded root loci are calculated and shown to have the same form as the coefficients of the unbounded asymptotic root loci.

Sastry, S. S.; Desoer, C. A.

1983-01-01

143

24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.  

... HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 ...proportionate share of the cumulative number of AIDS cases in all eligible metropolitan statistical...States, where the per capita incidence of AIDS for the year, April 1 through...

2014-04-01

144

Traction Control System for Formula Student Electric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with design of traction control of Formula Student Electric Car. There will introduced new conception of formula traction system and its application to the Formula car. In next season we would like to use 2 motors, each of them will be directly connected to its wheel. This solution needs precise control of them to provide high dynamics and great ability to ride curves in high speeds. Using the same torque on each wheel brings problem when one of wheel loss the traction ability. Some slip could happen and the unexpected lateral movement becomes. There will described the mathematic model of formula car. To reduce slips etc. we will publish the theoretical algorithm that reduces or increases torques on rear wheels to stabilize the car. There will be described what states have to be measured and evaluated. Also places where the sensors will be placed will be shown.

Houf, Z.; ?e?ovský, Z.; Hlinovský, V.

145

Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Derives the general Doppler formula in a nonstatic universe using assumptions of special relativity, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Examples of applications to physical cosmology are given. (SL)

Gross, Peter G.

1977-01-01

146

KPZ formula derived from Liouville heat kernel  

E-print Network

In this paper, we establish the Knizhnik--Polyakov--Zamolodchikov (KPZ) formula of Liouville quantum gravity, using the heat kernel of Liouville Brownian motion. This derivation of the KPZ formula was first suggested by F. David and M. Bauer in order to get a geometrically more intrinsic way of measuring the dimension of sets in Liouville quantum gravity. We also provide a careful study of the (no)-doubling behaviour of the Liouville measures in the appendix, which is of independent interest.

Nathanaël Berestycki; Christophe Garban; Rémi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas

2014-06-27

147

Plant biology and pathology \\/ Biologie et pathologie végétales Genetic and molecular basis of grass cell-wall degradability. I. Lignin-cell wall matrix interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignification limits grass cell-wall digestion by herbivores. Lignification is spatially and temporally regulated, and lignin characteristics differ between cell walls, plant tissues, and plant parts. Grass lignins are anchored within walls by ferulate and diferulate cross-links, p-coumarate cyclodimers, and possibly benzyl ester and ether cross-links. Cell-wall degradability is regulated by lignin concentration, cross-linking, and hydrophobicity but not directly by most

John H. Grabber; John Ralph; Catherine Lapierre

148

24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...components: Project Expense Level (PEL), Utility Expense Level (UEL), and other formula expenses (add-ons). Formula expense...calculated as follows: {[(PEL multiplied by EUM) plus (UEL multiplied by EUM) plus add-ons] minus (formula income...

2011-04-01

149

27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20...Restricted to fuel use, comparable to specially denatured alcohol “Use Code No.” 611, 612,...

2010-04-01

150

Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.

Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

2012-01-01

151

Lower Bounds on Formula Size of Boolean Functions using HypergraphEntropy  

E-print Network

Lower Bounds on Formula Size of Boolean Functions using Hypergraph­Entropy Ilan Newman Avi Wigderson \\Lambda Hebrew University February 13, 1995 Abstract K¨orner [7] defined the notion of graph­entropy distribution QXY on a cross product A \\Theta B; QX (Q Y ) denotes the marginal distribution of QXY on A (B). 9

Newman, Ilan

152

Morphology of chasma walls, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The landforms developed on the walls of the Valles Marineris system of chasmas are of three major types, which are locally transitional. The most common type is composed of steep spurs and gullies. The dominant process in the formation or modification of this type appears to be the downslope movement of. material under the influence of gravity, resulting in the accumulation of extensive talus deposits. The type is morphologically similar to high, steep terrestrial scarps in desert or alpine environments. The second morphologic type consists of walls dissected by tributary canyons with characteristic V-shaped cross profiles and blunt canyon heads that locally contain lobate deposits. The tributary canyons may be relict features of the time, when the existence of running water was possible on the surface of Mars. The third morphologic type consists of landslide scars forming broad curved or straight recessed sections of chasma wall. This type is accompanied by landslide deposits that form hummocky floors at the base of the recessed sections. The landslides developed at the expense of other wall morphologies. Chains of rimless depressions and craters that parallel the main structural trends of the chasmas are best interpreted as collapse holes. The origin of the chasmas on Mars is conjectural and may have been structural (grabens), but, on the basis of morphologic studies of their walls, it is suggested that most of the present wall configuration is the result of erosional scarp retreat, where erosion follows preestablished structural planes of weakness.

Lucchitta, B. K.

1978-01-01

153

A Mass Formula from Light to Hypernuclei  

E-print Network

Simultaneous description of ordinary and hypernuclei masses by a single mass formula has been a great challenge in nuclear physics. Hyperon-separation energies of about forty Lambda($\\Lambda$), three Lambda-Lambda($\\Lambda\\Lambda$), one Sigma($\\Sigma$) and seven Cascade($\\Xi$) hypernuclei have been experimentally found. Many of these nuclei are of light masses. We prescribe a new mass formula, called BWMH, which describes the normal and hypernuclei on the same footing. It is based on the modified-Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula (BWM). BWM is basically an extension of the Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula (BW) for light nuclei. The parameters of BWM were optimized by fitting about 3000 normal nuclei available recently. The original Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula (BW) was designed for medium and heavy mass nuclei and it fails for light nuclei. Two earlier works on hypernuclei based on this BW show some limitations. The BWMH gives improved agreement with the experimental data for the line of stability, one-neutron separation energy versus neutron number spectra of normal nuclei, and the hyperon-separation energies from hypernuclei. The drip lines are modified for addition of a $\\Lambda$ hyperon in a normal nucleus.

C. Samanta; P. Roy Chowdhury; D. N. Basu

2006-02-22

154

Tokamak reactor first wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first wall construction for a tokamak reactor is disclosed. The wall comprises a series of hollow lobes, each with a pair of side wall portions with a curved end wall portion which extends between it. This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

Creedon, R. L.; Levine, H. E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

1984-11-01

155

Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

2012-01-01

156

Random vibration of compliant wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper is concerned with the realistic case of two-dimensional random motion of a membrane with bending stiffness supported on a viscoelastic spring substrate and on an elastic base plate under both subsonic and supersonic boundary layer turbulence. The cross-power spectral density of surface displacements is solved in terms of design variables of the compliant wall - such as the dimensions and material properties of the membrane (Mylar), substrate (PVC foam), and panel (aluminum) - so that a sensitivity analysis can be made to examine the influence of each design variable on the surface response statistics. Three numerical examples typical of compliant wall design are worked out and their response statistics in relation to wave drag and roughness drag are assessed. The results can serve as a guideline for experimental investigation of the drag reduction concept through the use of a compliant wall.

Yang, J.-N.; Heller, R. A.

1976-01-01

157

Wall-E Learns About Proportion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate the diameter of the moon with the help of Wall-E. In this video, the mischievous robot learns that the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is mapping the moon. From Earth, the moon looks too small to land on. Wall-E learns to use math to determine the size of the moon. The moon is compared to the size of a baseball, and Earth is compared to the size of a basketball.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

2009-07-11

158

Yiqihuoxuejiedu Formula Inhibits Vascular Remodeling by Reducing Proliferation and Secretion of Adventitial Fibroblast after Balloon Injury  

PubMed Central

Vascular remodeling occurs in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Adventitial remodeling may be a potential therapeutic target. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula uses therapeutic principles from Chinese medicine to supplement Qi, activate blood circulation, and resolve toxin and it has been shown to inhibit vascular stenosis. To investigate effects and mechanisms of the formula on inhibiting vascular remodeling, especially adventitial remodeling, rats with a balloon injury to their common carotid artery were used and were treated for 7 or 28 days after injury. The adventitial area and ?-SMA expression increased at 7 days after injury, which indicated activation and proliferation of adventitial fibroblasts. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula reduced the adventitial areas at 7 days, attenuated the neointima and vessel wall area, stenosis percent, and ?-SMA expression in the neointima, and reduced collagen content and type I/III collagen ratio in the adventitia at 28 days. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula had more positive effects than Captopril in reducing intimal proliferation and diminishing stenosis, although Captopril lowered neointimal ?-SMA expression and reduced the collagen content at 28 days. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula has inhibitory effects on positive and negative remodeling by reducing adventitial and neointimal proliferation, reducing content, and elevating adventitial compliance. PMID:24987435

Zhao, Ming-Jing; Wang, Jie; Gao, Yong-Hong; Liu, Hui-Min; Lv, Xi-Ying; Lei, Huan; Sun, Qing-Qin; Xu, Ying; He, Ying-Kun; Wang, Shuo-Ren

2014-01-01

159

Implementing a new faculty workload formula.  

PubMed

The severe shortage of nursing faculty in recent years has led to changes in faculty mix, with nursing programs relying on increased numbers of faculty members prepared at the master's level for coverage of nursing courses. To address the impact of these changes on faculty workload, one nursing program established a Workload Task Force to develop a workload formula that would recognize teaching, scholarship, and service contributions of all faculty members and help ensure equity in workload assignments. Details of the workload formula are offered, along with recommendations for gaining the support of faculty and ensuring transparency in implementation. PMID:17715802

Durham, Susan; Merritt, Janet; Sorrell, Jeanne

2007-01-01

160

Saha Ionization Formula and the Voids  

E-print Network

The ultra-low density limit of Saha ionization formula suggests that, in this limit, matter would prefer to remain ionized.This has a very important implication for cosmic structures known as Voids.These are ultra-low density (much less than average density of matter in the Universe) regions in the galactic clusters and superclusters.The ionization formula implies that matter trapped in the Voids should be ionized.Therefore, we expect a very faint radiation glow from the Voids resulting from the motion of the charged particles.

Mofazzal Azam

2002-08-14

161

A modified function of the formula of double iodometric titration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double iodometric titration is the most useful method to determine oxygen content of high Tc superconductors. Its traditional calculating formula is not accurate enough, and a new calculating formula has just been put forward. To understand which relationship of the traditional formula depends on the new one is an important problem. On studying the new formula, we find a modified

Wu Ming Chen; J. Chen; X. Jin

1997-01-01

162

Magnetic Moment Formulas of Baryons Determined by Quantum Numbers  

E-print Network

We propose that the magnetic moment formulas of baryons may be determined by quantum numbers, and obtain three formulas. This is a new type of magnetic moment formula, and agrees better with the experimental values. It is also similar to corresponding mass formulas of hadrons.

Yi-Fang Chang

2008-11-30

163

Electromagnetic shielding, some simple formulae for closed uniform shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic shields should be adequate without incurring undue cost or weight. A number of formulas are collected that are consistent with electromagnetic theory. Such formulas will in many cases give shielding estimates quite different from what would be obtained from the use of engineering formulas as presented in widespread handbooks and shielding manuals. The classical, but often distorted, quasistatic formulas

E. Dahlberg

1975-01-01

164

Whey Protein Formulas in the Treatment of Phenylketonuria in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a whey protein formula as natural protein source in the dietary treatment of two infants with phenylketonuria is described. Two practical advantages were found. Firstly, the whey protein formula had the same caloric and nitrogen content as the special low-phenylalanine formula, which made adjustments of the intake of these two formulas in order to balance the phenylalanine

L. Hambraeus; L. Wranne; Rosa Lorentsson

1970-01-01

165

Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.  

PubMed

Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. PMID:22325867

Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

2012-04-01

166

Elimination of the twist distortion in IVUS and CAG image fusion based on the Frenet-Serret formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular disease can be diagnosed at higher accuracy by the fusion of IVUS (Intravascular Ultrasound) and CAG (Coronary Angiography) data. In the IVUS images acquisition process, pull-back path of the ultrasonic probe will twist due to intravascular blood flow and friction with vascular wall, which causes image distortion in the fusion of such IVUS images. In this paper, a new method used for reducing the twist between adjacent frames of IVUS is presented. First, we establish a rough perspective projection imaging model from the crossing information of two almost perpendicular projective angiography images. Then we use a discrete approximation of the Frenet-Serret formulas to calculate IVUS frames' relative twist by sequential triangulation method and correct the twist. Finally, coronary lumen data extracted from the corrected IVUS images are added to 3D transducer paths which are reconstructed by the model mentioned above. Reconstruction of the coronary artery which contains the lumen information of IVUS removes blind spots in CAG and provides a full view of artery which is absent in IVUS images.

Li, Hongxiao; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin

2010-11-01

167

Stoichiometry : FormulaFromComp (8 Variations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lactic acid is the substance that makes your muscles burn when you've been exercising hard. Lactic acid is composed of 40.0% carbon, 6.7% hydrogen, and 53.3% oxygen by weight. If it has a molar mass of 90 g/mol, what is its molecular formula?

168

Formula management: in search of magic solutions.  

PubMed

Formula management is the unjustified reliance on a set of rules or prescribed behaviors--a management formula, fad, or "flavor-of-the-month"--as the answer to an organization's needs. It is the manifestation of a tendency to believe that the essence of management can be proceduralized, that the art of management can be replaced with an expanding science of management. This tendency has been repeatedly demonstrated in the application of concepts such as management by objectives (MBO) and the variants of total quality management (TQM). All of management's "formulas" have their place; however, none of them provide all of management's needed answers. To view any of the specifically delineated "kinds of management"--all of which are highly susceptible to misapplication and resistance to change both blatant and subtle--as a cure-all is fully as inappropriate as denying their value out of hand. Formula or not, organizational results will continue to depend on the practice of the art, as well as the science, of management. PMID:10174446

McConnell, C R

1997-12-01

169

Another Look at the Quadratic Formula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploration of a problem called solving quadratic congruences modulo p is detailed and is built around an alternate method of deriving the quadratic formula. Three practical pedagogical values that have been experienced by students and instructor when the material was presented to classes are noted. (MP)

Obermeyer, Dean D.

1982-01-01

170

Implementing Gilbert's PIP Formula in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gilbert (1978) developed a Potential for Improving Performance (PIP) formula based on worth, value, and cost. Worth related the value of a performance to its cost. The PIP related the worth of exemplary performance to the worth of average performance. This offered an opportunity for improvement by making appropriate changes through training or…

Cardinale, Loretta A.

171

A Professor's Formula for Teaching Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a formula for writing critical thinking assignments on different academic levels which professors can use in training elementary and secondary educators and in developing critical thinkers at different academic levels. The paper includes lists of terminology, instructional materials, and assignments at various academic levels…

Hepburn, Velma

172

PROMOTIONAL WRITING FORMULA Guidelines For Persuasion  

E-print Network

PROMOTIONAL WRITING FORMULA Guidelines For Persuasion 1. Don't start with what you want to say outline (using actual sub-heads) that converts the flow-chart into a persuasive communication. (Reading.) 6. Headlines and overall design decisions should be subservient to this sub-head copy outline

Papautsky, Ian

173

Capacity formulas in MWPC: some critical reflexions  

E-print Network

An approximate analytical expression for "capacitance" of MWPC configurations circulates in the literature since decades and is copied over and over again. In this paper we will try to show that this formula corresponds to a physical quantity that is different from what it is usually thought to stand for.

Van Esch, P

2006-01-01

174

Capacity formulas in MWPC: some critical reflections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approximate analytical expression for "capacitance" of MWPC configurations circulates in the literature since decades and is copied over and over again. In this paper we will try to show that this formula corresponds to a physical quantity that is different from what it is usually thought to stand for.

Van Esch, P.

2006-12-01

175

Airborne laser scanning: basic relations and formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of basic relations and formulas concerning airborne laser scanning is given. They are divided into two main parts, the first treating lasers and laser ranging, and the second one referring to airborne laser scanning. A separate discussion is devoted to the accuracy of 3D positioning and the factors influencing it. Examples are given for most relations, using typical

E. P. Baltsavias

1999-01-01

176

Decomposing Quantified Conjunctive (or Disjunctive) Formulas  

E-print Network

of the sentence, and where two variables are linked by an edge if they occur together in a common atomic formula {hubie.chen,victor.dalmau}@upf.edu Abstract--Model checking­deciding if a logical sentence holds of result Model checking, the problem of deciding if a logical sentence holds on a structure

Dalmau, Victor

177

Mathematical Formulae Recognition Using 2D Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for off-line mathematical formulae recognition based on the structural construction paradigm and two-dimensional grammars. In general, this approach can be successfully used in the analysis of images containing objects that exhibit rich structural relations. An important benefit of the structural construction is in treating the symbol segmentation in the image and its structural analysis as a

D. Prusa; V. Hlavac

2007-01-01

178

Flat space limit of Cardy formula  

E-print Network

In this note I derive the flat space limit of the modified Cardy formula associated with inner horizons and show that it reproduces the correct Galilean conformal field theory counting of flat space cosmology microstates. l also determine the entropy of flat space cosmologies in flat space chiral gravity in this way.

Max Riegler

2014-08-29

179

Domain wall motion in thin ferromagnetic nanotubes: Analytic results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of magnetization domain walls (DWs) in thin ferromagnetic nanotubes subject to weak longitudinal external fields is addressed analytically in the regimes of strong and weak penalization. Exact solutions for the DW profiles and formulas for the DW propagation velocity are derived in both regimes. In particular, the DW speed is shown to depend nonlinearly on the nanotube radius.

Goussev, Arseni; Robbins, J. M.; Slastikov, Valeriy

2014-03-01

180

Elastic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical expressions for the velocities of the longitudinal and the torsional sound waves in single-walled carbon nanotubes are derived using Born's perturbation technique within a lattice-dynamical model. These expressions are compared to the formulas for the velocities of the sound waves in an elastic hollow cylinder from the theory of elasticity to obtain analytical expressions for the Young's and shear

V. N. Popov; V. E. Van Doren; M. Balkanski

2000-01-01

181

Wall surveyor project report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is

D. J. Mullenhoff; B. C. Johnston; S. G. Azevedo

1996-01-01

182

Wall surveyor project report  

SciTech Connect

A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

1996-02-22

183

If walls could talk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

184

Interactive Care Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a video-mediated interactive care wall as a way of sup- porting a face-to-face like care between elders and their remote caregivers. This interactive care wall attempts to interconnect two physically-disjoint spaces by linking one wall on the elder's living space and one wall on the caregivers' liv- ing space. To make this interconnection appears seamless, the care wall

Chu-feng Lien; Hao-ji Wu; Hao-hua Chu

185

Adaptive dispersion formula for index interpolation and chromatic aberration correction.  

PubMed

This paper defines and discusses a glass dispersion formula that is adaptive. The formula exhibits superior convergence with a minimum number of coefficients. Using this formula we rationalize the correction of chromatic aberration per spectrum order. We compare the formula with the Sellmeier and Buchdahl formulas for glasses in the Schott catalogue. The six coefficient adaptive formula is found to be the most accurate with an average maximum index of refraction error of 2.91 × 10(-6) within the visible band. PMID:24515080

Li, Chia-Ling; Sasián, José

2014-01-13

186

A Generalized Formula to Determine Pythagorean Triples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note proposes a unique solutions to find out the value of x, y and z which satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. The uniqueness of the proposed formulae is to find the total number of y's and z's at a given value of x. The value of y and z can be calculated by factoring x[superscript 2] or…

Mohapatra, Amar Kumar; Prakash, Nupur

2010-01-01

187

Generalization of Green's Formulae In Thermoelasticity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Generalization of Greenâs functions and Greenâs formulae onto a case of boundary value problems in the classical theory of static and dynamical thermal stresses are suggested i this article.These result has been obtained for the first time and are the generalization of the well known Greenâs integral formulae for the theories of heat conduction and elasticity onto static and dynamical theories of uncoupled thermoelastisity . They can also be explained as a generalization of a classical integral Mayselâs formulae onto those cases when the temperature field satisfies the equation of heat conduction, the field being caused by the internal heat source and temperature or heat flux prescribed on the boundary. The advantage is that it allows us to unite the two-stage process of solving the boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses (the first stage comprise the determination of temperature fields and second stage comprises the determination of thermoplastic displacements). The investigations have shown that the possibilities of realizing the concrete solutions which have the form given generalization are so vast that they could be a subject for a whole handbook on influence functions and integral solutions of boundary value problems in the theory of thermal stresses. They are, for example, the solutions for locally mixed boundary value problems for canonic elastic bodies for Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, spherical and other systems of orthogonal coordinate. In doing so most of them can be expressed in terms of elementary functions, that are very important for practical calculations.

