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1

Management of war-related vascular injuries: experience from the second gulf war  

PubMed Central

Aim To study the biomechanism, pattern of injury, management, and outcome of major vascular injuries treated at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital, Kuwait during the Second Gulf War. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective study. War-related injured patients who had major vascular injuries and were treated at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital from August 1990 to September 1991 were studied. Studied variables included age, gender, anatomical site of vascular injury, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, type of vascular repair, and clinical outcome. Results 36 patients having a mean (SD) age of 29.8 (10.2) years were studied. 32 (89%) were males and 21 (58%) were civilians. Majority of injuries were caused by bullets (47.2%) and blast injuries (47.2%). Eight patients (22%) presented with shock. There were 31 arterial injuries, common and superficial femoral artery injuries were most common (10/31). Arterial repair included interposition saphenous vein graft in seven patients, thrombectomy with end-to-end / lateral repair in twelve patients, vein patch in two patients, and arterial ligation in four patients. Six patients had arterial ligation as part of primary amputation. 3/21 (14.3%) patients had secondary amputation after attempted arterial vascular repair of an extremity. There were a total of 17 venous injuries, 13 managed by lateral suture repair and 4 by ligation. The median (range) hospital stay was 8 (1–76) days. 5 patients died (14%). Conclusions Major vascular injuries occurred in 10% of hospitalized war-related injured patients. Our secondary amputation rate of extremities was 14%. The presence of a vascular surgeon within a military surgical team is highly recommended. Basic principles and techniques of vascular repair remain an essential part of training general surgeons because it may be needed in unexpected wars. PMID:23816260

2013-01-01

2

Eye injuries associated with war games  

PubMed Central

War games, an outdoor activity combining recreation, military maneuvers and fantasy, are becoming a popular recreational sport. Increasing numbers of players are suffering eye injuries. In the last year 26 cases of serious eye injuries were reported to Canadian ophthalmologists; in 15 eyes vision was reduced to 6/24 or less. Although eyeguards are provided, all the injuries had occurred when the participants were not wearing them. Methods of preventing eye injuries in war games are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027807

Easterbrook, Michael; Pashby, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

3

Weapons injuries during and after periods of conflict: retrospective analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative frequency of weapon injuries during conflict and after periods of conflict in the absence of disarmament. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a database of war wounds. SETTING: Region with a protracted conflict between rival combatant groups and a subsequent transition to the uncontested military authority of a single power. SUBJECTS: 2332 people who received weapons injuries during the conflict or post-conflict periods and were admitted to hospital within 24 hours of injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage change in mean monthly admission rate by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods; annual incidence of injury by weapon type during conflict and post-conflict periods; percentage change in annual incidence by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods. RESULTS: Mean monthly admission rates for injuries from fragmentation munitions decreased by 8% between conflict and post-conflict periods and by 23% for injuries from mines and 32% for gunshot injuries. The decline in admissions for all injuries was 23%. After adjustment for population growth over the study period, declines in annual incidence were 22% for fragmentation munitions injuries, 34% for mine injuries, and 40% for gunshot injuries. The decline in incidence for all injuries was 33%. In-hospital mortality from weapons related injuries increased from 2.5% to 6.1% (P < 0.001) between conflict and post-conflict periods. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, continued availability of weapons is associated with increased mortality and a level of injuries from weapons that is only somewhat reduced from that observed during a period of conflict. PMID:9418089

Meddings, D. R.

1997-01-01

4

An overview of war-related thermal injuries.  

PubMed

Thermal injuries have always been a source of morbidity and mortality in times of war. Historically, they constitute 5% to 20% of all injuries and approximately 4% mortality. Although burn patients constitute a small number of casualties, they consume a disproportionate amount of resources and require specialized care. The current conflicts in the Middle East report similar numbers for thermal injuries despite improvement in predeployment education to reduce noncombat-related burns, flame retardant military clothing, and decline of war patterns usually associated with increased thermal injuries. However, the increased use of improvised explosive devices and vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices presents a new source of potential thermal injury. Indeed, the burden of explosion-related burns has increased as has its associated Injury Severity Score. As has been the case in previous conflicts, most burns are hand and head burns. Although usually not life threatening, burns to hands and face lead to significant physical and psychologic morbidities. In this paper, we will review the currently available literature on war-related thermal injuries in Operation Iraqi and Operation Enduring Freedom. We will describe the epidemiology of burn injuries, prewar preparation to prevent and treat thermal injuries, and the assessment, triage, and final treatment of burn patients. In addition, we will discuss the associated physical and psychologic morbidities and, finally, the role of plastic surgeon in burn rehabilitation and reconstruction. PMID:20613571

Roeder, Rosiane Alfinito; Schulman, Carl I

2010-07-01

5

US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective  

SciTech Connect

The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

Not Available

1994-01-01

6

[Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].  

PubMed

Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment. PMID:21981845

Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

2011-11-01

7

A retrospective injury analysis of state representative female soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A 5-year retrospective injury survey was conducted with 45 female elite soccer players from the Queensland Academy of Sport (QAS), to record the anatomical distribution, diagnosis and incidence of injury and identify possible risk factors in elite female soccer players at the QAS from 1993–1998. Methods: Data were gathered from medical, physiological, coaches and team managers' records. Results: The

Kathleen Lilley; Elizabeth Gass; Simon Locke

2002-01-01

8

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries  

PubMed Central

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-01-01

9

Traumatic brain injury in modern war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

2013-05-01

10

Spinal cord injury in Italy: A multicenter retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celani MG, Spizzichino L, Ricci S, Zampolini M, Franceschini M, Retrospective Study Group on SCI. Spinal cord injury in Italy: a multicenter retrospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:589-96. Objective: To investigate certain factors influencing the length of stay (LOS) in a rehabilitation center, the incidence of pressure ulcers, and the neurologic improvement of patients with traumatic (T\\/SCI) and nontraumatic

M. Grazia Celani; Lorenzo Spizzichino; Stefano Ricci; Mauro Zampolini; Marco Franceschini

2001-01-01

11

Cardiovascular and thoracic battle injuries in the Lebanon War. Analysis of 3,000 personal cases.  

PubMed

This report comprises 3,000 casualties of the Lebanon War whom I operated upon for cardiovascular-thoracic injuries in twelve Lebanese hospitals between January, 1969, and July, 1982. These patients were studied retrospectively through 1978 and prospectively thereafter. The logistics, weapons, wounds, and operative results in this study were unique. The patients' injuries can be categorized as follows: primarily thoracic, 1,251 (42%); peripheral vascular, 1,008 (34%); cardiac, 285 (9%); and thoracic mixed, 456 (15%). The male to female ratio was 3.6:1, the mean age 20 years, and the military to civilian ratio 1.7:1. The mean transport distance was 2 miles in 1,740 patients (58%). In patients with thoracic wounds, the incidence of cardiac involvement (14%) was higher than in World War II and Vietnam. The overall survival rate in casualties with cardiac injuries was 73%--best in pericardial, coronary, and right atrial wounds and dropping to 46% in left ventricular wounds, wherein pump failure was also a factor. A 13% (seven deaths) mortality for patients with injuries to the thoracic great vessels contrasted with the 1.2% (14 deaths) mortality for the rest of the patients with noncardiac thoracic wounds. Open thoracotomy in 818 operations (55%) reflected massive wounds and logistics. Pulmonary resection (310 operations) carried a 1.9% (five deaths) mortality and tube thoracostomy (683 operations) for lesser injuries, 0.7% (four deaths.) Thoracoabdominal injuries were 1.5 times more lethal. Fifty percent (504) of nonthoracic vascular wounds occurred in the femoral-popliteal area as a result of sniper attacks. Subintimal damage averaged 8 cm and mandated saphenous vein grafts in 72%. The mortality for injury to the aorta was 60% (12 deaths), contrasted with 1% (three deaths) for injury to extremity vessels. Hemorrhage and cardiac rupture were the most frequent causes of death. Early, proficient, open surgical control after or concomitant with intensive resuscitation proved successful in this special military conflict. PMID:3990322