Sheremet, Victor; Sheremet, Adrian

2004-08-31

188

In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the residual allergenicity of partially hydrolysed infant formulas.  

PubMed

Hypoallergenic infant formulas are commonly used for genetically predisposed children and infants diagnosed with cow's milk allergy. This study describes both in vitro and in vivo approaches to assess residual allergenicity of partially hydrolysed infant formulas. Electrophoretic patterns indicated that ?-lactoglobulin and other whey proteins were largely degraded. For safety reasons, according to the European commission-guidelines, it is required that the sensitizing capacity of hypoallergenic formulas is tested in an animal model. In contrast to whey sensitization, no elevated levels of whey-specific IgE, anaphylactic reactions or drop in body temperature were observed in sensitized mice exposed to whey hydrolysates. This indicates that the whey hydrolysates lost their putative sensitizing capacity in a mouse model using oral sensitization, which is highly relevant in relation to the human situation. In combination with the lost capacity of hydrolysed infant formulas to cross-link human IgE antibodies on RBL-huFc?RI in vitro, both the sensitization and the challenge phase of the allergic response were studied. This combination of assays is proposed as a strategy for the screening of new hypoallergenic formulas aimed at preventing sensitization in atopic children and avoiding clinical symptoms in infants suffering from cow's milk allergy. PMID:21251954

van Esch, Betty C A M; Knipping, Karen; Jeurink, Prescilla; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Léon M J

2011-03-25

189

Fusion cross-sections for inertial fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of selective resonant tunneling model is extended from d 1 t fusion to other light nucleus fusion reactions, such as d 1 d fusion and d 1 3 He. In contrast to traditional formulas, the new formula for the cross-section needs only a few parameters to fit the experimental data in the energy range of interest. The features

XING ZHONG LI; BIN LIU; SI CHEN; QING MING WEI; HEINRICH HORA

2004-01-01

190

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineering charts and related formulas. 73.190 Section 73.190 Telecommunication...SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.190 Engineering charts and related formulas. (a) This section consists...

2013-10-01

191

24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.  

...calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases are intended to be employed to provide information on...

2014-04-01

192

24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases are intended to be employed to provide information on...

2010-04-01

193

27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for...

2012-04-01

194

A general proof of Landauer-Büttiker formula  

E-print Network

We point out a general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-B\\"uttiker formula.

G. Nenciu

2006-03-11

195

40 CFR 1065.630 - 1980 international gravity formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false 1980 international gravity formula. 1065.630 Section 1065.630...Requirements § 1065.630 1980 international gravity formula. The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g , varies depending on your...

2013-07-01

196

Dynamical evolution of domain walls in an expanding universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whenever the potential of a scalar field has two or more separated, degenerate minima, domain walls form as the universe cools. The evolution of the resulting network of domain walls is calculated for the case of two potential minima in two and three dimensions, including wall annihilation, crossing, and reconnection effects. The nature of the evolution is found to be largely independent of the rate at which the universe expands. Wall annihilation and reconnection occur almost as fast as causality allows, so that the horizon volume is 'swept clean' and contains, at any time, only about one, fairly smooth, wall. Quantitative statistics are given. The total area of wall per volume decreases as the first power of time. The relative slowness of the decrease and the smoothness of the wall on the horizon scale make it impossible for walls to both generate large-scale structure and be consistent with quadrupole microwave background anisotropy limits.

Press, William H.; Ryden, Barbara S.; Spergel, David N.

1989-01-01

197

Dynamical evolution of domain walls in an expanding universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever the potential of a scalar field has two or more separated, degenerate minima, domain walls form as the universe cools. The evolution of the resulting network of domain walls is calculated for the case of two potential minima in two and three dimensions, including wall annihilation, crossing, and reconnection effects. The nature of the evolution is found to be largely independent of the rate at which the universe expands. Wall annihilation and reconnection occur almost as fast as causality allows, so that the horizon volume is 'swept clean' and contains, at any time, only about one, fairly smooth, wall. Quantitative statistics are given. The total area of wall per volume decreases as the first power of time. The relative slowness of the decrease and the smoothness of the wall on the horizon scale make it impossible for walls to both generate large-scale structure and be consistent with quadrupole microwave background anisotropy limits.

Press, William H.; Ryden, Barbara S.; Spergel, David N.

1989-12-01

198

Compilation of theoretical electron-impact excitation cross sections for Fe atomic ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compilation of excitation cross sections for Fe ions represents the recommended collision cross sections for impurity ions of fusion interest. Compilation of excitation and electron capture data for C and O ions is currently in progress. It is suggested that at present the Lotz formula is the best overall predictor for ionization cross sections with 0.85 of the Lotz formula a slight improvement for ion +1 through +3. Indirect processes such as excitation/autoionization can cause the Lotz formula to be an underestimate of ionization for specific ions, particularly heavy ions with three or more attached electrons. Recombination formulas are in use but are of highly uncertain reliability.

Pindzola, M. S.; Crandall, D. H.

1981-11-01

199

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the following Figures: 2, r3, 5, 6a, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. Additionally, formulas that are directly related to graphs are included. (b) Formula 1 is used for calculation of 50% skywave field strength values. Formula 1. Skywave...

2011-10-01

200

47 CFR 73.190 - Engineering charts and related formulas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the following Figures: 2, r3, 5, 6a, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. Additionally, formulas that are directly related to graphs are included. (b) Formula 1 is used for calculation of 50% skywave field strength values. Formula 1. Skywave...

2012-10-01

201

GENERALIZED BERNOULLI NUMBERS AND A FORMULA OF LUCAS  

E-print Network

GENERALIZED BERNOULLI NUMBERS AND A FORMULA OF LUCAS VICTOR H. MOLL AND CHRISTOPHE VIGNAT Abstract. An overlooked formula of E. Lucas for the generalized Bernoulli numbers is proved using generating functions = - 1 12p + 1 4p2 , B (p) 3 = 1 8p2 (1 - p). In his 1878 paper E. Lucas [4] gave the formula (1.3) B

Moll, Victor H.

202

STIRLING'S FORMULA AND ITS EXTENSION FOR THE GAMMA FUNCTION  

E-print Network

STIRLING'S FORMULA AND ITS EXTENSION FOR THE GAMMA FUNCTION DORIN ERVIN DUTKAY, CONSTANTIN P. NICULESCU, AND FLORIN POPOVICI Abstract. We present new short proofs for both Stirling's formula and Stir formula of Stirling asserts that (1) n! p 2 nn+1=2 e n as n ! 1; in the sense that the ratio of the two

Niculescu, Constantin P.

203

The spinor representation formula in 3 and 4 Pascal Romon  

E-print Network

: Isometric immersions, Weierstrass formula, Dirac equation, Killing spinor. 2010 MSC: Primary 53C27The spinor representation formula in 3 and 4 dimensions Pascal Romon , Julien Roth Abstract In the literature, two approaches to the Weierstrass representation formula using spinors are known, one explicit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Simple ‘log formulae’ for pendulum motion valid for any amplitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining a logarithmic approximate formula for the pendulum period derived recently (valid for amplitudes below ?\\/2 rad) with the Cromer asymptotic approximation (valid for amplitudes near to ? rad), a new approximate formula accurate for all amplitudes between 0 and ? rad is derived here. It is shown that this formula yields an error that tends to zero in

F M S Lima

2008-01-01

205

ESCAPE RATES FORMULAE AND METASTABLILTY FOR RANDOMLY PERTURBED MAPS  

E-print Network

ESCAPE RATES FORMULAE AND METASTABLILTY FOR RANDOMLY PERTURBED MAPS WAEL BAHSOUN AND SANDRO VAIENTI Abstract. We provide escape rates formulae for piecewise expanding interval maps with `random holes maps. We show that our escape rates formulae can be used to approximate limits of invariant densities

206

Ultradiscrete soliton equations derived from ultradiscrete permanent formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose formulae of ultradiscrete permanent. Utilizing the formulae, ultradiscrete soliton equations and their multi-soliton solutions are obtained by a simple process. Changing variables and parameters of the formulae, we can derive the ultradiscrete Toda, KdV and hungry Lotka-Volterra equations. An extended version of the ultradiscrete hungry Lotka-Volterra equation is also proposed.

Nakamura, Shinya

2011-07-01

207

UNH Precision Racing -Formula SAE Team 2009 -Car #86  

E-print Network

UNH Precision Racing - Formula SAE Team 2009 - Car #86 The Formula SAE competition is an annual to conceive, design, fabricate, and compete with a scaled down version of a Formula style racecar. The car is designed with the amateur, weekend autocross racer in mind. The car is designed for high performance

New Hampshire, University of

208

Abdominal wall surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It ... tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

209

Infant formula companies battle for breast.  

PubMed

The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465

1996-01-01

210

Skyrmion Multi-Walls  

E-print Network

Skyrmion walls are topologically-nontrivial solutions of the Skyrme system which are periodic in two spatial directions. We report numerical investigations which show that solutions representing parallel multi-walls exist. The most stable configuration is that of the square $N$-wall, which in the $N\\to\\infty$ limit becomes the cubically-symmetric Skyrme crystal. There is also a solution resembling parallel hexagonal walls, but this is less stable.

J. Silva Lobo; R. S. Ward

2009-10-28

211

Observing Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn why and how stone walls were built. A prior knowledge of New England colonists and the history of New England is helpful. After a directed reading and discussion, they will take a nature walk to an area where they can examine a stone wall. The students will then use notebook and pencil to sketch the wall and make observations of the stones, the plants growing nearby, and other materials they see around the wall.

212

Mirror nuclei constraint in nuclear mass formula  

SciTech Connect

The macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved by considering mirror nuclei constraint. The rms deviation with respect to 2149 measured nuclear masses is reduced to 0.441 MeV. The shell corrections, the deformations of nuclei, the neutron and proton drip lines, and the shell gaps are also investigated to test the model. The rms deviation of {alpha}-decay energies of 46 superheavy nuclei is reduced to 0.263 MeV. The predicted central position of the superheavy island could lie around N=176{approx}178 and Z=116{approx}120 according to the shell corrections of nuclei.

Wang Ning; Liang Zuoying [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Liu Min [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wu, Xizhen [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

2010-10-15

213

Cartan's Magic Formula and Soap Film Structures  

E-print Network

A soap film is actually a thin solid fluid bounded by two surfaces of opposite orientation. It is natural to model the film using one polyhedron for each side. Two problems are to get the polyhedra for both sides to be in the same place without canceling each other out and to model triple junctions without introducing extra boundary components. We use chainlet geometry to create dipole cells and mass cells which accomplish these goals and model faithfully all observable soap films and bubbles. We introduce a new norm on chains of these cells and prove lower semicontinuity of area. A geometric version of Cartan's magic formula provides the necessary boundary coherence.

Jenny Harrison

2004-01-03

214

Classical Radiation Formula in the Rindler Frame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a preceding paper [T. Hirayama, Prog. Theor. Phys. 106} (2001), 71], the power of the classical radiation emitted by a moving charge was evaluated in the Rindler frame. In this paper, we give a simpler derivation of this radiation formula, including an estimation of the directional dependence of the radiation. We find that the splitting of the energy-momentum tensor into a bound part I and an emitted part II is consistent with the three conditions introduced in the preceding paper, also for each direction within the future light cone.

Hirayama, T.

2002-10-01

215

Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. For the cases treated the concordance of theory and measurement is so close as to make a resume of results desirable. Incidentally formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given, some being new forms for ready use derived in a previous paper. (author)

Zahm, A F

1927-01-01

216

MIR wall surveyor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus

1998-01-01

217

Consider the Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically examines classroom walls from four perspectives: (1) reading the environment; (2) walls that silence; (3) the purpose of display; and (4) aesthetics. The author offers some suggestions for teachers to consider when purchasing materials and in planning how to use classroom walls to enhance the educational setting. She…

Tarr, Patricia

2004-01-01

218

Description of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a list of key terms used to describe stone walls. The definitions for each term can be found in the corresponding chapter and section of the book 'Exploring Stone Walls'. Users can use the outline as a checklist, marking off the terms that best describe the wall they are investigating.

219

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 012103 (2011) Comparison of the Kubo formula, the microscopic response method, and the Greenwood formula  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 012103 (2011) Comparison of the Kubo formula, the microscopic response method to and more convenient to use than the Kubo formula. When the gradient of the carrier density is small to apply the Kubo formula to systems which have several types of elementary excitations and for which

Drabold, David

220

Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…

Kincaid, J. P.; And Others

221

Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.

Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus

2001-01-01

222

Lovelock gravity and Weyl's tube formula  

E-print Network

In four space-time dimensions, there are good theoretical reasons for believing that General Relativity is the correct geometrical theory of gravity, at least at the classical level. If one admits the possibility of extra space-time dimensions, what would we expect classical gravity to be like? It is often stated that the most natural generalisation is Lovelock's theory, which shares many physical properties with GR. But there are also key differences and problems. A potentially serious problem is the breakdown of determinism, which can occur when the matrix of coefficients of second time derivatives of the metric degenerates. This can be avoided by imposing inequalities on the curvature. Here it is argued that such inequalities occur naturally if the Lovelock action is obtained from Weyl's formulae for the volume and surface area of a tube. Part of the purpose of this article is to give a treatment of the Weyl tube formula in terminology familiar to relativists and to give an appropriate (straightforward) ge...

Willison, Steven

2009-01-01

223

Lovelock gravity and Weyl's tube formula  

E-print Network

In four space-time dimensions, there are good theoretical reasons for believing that General Relativity is the correct geometrical theory of gravity, at least at the classical level. If one admits the possibility of extra space-time dimensions, what would we expect classical gravity to be like? It is often stated that the most natural generalisation is Lovelock's theory, which shares many physical properties with GR. But there are also key differences and problems. A potentially serious problem is the breakdown of determinism, which can occur when the matrix of coefficients of second time derivatives of the metric degenerates. This can be avoided by imposing inequalities on the curvature. Here it is argued that such inequalities occur naturally if the Lovelock action is obtained from Weyl's formulae for the volume and surface area of a tube. Part of the purpose of this article is to give a treatment of the Weyl tube formula in terminology familiar to relativists and to give an appropriate (straightforward) generalisation to a tube embedded in Minkowski space.

Steven Willison

2009-04-21

224

Copyright 2004 by the author(s). Published here under licence by The Resilience Alliance. Shine, R., M. Lemaster, M. Wall, T. Langkilde, and R. Mason. 2004. Why did the snake cross the road?  

E-print Network

? Effects of roads on movement and location of mates by garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) gravel road on the behavior and trail-following abilities of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis the Snake Cross the Road? Effects of Roads on Movement and Location of Mates by Garter Snakes (Thamnophis

Mason, Robert T.

225

Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

226

Potential of a plasma bound between two biased walls  

SciTech Connect

An analytical study is presented for an one-dimensional, steady-state plasma bound between two perfectly absorbing walls that are biased with respect to each other. Starting from a description of the plasma sheaths formed at both walls, an expression relating the bulk plasma potential to the wall currents is derived, showing that the plasma potential undergoes an abrupt transition when currents cross a critical value. This result is confirmed by numerical simulations performed with a particle-in-cell code.

Loizu, J.; Dominski, J.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-08-15

227

(The structure of pectins from cotton suspension culture cell walls)  

SciTech Connect

We have made progress on several projects to do with determining the structure of pectins. These include: (1) Devising a new sensitive method to determine the degree of methyl esterification (DOM) of pectins; (2) solubilization of all of RGI from cotton cell walls; (3) solubilization of RGII from cotton cell walls; (4) characterization of xyloglucan from cotton cell walls; and (5) investigation giving an indication of a cross-link between extension and pectin.

Mort, A.

1990-01-01

228

Wall of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Cape Town University, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

2011-02-15

229

Geography of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurrence of stone walls in New England. Topics include what constitutes a stone wall province and three critical factors in the occurrence of stone walls: bedrock geology, glacial history, and land use history. Users can determine the type of stone wall in any given area by using the maps to determine its location, determine the type of bedrock, type of surface materials, and type of settlement history for that spot. Referring to the text of 'Exploring Stone Walls', they can determine which type of stone wall province contains those types of rock and surface process and read the description of what the most common type of stone walls should be in that area.

2012-02-02

230

Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall  

PubMed Central

The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of ?1,3- and ?1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, ?1,3- and ?1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

Orlean, Peter

2012-01-01

231

Theory of open thin-walled composite and prestressed beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite and prestressed beams having open thin-walled cross-sections involving concrete as an aging linear viscoelastic material, prestressing steel with relaxation property, and two other steel members as elastic materials are considered. The expressions for stresses and generalized displacements referring to any given open thin-walled composite cross-section and to any compliance function of concrete are developed without mathematical neglects. In the

V. B. Lazi?; J. D. Lazi?

1991-01-01

232

Determining anatomical position of the umbilicus in Iranian girls, and providing quantitative indices and formula to determine neo-umbilicus during abdominoplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: The umbilicus plays an important role in the aesthetic appearance of the abdomen. So, its restoration during reconstructive surgeries, such as an abdominoplasty, is a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitative indices based on constant skeletal points in the anterior wall of abdomen in order to provide an appropriate site of a neo-umbilicus during an abdominoplasty. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we enrolled 65 young adult girls (20–25 years old) who were nulliparous, nulligravid, and without any history of surgery. Weight, height, distance from xiphoid to umbilicus (Xu), distance from the pubic symphysis to xiphosternum (Xp), and anterior superior iliac spine (interASIS) distance of the subjects were measured. Data were analysed by SPSS ver. 16 using descriptive statistics and multiple regression tests in order to present a formula (equation). Results: Mean age was 22.74 ± 1.51 years, mean weight 54.98 ± 6.51 kg, mean height 160.91 ± 4.11 cm and body mass index (BMI) was calculated to be 21.25 ± 2.61 kg/m2. Mean Xp distance was 32.26 ± 2.23 cm and mean Xu distance was 17.11 ± 1.64 cm. Xu/Xp ratio (ratio of umbilicoxiphoid distance to puboxiphoid distance) was 53.06 ± 3.9%. Data were analysed using multiple regression test and likelihood ratio. The formula used in determining the appropriate site of neo-umbilicus during abdominoplasty was suggested: Xu=?0.98 + 0.91Xp ? 0.07H. Conclusion: By applying these quantitative methods, the natural site of neo-umbilicus could be determined. This may reduce practice errors and increase patient satisfaction. In addition, these findings provide plausible evidence to defend against possible legal complaints. PMID:22754161

Parnia, Rafi; Ghorbani, Ladan; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

233

Scaling the Plant Cell Wall  

NSF Publications Database

... Plant Cell Wall New method brings greater understanding of how plants build cell walls Cell walls ... have studied plant cell walls?the protective sheaths that give plant cells shape and protect them ...

234

Six-vertex model with partial domain wall boundary conditions: ferroelectric phase  

E-print Network

We obtain an asymptotic formula for the partition function of the six-vertex model with partial domain wall boundary conditions in the ferroelectric phase region. The proof is based on a formula for the partition function involving the determinant of a matrix of mixed Vandermonde/Hankel type. This determinant can be expressed in terms of a system of discrete orthogonal polynomials, which can then be evaluated asymptotically by comparison with the Meixner polynomials.

Pavel Bleher; Karl Liechty

2014-07-31

235

A Generalized Wall Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

1999-01-01

236

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24

237

MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES COMPRISING SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES, MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES AND BUCKMINSTERFULLERENE  

EPA Science Inventory

We report a facile method to accomplish cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and Buckminsterfullerene (C-60) using microwave (MW) irradiation. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked with SW...

238

The impact of magnetic properties on atom-wall interaction  

E-print Network

The Lifshitz-type formulas for the free energy and Casimir-Polder force acting between an atom possessing a permanent magnetic moment and a wall made of different materials are derived. Simple model allowing analytic results is considered where the atomic magnetic susceptibility is frequency-independent and wall is made of ideal metal. Numerical computations of the Casimir-Polder force are performed for H atom interacting with walls made of ideal metal, nonmagnetic (Au) and ferromagnetic (Fe) metals and of ferromagnetic dielectric. It is shown that for the first three wall materials the inclusion of the magnetic moment of an atom decreases and for the fourth material increases the magnitude of the Casimir-Polder force.