Zakharia, A T

1985-05-01

12

Importance of Human Needs During Retrospective Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: Mideastern Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the importance of needs during the retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 using a sample of 378 employees in the Middle East. Results of factor analyses identified three levels of needs during peacetime and wartime. Factor structures of needs did change from peacetime to wartime and were different. The patterns of needs

Thomas Li-Ping Tang; Abdul H. Safwat Ibrahim

1998-01-01

13

Technology through a Retrospective Eye: Imaging Practices between the World Wars and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a symposium in this journal issue: "Technology through a Retrospective Eye: Imaging Practices between the World Wars and Beyond." Notes that each article of the symposium keys into a central moment of expansion of imaging practice and focuses on the debates that accompanied that expansion. (SR)

Zelizer, Barbie

1995-01-01

14

[Eye injuries in 'paintball'; a modern 'war injury'].  

PubMed

Paintball shooting is played with increasing frequency in the Netherlands. A bullet, filled with paint, shot at 60 m/sec can cause serious damage to the eye. All five patients seen in two years showed a hyphaema. Four out of five patients showed damage of the posterior pole, including vitreous haemorrhage, choroidal rupture, retinal detachment, and sub- or intraretinal haemorrhage. Three out of five patients incurred permanent visual loss, varying from 3/60 to 25/100. Adequate instruction of the participants in the game and proper use of the eye protector will be of help in preventing eye injuries. PMID:8487887

Verburg-van der Marel, E H; ten Napel, J A; de Keizer, R J

1993-04-17

15

Defining an Adequate Sample of Earlywood Vessels for Retrospective Injury Detection in Diffuse-Porous Species  

E-print Network

Defining an Adequate Sample of Earlywood Vessels for Retrospective Injury Detection in Diffuse to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size an Adequate Sample of Earlywood Vessels for Retrospective Injury Detection in Diffuse-Porous Species. PLoS ONE

Stoffel, Markus

16

Mitchell's Influence on European Studies of Peripheral Nerve Injuries During World War I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Describe the influence of S. Weir Mitchell's (1829-1914) work, and in particular his ideas on causalgia, on European physicians who treated peripheral nerve injuries during World War I (WWI). Background: During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Mitchell studied peripheral nerve injuries with colleagues George Read Morehouse and William Williams Keen. Three monographs resulted from this work. All were important

Peter J. Koehler; Douglas J. Lanska

2004-01-01

17

The Importance of Human Needs during Retrospective Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: University Students in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of human needs during the retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 was examined among 564 college students in the United States. Results of factor analyses showed that during peacetime, two factors (higher-order and lower-order needs) were identified. During the war, all needs were rated as more important and…

Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Tang, Theresa Li-Na

18

[War injuries of the extremities. Use of the CMC fixator].  

PubMed

The injuries of the extremities in the military setting, during hostilities, are classified to be the most frequent in general. Among them there are those caused by the missiles from rifles and automatic and semiautomatic weapons and those due to mine and shell fragments. The characteristics of modern array of weapons are missiles of high kinetic energy provoking extensive tissue injuries, often together with fractures of the long bones. When taking care of such fractures, in addition to surgical treatment of the wounds, the administration of medicine and prevention, the immobilization of the fragments is of fundamental significance. All modern armies in the world use external fixators for the immobilization of the fragments, those fixators being the most reliable and the most uncomplicated means of immobilization. The paper presents a new type of the external fixator to be used in war surgery. It is called the CMC fixator (Croatian Medical Corps). The fixator is made according to the original designs in the factory (Instrumentarija) at Zagreb. Following its biomechanic characteristics the fixator is classified into the group of unilateral or joining external fixators. It is designed for fixation of the long bone fractures in the war setting and disaster conditions. It may be used for two purposes: 1. for the transport immobilization to a medical facility where the problem is to be finally solved, 2. as the means of an external immobilization until the final secondary bone-healing. The fixator has only three elements and the universal kee. It is easily applied. The way how to apply this fixator is described in details. The first experiences in the field have given satisfactory results. PMID:1762488

Korzinek, K; Smerdelj, M; Tripkovi?, B

1991-01-01

19

Epidemiology of injury in elite and subelite female gymnasts: a comparison of retrospective and prospective findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: An 18 month prospective injury survey was conducted on 64 Australian elite and subelite female gymnasts. The aims were to determine the rate of injury, anatomical location, and types of injury incurred by female competitive gymnasts, and to compare the findings with data collected retrospectively from the same sample of gymnasts. METHODS: The gymnasts recorded (weekly) in an injury

G. S. Kolt; R. J. Kirkby

1999-01-01

20

Self-reported ill health in male UK Gulf War veterans: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill health in a large sample of male UK Gulf War veterans and a demographically similar non-deployed comparison group; and ii) explored self-reported ill health among veterans who believed that they had Gulf War syndrome. Methods This study uses data from a retrospective cohort study of reproduction and child health in which a validated postal questionnaire was sent to all UK Gulf War veterans (GWV) and a comparison cohort of Armed Service personnel who were not deployed to the Gulf (NGWV). The cohort for analysis comprises 42,818 males who responded to the questionnaire. Results We confirmed that GWV report higher rates of general ill health. GWV were significantly more likely to have reported at least one new medical symptom or disease since 1990 than NGWV (61% versus 37%, OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–2.8). They were also more likely to report higher numbers of symptoms. The strongest associations were for mood swings (OR 20.9, 95%CI 16.2–27.0), memory loss/lack of concentration (OR 19.6, 95% CI 15.5–24.8), night sweats (OR 9.9, 95% CI 6.5–15.2), general fatigue (OR 9.6, 95% CI 8.3–11.1) and sexual dysfunction (OR 4.6, 95%CI 3.2–6.6). 6% of GWV believed they had Gulf War syndrome (GWS), and this was associated with the highest symptom reporting. Conclusions Increased levels of reported ill health among GWV were confirmed. This study was the first to use a questionnaire which did not focus specifically on the veterans' symptoms themselves. Nevertheless, the results are consistent with those of other studies of post-Gulf war illness and thus strengthen overall findings in this area of research. Further examination of the mechanisms underlying the reporting of ill health is required. PMID:15251045

Simmons, Rebecca; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat

2004-01-01

21

THE KOREAN WAR 1950-53: A 50 YEAR RETROSPECTIVE AUSTRALIA'S WAR IN KOREA: STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES AND MILITARY LESSONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 This exchange reflects the moral and physical paradoxes that have made the Korean War the so-called' forgotten war'.2 Unlike the Second World War with its clear-cut enemies and its moral crusade for decisive victory, Korea seemed confusing and indecisive. The conflict was partly a civil war; partly an East-West ideological struggle; partly a United Nations police action; and partly

Michael Evans

22

Historical perspective: neurological advances from studies of war injuries and illnesses.  

PubMed

Early in the 20th century during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I (WWI), some of the most important, lasting contributions to clinical neurology were descriptive clinical studies, especially those concerning war-related peripheral nerve disorders (eg, Hoffmann-Tinel sign, Guillain-Barré-Strohl syndrome [GBS]) and occipital bullet wounds (eg, the retinal projection on the cortex by Inouye and later by Holmes and Lister, and the functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex by Riddoch), but there were also other important descriptive studies concerning war-related aphasia, cerebellar injuries, and spinal cord injuries (eg, cerebellar injuries by Holmes, and autonomic dysreflexia by Head and Riddoch). Later progress, during and shortly after World War II (WWII), included major progress in understanding the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injuries by Denny-Brown, Russell, and Holbourn, pioneering accident injury studies by Cairns and Holbourn, promulgation of helmets to prevent motorcycle injuries by Cairns, development of comprehensive multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation by Rusk, and development of spinal cord injury care by Munro, Guttman, and Bors. These studies and developments were possible only because of the large number of cases that allowed individual physicians the opportunity to collect, collate, and synthesize observations of numerous cases in a short span of time. Such studies also required dedicated, disciplined, and knowledgeable investigators who made the most out of their opportunities to systematically assess large numbers of seriously ill and injured soldiers under stressful and often overtly dangerous situations. PMID:19847911