G. Bimonte; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

2009-04-01

239

Webs of Walls  

E-print Network

Webs of domain walls are constructed as 1/4 BPS states in d=4, N=2 supersymmetric U(Nc) gauge theories with Nf hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. Web of walls can contain any numbers of external legs and loops like (p,q) string/5-brane webs. We find the moduli space M of a 1/4 BPS equation for wall webs to be the complex Grassmann manifold. When moduli spaces of 1/2 BPS states (parallel walls) and the vacua are removed from M, the non-compact moduli space of genuine 1/4 BPS wall webs is obtained. All the solutions are obtained explicitly and exactly in the strong gauge coupling limit. In the case of Abelian gauge theory, we work out the correspondence between configurations of wall web and the moduli space CP^{Nf-1}.

Minoru Eto; Youichi Isozumi; Muneto Nitta; Keisuke Ohashi; Norisuke Sakai

2005-06-16

240

Cell wall integrity  

PubMed Central

The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways. PMID:23857352

Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

2013-01-01

241

Ferroelectric domain wall injection.  

PubMed

Ferroelectric domain wall injection has been demonstrated by engineering of the local electric field, using focused ion beam milled defects in thin single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO4 (KTP). The electric field distribution (top) displays localized field hot-spots, which correlate with nucleation events (bottom). Designed local field variations can also dictate subsequent domain wall mobility, demonstrating a new paradigm in ferroelectric domain wall control. PMID:24136810

Whyte, Jonathan R; McQuaid, Raymond G P; Sharma, Pankaj; Canalias, Carlota; Scott, James F; Gruverman, Alexei; Gregg, J Marty

2014-01-15

242

An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438

2004-01-01

243

Identification of embedded mathematical formulas in PDF documents using SVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the tremendous popularity of PDF format, recognizing mathematical formulas in PDF documents becomes a new and important problem in document analysis field. In this paper, we present a method of embedded mathematical formula identification in PDF documents, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The method first segments text lines into words, and then classifies each word into two classes, namely formula or ordinary text. Various features of embedded formulas, including geometric layout, character and context content, are utilized to build a robust and adaptable SVM classifier. Embedded formulas are then extracted through merging the words labeled as formulas. Experimental results show good performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, the method has been successfully incorporated into a commercial software package for large-scale e-Book production.

Lin, Xiaoyan; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Hu, Xuan; Lin, Xiaofan

2012-01-01

244

Integral formula for supersymmetric scattering amplitudes in three dimensions.  

PubMed

We propose a new integral formula for all tree-level scattering amplitudes of N = 6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory. It resembles the Roiban-Spradlin-Volovich-Witten formula for N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory based on a twistor string theory formulation. Our formula implies that the (2k)-point tree-level amplitude is closely related to degree (k-1) curves in CP(k-1). PMID:23215372

Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Sangmin

2012-11-01

245

The Twisting of Thin-walled, Stiffened Circular Cylinders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of the present investigation of the twisting of thin-walled, stiffened cylinders the following conclusions can be reached: 1) there is as yet no generally applicable formula for the buckling moment of the skin; 2) the mathematical treatment of the condition of the shell after buckling of the skin is based on the tension-field theory, wherein the strain condition is considered homogenous.

Schapitz, E

1938-01-01

246

Physicians, formula companies, and advertising. A historical perspective.  

PubMed

The recent advent of new advertising campaigns for infant formulas aimed at the general public via television commercials, newspapers, free formula coupons, and lay periodicals has disrupted a comfortable symbiotic relationship between infant food manufacturers and the medical profession that has endured for more than 50 years. In the late 19th century, physicians were concerned about the advertising claims of these products and generally felt that indications and directions for their use should be the province of the physician. Between 1929 and 1932, the American Medical Association, through its Committee on Foods and "Seal of Acceptance," essentially required the entire formula industry to advertise only to the medical profession. Since 1932, the US formula industry has developed into a $1.6 billion market. In 1988, Nestlé (absent from the US infant formula industry since the 1940s) acquired the Carnation Company and launched an advertising campaign to the general public for its formula products. Bristol Myers/Mead Johnson, in cooperation with Gerber Products Company, quickly followed suit. These actions threaten to once again remove the realm of infant feeding from the exclusive supervision of the medical profession. The new multimedia public advertising campaigns may increase the cost of infant formula to the general public and have a negative impact on the incidence of breast-feeding. In addition, formula advertising campaigns will likely increase the danger of advertising hyperbole and affect the level of financial support by formula companies for scientific meetings, medical research, education, and social events at medical meetings. PMID:1781817

Greer, F R; Apple, R D

1991-03-01

247

A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size.  

PubMed

The size of the pupil has a large effect on visual function, and pupil size depends mainly on the adapting luminance, modulated by other factors. Over the last century, a number of formulas have been proposed to describe this dependence. Here we review seven published formulas and develop a new unified formula that incorporates the effects of luminance, size of the adapting field, age of the observer, and whether one or both eyes are adapted. We provide interactive demonstrations and software implementations of the unified formula. PMID:23012448

Watson, Andrew B; Yellott, John I

2012-01-01

248

Empirical formula for over-barrier strong-field ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified empirical ionization formula is proposed to extend Tong and Lin's ionization formula [X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, J. Phys. B 38, 2593 (2005), 10.1088/0953-4075/38/15/001] to a laser field up to 4.5 times barrier-suppression strength (Eb) in the over-barrier regime. The validity of the formula is checked by solving the Schrödinger equation within the single-active-electron approximation with an excellent agreement. This modified empirical formula still keeps its simplicity and can calculate ionization rates in the deep over-barrier regime.

Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

2014-10-01

249

A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 1: Motivation and Development of New Formula  

E-print Network

Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the $(1 + L^2)$ term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform densi...

Courtney, Michael W

2014-01-01

250

Modeling of van der Waals force for infinitesimal deformation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes treated as cylindrical shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models van der Waals (vdW) force for axially compressed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whereby each tube is treated as a cylindrical shell continuum. Explicit formulas are derived for predicting the critical axial strain of a triple-walled CNT using a more refined vdW model. The analysis of a cylindrical shell continuum model of multi-walled CNTs using this refined vdW

Xiao Qiao He; Sritawat Kitipornchai; C. M. Wang; K. M. Liew

2005-01-01

251

Modifications of the law of the wall and algebraic turbulence modelling for separated boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various modifications of the conventional algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model are investigated for application to separated flows. Friction velocity is defined in a way that avoids singular behavior at separation and reattachment but reverts to the conventional definition for flows with small pressure gradients. This leads to a modified law of the wall for separated flows. The effect on the calculated flow field of changes in the model that affect the eddy viscosity at various distances from the wall are determined by (1) switching from Prandtl's form to an inner layer formula due to Clauser at various distances from the wall, (2) varying the constant in the Van Driest damping factor, (3) using Clauser's inner layer formula all the way to the wall, and (4) applying a relaxation procedure in the evaluation of the constant in Clauser's inner layer formula. Numerical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to determine the effects of the modifications. Experimental results from shock-induced separated flows at Mach numbers 2.93 and 8.45 are used for comparison. For these cases improved predictions of wall pressure distribution and positions of separation and reattachment are obtained from the relaxation version of the Clauser inner layer eddy viscosity formula.

Baldwin, B. S.; Maccormack, R. W.

1976-01-01

252

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

253

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

254

Abdominal Wall Endometriomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometriosis is a condition in which uterine mucosal tissue is located outside the uterus. Endometriosis may be pelvic or extrapelvic. The term endometrioma is used when endometriosis appears as a circumscribed mass. Abdominal wall endometriomas are usually a secondary process in scars after surgical procedures. A retrospective study of abdominal wall endometrioma, from March 1992 through April 1999 at our

Amit J. Dwivedi; Sunita N. Agrawal; Yvan J. Silva

2002-01-01

255

Interactive Word Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

2013-01-01

256

Modules with Demazure Flags and Character Formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study a family of finite-dimensional graded representations of the current algebra of {sl}_2 which are indexed by partitions. We show that these representations admit a flag where the successive quotients are Demazure modules which occur in a level ?-integrable module for A_1^1 as long as ? is large. We associate to each partition and to each ? an edge-labeled directed graph which allows us to describe in a combinatorial way the graded multiplicity of a given level ?-Demazure module in the filtration. In the special case of the partition 1^s and ?=2, we give a closed formula for the graded multiplicity of level two Demazure modules in a level one Demazure module. As an application, we use our result along with the results of Naoi and Lenart et al., to give the character of a {g}-stable level one Demazure module associated to B_n^1 as an explicit combination of suitably specialized Macdonald polynomials. In the case of {sl}_2, we also study the filtration of the level two Demazure module by level three Demazure modules and compute the numerical filtration multiplicities and show that the graded multiplicites are related to (variants of) partial theta series.

Chari, Vyjayanthi; Schneider, Lisa; Shereen, Peri; Wand, Jeffrey

2014-03-01

257

Walls and Windows  

SciTech Connect

Energy travels in and out of a building through the walls and windows by means of conduction, convection, and radiation. The walls and windows, complex systems in themselves, are part of the overall building system. A wall system is composed of multiple layers that work in concert to provide shelter from the exterior weather. Wall systems vary in the degree to which they provide thermal resistance, moisture resistance, durability, and thermal storage. High tech windows are now available that can resist radiation heat transfer while still providing light and visibility. The combination of walls and windows within the building system can be adapted to meet a wide range of environmental conditions, recognizing that the best building envelope system for one climate may not be the first choice for another location.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

2007-01-01

258

Biased domain walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domain walls form naturally in the early Universe whenever a discrete symmetry is spontaneously broken at some phase transition. When each vacuum is populated equally, it is well known that the domain wall network comes to dominate the energy density of the Universe and causes excessive anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. We present results for the initial conditions and dynamical evolution of domain wall networks in which one of the degenerate vacua has a population bias over the other. The initial distribution of domain walls is well described by percolation theory. We find that such networks, although they show evidence of a limited scaling regime for a range of biases, do not persist indefinitely. It follows that biased domain wall networks avoid the energy density and anisotropy problems.

Coulson, D.; Lalak, Z.; Ovrut, B.

1996-04-01

259

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

260

The Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural, and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles; links to books and other publications; and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

261

Kinetic study of wall collisions in a coaxial Hall discharge.  

PubMed

Coaxial Hall discharges (also known as Hall thrusters, stationary plasma thrusters, and closed-drift accelerators) are cross-field plasma sources under development for space propulsion applications. The importance of the electron-wall interaction to the Hall discharge operation is studied the through analysis of experimental data and simulation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) inside the discharge channel. Experimental time-average plasma property data from a laboratory Hall discharge are used to calculate the electron conductivity and to estimate the rate of wall-loss collisions. The electron Boltzmann equation is then solved in the local field limit, using the experimental results as inputs. The equation takes into account ionization and wall collisions, including secondary electrons produced at the wall. Local electron balances are used to calculate the sheath potential at the insulator walls. Results show an EEDF depleted at high energy due to electron loss to the walls. The calculated EEDFs agree well with experimental electron temperature data when the experimentally determined effective collision frequency is used for electron momentum transport. The electron wall-loss and wall-return frequencies are extremely low compared to those predicted by a Maxwellian of equal average energy. The very low frequency of wall collisions suggests that secondary electrons do not contribute to cross-field transport. This conclusion holds despite significant experimental uncertainty. PMID:12366261

Meezan, Nathan B; Cappelli, Mark A

2002-09-01

262

Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important photoluminescence and photovoltaic processes. PMID:24821815

Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

2014-05-27

263

Double wall underground storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids

E. B. Jr. Canaan; J. R. Wiegand; D. H. Bartlow

1993-01-01

264

Formula Student as Part of a Mechanical Engineering Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formula Student (FS) is a multi-university student design competition managed by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Students are required to demonstrate and prove their creativity and engineering skills through the design, manufacture and financing of a small formula style race car. This paper seeks to explore the educational value that…

Davies, Huw Charles

2013-01-01

265

Total stopping power formulae for high energy electrons and positrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

New simple empirical formulae for the total stopping power for electrons and positrons in matter have been derived from Wilson's theory. The formulae are valid for electrons and positrons in the energy region from 5 to 1000 MeV in absorbers of atomic number from Z = 1 to 92. Values of the total stopping power, obtained by the present approach

P. B. Pal; V. P. Varshney; D. K. Gupta

1986-01-01

266

27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24.303 Section 24.303 Alcohol...BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces...

2010-04-01

267

Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)

Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine

1982-01-01

268

BORROMEAN SURGERY FORMULA FOR THE CASSON JEANBAPTISTE MEILHAN  

E-print Network

BORROMEAN SURGERY FORMULA FOR THE CASSON INVARIANT JEAN­BAPTISTE MEILHAN Abstract. Every oriented integral homology 3­sphere is obtained from S 3 by some Borromean surgery (or clasper surgery) moves. We by such a surgery presentation. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing, linking number

269

BORROMEAN SURGERY FORMULA FOR THE CASSON JEAN-BAPTISTE MEILHAN  

E-print Network

BORROMEAN SURGERY FORMULA FOR THE CASSON INVARIANT JEAN-BAPTISTE MEILHAN Abstract. Every oriented integral homology 3-sphere is obtained from S3 by some Borromean surgery (or clasper surgery) moves. We by such a surgery presentation. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing, linking number

270

Origin of the Formulas of Dihydrogen and Other Simple Molecules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The logic and experimental data are described with which chemists originally deduced the formulas of the fundamental compounds such as H[subscript 2], H[subscript 2]O, Cl[subscript 2], NH[subscript 3], CH[subscript 4], and HCl. This information is never provided in current texts at any level and the formulas of such simple compounds are taken as…

Williams, Andrew

2007-01-01

271

Evaporation from flowing channels ( mass-transfer formulas).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stability-dependent and Dalton-type mass transfer formulas are determined from experimental evaporation data in ambient and heated channels and are shown to have similar performance in prediction of evaporation. The formulas developed are compared with those proposed by other investigators for lakes and flowing channels. -from ASCE Publications Information

Fulford, J. M.; Sturm, T. W.

1984-01-01

272

A closed form network connectivity formula one-dimensional MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a closed form network connectivity formula for a one-dimensional mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is developed. Precisely, we derive the probability that a MANET is fully connected given a certain number of nodes randomly and uniformly placed along a path between a source and destination pair. This formula is particularly useful in the process of design and

Chuan Heng Foh; Bu Sung Lee

2004-01-01

273

Applications: Quadratic Formulas Up to NCTM's Curriculum Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternative form of the quadratic formula to solve quadratic equations. Presents an application to chemistry to illustrate the need for quadratic formulas better suited to approximations obtained using hand-held calculators. Addresses the problems of rounding errors, accuracy of solutions, and factoring as a method of solution. (MDH)

Nievergelt, Yves

1992-01-01

274

An accurate asymptotic formula for the viscosity of liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a recently developed asymptotic approach for solving a quadratic transcendental equation, I derive here an asymptotic formula for the viscosity of liquids. I also show here that this formula provides a very accurate analytical tool for a direct experimental determination of the viscosity of liquids.

Houari, Ahmed

2014-11-01

275

27 CFR 21.58 - Formula No. 31-A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...21.58 Formula No. 31-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One hundred pounds of glycerin (glycerol), U.S.P., and 20 pounds of hard soap, N.F. XI. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent:...

2010-04-01

276

AN EVALUATION OF THE PRIA GRAZING FEE FORMULA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The federal grazing fee is currently set using the Public Rangeland Improvement Act (PRIA) fee formula established in 1978 and modified in 1986. The formula is adjusted annually using indices of private land grazing lease rates (Forage Value Index, FVI), prices received for beef cattle (Beef Cattle Price Index, BCPI), and costs of beef production (Prices Paid Index, PPI). The

L. Allen Torell; Neil R. Rimbey; E. Tom Bartlett; Larry W. Van Tassell; John A. Tanaka

2001-01-01

277

[New infant formula based on soy milk and corn flour].  

PubMed

In recent years the use of infant feeding formulas based on soy bean has been increasing. We report a trial of a new, soy bean-based formula to which starch was added. A control group was given a cow milk-based formula widely used in this country ("Materna" with cornflour, Ma'abaroth Products Ltd.). Healthy infants, between 3-6 months of age and of normal length and weight were enrolled at random at Infant Welfare Centers in Jerusalem. 25 received the soy formula, and 21 the cow milk-based formula. During the 2-month trial the infants did not receive any other foods. They were examined by the senior author every 2 weeks and weight, length and head circumference were measured at their Infant Welfare Clinic visits. The mothers filled questionnaires concerning the amount of formula ingested, the nature and number of stools, and complaints, such as crying. Both groups gained weight at the normal rate during the trial. In each group, the mothers were satisfied with the product and wanted to continue with it after the trial. We conclude that a soy-based formula containing starch is comparable to a cow milk formula containing star. PMID:8707193

Mutahada, E; Leader, D; Faber, J; Freier, S

1996-03-15

278

Fibonacci formulae 11/13/2007 1 Fibonacci Numbers  

E-print Network

Fibonacci formulae 11/13/2007 1 Fibonacci Numbers The Fibonacci sequence {un} starts with 0 and 1 a professional journal, The Fibo- nacci Quarterly. #12;Fibonacci formulae 11/13/2007 2 Mathematical Induction. It can work particularly naturally for Fibonacci number properties as the numbers themselves

Taylor, Peter

279

WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. DISCUSSION: The evidence that is

George Kent

2006-01-01

280

Cosmology and the Poisson summation formula Matilde Marcolli  

E-print Network

Cosmology and the Poisson summation formula Matilde Marcolli Bonn, June 2010 Matilde Marcolli Cosmology and the Poisson summation formula #12;This talk is based on: MPT M. Marcolli, E. Pierpaoli, K. Teh, The spectral action and cosmic topology, arXiv:1005.2256. The NCG standard model and cosmology CCM A

Marcolli, Matilde

281

Cosmology and the Poisson summation formula Matilde Marcolli  

E-print Network

Cosmology and the Poisson summation formula Matilde Marcolli Adem Lectures, Mexico City, January 2011 Matilde Marcolli Cosmology and the Poisson summation formula #12;This talk is based on: MPT M Cosmology, arXiv:1012.0780 CMT B. ´Ca´ci´c, M. Marcolli, K. Teh, Topological coupling of gravity to matter

Marcolli, Matilde

282

34 CFR 303.200 - Formula for State allocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Formula for State allocations. 303...EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES...Grants to States § 303.200 Formula for State allocations...aggregate amount as the number of infants and toddlers in the State...

2010-07-01

283

Defective Infant Formulas and Expressive Language Problems: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who used chloride-deficient soy-based infant formulas (Neo-Mull-Soy and Cho-Free) have been found to exhibit expressive language disorders. Medical studies of such children are reviewed, and a case study compares the language development deficits of an eight-year-old boy who used the formula with that of his fraternal twin who did not.…

Wing, Clara S.

1990-01-01

284

The Infant Formula Controversy: Is the Boycott Justified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems involved with the use of infant formulas in developing countries and then examines the other side of the story, the legitimate need for infant formula. The International Code for the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is also presented and discussed. (RM)

Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia H.

1982-01-01

285

Managerial promotions formulas and a human resource management model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purposes of this paper are to address the following research questions: what are the factors that result in promotions? A preliminary formula for promotion with testable hypotheses will be presented. What would be a “popular press” list of the formula? A list will be presented to address practitioners concerns. What elements would a human resources management (HRM)

Robert W. Service; Archie Lockamy III

2008-01-01

286

Formulas for the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebra Frederic Menous  

E-print Network

Formulas for the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebra Fr´ed´eric Menous Abstract We give explicit formulas for the coproduct and the antipode in the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebra HCM. To do so, we first restrict ourselves to a sub-Hopf algebra H1 CM containing the nontrivial elements, namely those for which the coproduct

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.220 Section 26.220 Alcohol...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE...Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits...

2013-04-01

288

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE...Puerto Rico § 26.50 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits...

2013-04-01

289

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

... 2014-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE...Puerto Rico § 26.50 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits...

2014-04-01

290

Poisson Process Approximations for the Ewens Sampling Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ewens sampling formula is a family of measures on permutations, that arises in population genetics, Bayesian statistics and many other applications. This family is indexed by a parameter $\\\\theta > 0$; the usual uniform measure is included as the special case $\\\\theta = 1$. Under the Ewens sampling formula with parameter $\\\\theta$, the process of cycle counts $(C_1(n), C_2(n),

Richard Arratia; A. D. Barbour; Simon Tavare

1992-01-01

291

27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Uses § 21.48 Formula No. 23-F. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Three pounds of salicylic acid, U.S.P., 1 pound of resorcinol (resorcin), U.S.P., and 1 gallon of bergamot oil, N.F. XI,...