Lanska, Douglas J

2009-10-01

23

Psychosocial Adjustment in Siblings of Children with War-Related Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic symptomatology and emotional and behavioral difficulties in siblings of children who incurred war-related injuries. It was predicted that injury severity, gender and attributional style would account for a significant amount of the variance in post-traumatic stress symptoms and…

Khamis, Vivian

2013-01-01

24

[The construction and significance of the Chinese Museum of War Injuries].  

PubMed

The Chinese Museum of War Injuries is the only military medical museum in China which collects special weapons, conventional weapons, high-tech weapons and pathological specimens, materials and documents of human and animal injuries caused by military environments and military operations, amounting to 4,350 objects. The construction of the Chinese Museum of War Injuries played an important role in the aspects of military medical education and training, popularization of public health knowledge, preservation of military medical historical materials and opening up to the outside world etc, to which should priority attention should be paid to by the Chinese government and relevant military departments. PMID:20510097

Wang, Xiao-min; Peng, Rui-yun; Wang, De-wen

2010-03-01

25

Missed injuries in casualties from the Iraqi-Iranian war: a study of 35 cases.  

PubMed

Thirty-six injuries were missed in 35 casualties admitted to Basrah University Teaching Hospital from the Iraqi-Iranian war. The errors were made particularly in patients with severe multiple injuries. The incidence of missed injuries and the reasons for the diagnostic failures are discussed. The injuries that were overlooked mostly involved the peripheral nerves, and the factors leading to inadequate initial assessment were poor clinical routine, failure to interpret correctly the physical signs and poor use of X-ray facilities. Casualties with head injury, and those who presented with traumatic amputations, need particular care. Such patients are costly both in staff time and in investigations. PMID:3440608

Hamdan, T A

1987-01-01

26

THE KOREAN WAR 1950-53: A 50 YEAR RETROSPECTIVE THE FORGOTTEN ARMY IN THE MISUNDERSTOOD WAR: THE HANGUK GUN IN THE KOREAN WAR 1946-53  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korean War may be mislaid, stolen, forgotten, and misunderstood in North American and western Europe, but its memory still shapes political calculations in Beijing, Tokyo, Pyongyang, and Seoul. To Asians, the war and fifty years of aftershocks have once again demonstrated the unwillingness or incapacity of Westerners to come to grips with the political culture of Asia. Unlike Australia,

Allan R Millett

1950-01-01

27

Prophylactic low dose heparin anticoagulant therapy in patients with spinal cord injuries: a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was performed of 100 consecutive acute traumatic spinal injury patients with neurological deficit admitted to the Yorkshire regional spinal injuries centre prior to May 1990. Ninety-seven of these patients received prophylactic low dose subcutaneous heparin and 3 patients were excluded because of noted complications. Twenty-six patients developed thromboembolic complications. Apart from the fact that acute spinal cord

J R Kulkarni; A A Burt; A T Tromans; P D L Constable

1992-01-01

28

[War injuries of the femoral nerve. Apropos of a series of 27 cases].  

PubMed

The authors report a series of 27 war injuries to the femoral nerve which represent approximately 1% of all of the war injuries to peripheral nerves operated in our department since the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1978 and during the 8 years of the war between Iran and Iraq. All of the victims presented with associated lesions: abdominal (24 laparotomies, including 10 colostomies) and/or vascular (3 iliac artery by-pass grafts). We divided the cases into 3 groups. In Group 1 (18 cases), the femoral nerve had a mean defect of 8 centimetres which was grafted. In Group 2 (4 cases), the nerve was simply compressed by fibrosis and/or metallic bodies and was released. In Group 3 (5 cases), the nerve trunk had a partial loss of substance which was grafted. The motor results were very satisfactory (M3 to M5) in the 3 groups with muscular recovery in about 2 years. PMID:1726353

Gousheh, J; Razian, M

1991-01-01

29

“Secret” Casualties: Images of Injury and Death in the Iraq War Across Media Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined more than 2,500 war images from U.S. television news, newspapers, news magazines, and online news sites during the first five weeks of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 and found that only 10% showed injury or death. The paper analyzes which media platforms were most willing to show casualties and offers insights on when journalists should

B. William Silcock; Carol B. Schwalbe; Susan Keith

2008-01-01

30

Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.  

PubMed

Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment. PMID:23852334

Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

2013-12-01

31

Retrospective Analysis of Social Factors and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective reports of social influences in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) with regard to initiation, disclosure, methods, and motivations for engaging in the behaviour were examined in 23 (2 male, 21 female) self-injuring university students. Parent and peer social support was compared between the NSSI group and a comparison group that did not engage in NSSI. Lifetime frequency of NSSI and social

Nancy L. Heath; Shana Ross; Jessica R. Toste; Alison Charlebois; Tatiana Nedecheva

2009-01-01

32

Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31?years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p?0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluis; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, Jose Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

2014-01-01

33

Epidemiology of injury in elite and subelite female gymnasts: a comparison of retrospective and prospective findings  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: An 18 month prospective injury survey was conducted on 64 Australian elite and subelite female gymnasts. The aims were to determine the rate of injury, anatomical location, and types of injury incurred by female competitive gymnasts, and to compare the findings with data collected retrospectively from the same sample of gymnasts. METHODS: The gymnasts recorded (weekly) in an injury record booklet the number of hours trained and information on any injuries suffered over that week. RESULTS: The sample reported 349 injuries, a rate of 5.45 per person (6.29 for the elite and 4.95 for subelite gymnasts) over the 18 month survey. Injuries to the ankle and foot (31.2%) were the most commonly reported, followed by the lower back (14.9%). The most prevalent type of injury were sprains (29.7%), followed by strains (23.2%), and growth plate injuries (12.3%). The elite gymnasts reported that, for each injury, they missed fewer training sessions (p = 0.01), but modified more sessions (p = 0.0001) than their subelite counterparts. Further, the elite gymnasts spent 21.0% of the year training at less than full capacity because of injury. Although a significantly higher number of injuries were recorded in the prospective study (p = 0.0004), no differences were found between the distribution of injury by anatomical location or type between the two methods of data collection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have important implications in terms of training procedures and periodic screening of gymnasts. ??? PMID:10522632

Kolt, G. S.; Kirkby, R. J.

1999-01-01

34

Prophylactic low dose heparin anticoagulant therapy in patients with spinal cord injuries: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

A retrospective study was performed of 100 consecutive acute traumatic spinal injury patients with neurological deficit admitted to the Yorkshire regional spinal injuries centre prior to May 1990. Ninety-seven of these patients received prophylactic low dose subcutaneous heparin and 3 patients were excluded because of noted complications. Twenty-six patients developed thromboembolic complications. Apart from the fact that acute spinal cord injury patients are considered to be in an hypercoaguable state, the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) in our study, even though these patients were on prophylactic low dose subcutaneous heparin, was related to delay in transfers, operative intervention, level of spinal cord injury and was possibly due to loss of some amount of heparin solution from the prefilled syringe during removal of air bubbles prior to the subcutaneous heparin injection. PMID:1630842

Kulkarni, J R; Burt, A A; Tromans, A T; Constable, P D

1992-03-01

35

Defining an Adequate Sample of Earlywood Vessels for Retrospective Injury Detection in Diffuse-Porous Species  

PubMed Central

Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding. PMID:22761707

Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

2012-01-01

36

Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.  