2013-04-01

292

27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.  

...Uses § 21.48 Formula No. 23-F. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Three pounds of salicylic acid, U.S.P., 1 pound of resorcinol (resorcin), U.S.P., and 1 gallon of bergamot oil, N.F. XI,...

2014-04-01

293

27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Uses § 21.48 Formula No. 23-F. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Three pounds of salicylic acid, U.S.P., 1 pound of resorcinol (resorcin), U.S.P., and 1 gallon of bergamot oil, N.F. XI,...

2011-04-01

294

27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Uses § 21.48 Formula No. 23-F. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Three pounds of salicylic acid, U.S.P., 1 pound of resorcinol (resorcin), U.S.P., and 1 gallon of bergamot oil, N.F. XI,...

2012-04-01

295

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rico. If a formula is submitted to cover only the production of spirits which are to be transferred to the bonded premises of a DSP under 26 U.S.C. 5232, the formula shall include a statement to that effect. If any product contains liquors made...

2010-04-01

296

Finite size mass shift formula for stable particles revisited  

E-print Network

Luescher's finite size mass shift formula in a periodic finite volume, involving forward scattering amplitudes in the infinite volume, is revisited for the two stable distinguishable particle system. The generalized mass shift formulae for the boson and fermion are derived in the boson-boson and fermion-boson systems, respectively. The nucleon mass shift is discussed in the nucleon-pion system.

Koma, Y; Koma, Yoshiaki; Koma, Miho

2004-01-01

297

Formulaic Language in Acquisition and Production: Implications for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the growing body of research on formulaic language units--or ready-made chunks and sequences of words. Evidence suggests that these multi-word lexical units facilitate long-term memory storage and fluent language production. Examines formulaic language acquisition in children and adults and discusses applications for teaching. (Author/VWL)

Wood, David

2002-01-01

298

A More Intuitive Version of the Lorentz Velocity Addition Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lorentz velocity addition formula for one-dimensional motion presents a number of problems for beginning students of special relativity. In this paper we suggest a simple rewrite of the formula that is easier for students to memorize and manipulate, and furthermore is more intuitive in understanding the correction necessary when adding…

Devlin, John F.

2009-01-01

299

But Can They Read It? A Look at Readability Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines six science books in reference to their reading levels as determined by the Fry, SMOG, and Fog formulas. A disparity in calculated values is noted and explained to be the result of the use of different comprehension levels by the formulas. Suggestions concerning the selection of science reading materials for the classroom are provided.…

Ricker, Kenneth S.

1978-01-01

300

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

301

22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

302

Soy Infant Formula may be Associated with Autistic Behaviors  

PubMed Central

The effects of soy-based infant formulas on childhood development are not well understood. This exploratory study evaluates the severity of autistic behaviors in association with the use of soy-based infant formula in a population of high-functioning autistic children. Medical record data were analyzed from the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative Simplex Collection, which included data on infant formula use and autism diagnostic scores for 1,949 autistic children. We found exploratory associations between the use of soy-based infant formula and several autistic behaviors as assessed by line-item analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. This study provides preliminary data that the use of soy-based infant formula may be associated with specific autistic behaviors.

Westmark, Cara J.

2014-01-01

303

Nutritive value of elemental formula with reduced osmolality.  

PubMed

The osmolality of an elemental formula was reduced from 627 to 338 mOsm/kg H2O by replacing dextrose with corn syrup solids, reducing the content of casein hydrolysate, and replacing a portion of the medium-chain triglycerides with corn oil. In three convalescent malnourished infants, the protein quality of the formula was compared at isonitrogenous levels with that of a casein-sucrose-vegetable oil formula and was found to be at least as high: in all three nitrogen retention was higher than during a preceding casein period, and in one of the three it was also higher than during a following casein period. The levels of postprandial plasma amino acids suggested that threonine might be the first-limiting amino acid. Four severely malnourished infants received the formula as their only food during initial rehabilitation. The formula was well tolerated and supported satisfactory weight gain, linear growth, and serum protein regeneration. PMID:463834

Graham, G G; Klein, G L; Cordano, A

1979-08-01

304

MIR wall surveyor  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus an insufficient amount of backscattered data are collected to use diffraction tomographic [3] techniques to form images. The problem is therefore one of determining the wall layers from a set of time series reflection data. We develop two channel signal processing algorithms to determine the location of the layers of a wall, using as inputs the time series returned from the wall and the incident pulse. We study the problem using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) computer code to simulate the electromagnetic propagation within and scattering from a wall probed with five pulses. We use the results to develop and test signal processing procedures for locating the individual layers. We study two classes of algorithms: a deconvolution approach to determine a layered impulse response, and a correlation approach. After testing the algorithms on the FDTD results, we down-select to a suitable method.

Lehman, S K

1998-08-01

305

Anterior chest wall inflammation by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with spondyloarthritis: lack of association between clinical and imaging findings in a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inflammatory involvement of the anterior chest wall (ACW) affects the quality of life of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA), although involvement of the ACW is often neglected on clinical and imaging evaluation. Whole-body (WB) MRI is an imaging method used to assess the ACW in addition to the sacroiliac joints and spine without inconvenience for patients. Our goals in this study were to describe the distribution of ACW inflammation by WB MRI in both early and established SpA and associations between clinical and imaging findings indicative of inflammation. Methods The ACWs of 122 consecutive SpA patients (95 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 27 with nonradiographic SpA (nrSpA)) and 75 healthy controls were scanned by sagittal and coronal WB MRI. The MRI scans were scored independently in random order by seven readers blinded to patient identifiers. Active and structural inflammatory lesions of the ACW were recorded on a web-based data entry form. ACW pain by patient self-report, ACW tenderness on physical examination according to the Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (MASES) and lesions detected by MRI were analyzed descriptively. ? statistics served to assess the agreement between clinical and imaging findings. Results ACW pain or tenderness was present in 26% of patients, with little difference between AS and nrSpA patients. Bone marrow edema (BME), erosion and fat infiltration were recorded in 44.3%, 34.4% and 27.0% of SpA patients and in 9.3%, 12.0% and 5.3% of controls, respectively. Lesions found by MRI occurred more frequently in AS patients (BME, erosion and fat infiltration in 49.5%, 36.8% and 33.7%, respectively) than in nrSpA patients (25.9%, 25.9% and 3.7%, respectively). The joint most frequently affected by lesions found on MRI scans was the manubriosternal joint. The ? values between clinical assessments and MRI inflammation ranged from -0.10 to only 0.33 for both AS and nrSpA patients. Conclusions Among SpA patients, 26% had clinical involvement of the ACW. WB MRI signs of ACW inflammation were found in a substantial proportion of patients with AS (49.5%) and nrSpA (25.9%). There was no association between clinical assessments of ACW, including the MASES, and MRI features. PMID:22226453

2012-01-01

306

Monte Carlo study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube materials: The effect of different scattering models  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of electron-beam penetration and backscattering in multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials for beam energies of {approx}0.3 to 30 keV is presented based on event-by-event Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories using state-of-the-art scattering cross sections. The importance of different analytic approximations for computing the elastic and inelastic electron-scattering cross sections for MWCNTs is emphasized. We offer a simple parameterization for the total and differential elastic-scattering Mott cross section, using appropriate modifications to the Browning formula and the Thomas-Fermi screening parameter. A discrete-energy-loss approach to inelastic scattering based on dielectric theory is adopted using different descriptions of the differential cross section. The sensitivity of electron penetration and backscattering parameters to the underlying scattering models is examined. Our simulations confirm the recent experimental backscattering data on MWCNT forests and, in particular, the steep increase of the backscattering yield at sub-keV energies as well as the sidewalls escape effect at high-beam energies.

Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris [Medical Physics Lab, University of Ioannina Medical School, 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Nojeh, Alireza [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Moscovitch, Marko [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, NW 20057 (United States)

2013-02-28

307

Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics  

SciTech Connect

The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Svechnikov, S. V. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Maksymovych, Petro [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2012-01-01

308

Supersymmetric Domain Walls  

E-print Network

We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls", i.e. branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of the E11 Kac-Moody algebra and the embedding tensor formalism. We show that the number of half-supersymmetric domain walls is a multiple of the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra, where the multiplicity is related to the degeneracy of the BPS conditions.

Eric A. Bergshoeff; Axel Kleinschmidt; Fabio Riccioni

2012-06-25

309

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

310

Wall conditioning on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like all tokamaks, ITER will require wall conditioning systems and strategies for successful operation from the point of view of plasma-facing surface preparation. Unlike today's devices however, ITER will have to manage large quantities of tritium fuel, imposing on wall conditioning a major responsibility for tritium inventory control. It will also feature the largest plasma-facing beryllium surface ever used in a tokamak and its high duty cycle and long pulse are expected to lead to the rapid formation of deposited layers in which tritium can accumulate. This paper summarises the currently planned ITER wall conditioning systems and describes the strategy for their use throughout exploitation of the device.

Shimada, Michiya; Pitts, Richard A.

2011-08-01

311

Hebes Chasma Wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

This false color image of a canyon wall located in Hebes Chasma, was collected during the Southern Fall season. Hebes Chasma is located north of Valles Marineris.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.5, Longitude 284.5 East (75.5 West). 35 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

312

Medical Position Paper Soy Protein Infant Formulae and Follow-On Formulae: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comment by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition summarizes available information on the composition and use of soy protein formulae as substitutes for breastfeeding and cows_ milk protein formulae as well as on their suitability and safety for supporting adequate growth and development in infants. Soy is a source of protein that

Berthold Koletzko; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; John Puntis; Daniel Rieu; Jacques Rigo; Raanan Shamir; Hania Szajewska; Dominique Turck

313

Great Wall Chocolate  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From fortification to fatification: A chocolate replica of the Great Wall was recently made here in China. It was created for the World Chocolate Wonderland whose sole purpose is to get the Chinese to eat more chocolate...

Hacker, Randi

2010-04-14

314

Introduction: Investigating Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of educational activities and investigations provides ideas on how to teach art, history, geography, language arts, math, and science using the opportunities and examples provided by stone walls.

315

Designing a Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 5 of PDF), young learners investigate how materials and design contribute to the strength of a structure, particularly walls. Learners use different materials to construct "walls" and then test the strength of each by setting up a ramp near the wall and releasing a car from the top of the ramp. Learners also watch a video clip and develop a fair test to compare the strength of the different walls they have constructed. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Keep Out Cows." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

Kids, Pbs

2006-01-01

316

Hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell-wall stiffening in vitro in maize coleoptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been proposed that H2O2-dependent peroxidative formation of phenolic cross-links between cell-wall polymers serves as a mechanism for fixing the viscoelastically extended wall structure and thus confers irreversibility to wall extension during cell growth (M. Hohl et al. 1995, Physiol. Plant. 94: 491–498). In the present paper the isolated cell wall (operationally, frozen\\/thawed maize coleoptile segments) was used

P. Schopfer

1996-01-01

317

A Camp Without Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

To order book: Cost of the A Camp Without Walls is $14.95 plus $5.00 shipping and handling and be purchased by contacting Dr. Lombardo by E-mail: lombardoma@aol.com or write to: Dr. Maria Lombardo P.O. Box 590573 Newton Center, MA 02459 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A CAMP WITHOUT WALLS As an international resistance fighter during World War II, Salvatore Lombardo risked his life to

Maria Lombardo

1999-01-01

318

Wall Street Journal Interactivo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dow Jones & Company created the Spanish-language business news resource Wall Street Journal Interactivo "to serve the needs of Latin American businesspeople." This comprehensive site draws on content from the Spanish news agency EFE, Reuters NewMedia Inc., and The Wall Street Journal Americas, among other sources, to provide continuous online financial news as well as Diarios de la Region -- links to current headlines from top Latin American dailies by country.

319

Domain wall Skyrmions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skyrmions of different dimensions are related by domain walls. We obtain explicit full numerical solutions of various Skyrmion configurations trapped inside a domain wall. We find for the quadratic mass term that multi-Skyrmions are ring shaped and conjecture for the linear mass term, that the lowest-energy state of multi-Skyrmions will consist of charge-2 rings accommodated in a lattice.

Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto

2014-04-01

320

Appetite during consumption of enteral formula as a sole source of nutrition: the effect of supplementing pea-fibre and fructo-oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Liquid enteral formulas are commonly used as a sole source of nutritional support of patients in hospital and community settings. Their effect on appetite has important consequences for dietary management of such patients and is likely to be affected by the formula composition. The aim of the present study was to compare appetite within healthy subjects consuming both a standard formula and one supplemented with pea-fibre (10 g/l) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS; 5 g/l) as a sole source of nutrition. Eleven healthy subjects consumed a standard formula or a pea-fibre/FOS formula as a sole source of nutrition for 14 d in a double-blind, cross-over trial. Appetite was recorded using standard 100 mm lines anchored at each end by a phrase denoting the most extreme appetite sensation. Consumption of the pea-fibre/FOS formula resulted in higher mean fullness (46 v. 37 mm, P=0.035), minimum fullness (13 v. 9 mm, P=0.024) and minimum satiety (12 v. 8 mm, P=0.012) compared to the standard formula. As there were no differences in macronutrient intake between formulas, these differences are likely to be due to supplementation with pea-fibre and FOS. The effect on appetite of the composition of an enteral formula, both with respect to nutrient content and functional components such as pea-fibre and FOS, may be an important aspect to consider in the dietary management of patients consuming enteral formula as a sole source of nutrition. PMID:16923230

Whelan, Kevin; Efthymiou, Loukia; Judd, Patricia A; Preedy, Victor R; Taylor, Moira A

2006-08-01

321

The Kramers-Heisenberg Formula and the Gunn-Peterson Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent cosmological observations indicate that the reionized universe may have started at around z=6, where a significant suppression around Ly? has been observed from the neutral intergalactic medium. The associated neutral hydrogen column density is expected to exceed 10^{21}cm^{-2}, where it is very important to use the accurate scattering cross section known as the Kramers-Heisenberg formula that is obtained from the fully quantum mechanical time-dependent second order perturbation theory. We present the Kramers-Heisenberg formula and compare it with the formula introduced in a heuristic way by Peebles (1993) considering the hydrogen atom as a two-level atom, from which we find a deviation by a factor of two in the red wing region far from the line center. Adopting a representative set of cosmological parameters, we compute the Gunn-Peterson optical depths and absorption profiles. Our results are quantitatively compared with previous work by Madau & Rees (2000), who adopted the Peebles approximation in their radiative transfer problems. We find deviations up to 5 per cent in the Gunn-Peterson transmission coefficient for an accelerated expanding universe in the red off-resonance wing part with the rest wavelength ??˜ 10 Å.

Bach, Kiehunn; Lee, Hee-Won

2014-10-01

322

Compatibility of Larmor's formula with radiation reaction for a radiating charge  

E-print Network

It is shown that the well-known disparity in classical electrodynamics between Larmor's formula for the power radiated in electromagnetic fields of a charge undergoing a non-uniform motion and the power-loss calculated from the radiation reaction on the charge, is successfully resolved when a proper distinction is made between quantities expressed in terms of a retarded time and those expressed in terms of a "real time". Larmor's formula, in general, gives radiation crossing a surface surrounding the charge, in terms of the time-retarded value of the acceleration of the charge, while the rate of work done by the system against its self-forces, considered to be the source of radiation reaction, is expressed in terms of the "present" values of the acceleration and its time derivative. We have shown that Larmor's formula and the rate of work done against the self-forces are consistent with each other, provided both are expressed in terms of either time-retarded or "present" values of quantities specifying the ch...

Singal, Ashok K

2014-01-01

323

Bronchial wall thickness in toll collectors.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of diesel exhaust particulates on human health. In a diesel exposed occupational group composed of 120 toll collectors, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the chest radiographs and 40 toll collectors were selected for computed tomography examination according to hyperinflation and linear markings. The wall thicknesses and luminal diameters of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi of right apical and posterior basal segments were measured with manual tracing method. The walls of right upper bronchus in exsmoker toll collectors were significantly thicker than those of nonsmokers (p=0.011). A positive correlation was observed between age and the right upper bronchus wall thickness (r=0.577, p=0.000). An inverse correlation was found between the working duration and the diameter of right main bronchus (r=-0.366, p=0.020). A positive correlation was seen between smoking and the right upper bronchus wall thickness (r=0.457, p=0.005). Diesel exposure might have a role in increase of thickness of large airways wall and a decrease in the diameters of large airways. Studies in this area are needed to protect the population under the diesel exposure risk. PMID:20562507

Safak, Alp Alper; Arbak, Peri; Yazici, Burhan; Bilgin, Cahit; Erdogmus, Besir; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Ozsahin, Sefa Levent

2010-01-01

324

Formula for the phase velocity of electromagnetic waves.  

PubMed

A new formula for the phase velocity of electromagnetic waves presented by Chen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121125 (2006)] is investigated and discussed here. The difference between the result obtained with the new formula and that obtained directly using the phase term is small for a fundament-mode Gaussian laser beam. However, this difference is qualitative in some high-order Gaussian-mode laser beams. Using the new formula for such beams, discontinuities arise in the distribution of the phase velocity. This distribution is not rotationally symmetric with respect to the optical axis, and an imaginary phase velocity may appear near these discontinuities. PMID:19518391

Huang, Shihua; Wu, Fengmin; Hu, Bo

2009-04-01

325

Characterization of the cell wall and cell wall proteins of Chromatium vinosum.  

PubMed Central

Highly purified cell walls of Chromatium vinosum were isolated by differential centrifugation, with or without Triton X-100 extraction. The isolated material had a protein composition similar to that of cell walls obtained by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-two proteins were reproducibly detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A 42-kilodalton protein was shown to account for 65% of the total cell wall protein. The majority of cell wall proteins were solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate at room temperature; however, they existed as high-molecular-weight complexes unless heated to 45 degrees C or above. The cell wall contained one heat-modifiable protein which migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 37,400 when solubilized at 70 degrees C or below, but which migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 52,500 if solubilized at 100 degrees C. The electrophoretic mobility of three proteins was modified by 2-mercaptoethanol. The majority of C. vinosum cell wall proteins had isoelectric points between pH 4.5 and 5.5, and the 42-kilodalton protein focused at pH 4.9. No proteins were detected which were analogous to the lipoprotein or peptidoglycan-associated proteins of the Enterobacteriaceae. Nearest-neighbor analysis with a reducible, cross-linking reagent indicated that three proteins, including the 42-kilodalton protein, associated with themselves. Most of the cell wall proteins were partially accessible to proteases in both intact cells and isolated cell walls. Protease treatment of the whole cell or isolated cell wall digested approximately an 11,000-molecular-weight portion of the 42-kilodalton protein. Images PMID:6988413

Lane, B C; Hurlbert, R E

1980-01-01

326

Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of <10(4) cfu/g. These acceptable APC ranged between <10(2) to 7.2×10(3) cfu/g. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter cloacae, which was present in 3 infant formulas and 1 infant food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23141821

Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

2013-01-01

327

Detecting domain walls of axionlike models using terrestrial experiments.  

PubMed

Stable topological defects of light (pseudo)scalar fields can contribute to the Universe's dark energy and dark matter. Currently, the combination of gravitational and cosmological constraints provides the best limits on such a possibility. We take an example of domain walls generated by an axionlike field with a coupling to the spins of standard-model particles and show that, if the galactic environment contains a network of such walls, terrestrial experiments aimed at the detection of wall-crossing events are realistic. In particular, a geographically separated but time-synchronized network of sensitive atomic magnetometers can detect a wall crossing and probe a range of model parameters currently unconstrained by astrophysical observations and gravitational experiments. PMID:23383890

Pospelov, M; Pustelny, S; Ledbetter, M P; Jackson Kimball, D F; Gawlik, W; Budker, D

2013-01-11

328

Sleep Characteristics in Breastfeeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers  

E-print Network

Sleep loss is a common concern frequently expressed by new mothers. This study's purpose was to investigate the difference between sleep architecture, descriptions and self-perception of sleep in breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, 4-6 weeks...

Rosen, Elizabeth Anne Averill

2009-12-09

329

Some formulas for invariant phases of unitary matrices by Jarlskog  

SciTech Connect

We describe a calculation of Jarlskog's determinant in the case of n=4 in detail. Next, we investigate some formulas for invariant phases of unitary matrices and derive some explicit relations for them.