PubMed

Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding. PMID:22761707

Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

2012-01-01

37

A retrospective review of emergency admission for head injury in the over 75s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study retrospectively reviewed all patients aged 75 years and over who were admitted to hospital following an acute head injury. All patients were cared for by general surgeons. The study period lasted for 2 years.Fifty five patients with a mean age of 83.8 years (range 75–97) were admitted. Four patients had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of <13, all

Daniel Lawes

2002-01-01

38

Early head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the hypothesis that medically attended head injury in young children may be causal in the later development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Health improvement network database (1988-2003), a longitudinal UK general practice dataset.Participants All children registered in the database from birth until their 10th birthday.Main outcome measures Risk of a child with a head

Heather T Keenan; Gillian C Hall; Stephen W Marshall

2008-01-01

39

Heterogeneity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Croatian War Veterans: Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the relationship between the intensity of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the intensity of predominating symptoms. Method The study included 151 veterans from 1992-1995 war in Croatia with PTSD, aged 38.3 ± 7.3 years (mean ± standard deviation). The veterans were psychologically tested with the Mississippi Scale for Combat-related PTSD (M-PTSD), Questionnaire on Traumatic Combat and War Experiences (USTBI-M), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-version 201 (MMPI-201). Results The discriminative analysis of the data revealed that the group with lower PTSD intensity had the highest scores on MMPI scales D (depression, T-score 95.7?±?5.6), Hs (hypochondriasis, 87.6?±?5.1), and Hy (hysteria, 85.6?±?4.9), whereas the group with higher PTSD intensity, besides these three scales (D?=?98.3?±?5.3; Hs?=?90.1?±?4.3; Hy?=?89.5?±?4.7), also had clinically significantly elevated Pt (psychastenia, 80.6?±?5.6), Sc (schizophrenia, 79.6?±?4.8), and Pa (paranoia, 85.6?±?5.4) scales, with the highest Pa scale. Conclusion It was possible to differentiate study participants with different PTSD intensity on the basis of their MMPI profile. More intense PTSD was associated with externalized symptoms, such as aggression, acting-out, hostility, and mistrust, whereas less intensive PTSD was associated with mostly depressive symptoms. Our study showed that different intensity of PTSD has different symptom patterns. PMID:17436377

Begic, Drazen; Jokic-Begic, Natasa

2007-01-01

40

Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.  

PubMed

In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits. PMID:24851626

Susi?, Mato; Brozovi?, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipovi?; Milenovi?, Aleksandar; Strinovi?, Davor; Brki?, Hrvoje; Panduri?, Dragana Gabri?

2014-03-01

41

Porcupine quill injuries in dogs: A retrospective of 296 cases (1998–2002)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify factors associated with quill injury in dogs. A second objective was to determine the risk of complications and any factors that would predict the likelihood of complications. Hospital records of 296 porcupine quill injuries in dogs from 1998 to 2002 were studied. There was an increased occurrence of porcupine encounters in the spring and fall months; Siberian huskies, rottweilers, and German shepherd crosses were significantly overrepresented for quill injuries. There was no association between risk of complications and either number of quills or antimicrobial use. Increasing time between quill injury and presentation was associated with an increased risk of complications. Because of the increased frequency of complication with a longer interval until presentation, clients should be strongly encouraged to bring the dog in as soon as the quill injury is discovered. Patients presented after 24 hours should be monitored closely during the first 3 weeks after injury, as most complications occurred during this time. PMID:16898110

Johnson, Matthew D.; Magnusson, Kristenn D.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Waldner, Cheryl