Suzuki, Tatsuo [Center for Educational Assistance, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan)

2009-12-15

330

Convergence acceleration of the Gauss-Laguerre quadrature formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymptotic expansions have been obtained for the error of the Gauss-Laguerre quadrature formula for a large class of analytic integrands. Then, a theorem of convergence acceleration is given. Numerical examples are also given.

M. Kzaz

1999-01-01

331

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI...

2011-04-01

332

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI...

2013-04-01

333

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI...

2012-04-01

334

24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.  

...Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI...

2014-04-01

335

Caution of overdependence on formulas while treating hyponatremia.  

PubMed

Use of online formulas to treat hyponatremia is a common practice. We report here that while using the same goal of correction and type of infusate to treat a patient with hyponatremia, a large discrepancy in infusion rate is obtained from using the 2 commonly available online equations. When the therapy fluid is less concentrated saline (0.9%), Adrogue's formula poses the risk of large amount of volume being administered for only a small change in serum sodium concentration. This may be detrimental especially in patients with congestive heart failure. When the therapy fluid is hypertonic saline (3%), these formulas may result in overly rapid correction. We should, thus, never use these formulas blindly in the management of patients with hyponatremia. PMID:22030189

Sandhu, Gagangeet; Zouain, Eduardo; Chan, Germaine

2012-10-01

336

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol, Tobacco...TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN...

2011-04-01

337

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.220 Section 26.220 Alcohol, Tobacco...TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN...

2011-04-01

338

27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.220 Section 26.220 Alcohol, Tobacco...TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN...

2012-04-01

339

27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol, Tobacco...TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN...

2012-04-01

340

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P...own use only). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....

2011-04-01

341

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P...own use only). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....

2013-04-01

342

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P...own use only). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....

2012-04-01

343

27 CFR 21.60 - Formula No. 33.  

... (1) As a solvent: 052.Inks (not including meat branding inks). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P...own use only). (c) Conditions governing use. Meat branding inks made with Formula No. 33 do not meet U.S....

2014-04-01

344

Sutherland formula for a square-well fluid.  

PubMed

We introduce a closed Onsager-symmetric set of linear kinetic equations for smooth interactions. The new formula is an equivalent of the Enskog equation for hard spheres. Corresponding Green-Kubo expressions for transport coefficients are given with high temperature corrections from finite potentials-Sutherland formula, not only for thermal conductivity and shear viscosity, but also bulk viscosity with discussion of the square-well case. PMID:16486129

Bednorz, Adam

2006-01-01

345

Microscopic formula for transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient, and corresponding relaxation times.

Koide, T.

2007-06-01

346

Microscopic formula for transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics.  

PubMed

The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient, and corresponding relaxation times. PMID:17677204

Koide, T

2007-06-01

347

Improving accessibility to mathematical formulas: the Wikipedia Math Accessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics accessibility is an important topic for inclusive education. In this paper, we make Wikipedia's repository of mathematical formulas accessible by providing a natural language description of its more than 420,000 formulas using a well-researched sub-language. We also contribute by targeting Spanish speakers, for whom assistive technologies, particularly domain-specific technologies like the one described here, are scarce. Our focus on

J. Fuentes Sepúlveda; L. Ferres

2012-01-01

348

On the structure of Goulden-Jackson-Vakil formula  

E-print Network

We study the structure of the Goulden-Jackson-Vakil formula that relates Hurwitz numbers to some conjectural "intersection numbers" on a conjectural family of varieties $X_{g,n}$ of dimension $4g-3+n$. We give explicit formulas for the properly arranged generating function for these "intersection numbers", and prove that it satisfies Hirota equations. This generalizes and substantially simplifies our earlier results with Zvonkine in arXiv:math/0602457.

Shadrin, S

2008-01-01

349

Thermal treatment wall  

DOEpatents

A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

350

Musculoskeletal chest wall pain  

PubMed Central

The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

1985-01-01

351

Playing Robinson's Wall Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students study a stone wall by carefully sketching it and observing color, grain size, sedimentary structures, weathering characteristics, and possible origin of the stones. As an alternative to save time, the instructor can provide a sketch of part of the wall. A simple skeleton sketch that depicts the outline of each block in the area of interest is shown as an example. Another way to make such a sketch is to photograph the wall and trace the outlines of the stone blocks onto a sheet of tracing paper. The drawing can then be enlarged using a photocopier. Follow-up discussions include simple comparisons of weathering characteristics or more advanced comparisons of grain size and composition between the stones.

352

24 CFR 576.41 - Reallocation; lack of approved consolidated plan-formula cities and counties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of approved consolidated plan-formula cities and counties. 576.41 Section 576...of approved consolidated plan—formula cities and counties. (a) Applicability. This section applies where a formula city or county fails to submit or...

2011-04-01

353

24 CFR 576.41 - Reallocation; lack of approved consolidated plan-formula cities and counties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of approved consolidated plan-formula cities and counties. 576.41 Section 576...of approved consolidated plan—formula cities and counties. (a) Applicability. This section applies where a formula city or county fails to submit or...

2010-04-01

354

Double wall underground storage tank  

SciTech Connect

A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

1993-07-06

355

Layered Trough Walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers of bedrock exposed in the walls on both sides of an east-west-trending trough in the Memnonia/Mangala Valles region. Large boulders released from these rocky trough walls are found on the slopes and on the trough floor.

Location near: 18.4oS, 148.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

2005-01-01

356

Wall Street Journal Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wall Street Journal includes the content of the print version, as well as weather and sports sections. The content can be accessed by section or by a general index that can be found under Table of Contents on the home page. Stories that mention companies contain hypertext links that allow the reader to obtain more information about a company, including latest news stories, a 20 minute delayed company stock report, and a "briefing book" on the company which includes background information, a financial overview, stock performance measures, previous Wall St. Journal articles about that company, and company press releases. Walter Mossberg's popular Personal Technology column is also available.

1996-01-01

357

Runaway dilatonic domain walls  

SciTech Connect

We explore the stability of domain wall and bubble solutions in theories with compact extra dimensions. The energy density stored inside of the wall can destabilize the volume modulus of a compactification, leading to solutions containing either a timelike singularity or a region where space decompactifies, depending on the metric ansatz. We determine the structure of such solutions both analytically and using numerical simulations, and analyze how they arise in compactifications of Einstein-Maxwell theory and type IIB string theory. The existence of instabilities has important implications for the formation of networks of topological defects and the population of vacua during eternal inflation.

Aguirre, Anthony [SCIPP, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Larfors, Magdalena [Arnold Sommerfeld Center fuer Theoretische Physik, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

2010-02-15

358

Quantum-induced interactions in the moduli space of degenerate BPS domain walls  

E-print Network

In this paper quantum effects are investigated in a very special two-scalar field model having a moduli space of BPS topological defects. In a $(1+1)$-dimensional space-time the defects are classically degenerate in mass kinks, but in $(3+1)$ dimensions the kinks become BPS domain walls, all of them sharing the same surface tension at the classical level. The heat kernel/zeta function regularization method will be used to control the divergences induced by the quantum kink and domain wall fluctuations. A generalization of the Gilkey-DeWitt-Avramidi heat kernel expansion will be developed in order to accommodate the infrared divergences due to zero modes in the spectra of the second-order kink and domain wall fluctuation operators, which are respectively $N\\times N$ matrix ordinary or partial differential operators. Use of these tools in the spectral zeta function associated with the Hessian operators paves the way to obtain general formulas for the one-loop kink mass and domain wall tension shifts in any $(1+1)$- or $(3+1)$-dimensional $N$-component scalar field theory model. Application of these formulae to the BPS kinks or domain walls of the $N=2$ model mentioned above reveals the breaking of the classical mass or surface tension degeneracy at the quantum level. Because the main parameter distinguishing each member in the BPS kink or domain wall moduli space is essentially the distance between the centers of two basic kinks or walls, the breaking of the degeneracy amounts to the surge in quantum-induced forces between the two constituent topological defects. The differences in surface tension induced by one-loop fluctuations of BPS walls give rise mainly to attractive forces between the constituent walls except if the two basic walls are very far apart. Repulsive forces between two close walls only arise if the coupling is approaches the critical value from below.

Alberto Alonso-Izquierdo; Juan Mateos Guilarte

2013-07-02

359

A Module Analysis Approach to Investigate Molecular Mechanism of TCM Formula: A Trial on Shu-feng-jie-du Formula  

PubMed Central

At the molecular level, it is acknowledged that a TCM formula is often a complex system, which challenges researchers to fully understand its underlying pharmacological action. However, module detection technique developed from complex network provides new insight into systematic investigation of the mode of action of a TCM formula from the molecule perspective. We here proposed a computational approach integrating the module detection technique into a 2-class heterogeneous network (2-HN) which models the complex pharmacological system of a TCM formula. This approach takes three steps: construction of a 2-HN, identification of primary pharmacological units, and pathway analysis. We employed this approach to study Shu-feng-jie-du (SHU) formula, which aimed at discovering its molecular mechanism in defending against influenza infection. Actually, four primary pharmacological units were identified from the 2-HN for SHU formula and further analysis revealed numbers of biological pathways modulated by the four pharmacological units. 24 out of 40 enriched pathways that were ranked in top 10 corresponding to each of the four pharmacological units were found to be involved in the process of influenza infection. Therefore, this approach is capable of uncovering the mode of action underlying a TCM formula via module analysis. PMID:24376467

Zhang, Fangbo; Tang, Shihuan; Liu, Xi; Gao, Yibo; Wang, Yanping

2013-01-01

360

First wall magnetic protection in an inertially confined thermonuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of three different theories, it is shown for a typical set of reactor parameters that inertially confined microexplosions are either (1) stable during early expansion; or (2) only weakly unstable during expansion with flute amplitude growth of but 0.005%; or (3) only weakly unstable during expansion with negligible flute amplitude growth. Simple formulas are given for skin depths in the plasma (approx. 0.3 cm for 500/sup 0/C graphite). Plasma behavior is found to be collective and ambipolar. Formulas are given for calculating the strength of the required protecting initial magnetic field. For a microexplosion putting 16-MJ kinetic energy into 0.25 g of lead debris, we find 3.2 kG to be adequate protection in a reactor chamber of 200-cm radius with a graphite (or other conducting) wall.

Devaney, J.J.

1980-05-01

361

Weight estimation in resuscitation: is the current formula still valid?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To gather data on the ages and weights of paediatric patients between 1 and 10?years of age, and to compare these data with the current weight estimation formula weight(kg)?=?2(age+4). If a significant difference was found, the data would be used to derive a more accurate formula. Design Retrospective study using data collected from paediatric attendances at an emergency department (ED). Setting A large ED in a major UK city, treating both children and adults. Patients 17?244 children aged 1–10?years, attending the ED between June and December 2005. Main outcome measures Weight difference between the measured weight and the expected weight, the latter given by weight?=?2(age+4). Results The weights of seriously ill children were recorded in only 41.5% of cases, necessitating a weight estimate in the remainder. The formula weight?=?2(age+4) underestimated children's weights by a mean of 18.8% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 18.42% to 19.18%). Using linear regression and analysis of each individual age group, ten new formulas were tested. Of these formulas, weight(kg)?=?3(age)+7 proved the most accurate with a mean underestimate of just 2.48% (95% CI 2.17% to 2.79%). Conclusions Weight estimation remains of paramount importance in paediatric resuscitation. This study shows that the current estimation formula provides a significant underestimate of children's weights. When used to calculate drug and fluid dosages, this may lead to the under?resuscitation of a critically ill child. The formula weight(kg)?=?3(age)+7 provided a safe and more accurate estimate of the weight of today's child. PMID:17213259

Luscombe, Mark; Owens, Ben

2007-01-01

362

Human Breast Milk Provides Better Antioxidant Capacity than Infant Formula  

PubMed Central

Human milk contains all of the constituents that are required for the optimal growth and development of a neonate. It supports the development of brain, immune, and physiological systems. This study aimed to consider the significance of breast milk in preventing oxidative stress by comparing total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast and formula milk for premature infants, demonstrating the relationship between TAC in breast milk and postnatal age in days. The Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) method was used to spectophotometrically measure of TAC in breast and formula milk. One hundred and fourty (n = 140) lactating mothers agreed to participate in the study. TAC was also measured in two brands of formula milk (n = 80). The Range of TAC in human breast milk was 234.27-1442.31 ?M and in two formula was 160.04-630.92 ?M. The average TAC was significantly higher in breast milk (642.94 ± 241.23 ?M) compared to formula milk (280.986 ± 100.34 ?M) p < 0.0001. The TAC of breast milk was increased with some nutritional parameter such as increased consumption of cheese, vegetables, fruits, bread and nuts. Infants’ height at the birthday was directly correlated with antioxidant capacity of breast milk, whilst a reversed correlation was observed between TAC in breast milk and infant age. Based on our results, it is concluded that the TAC of breast milk is varied and affected by nutrition. It is alo observed that TAC is significantly higher in breast milk than formula, which means that breast milk provides better antioxidant potency than infant formula. PMID:24381611

Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abd-ol-Azim; Jannat, Forouzandeh; MokhtariNasab, Fariba

2010-01-01

363

A Monopole Wall  

E-print Network

We construct, numerically, a solution of the SU(2) Bogomolny equations corresponding to a sheet of BPS monopoles. It represents a domain wall between a vacuum region and a region of constant energy density, and it is the smoothed-out version of the planar sheet of Dirac monopoles obtained by linear superposition.

R. S. Ward

2006-12-06

364

Great Wall Historic  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Nothing says "Do Not Disturb" more effectively than a 3,000-mile fortification of brick and mortar. The Great Wall of China, or chang cheng, was begun over 1,000 years ago by Qin Shi Huang Di, the first Emperor...

Hacker, Randi

2010-04-07

365

Pressure wall patch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rigid patch body for placing over a damaged portion (hole) of an external wall of a pressurized vessel, such as a space vehicle or a habitat, is discussed. The rigid patch body allows an astronaut to make temporary repairs to the pressurized vessel from the exterior of the vessel, which enables more permanent repairs to be made from the interior of the vessel. The pressure wall patch of the present invention includes a floor surrounded by four side members. Each side member includes a threaded screw for anchoring the patch body to the external wall of the pressurized vessel and a recess in its lower surface for supporting an inflatable bladder for surrounding the damaged portion (hole) of the external wall to seal the area surrounding the damaged portion. This allows the vessel to be repressurized. The floor of the rigid patch body supports a source of gas that is connected to the gas supply valve and a gas supply gauge in communication with the gas supply valve and the inflatable bladder.

Williamsen, Joel E. (inventor); Weddendorf, Bruce C. (inventor)

1994-01-01

366

A Wall of Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

Stevens, Lori

2008-01-01

367

Internal Ceramic Wall Tiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the causes of failures in ceramic wall tiling. It is concluded that the physical properties of tiles should be carefully analysed at the time of their selection, and quality rather than colour and texture should be the main selection criterion.Recognition and understanding of varying properties of the different background materials to which the tiles are attached is

Thomas E. Uher

1984-01-01

368

A Centre Without Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diabetes Wellness Centre (DWC) is a new program (1 year old) funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health and managed by the Sandwich Community Health Centre. The DWC is designed to be a “Centre Without Walls” and is staffed with both nurses and dietitians. This concept involves delivering programs to meet the DWC's goals in partnership with existing community

Christine M. Wellington

1999-01-01

369

Cell wall peptidoglycan architecture in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability and shape determination. Cell wall structural dynamics allowing growth and division, while maintaining integrity is a basic problem governing the life of bacteria. The polymer peptidoglycan is the main structural component for most bacteria and is made up of glycan strands that are cross-linked by peptide side chains. Despite study and speculation over many years, peptidoglycan architecture has remained largely elusive. Here, we show that the model rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus subtilis has glycan strands up to 5 ?m, longer than the cell itself and 50 times longer than previously proposed. Atomic force microscopy revealed the glycan strands to be part of a peptidoglycan architecture allowing cell growth and division. The inner surface of the cell wall has a regular macrostructure with ?50 nm-wide peptidoglycan cables [average 53 ± 12 nm (n = 91)] running basically across the short axis of the cell. Cross striations with an average periodicity of 25 ± 9 nm (n = 96) along each cable are also present. The fundamental cabling architecture is also maintained during septal development as part of cell division. We propose a coiled-coil model for peptidoglycan architecture encompassing our data and recent evidence concerning the biosynthetic machinery for this essential polymer. PMID:18784364

Hayhurst, Emma J.; Kailas, Lekshmi; Hobbs, Jamie K.; Foster, Simon J.

2008-01-01

370

Estimation of regional end-systolic wall stress during exercise in coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Estimating left ventricular wall stress has recognized applications, but formulae for global stress cannot be applied to ischemic ventricles. A mathematic method for estimating regional stress in infarcted ventricles has been described. The hypothesis tested was that exercise-induced ischemia increases end-systolic wall stress. Subcostal four-chamber echocardiograms were recorded at rest and during peak symptom-limited exercise in 19 controls and 41 patients with chest pain undergoing coronary arteriography. Centerline regional wall motion and regional end-systolic wall stress were measured at rest and at peak exercise. The normal controls had increased wall motion with exercise, but wall stress remained low. All 32 of the patients with coronary artery disease (> or = 50% diameter narrowing) had wall motion abnormalities with exercise, but the sensitivity of identifying right coronary artery obstructions was poor. Patients with coronary disease had higher regional stress at peak exercise than did the controls. The sensitivity of identifying lesions in all three coronary arteries (0.95 to 1.0) was better than that for wall motion (p < 0.04). The specificity of wall stress needs to be tested in a larger population. Exercise-induced ischemia causes increased regional end-systolic wall stress that reflects its distribution in patients with coronary artery disease. These changes can be measured non-invasively during exercise echocardiography. PMID:8831360

Ginzton, L E; Rodrigues, D; Shapiro, S M; Laks, M M; Conant, R; Lobodzinski, S M

1996-10-01

371

Cross sections calculated for cold fusion reactions for producing superheavy nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a handy formula for calculating the formation cross sections for optimal bombarding energies for transactinides (superheavy elements). By means of the proposed formula the cross sections for asymmetric and symmetric cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out reactions) are calculated. The fusion barrier and its position are calculated by using the folding heavy-ion potential that for spherical reaction partners has the

Robert Smolanczuk

2008-01-01

372

Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Accepted 17 March 1997? The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants.?? PMID:9279143

Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N

1997-01-01

373

Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods  

PubMed Central

Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2–12.6 ng g?1, n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3–22 ng g?1. Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this. PMID:22701232

Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

2012-01-01

374

A modified function of the formula of double iodometric titration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double iodometric titration is the most useful method to determine oxygen content of high Tc superconductors. Its traditional calculating formula is not accurate enough, and a new calculating formula has just been put forward. To understand which relationship of the traditional formula depends on the new one is an important problem. On studying the new formula, we find a modified function F relating the traditional formula to the new one, and also find that the value of F depends only on molar weight of the superconductor. For Y, Bi, and Hg systems, a group of curves of the modified function are put forward here. Since many results about average copper valence and oxygen content have been published, to correct those results one can modify them by means of the corresponding F. As a sample, we modify two published data of average copper valence and oxygen content of Y and Bi systems. After comparing the unmodified with the modified data, we find that it is necessary to modify the published data for quantitative research.

Chen, Wu Ming; Chen, J.; Jin, X.

1997-02-01

375

Arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods.  

PubMed

Arsenic exposure to humans is pervasive, and, increasingly, studies are revealing adverse health effects at ever lower doses. Drinking water is the main route of exposure for many individuals; however, food can be a significant source of arsenic to an individual, especially if their diet is rice-based. Infants are particularly susceptible to dietary exposure, since many first foods contain rice and they have a low body mass. Here we report on arsenic concentration and speciation in infant formulas and first foods. Speciation is essential for food analysis because of the much greater toxicity of inorganic arsenic species and the possibility that arsenic in food (unlike water) may be present in either inorganic or organic forms. Infant milk formulas were low in total arsenic (2.2-12.6 ng g(-1), n=15). Non-dairy formulas were significantly higher in arsenic than dairy-based formulas. Arsenic in formula was almost exclusively inorganic and predominantly arsenic(V). Arsenic concentration in purees (n=41) and stage 3 foods (n=18) ranged from 0.3-22 ng g(-1). Rice-fortified foods had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations than non rice-based foods. Again arsenic speciation was predominantly inorganic; arsenic(III) was the main species with lower concentrations of DMA and arsenic(V) also present. These data confirm that infants are exposed to arsenic via diet, and suggest that careful attention to diet choices may limit this. PMID:22701232

Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L

2012-01-01

376

Identification of immunogenic maize proteins in a casein hydrolysate formula.  

PubMed

Cow's milk-based formulas used for infants with cow's milk allergy are based on hydrolyzed proteins. The formulas that are successful in preventing allergic responses are extensively hydrolyzed. Nevertheless, reactions to such formulas are occasionally reported, and protein material of higher molecular weight than expected has been detected by binding immunoglobulin E (IgE) from patients' sera. This paper presents the identification of high-molecular-weight material in the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula, Nutramigen. The material was concentrated by simple centrifugation. The proteins in the pellet were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein-containing bands were analyzed by protein sequencing after electroblotting. The proteins were identified as maize zeins, which are water-insoluble proteins of apparent M(r) 20,000 and 23,000, presumably originating from the maize starch in Nutramigen. Rabbits immunized with this formula developed antibodies against zeins but not against milk proteins. The maize zeins are probably identical to the recently reported components in Nutramigen (1), detected by binding of IgE from milk allergic patients, but not correlated to clinical allergic reactivity. The clinical relevance of maize proteins in Nutramigen remains to be established. PMID:10893013

Frisner, H; Rosendal, A; Barkholt, V

2000-05-01

377

Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistance in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.

Truett, L.F.; Davis, S.C.; Hu, P.S.

2000-09-01

378

Bethe stopping-power formula for structured projectiles  

SciTech Connect

It is known that the energy loss in ion-atom collisions is dominated by elastic scattering of one collision partner and excitation or ionization of the second. This is true for both structured and structureless projectiles. Here, I show that this fact leads to a relatively simple extension of the Bethe stopping-power formula for structureless projectiles to structured projectiles. The formula replaces the Bethe mean excitation energy with two other mean energies which reflect the elastic scattering factor of the otherwise structureless projectile. The expression is symmetrical in the center-of-mass system. The formula is in excellent agreement with numerical calculations, when the numerical calculations are asymptotic. To obtain the extended Bethe stopping formula, it is necessary to evaluate integrals over energy and momentum transfer involving generalized oscillator strengths, properly treating the energy-dependent lower limit in the momentum transfer integral. I do this by a constructive procedure using two cutoffs (instead of the traditional one) in momentum transfer. Peek had earlier developed a procedure to address the question of whether the Bethe mean excitation energy calculated with optical oscillator strengths is the same as the Bethe mean excitation energy appearing in the stopping power formula. I show that the result of the constructive procedure agrees with the result of Peek in the asymptotic limit, and I develop a criterion to determine the asymptotic limit. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

McGuire, E.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Division 9571, Albuquerque, New Mexico87185-1187 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Division 9571, Albuquerque, New Mexico87185-1187 (United States)

1998-04-01

379

Cellular survival and isoeffect formulae: a study in applied radiobiology.  

PubMed

The Ellis formula for the sterilization of tumors is compared with isoeffect curves for sterilizing doses as a function of the fractionation number N. Using cell parameters from human kidney cells irradiated in cell cultures we get a good agreement over a wide range of N values. The exponents obtained from the calculations are 0,26-0,30 and 0,36 for 200 keV X-rays, Co-60 rays and high energy electrons respectively. A reduction of tumor cells to 10(-8) seems sufficient for tumor sterilization. For normal tissue Ellis has proposed another formula (for X-rays) where a time factor T0,11 concerns homeostatic repair and proliferation of normal alls. The Ellis formula can be simplified when we assume that all treatment schemes be given with the same weekly dose-rate, i.e. have the same "hardness". Cell survivals according to this formula have been calculated and tolerance doses for other radiations giving the same effect computed. Only for electrons do the tolerance doses exceed the sterilizing doses. The Ellis formula does not represent isoeffects and can only be regarded as an approximation. Tolerance doses can be calculated giving the same cell survivals for all N-values, i.e. isoeffects, and a comparison with sterilizing doses shows a good agreement with clinical experience. However, the influence of the overall-dose rate still is an unsolved problem which can only be solved experimentally. PMID:128509

Wideröe, R

1975-11-01

380

1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

381

4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

382

EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL OF CRUSHING MILL IN CENTER. GABLE END OF BOILING HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

383

Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall Magnetohydrodynamic Accelerators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed-field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm s law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm s law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current-dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects, including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities leads to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed-field accelerator operation.

Litchford, R. J.

2004-01-01

384

Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas.  

PubMed

Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as ?-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic. PMID:24452231

Lönnerdal, Bo

2014-03-01

385

38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED WITH RANDOM WIDTH BOARDS WHICH WERE PAPERED OR PLASTERED OVER. THIS WAS TYPICAL THROUGHOUT HOUSE EXCEPT FOR WOOD PANELED WALLS - John Mark Verdier House, 801 Bay & Scott Streets, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

386

25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

387

Micropallet arrays with poly(ethylene glycol) walls†‡  

PubMed Central

Arrays of releasable micropallets with surrounding walls of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were fabricated for the patterning and sorting of adherent cells. PEG walls were fabricated between the SU-8 pallets using a simple, mask-free strategy. By utilizing the difference in UV-transmittance of glass and SU-8, PEG monomer was selectively photopolymerized in the space surrounding the pallets. Since the PEG walls are composed of a cross-linked structure, the stability of the walls is independent of the pallet array geometry and the properties of the overlying solution. Even though surrounded with PEG walls, the individual pallets were detached from the array by the mechanical force generated by a focused laser pulse, with a release threshold of 6 ?J. Since the PEG hydrogels are repellent to protein adsorption and cell attachment, the walls localized cell growth to the pallet top surface. Cells grown in the microwells formed by the PEG walls were released by detaching the underlying pallet. The released cells/pallets were collected, cultured and clonally expanded. The micropallet arrays with PEG walls provide a platform for performing single cell analysis and sorting on chip. PMID:18432343

Wang, Yuli; Salazar, Georgina To'a; Pai, Jeng-Hao; Shadpour, Hamed; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

2008-01-01

388

Analytical formulae of tightly focused Laguerre-Gaussian vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop analytical formulae for describing the tight focusing field of the Laguerre-Gaussian vector field with space-variant distribution of states of polarization in the frame of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld theory. The analytical formulae of three radial, azimuthal and longitudinal components are very beneficial in order to understand the tightly focused field. This result is of great importance to improving the design and engineering the tightly focused field, by using phase and polarization, for applications such as optical tweezers and optical manipulation. This method is also applicable to the homogeneously polarized optical fields and optical vortex fields. In particular, these analytical formulae can also describe the dynamic process of the tightly focused fields, for example, average photon trajectories.

Li, Yongnan; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Qian, Sheng-Xia; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

2014-10-01

389

The mass formula for quasi-black holes  

E-print Network

A quasi-black hole, either non-extremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.

José P. S. Lemos; Oleg B. Zaslavskii

2008-11-17

390

Einstein's Radiation Formula and Modifications to the Einstein Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Einstein's radiation formula is supported by the Taylor-Hulse experiment, but its derivation is not self-consistent. Furthermore, as discovered by Einstein, his radiation formula is not compatible with his field equation. As suggested by Einstein's own remark, modifications to the source tensor are necessary. Based on the Taylor-Hulse experiment, in this paper a theory is developed within the theoretical framework of general relativity within which the radiation formula remains the same for binary stars. Concurrently, it is determined that, because of radiation, the source tensor is not zero in a vacuum. Antigravity coupling, suggested by Pauli as a possibility, is a necessary feature. In addition, it is shown that the current theory of linearized gravity is not valid for radiation.

Lo, C. Y.

1995-12-01

391

Anomalous transport coefficients from Kubo formulas in Holography  

E-print Network

In the presence of dense matter quantum anomalies give rise to two new transport phenomena. An anomalous current is generated either by an external magnetic field or through vortices in the fluid carrying the anomalous charge. The associated transport coefficients are the anomalous magnetic and vortical conductivities. Whereas a Kubo formula for the anomalous magnetic conductivity is well known we develop a new Kubo type formula that allows the calculation of the vortical conductivity through a two point function of the anomalous current and the momentum density. We also point out that the anomalous vortical conductivity can be understood as a response to a gravitomagnetic field. We apply these Kubo formulas to a simple Holographic system, the R-charged black hole.

Irene Amado; Karl Landsteiner; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-02-22

392

Asymptotic Analysis of the Green-Kubo Formula  

E-print Network

A detailed study of various distinguished limits of the Green-Kubo formula for the self-diffusion coefficient is presented in this paper. First, an alternative representation of the Green-Kubo formula in terms of the solution of a Poisson equation is derived when the microscopic dynamics is Markovian. Then, the techniques developed in \\cite{golden2, AvelMajda91} are used to obtain a Stieltjes integral representation formula for the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of the diffusion tensor. The effect of irreversible microscopic dynamics on the diffusion coefficient is analyzed and various asymptotic limits of physical interest are studied. Several examples are presented that confirm the findings of our theory.

G. A. Pavliotis

2010-02-22

393

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

394

Latent heat diode wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A composite wall with separate collector side and storage volume operating as a thermal diode is proposed. The storage uses a latent heat material called chliarolithe. Laboratory experiments performed on the storage side show that it is possible to define satisfactory conditions both for the collector side and for the heat restitution: relatively low temperature in collector, little external losses, storage equivalent to 75 cm of concrete in the form of 5 cm of chliarolithe, excellent temperature control on the internal side.

Bourdeau, L.; Jaffrin, A.

395

F-TF Sum and Difference angle formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In this task, you will show how all of the sum and difference angle formulas can be derived from a single formula when combined with relations you have...

396

The plancherel formula for sl(2) over a local field.  

PubMed

More than two decades ago, in his classical paper on the irreducible unitary representations of the Lorentz group, V. Bargmann initiated the concrete study of Fourier analysis on real Lie groups and obtained the analogue of the classical Fourier expansion theorem in the case of the Lorentz group. Since then the general theory for real semisimple Lie groups has been extensively developed, chiefly through the work of Harish-Chandra. More generally, one may consider groups defined by algebraic equations over locally compact fields, in particular local fields, and ask for an explicit Fourier expansion formula. In the present article the authors obtain this formula for the group SL(2). PMID:16591775

Sally, P J; Shalika, J A

1969-07-01

397

The development of a new evaporation formula for Texas  

E-print Network

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW EVAPORATION FORMULA FOR TEXAS A Thesis By RODERICK DONALD MOE Major, USAF Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1965 Major Subject: METEOROLOGY THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW EVAPORATION FORMULA FOR TEXAS A Thesis By RODERICK DONALD MOE Ma] or, USAF Approved as to style and content Py: t e ea o epartm t &~4 er Me er m er em er em er May 1965...

Moe, R. D

2012-06-07

398

The Collins Formula Applied in Optical Image Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel method for image encryption, which is realized by the Collins formula with the random shifting method. The Collins formula can denote different optical transforms by one expression with different ABCD elements. For a generalized optical system, the ABCD elements can be randomly chosen, so the keys are increased and the security of the system is strengthened. Finally, some computer simulations are given for different encryption systems to prove the possibilities. The encryption effect is good, and people without the correct keys can not obtain the information easily.

Chen, Lin-Fei; Zhao, Dao-Mu; Mao, Hai-Dan; Ge, Fan; Guan, Rui-Xia

2013-04-01

399

A global version of the Koon-Marsden Jacobiator formula  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the Jacobiator (the cyclic sum that vanishes when the Jacobi identity holds) of the almost Poisson brackets describing nonholonomic systems. We revisit the local formula for the Jacobiator established by Koon and Marsden in \\cite{MarsdenKoon} using suitable local coordinates and explain how it is related to the global formula obtained in \\cite{paula}, based on the choice of a complement to the constraint distribution. We use an example to illustrate the benefits of the coordinate-free viewpoint.

Paula Balseiro

2014-09-01

400

Light shining through walls  

E-print Network

Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have.

Javier Redondo; Andreas Ringwald

2010-11-16

401

Evaluation of a new bridge formula for regulation of truck weights  

E-print Network

the formula will not be able to protect bridges in the cases of longer trucks. A formula developed by the Texas Transportation Institute (T.T.I.) called the TTI-HS20 Formula addresses these issues. This formula, developed especially for bridges designed...

Contractor, Yateesh Jaykishan

2005-11-01

402

EULER'S LITTLE SUMMATION FORMULA AND SUMS OF Andrew Robertson and Thomas J. Osler  

E-print Network

1 EULER'S LITTLE SUMMATION FORMULA AND SUMS OF POWERS Andrew Robertson and Thomas J. Osler introduce an elementary summation formula due to Euler that we call "Euler's Little Summation Formula". This little summation formula [1] was found by Euler as an intermediate item in the derivation of his "big

Osler, Thomas

403

Crystal Potential Formula for the Calculation of Crystal Lattice Sums1 Don Steiger and Calvin Ahlbrandt  

E-print Network

Crystal Potential Formula for the Calculation of Crystal Lattice Sums1 Don Steiger and Calvin of the central unit cell of a finite crystal; this formula is called the crystal potential formula. The crystal potential formula is based on a two- center Cartesian multipole expansion. The key feature of the crystal

Glaser, Rainer

404

21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107...Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling...infant formula recall with the following elements: (a) The recalling...

2014-04-01

405

21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107...Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling...infant formula recall with the following elements: (a) The recalling...

2010-04-01

406

21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107...Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling...infant formula recall with the following elements: (a) The recalling...

2011-04-01

407

21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107...Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling...infant formula recall with the following elements: (a) The recalling...

2013-04-01

408

Tokamaks with lithium covered walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic aspects of tokamaks with the lithium covered walls are presented. They include a) magnetic propulsion of intense lithium streams along the plasma facing surface of the first wall, which gives a new, consistent with reactor environment, approach for the power extraction from the tokamak reactors; b) stabilization of resistive wall modes by the lithium streams; c) physics of lithium

Leonid E. Zakharov

2000-01-01

409

Product Sheet Wall Mount Lift  

E-print Network

Product Sheet Wall Mount Lift Ergotron® Neo-FlexTM 870-05-061, rev. 12/11/07 www-Flex Wall Mount Lift! CF patented lift-and-pivot motion technology adjusts with a light touch. Raise-Flex Wall Mount Lift Commercial Part Number: 60-577-195 (black) Options: Works with a variety of Ergotron

Saskatchewan, University of

410

Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

Lewis, E. V.

1987-01-01

411

Border Crossings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that communities, cities, and nations are no longer culturally and ethnically monolithic and examines the possibilities of human fellowships based on faith. Highlights intermarriage, migration, and changes in family structure as sources of complexity, but argues that we must learn how to live together after having crossed traditional…

Garcia-Rivera, Alex

1996-01-01

412

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

413

Crossing the Next Frontier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma-material interface is the next frontier in fusion science. ITER's approaches to heat flux and tritium retention do not extrapolate to Demo. Defining questions at this frontier include: Can extremely high radiated-power fraction be consistent with high confinement and low Zeff? Can magnetic flux expansion or edge ergodization reduce heat loads sufficiently? Can tungsten survive with acceptable core radiation and tritium retention? Can liquid metals more effectively handle high heat flux, off-normal loads and tritium exhaust? Answers must be integrated with high-performance, fully steady state plasma operation, avoiding ELMs and eliminating disruptions. The vehicle to cross this frontier is a high-power-density plasma with long pulses, excellent diagnostic access, flexible first wall, divertor, heating, current drive and plasma control systems, extensive deuterium and trace tritium operation, and the ability to test a range of plasma-facing materials at reactor-relevant temperature.

Goldston, R.; Menard, J.; Brooks, J.; Doerner, R.; Gates, D.; Fu, G.-Y.; Gorelenkov, N.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Skinner, C.; Strachan, J.; Harris, J.; Maingi, R.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Valanju, P.; Nygren, R.; Ulrickson, M.; Ruzic, D.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

2007-11-01

414

Angular momentum effects and barrier modification in sub-barrier fusion reactions using the proximity potential in the Wong formula  

SciTech Connect

Using the capture cross-section data from {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu, and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 248}Cm reactions in the superheavy mass region, and fusion-evaporation cross sections from {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni, {sup 64}Ni+{sup 64}Ni, and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 100}Mo reactions known for fusion hindrance phenomenon in coupled-channels calculations, the Wong formula is assessed for its angular momentum and barrier-modification effects at sub-barrier energies. The simple, l=0 barrier-based Wong formula is shown to ignore the modifications of the barrier due to its inbuilt l dependence via l summation, which is found to be adequate enough to explain the capture cross sections for all the three above-mentioned {sup 48}Ca-based reactions forming superheavy systems. For the capture (equivalently, quasifission) reactions, the complete l-summed Wong formula is shown to be the same as the dynamical cluster-decay model expression, of one of us (R.K.G.) and collaborators, with the condition of fragment preformation probability P{sub 0}{sup l}=1 for all the angular momentum l values. In the case of fusion-evaporation cross sections, however, a further modification of barriers is required for below-barrier energies, affected in terms of either the barrier 'lowering' or barrier 'narrowing' via the curvature constant. Calculations are made for use of nuclear proximity potential, with effects of multipole deformations included up to hexadecapole, and orientation degrees of freedom integrated for both the coplanar and noncoplanar configurations.

Kumar, Raj; Bansal, Manie; Arun, Sham K.; Gupta, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 60014 (India)

2009-09-15

415

Geometry of Wall Creek sandstones, Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern gamma-ray and density well logs at the Salt Creek field define an optimum development of the middle and lower Wall Creek (First Frontier) Sandstone reservoir, which is unusually thick, well sorted, and porous in a belt about 1 mi wide that crosses the Salt Creek anticline in a north-northeasterly trend. The most distinctive aspect of the geometry of this

1986-01-01

416

Planar view of interior of southeast side of lock wall, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Planar view of interior of southeast side of lock wall, upstream (westernmost) section of lock, propane tank in background, view towards southeast - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

417

Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

2008-01-01

418

Formulae, Algorithms, and Quartic Extrema D. J. Jeffrey  

E-print Network

has been automated by several computer algebra systems (CAS), to a greater or lesser extent. So what of the parameters. This is the method fixed in the popular imagination: spies in espionage stories have always, but that is a different topic. Certainly computer algebra systems prefer formulae, and their syntax #12; Jeffrey 350 has

Jeffrey, David

419

How to Properly Store Cans and Bottles of Formula  

E-print Network

Dixon From birth to twelve months of age, babies need to be fed breast milk or formula. In a recent study, 56 percent of babies had problems caused by food (USDA 2002). Some of these problems dealt because their immune system is not developed enough to fight off infections. Understanding the proper

Wong, Pak Kin

420

A Compact Formula for Rotations as Spin Matrix Polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Group elements of SU(2) are expressed in closed form as finite polynomials of the Lie algebra generators, for all definite spin representations of the rotation group. The simple explicit result exhibits connections between group theory, combinatorics, and Fourier analysis, especially in the large spin limit. Salient intuitive features of the formula are illustrated and discussed.

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-08-01

421

Sensitivity of transfer capability margins with a fast formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk power transfers in electric power systems are limited by transmission network security. Transfer capability measures the maximum power transfer permissible under certain assumptions. Once a transfer capability has been computed for one set of assumptions, it is useful to quickly estimate the effect on the transfer capability of modifying those assumptions. This paper presents a computationally efficient formula for

Scott Greene; Ian Dobson; Fernando L. Alvarado

2002-01-01

422

THE CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD: BEYOND THE FORMULA  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely acknowledged that there is some discrepancy in the teaching of vector calculus in mathematics courses and other applied fields. The curl of a vector field is one topic many students can calculate without understanding its significance. In this paper, we explain the origin of the curl after presenting the standard mathematical formulas. We investigate when and

Kimberly Jordan Burch; Youngna Choi

2006-01-01

423

A Robust and Efficient Algorithm for Evaluating Erlang B Formula  

E-print Network

A Robust and Efficient Algorithm for Evaluating Erlang B Formula Sanzheng Qiao \\Lambda Department of Computing and Software McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 Canada Liyuan Qiao Customer Introduction Call center and telephone system designers use the Erlang B traffic model to determine the number

Qiao, Sanzheng

424

Modified predictive formula for the electron stopping power  

SciTech Connect

We report an improved predictive formula for the electron stopping power (SP) based on an analysis and fit of SPs and electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) calculated from optical data for 37 elemental solids and energies between 200 eV and 30 keV. The formula is a function of energy, density, and IMFP, and is recommended for solids with atomic numbers larger than 6. While the mean deviation between predicted and calculated SPs was 7.25%, larger deviations were found for four additional materials, Li (22.2%), Be (17.9%), graphite (15.3%), and diamond (15.7%). The predictive SP formula can be applied to multicomponent materials. Test comparisons for two compounds, guanine and InSb, showed average deviations of 16.0% and 19.1%, respectively. The improved SP formula is expected to be useful in simulations of electron trajectories in solids with the continuous slowing-down approximation (e.g., in Auger-electron spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis)

Jablonski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Tanuma, S. [Materials Analysis Station, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Powell, C. J. [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States)

2008-03-15

425

Modification of the formulas for third-order aberration coefficients.  

PubMed

New parameters for calculation of third-order aberration coefficients (Seidel aberration coefficients) are introduced. The formulas for Seidel aberration coefficients are linear in these new variables. With these new variables it is possible to calculate the shape and the refractive index of the glass of the individual lenses of the optical system, which was not possible before. PMID:12216880

Miks, Antonín

2002-09-01

426

General Transformation Formulas for Fermi-Walker Coordinates  

E-print Network

We calculate the transformation and inverse transformation, in the form of Taylor expansions, from arbitrary coordinates to Fermi-Walker coordinates in tubular neighborhoods of arbitrary timelike paths for general spacetimes. Explicit formulas for coefficients and the Jacobian matrix are given.

David Klein; Peter Collas

2007-12-22

427

Another Intuitive Approach to Stirling's Formula. Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intuitive derivation of Stirling's formula is presented, together with a modification that greatly improves its accuracy. The derivation is based on the closed form evaluation of the gamma function at an integer plus one-half. The modification is easily implemented on a hand-held calculator and often triples the number of significant digits…

Osler, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

428

On the liquid drop model mass formulae and charge radii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adjustment to 782 ground-state nuclear charge radii for nuclei with N, Z ge8 leads to ensuremath R_0 = 1.2257 A^{1/3} fm and ? = 0.124 fm for the charge radius. Assuming such a Coulomb energy ensuremath E_c = 3/5 e^2Z^2/1.2257 A^{1/3} , the coefficients of different possible mass formulae derived from the liquid drop model and including the shell and pairing energies have been determined from 2027 masses verifying N, Z ge8 and a mass uncertainty le150 keV. These formulae take into account or do not the diffuseness correction ( ensuremath Z^2/A term), the charge exchange correction term ( ensuremath Z^{4/3}/A^{1/3} term), the curvature energy, the Wigner terms and different powers of I = ( N - Z)/ A . The Coulomb diffuseness correction or the charge exchange correction term play the main role to improve the accuracy of the mass formulae. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18MeV. A possible more precise formula for the Coulomb radius is ensuremath R_0 = 1.2332A^{1/3} + 2.8961/A^{2/3} - 0.18688A^{1/3}I fm with ? = 0.052 fm.

Royer, G.; Rousseau, R.

2009-12-01

429

A FORMULA FOR THE ELECTRON CLOUD MAP COEFFICIENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bunch-to-bunch evolution of the electron cloud den- sity can be modeled using a cubic map. The map approach has been proved reliable for RHIC (1) and LHC (2). The coefficients that parameterize the map may be obtained by fitting from time consuming numerical simulations. In this communication we derive a simple approximate formula for the linear coefficient in the

T. Demma; S. Petracca

430

27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gallons of alcohol add: (1) Six pounds of either boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F.; 11/3 pounds...materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F., to total...

2013-04-01

431

27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gallons of alcohol add: (1) Six pounds of either boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F.; 11/3 pounds...materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F., to total...

2011-04-01

432

27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.  

...gallons of alcohol add: (1) Six pounds of either boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F.; 11/3 pounds...materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F., to total...

2014-04-01

433

27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...gallons of alcohol add: (1) Six pounds of either boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F.; 11/3 pounds...materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F., to total...

2012-04-01

434

27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gallons of alcohol add: (1) Six pounds of either boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F.; 11/3 pounds...materials listed under Formula No. 38-B, plus sufficient boric acid, N.F., or Polysorbate 80, N.F., to total...

2010-04-01

435

Generating SAT Instances from First-Order Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the satisfiability (SAT) problem in propositional logic, many algorithms have been proposed in recent years. However, practical problems are often more naturally described as satisfying a set of first-order formulas. When the domain of interpretation is finite and its size is a fixed positive integer, the satisfiability problem in the first-order logic can be reduced to SAT. To

Zhuo HUANG; ZHANG Jian

2005-01-01

436

Complements of Subanalytic Sets and Existential Formulas for Analytic Functions  

E-print Network

Complements of Subanalytic Sets and Existential Formulas for Analytic Functions Andrei Gabrielov built from functions as above using equalities and inequalities as well as existential and universal quantifiers. Such an expression is equivalent to an existential expression involving functions from the same

Gabrielov, Andrei

437

Fluency Formula[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Fluency Formula"[TM] is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency for first- through sixth-grade students. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundation for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom. Students…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

2007-01-01

438

Symbols and Formulas for a Few Bibliometric Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbols for bibliometric concepts like "half life,""impact factor,""normalized impact factor," and "immediacy index" are proposed and formulas for the determination of their values are provided. The features of the bibliometric concepts are also highlighted. (Author/AEF)

Sen, B. K.

1999-01-01

439

Critical gradient formula for toroidal electron temperature gradient modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain conditions, the electron heat transport induced by electron temperature gradient (ETG) streamers is sufficiently large and sensitive with respect to the normalized electron temperature gradient to represent a possible cause for electron temperature profile consistency (``stiffness''). Here, linear gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ETG modes in tokamak core and edge plasmas are presented. An algebraic formula for the threshold

F. Jenko; W. Dorland; G. W. Hammett

2001-01-01

440

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...formula: P =(2 St/D )×F×E×T P =Design pressure in pounds per square inch (kPa) gauge. S =Yield strength in pounds per square inch (kPa) determined in accordance with § 192.107. D =Nominal outside diameter...

2012-10-01

441

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...formula: P =(2 St/D )×F×E×T P =Design pressure in pounds per square inch (kPa) gauge. S =Yield strength in pounds per square inch (kPa) determined in accordance with § 192.107. D =Nominal outside diameter...

2010-10-01

442

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...formula: P =(2 St/D )×F×E×T P =Design pressure in pounds per square inch (kPa) gauge. S =Yield strength in pounds per square inch (kPa) determined in accordance with § 192.107. D =Nominal outside diameter...

2013-10-01

443

49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...formula: P =(2 St/D )×F×E×T P =Design pressure in pounds per square inch (kPa) gauge. S =Yield strength in pounds per square inch (kPa) determined in accordance with § 192.107. D =Nominal outside diameter...

2011-10-01

444

The Relativistic Velocity Addition Formula: A Graphical Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problem that students balk at the notion velocities do not add algebraically. Offers a geometric model to verify the algebraic formulas that calculate velocity addition. Representations include Galilean relativity, Einstein's composition of velocities, and the inverse velocity transformation. (MDH)

Flynn, Robert W.

1991-01-01

445

Convergence Acceleration of Gauss–Chebyshev Quadrature Formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to accelerate, via extrapolation methods, the convergence of the sequences generated by the Gauss–Chebyshev quadrature formula applied to functions holomorphic in ]-1,1[ and possessing, in the neighborhood of 1 or -1, an asymptotic expansion with log?(1±x)(1±x)a, (1±x)a, a>-1, as elementary elements.

M. Kzaz; M. Prévost

2003-01-01

446

Solving Advanced Reasoning Tasks Using Quantified Boolean Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the compilation of different reasoning tasks into the evaluation problem of quantified boolean formulas (QBFs) as an approach to develop prototype reasoning sys- tems useful for, e.g., experimental purposes. Such a method is a natural generalization of a similar technique applied to NP-problems and has been recently proposed by other re- searchers. More specifically, we present translations of

Uwe Egly; Thomas Eiter; Hans Tompits; Stefan Woltran

2000-01-01

447

career formula Your guide to the EY school and  

E-print Network

the different ways to get there. This guide is your starting point to thinking about the formula that's right in international markets. -- Corporate Finance Helping the world's corporations buy, sell and merge to get the best and no less tax than they should, in the right countries at the right time. Explore in more detail

Diggle, Peter J.

448

Einsteinian formula of fluctuations and the corpuscular-wave formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author is discussing some problems of Black -body radiation in view of Plank formula as were treated by Albert Einstein, specific heat, quantum electrodynamics. The author is considering also the discussions in epoch about the same problmes between Einstein, Ehrenfest, Laue, Krutkow, Joffe, de Broglie, Debye, Wien, Lorentz.

Kozhevnikov, A. B.

449

A LOGIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO MANIPULATING FORMULAS AND PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

A LOGIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO MANIPULATING FORMULAS AND PROGRAMS Dale Miller Computer are replaced with simply typed â??­terms. For such a logic programming language to be complete in principle first­order unification, its availability makes writing certain kinds of programs far more

Miller, Dale

450

A LOGIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO MANIPULATING FORMULAS AND PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

A LOGIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO MANIPULATING FORMULAS AND PROGRAMS Dale Miller Computer are replaced with simply typed -terms. For such a logic programming language to be complete in principle first-order unification, its availability makes writing certain kinds of programs far more

Miller, Dale

451

Moche CAPE Formula: Cost Analysis of Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moche Cost Analysis of Public Education (CAPE) formula was developed to identify total and per pupil costs of regular elementary education, regular secondary education, elementary special education, and secondary special education. Costs are analyzed across five components: (1) comprehensive costs (including transportation and supplemental…

Moche, Joanne Spiers

452

Nosocomial neonatal legionellosis associated with water in infant formula, taiwan.  

PubMed

We report 2 cases of neonatal Legionella infection associated with aspiration of contaminated water used in hospitals to make infant formula. The molecular profiles of Legionella strains isolated from samples from the infants and from water dispensers were indistinguishable. Our report highlights the need to consider nosocomial legionellosis among neonates who have respiratory symptoms. PMID:25340315

Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chou, Pesus; Tseng, Lei-Ron; Lin, Hung-Chih; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Liu, Fang-Ching; Wu, Hoa-Hsin; Lin, Min-Cheng; Ko, Ching-Fen; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Kuo, Tsung-Lin; Chiang, Chuen-Sheue

2014-11-01

453

Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis Associated with Water in Infant Formula, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

We report 2 cases of neonatal Legionella infection associated with aspiration of contaminated water used in hospitals to make infant formula. The molecular profiles of Legionella strains isolated from samples from the infants and from water dispensers were indistinguishable. Our report highlights the need to consider nosocomial legionellosis among neonates who have respiratory symptoms. PMID:25340315

Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chou, Pesus; Tseng, Lei-Ron; Lin, Hung-Chih; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Liu, Fang-Ching; Wu, Hoa-Hsin; Lin, Min-Cheng; Ko, Ching-Fen; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Kuo, Tsung-Lin

2014-01-01

454

On the Feynman-alpha formula for fast neutrons  

E-print Network

In this contribution, a stochastic theory for a branching process in a neutron population with two energy levels is investigated. In particular, a variance to mean or Feynman-alpha formula is derived in this generalized scenario using the Kolmogorov forward or master equation theory for the probabilities in a system with a compound Poisson source.

Johan Anderson; Lenard Pal; Imre Pazsit

2011-05-04

455

27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Nine pounds of sodium salicylate, U.S.P., or salicylic acid, U.S.P.; 1.25 gallons of fluid extract of quassia, N.F. VII; and 1/8 gallon of tert -butyl...

2011-04-01

456

27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Nine pounds of sodium salicylate, U.S.P., or salicylic acid, U.S.P.; 1.25 gallons of fluid extract of quassia, N.F. VII; and 1/8 gallon of tert -butyl...

2013-04-01

457

27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Nine pounds of sodium salicylate, U.S.P., or salicylic acid, U.S.P.; 1.25 gallons of fluid extract of quassia, N.F. VII; and 1/8 gallon of tert -butyl...

2012-04-01

458

27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.  

... (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Nine pounds of sodium salicylate, U.S.P., or salicylic acid, U.S.P.; 1.25 gallons of fluid extract of quassia, N.F. VII; and 1/8 gallon of tert -butyl...

2014-04-01

459

Problem Solvers: Problem--Area beyond the Formula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, associate professor Chrystal Dean describes how teachers can challenge their upper elementary students' understanding of area beyond a memorized formula. Herein she describes an activity that will show students the "why" behind using A = l × w to solve rectangular area problems. The activity will help deepen…

Dean, Chrystal

2014-01-01

460

Illinois Community College Funding Formula Survey. Volume 21, Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of Illinois community college presidents and business managers to determine current institutional thinking on the Illinois funding formula. Study findings, based on responses from 36 out of the 39 colleges in the state included the following: (1) 64% of the respondents favored the concept of averaging credit hours and unit…

Fonte, Richard; And Others

461

Oligosaccharides in feces of breast- and formula-fed babies.  

PubMed

So far, little is known on the fate of oligosaccharides in the colon of breast- and formula-fed babies. Using capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE-LIF-MS(n)), we studied the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of 27 two-month-old breast-, formula- and mixed-fed preterm babies. The interpretation of the complex oligosaccharide profiles was facilitated by beforehand clustering the CE-LIF data points by agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). In the feces of breast-fed babies, characteristic human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) profiles, showing genetic fingerprints known for human milk of secretors and non-secretors, were recognized. Alternatively, advanced degradation and bioconversion of HMOs, resulting in an accumulation of acidic HMOs or HMO bioconversion products was observed. Independent of the prebiotic supplementation of the formula with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) at the level used, similar oligosaccharide profiles of low peak abundance were obtained for formula-fed babies. Feeding influences the presence of diet-related oligosaccharides in baby feces and gastrointestinal adaptation plays an important role herein. Four fecal oligosaccharides, characterized as HexNAc-Hex-Hex, Hex-[Fuc]-HexNAc-Hex, HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-Hex and HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-HexNAc-Hex-Hex, highlighted an active gastrointestinal metabolization of the feeding-related oligosaccharides. Their presence was linked to the gastrointestinal mucus layer and the blood-group determinant oligosaccharides therein, which are characteristic for the host's genotype. PMID:21782161

Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; van Zoeren, Diny; van Lingen, Richard A; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

2011-10-18

462

A Linear Grammar Approach to Mathematical Formula Recognition from PDF  

E-print Network

of the original method when applied to common mathematical expres- sions and show how they can be overcome first steps towards improved usability of scientific documents to scientists, engineers, teachersA Linear Grammar Approach to Mathematical Formula Recognition from PDF Josef B. Baker, Alan P

Sorge, Volker

463

Nutritional advantages of constituents of infant formulae formely called humanised  

E-print Network

's kidney is unable to buffer an excess of acid produced as a result of the metabolism of sulphur containing to cow's milk to adapt it to the nutritional requirements of infants result in a product that is quite for these products is « adapted formulae ». Basically there are two kind of adaptations, quantitative and qualitative

Boyer, Edmond

464

The Use of Readability Formulas in Patient Education Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the SMOG readability formula scores of currently available patient education materials. It was hypothesized that the reading level of the materials would be higher than 7.5, the reading level of the average American citizen; and that there would be a significant reduction in the measured document reading levels…

Mathews, Paul J.; And Others

465

On the Accuracy of the Semiclassical Trace Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiclassical trace formula provides the basic construction from which one derives the semiclassical approximation for the spectrum of quantum systems which are chaotic in the classical limit. When the dimensionality of the system increases, the mean level spacing decreases as $\\\\hbar^d$, while the semiclassical approximation is commonly believed to provide an accuracy of order $\\\\hbar^2$, independently of d. If

Harel Primack; Uzy Smilansky

1998-01-01

466

Symbolic timing verification of timing diagrams using Presburger formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel set of tools for performing symbolic timing verificationof timing diagrams. The tools are multi-purpose with usesin verification, derivation of synthesis constraints, and design evaluation.Our methodology is based on using techniques for manipulatingPresburger formulas. We demonstrate using several interestingexamples that the method is efficient in practice and should beconsidered for inclusion in commercial tools.

Tod Amon; Gaetano Borriello; Taokuan Hu; Jiwen Liu

1997-01-01

467

Ultrastructure and Composition of the Nannochloropsis gaditana Cell Wall.  

PubMed

Marine algae of the genus Nannochloropsis are promising producers of biofuel precursors and nutraceuticals and are also harvested commercially for aquaculture feed. We have used quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and carbohydrate analyses to characterize the architecture of the Nannochloropsis gaditana (strain CCMP 526) cell wall, whose recalcitrance presents a significant barrier to biocommodity extraction. The data indicate a bilayer structure consisting of a cellulosic inner wall (?75% of the mass balance) protected by an outer hydrophobic algaenan layer. Cellulase treatment of walls purified after cell lysis generates highly enriched algaenan preparations without using the harsh chemical treatments typically used in algaenan isolation and characterization. Nannochloropsis algaenan was determined to comprise long, straight-chain, saturated aliphatics with ether cross-links, which closely resembles the cutan of vascular plants. Chemical identification of >85% of the isolated cell wall mass is detailed, and genome analysis is used to identify candidate biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25239976

Scholz, Matthew J; Weiss, Taylor L; Jinkerson, Robert E; Jing, Jia; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Posewitz, Matthew C; Gerken, Henri G

2014-11-01

468

Passive solar wall collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of front covers to be used in passive solar wall systems for building insulation is presented. Nineteen covers were investigated, including glass, translucid plastics and metal plates. The measurements were made under natural conditions on small concrete elements of about 0.5 sq m front surface. A mathematical model was developed and adapted to each case; by fitting the different measured curves, all the physical characteristics of the different covers were obtained. The measurements for 19 covers were presented; the results of a mathematical simulation based on meteorological data near Lausanne of two periods during the 1976-1977 winter were presented for four covers

Faist, A.; Gay, J. B.

469

A New Rat Model for Orthotopic Abdominal Wall Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Background: Abdominal wall, one of the most commonly transplanted composite tissues, is less researched and lacking animal models. Its clinical necessities were emphasized in multiple case series to reconstruct large abdominal defects. Previous animal models have only studied components of the abdominal wall transplant. We describe findings from a new model that more likely reflect clinical transplantation. Methods: Full-thickness hemiabdominal wall flap was procured from Brown Norway (BN) rats and transplanted to an orthotopic defect on Lewis rats. Three groups were studied: group 1: Lewis to Lewis syngeneic; group 2: BN to Lewis control; and group 3: BN to Lewis with postoperative cyclosporine. Vascular imaging and cross vessel section were performed along with full-thickness abdominal wall. Immune cell profiling with flow cytometry at different time points was studied in all groups. Results: Syngeneic group had no rejection. Control group consistently showed rejection around postoperative day 6. With cyclosporine treatment, however, transplant and recipient tissue integration was observed. Flow cytometry revealed that innate immunity is responsible for the initial inflammatory events following abdominal wall engraftment. Adaptive immunity cells, specifically interferon-?-producing T helper (Th) 1 and interleukin-17-producing Th17 cells, dramatically and positively correlate with rejection progression of abdominal wall transplants. Conclusions: Technical, histological, and immunological aspects of a new rat model are described. These results give clues to what occurs in human abdominal wall transplantation. In addition, Th1, a proinflammatory cell, was found to be a potential biomarker for allograft rejection.

Lao, William W.; Wang, Yen-Ling; Ramirez, Alejandro E.; Cheng, Hui-Yun

2014-01-01

470

Phenomenology of Wall Bounded Newtonian Turbulence  

E-print Network

We construct a simple analytic model for wall-bounded turbulence, containing only four adjustable parameters. Two of these parameters characterize the viscous dissipation of the components of the Reynolds stress-tensor and other two parameters characterize their nonlinear relaxation. The model offers an analytic description of the profiles of the mean velocity and the correlation functions of velocity fluctuations in the entire boundary region, from the viscous sub-layer, through the buffer layer and further into the log-layer. As a first approximation, we employ the traditional return-to-isotropy hypothesis, which yields a very simple distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy between the velocity components in the log-layer: the streamwise component contains a half of the total energy whereas the wall-normal and the cross-stream components contain a quarter each. In addition, the model predicts a very simple relation between the von-K\\'arm\\'an slope $\\kappa $ and the turbulent velocity in the log-law region $v^+$ (in wall units): $v^+=6 \\kappa$. These predictions are in excellent agreement with DNS data and with recent laboratory experiments.

Victor S. L'vov; Anna Pomyalov; Itamar Procaccia; Sergej S. Zilitinkevich

2005-06-28

471

An explicit formula for metal wire plasmon of terahertz wave.  

PubMed

An explicit formula for metal wire plasmon of terahertz wave is analytically derived. The derivation is based on the huge relative permittivities of nonmagnetic metals in the spectral region of terahertz wave, some important properties of modified Bessel functions, and a suitable Taylor expansion. The obtained formula is further checked by many numerical tests. We find that, for all 11 tested nonmagnetic metals, for the whole spectral region of terahertz wave, and for the wide radius range from 10 microm to infinity, the relative deviation for the effective index is always smaller than 5%. This good agreement clearly shows that the derived expression can be conveniently used for the analysis and design of metal wire plasmon of terahertz wave. PMID:19997314

Yang, Jie; Cao, Qing; Zhou, Changhe

2009-11-01

472

Summation formula for solutions of Riccati-Abel equation  

E-print Network

The generalized Riccati equation defined as an equation between first order derivative and the cubic polynomial is named Riccati-Abel equation. Unlike solutions of ordinary Riccati equation, the solutions of Riccati-Abel equation do not admit an addition formula. In the present paper we explain a nature of this fault and elaborate a method of solution of this problem. We show that the addition formula for Riccati-Abel equation can be established only for pair of solutions. Furthermore, it is shown that analogously with ordinary Riccati equation, the relationships with linear differential equations and the general complex algebra of third order can be established only for the pair of solutions of Riccati-Abel equation.

Robert M. Yamaleev

2012-10-08

473

Mesoscopic formulas of linear and angular momentum fluxes  

E-print Network

Cosserat theory [E. Cosserat and F. Cosserat, "Th\\'eorie des corps d\\'eformables" (Herman,1909)] is a way to extend a simple Newtonian fluid model or bulk elasticity models to incorporate the underlying mesoscopic structures into the macroscopic theory. However, this theory, which contains asymmetric stress tensor and "couple stress tensor", has been lacking its bottom-up theoretical basis which may correspond to the virial stress formula of Irving-Kirkwood theory of the gas hydrodynamics. Based on the momentum and angular momentum conservation laws, we will present a bottom-up formulation of the Cosserat-type theory in the way adapted to the dense cellular media. Mesoscopic formulas for the stress and couple stress tensors are given, which is reminiscent of the virial stress but without any assumptions about the interactions at the cell-cell interfaces.

Antoine Fruleux; Ken Sekimoto

2014-06-13

474

Some Flexure Formulas and Diagrams for Reinforced Concrete Beams  

E-print Network

-BEAMS„ (1) k = — f /ni c f A A 2 (2) p c « A -2- (1--) — c i s 2 2n ft' f I d t2 — (3-3A+A 2) -— (J - A)> — A n I o (4) M ' = M - M ' 20. (5) Do = V s f«(l~Q,)bd 2 (6) p' = p g s k-Q (7) p = p c + p s A 2 p+ p 1 G + — (8) : k =* , A p+p'+ — n... 2 . 0 A 3 . An(2~A) ( 3 5 : > ^ s f W 6 ' 6 ^ V n ' i ^ F " f Dubt 2 A 3 ( 3 6 ' » (Formula 3b.) 11. Formula 1 may also be derived from equation 34. First substitute for J from equation'21. (37) M f ° 6 k & ( 2 ~ A ) x c o z Sow...

Beard, Robert S.

1915-06-04

475

On the mass formula and Wigner and curvature energy terms  

E-print Network

The efficiency of different mass formulas derived from the liquid drop model including or not the curvature energy, the Wigner term and different powers of the relative neutron excess $I$ has been determined by a least square fitting procedure to the experimental atomic masses assuming a constant R$_{0,charge}$/A$^{1/3}$ ratio. The Wigner term and the curvature energy can be used independently to improve the accuracy of the mass formula. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18 MeV, a relative sharp charge radius r$_0$ of 1.22-1.23 fm and a proton form-factor correction to the Coulomb energy of around 0.9 MeV.

G. Royer

2007-10-12

476

Gap Domain Wall Fermions  

E-print Network

I demonstrate that the chiral properties of Domain Wall Fermions (DWF) in the large to intermediate lattice spacing regime of QCD, 1 to 2 GeV, are significantly improved by adding to the action two standard Wilson fermions with supercritical mass equal to the negative DWF five dimensional mass. Using quenched DWF simulations I show that the eigenvalue spectrum of the transfer matrix Hamiltonian develops a substantial gap and that the residual mass decreases appreciatively. Furthermore, I confirm that topology changing remains active and that the hadron spectrum of the added Wilson fermions is above the lattice cutoff and therefore is irrelevant. I argue that this result should also hold for dynamical DWF and furthermore that it should improve the chiral properties of related fermion methods.

Pavlos M. Vranas

2006-06-22

477

Dynamics of monopole walls  

E-print Network

The moduli space of centred Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommmerfield 2-monopole fields is a 4-dimensional manifold M with a natural metric, and the geodesics on M correspond to slow-motion monopole dynamics. The best-known case is that of monopoles on R^3, where M is the Atiyah-Hitchin space. More recently, the case of monopoles periodic in one direction (monopole chains) was studied a few years ago. Our aim in this note is to investigate M for doubly-periodic fields, which may be visualized as monopole walls. We identify some of the geodesics on M as fixed-point sets of discrete symmetries, and interpret these in terms of monopole scattering and bound orbits, concentrating on novel features that arise as a consequence of the periodicity.

R. Maldonado; R. S. Ward

2014-05-19

478

Gullied Crater Wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

16 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the southeast-facing wall of an impact crater in northwestern Acidalia Planitia. Gullies are common in southern middle-latitude craters, and much less common in cases like the one shown here, found at a northern middle latitude. Debate continues within the Mars science community as to the origin of the gullies, whether by groundwater, melting ice or snow, or an alternative fluid such as carbon dioxide.

Location near: 41.4oN, 44.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

2005-01-01

479

Dynamics of monopole walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moduli space of centred Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfield 2-monopole fields is a 4-dimensional manifold M with a natural metric, and the geodesics on M correspond to slow-motion monopole dynamics. The best-known case is that of monopoles on R3, where M is the Atiyah-Hitchin space. More recently, the case of monopoles periodic in one direction (monopole chains) was studied a few years ago. Our aim in this note is to investigate M for doubly-periodic fields, which may be visualized as monopole walls. We identify some of the geodesics on M as fixed-point sets of discrete symmetries, and interpret these in terms of monopole scattering and bound orbits, concentrating on novel features that arise as a consequence of the periodicity.

Maldonado, R.; Ward, R. S.

2014-06-01

480

Wall Street Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal from the publishers of The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) offers a wide selection of business news and resources. Users can read highlights from the WSJ, breaking business news, or view targeted news, research and resources for any of the 29 industries listed. The site also features delayed composite prices on US stocks, with links to background information and press releases, and a targeted search of business and news sites (fee required for full text of articles in the publications library). Additional resources include a markets wrap, news and links related to the US economy, and several aids for managing personal finance. Users may personalize the portal to suit their own interests after free registration.

481

Atom-Wall interaction  

E-print Network

This chapter deals with atom-wall interaction occurring in the "long-range" regime (typical distances: 1-1000 nm), when the electromagnetic fluctuations of an isolated atom are modified by the vicinity with a surface. Various regimes of interaction are discussed in an Introductory part, from Cavity Quantum ElectroDynamics modifications of the spontaneous emission, to Casimir effect, with emphasis on the atom-surface van der Waals interaction, characterized as a near-field interaction governed by a z-3 dependence. The major part of the Chapter focuses on the experimental measurements of this van der Waals interaction, reviewing various recent techniques, and insists upon optical techniques, and notably selective reflection spectroscopy which is particularly well-suited when excited atoms are considered. A review of various experiments illustrates the specific effects associated with a resonant coupling between the atomic excitation and surface modes, from van der Waals repulsion to surface-induced resonant tra...

Bloch, D; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial

2005-01-01

482

Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems  

SciTech Connect

An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones.

Walker, M.; Will, C.M.

1980-12-01

483

Dances between continuous and discrete: Euler's summation formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper.9 Large binomialsIn our last excerpt, Euler applies the summation formula to estimate thesize of large binomial coe#cients. I translate just one of his methods here,in which he coalesces two summation series term by term. As a sampleapplication, Euler approximates the ratio50\\/2, despite the huge sizeof its parts, thus closely approximating the probability that if one tosses 100coins, exactly

David J. Pengelley

2002-01-01

484

A note on the Kutta-Joukowski formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note some clarifications are made concerning the understanding and use of the classical Kutta-Joukowski lift formula L = rho U Gamma. First, the viscous source of this lift (although it has been a very well-known fact) is re-emphasized, since its inviscid derivation in many text books still caused confusion, especially among student readers. Second, it is directly shown

John Caruthers; Hui-Yang Ma; Jie-Zhi Wu

1992-01-01

485

New Formula for Spin-Dependent Level Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first realistic calculations of spin-dependent level densities using the Gaussian polynomial generating function method (GFM) are performed for 114Cd and 244Am. Contrary to the results of previous combinatorial calculations, the curvature of the logarithmic energy dependence of the calculated total level density is consistent with the Bethe formula. The GFM results support the assumption that the spin-dependent level density

V. Paar; S. Brant; D. K. Sunko; M. G. Mustafa; R. G. Lanier

1991-01-01

486

Detection of Potentially Allergenic Material in 12 Hydrolyzed Milk Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoallergenic milk formulas are used as an alterna- tive diet for infants who have allergies to cow's milk when breast-feeding is not possible. These products are based on proteins, which have been heat-treated and hydrolyzed to a different degree in order to cleave anti- body-binding structures. Even extensively hydrolyzed products have occasionally been observed to elicit aller- gic reactions in

A. Rosendal; V. Barkholt

2000-01-01

487

Preterm infant formula supplementation with ? linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate if supplementation of preterm infant formula with a high docosahexaenoic acid\\/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA\\/EPA) ratio together with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was able to maintain plasma and red blood cell DHA levels similar to that obtained with breast milk feeding without altering n-6 fatty acid status.Design and subjects: Preterm infants of mothers who elected not to breast feed (n=13)

A Rodriguez; D Raederstorff; P Sarda; C Lauret; F Mendy; B Descomps

2003-01-01

488

Bochner-Martinelli formula for k-Cauchy-Fueter operator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The k-Cauchy-Fueter operator has its roots in physics and tools for its study are mainly based on exact sequences and Penrose transforms. In this article, we show that the analytic approach has its advantage in establishing the Bochner-Martinelli formula for k-Cauchy-Fueter operator with explicit kernels. Explicit form of the Bochner-Martinelli kernel will be important for further investigation on the theory of k-Cauchy-Fueter operators.

Wang, Haiyan; Ren, Guangbin

2014-10-01

489

The Weyl Character Formula Math G4344, Spring 2012  

E-print Network

(g) = Tr((g)) The representation ring R(G) of a compact Lie group behaves much the the same as in the finite group case, with the sum over group elements replaced by an integral in the formula for the inner, the character V (g) of a representation V gives an element of R(T) which is invariant under the Weyl group W

Woit, Peter

490

Conversion of formulae and quantities between unit systems  

E-print Network

Conversion of formulae and quantities between unit systems Nikolai G. Lehtinen March 1, 2002 1 cgsSI that to convert values, one should divide by the value in the third column, using c in SI system of units. E of units is such in which c = 1 and ¯h = 1. Otherwise, it is like SI, except that 0 and µ0 should also

Lehtinen, Nikolai G.

491

[A method of modernized milk formula preparation in children's hospitals].  

PubMed

Nurses on the ward prepare the milk formula just before feeding by the nurse on the ward. Bottles and nipples are cleaned mechanically by dishwashers using alkaline cleaner for bottles, or a mild-alkaline cleaner (WA 725 S) and an antiseptic (Septo DA) for nipples. The nipples are sealed into plastic bags immediately after cleaning using sterile equipment. No further sterilisation is necessary as frequent bacterial culturing has shown. This procedure is safe, easy, and saves cost and time. PMID:6687921

Goetz, O; Butenandt, O

1983-03-01

492

Predictive formulae for goat cheese yield based on milk composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the yield and quality of different types of cheeses that could be produced from a given type and\\/or amount of goat milk is of great economic benefit to goat milk producers and goat cheese manufacturers. Bulk tank goat milk was used for manufacturing hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses (N=25, 25 and 24, respectively) to develop predictive formulae of

S. S. Zeng; K. Soryal; B. Fekadu; B. Bah; T. Popham

2007-01-01

493

A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formula (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.

Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Section of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Gross, Cary [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-05-01

494

Bacterial cell-wall recycling  

PubMed Central

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

2012-01-01

495

Domain wall pinning for racetrack memory using exchange bias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pinning of domain walls in ferromagnetic (F) wires is one possible technique for the creation of a solid state magnetic memory. Such a system has been under consideration for some time but one of the main limitations is the control of, and non-uniformity of the domain wall pinning. Techniques such as the lithographic definition of notches and steps in the substrate have had some success in creating local pins but have the disadvantage of being expensive to fabricate and the reproducibility of the domain wall pinning strength is limited. In this letter, we report on an alternative strategy to create pins of reproducible strength using crossed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic (AF) wires such that exchange bias can be introduced at the crossing points. Such a system has the advantage of ease of fabrication and creating domain wall pins of controlled strength by varying the width of the AF wire. We have achieved domain wall pinning field strengths of up to 37 Oe in a system where the AF wire is deposited above the F wire which is comparable to the values achieved using notches.

Polenciuc, I.; Vick, A. J.; Allwood, D. A.; Hayward, T. J.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.; Hirohata, A.

2014-10-01

496

Magnetic Field Line Diffusion Footprints on Nonconformal NCSX First Wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the free boundary equilibria of the NCSX compact stellarator are calculated using VMEC and tabulated both inside and outside the LCMS by MFBE/2001 in a form suitable for field line tracing by both GOURDON and Kisslinger field line diffusion. Poincar'{e} plots of equilibrium configurations from 0 to 4/ beta both with and without island healing are made with emphasis placed on the mapping the edge between the LCMS and first wall. Footprints for each configuration on the actual non-conformal wall are found with field line diffusion calculations. Comparison is made with previous conformal wall calculations. It is found that more intersections occur at the close fitting wall at the 60r{ } cross-section than at the tips of the 0r{ } cross-section which has the largest flux expansion of the various cross-sections. Angles of incidence peak in the range 6-12r{ }. Footprints at low diffusion are similar to the high diffusion ones where step size of field line starting points are determined by anomalous thermal diffusivity. The starting surface is selected to be 1 to 2 cm inside the LCMS, and footprints are found to be independent of starting surface selection. An island structure possibly suitable for an island divertor concept is found in the absence of island healing. Other configurations lack islands in the SOL and may require an ergodic divertor concept. The variation of the footprint with beta and island healing is presented.

Grossman, Arthur

2005-10-01

497

Evaluation of scoring accuracy for airway wall thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bronchial wall thickening is commonly observed in airway diseases. One method often used to quantitatively evaluate wall thickening in CT images is to estimate the ratio of the bronchial wall to the accompanying artery, or BWA ratio, and then assign a severity score based on the ratio. Assessment by visual inspection is unfortunately limited to airways perpendicular or parallel to the scanning plane. With high-resolution images from multi-detector CT scanners, it becomes possible to assess airways in any orientation. We selected CT scans from 20 patients with mild to severe COPD. A computer system automatically segmented each bronchial tree and measured the bronchial wall thicknesses. Next, neighboring arteries were detected and measured to determine BWA ratios. A score characterizing the extent and severity of wall thickening within each lobe was computed according to recommendations by Sheehan et al [1]. Two experienced radiologists independently scored wall thickening using visual assessment. Spearman's rank correlation showed a non-significant negative correlation (r=-0.1) between the computer and the reader average (p=0.4), while the correlation between readers was significant at r=0.65 (p=0.001). We subsequently identified 24 lobes with high discrepancies between visual and automated scoring. The readers re-examined those lobes and measured wall thickness using electronic calipers on perpendicular cross sections, rather than visual assessment. Using this more objective standard of wall thickness, the reader estimates of wall thickening increased to reach a significant positive correlation with automated scoring of r=0.65 (p=0.001). These results indicate that subjectivity is an important problem with visual evaluation, and that visual inspection may frequently underestimate disease extent and severity. Given that a manual evaluation of all airways is infeasible in routine clinical practice, we argue that automated methods should be developed and utilized.

Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Ko, Jane P.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.

2009-02-01

498

[Past and present status in the design of infant formulas].  

PubMed

This paper describes briefly the history of infant foods, from the alternate ways of feeding developed during the late 19th century to the present-day infant formulas, and enumerates the different available types (milk-based, soy-based, hypoallergenic, lactose-free, etc,). Among the nutritional aspects the main characteristics of formulation are emphasized, especially within the nitrogen, fat and mineral fractions. Considering the nitrogen fraction, it must be taken into account that the amino acid profiles in milk-based formulas differ according to the casein/whey proteins ratio (either 80:20 or 40:60 in the so-called "adapted" or "humanized"). On the other hand, it has been recognized recently that some non-protein components of human milk, such as taurine, carnitine and nucleotides, are relevant to infant nutrition and therefore, they are being included in some formulas. Regarding fat, essential fatty acids supply is very important; present recommendations stress the importance of providing n-6 to n-3 series ratios close to that found in human milk and also a preformed supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among minerals, bioavailability and relative proportions of trace elements are important issues in formulation. Other concepts of relevance are the renal solute load and the osmolarity because of their effect on neonate's metabolism. PMID:9161440

Ronayne de Ferrer, P A

1995-12-01

499

Formula recollection through a NEVER BEFORE SEEN mnemonic technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While in the Army, Mr. Schunicht was involved in a mid- air collision rendering him unconscious for 3 weeks. Everything had to be re-learned, as nursing actions were reported as having been displayed upon awakening from the extended unconsciousness (19 days). Studies in recovery brought about some pragmatic discoveries to compensate for the residual memory deficits. The most valuable was having each vowel represent a mathematical operation, i.e. ``a'' multiplication implying ``@'',``o'' for division implying ``over'', ``i'' for subtraction implying ``minus'', ``u'' for addition implying ``plus'', and ``e'' implying ``equals''. Most constants and variables are indeed consonants, e.g. ``c'' = ``speed of light'' & ``z'' = ``altitude''. Note, how with this author's mnemonic technique, ANY FORMULA may be algebraically manipulated into a word, or series of words for ease of recollection. Additional letters may be added to the enhance the letter combination's intelligibility, but these additional letters need be consonants only! The transition of complicated formulas into simple acronyms will be shown, as well as those submitted by attendees upon arrival. One common example is the quadratic equation: CAPITAL LETTERS ARE ADDITIONAL CONSONANTS yeS, i buiLD rabbits 4caTS oN 2HaTS (remember Dr. Seuss?) The possibilities of mnemonic technique are limitless as Delta X => 0. With the student's usage, an acronym will become more apropos to the actual formula it actually represents!

Schunicht, Shannon

2009-04-01

500

A formula for comparison of selected sport ball compressibility.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a formula to determine and compare the compressibility of selected sport balls. Six balls (basketball, volleyball, soccer ball, baseball, handball, golf ball) were dropped ten times from each of four different heights onto a smooth solid surface overlaid with a white sheet of typing paper, overlaid with a sheet of carbon paper. The diameter of the area of contact of each ball imprinted onto the typing paper was measured in millimetres with calipers. From the data, the distance (d) that each ball compressed for each velocity (v) was calculated. It was found that a linear relationship existed between velocity at impact and the distance for each ball studied. The compressibility coefficient (c) for each ball was calculated and a formula was developed to determine the distance each ball would compress at a given velocity. When velocity is measured in metres per second and the distance a ball compresses is measured in millimetres, the formula to determine d for selected balls, in order of compressibility is: basketball d = 3.07v, volleyball d = 2.90v, soccer ball d = 2.80v, baseball d = 0.77v, handball d = 0.53v, and golf ball d = 0.17v. PMID:1913029

Dowell, L J; Krebs, G

1991-03-01