2006-01-01

42

Porcupine quill injuries in dogs: a retrospective of 296 cases (1998-2002).  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify factors associated with quill injury in dogs. A second objective was to determine the risk of complications and any factors that would predict the likelihood of complications. Hospital records of 296 porcupine quill injuries in dogs from 1998 to 2002 were studied. There was an increased occurrence of porcupine encounters in the spring and fall months; Siberian huskies, rottweilers, and German shepherd crosses were significantly overrepresented for quill injuries. There was no association between risk of complications and either number of quills or antimicrobial use. Increasing time between quill injury and presentation was associated with an increased risk of complications. Because of the increased frequency of complication with a longer interval until presentation, clients should be strongly encouraged to bring the dog in as soon as the quill injury is discovered. Patients presented after 24 hours should be monitored closely during the first 3 weeks after injury, as most complications occurred during this time. PMID:16898110

Johnson, Matthew D; Magnusson, Kristenn D; Shmon, Cindy L; Waldner, Cheryl

2006-07-01

43

E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department--A Retrospective Study from Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Only six patients underwent surgery (S). Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated. PMID:24778880

Papoutsi, Sylvana; Martinolli, Luca; Braun, Christian Tasso; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

2014-01-01

44

Stress Injuries to Bone in College AthletesA Retrospective Review of Experience at a Single Institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No comprehensive studies have been published on stress injuries to bone in college athletes.Purpose: To review, in a college athlete population, the epidemiologic aspects of stress injuries to bone, and to examine a subset of patients who were treated with a uniform protocol for return to activities, with magnetic resonance imaging as the primary tool for diagnosis.Study Type: Retrospective

Elizabeth Arendt; Julie Agel; Christie Heikes; Harry Griffiths

2003-01-01

45

[Pneumocephalus: a prognostic factor in head injuries. Results of a retrospective study of 167 patients].  

PubMed

Presence of air within the cranial cavity has been described by several authors. Little attention has been paid to its significance. The goal of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics and the evolution of patients with pneumocephalus. We reviewed the brain computed tomography scans of 167 consecutive head injury patients who were hospitalized between January 1992 and December 1993. This retrospective study revealed intracranial air in 33 cases (19%). The analysis of clinical characteristics showed that in the initial period the neurologic status was better in patients with pneumocephalus. However, 48 hours later, the proportion of patients presenting a deep coma increased We conclude that pneumocephalus is a significant risk factor in head injury patients. PMID:9033823

Squali, J; Amar, Y; Fikri, K; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

1996-01-01

46

Epidemiological studies of electrical injuries in Shaanxi province of China: a retrospective report of 383 cases.  

PubMed

A statistical survey was conducted at the Burn Unit of the Tangdu Hospital, Shaanxi, China, during the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. In this retrospective study, 383 patients who admitted to our burn unit because of electrical trauma were included. Data including the patient's general condition, clinical presentation, complications and operation times was collected retrospectively and analyzed with epidemiological methods. Subjects in our collective were predominantly male (90.3%, n=346/383) and were composed by those who injured in work-related incidents (78.3%, n=300/383), rural individuals (58.2%, n=223/383) and students (9.4%, n=36/383). High voltage was directly correlated to severity clinical complications, and amputation. The percentage of myocardial impairment was 79.3% (n=92/116) among patients who suffered with electrical current through heart tissue. Along with the more developed east area of China, electrical injuries are becoming a growing concern of the developing West part in China as well. Electrical injuries induce serious tissue damage, need long hospital stay, and result in high rate of permanent disability and economic hardship for the afflicted families. A competent prevention program needs to be developed to address this problem. PMID:22103989

Sun, Chao-Feng; Lv, Xiao-Xing; Li, Yue-Jun; Li, Wang-Zhou; Jiang, Li; Li, Jing; Feng, Jian; Chen, Shao-Zong; Wu, Fen; Li, Xue-Yong

2012-06-01

47

Multiple injuries after earthquakes: a retrospective analysis on 1,871 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multiple injuries have been highlighted as an important clinical dimension of the injury profile following earthquakes, but studies are scarce. We investigated the pattern and combination of injuries among patients with two injuries following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We also described the general injury profile, causes of injury and socio-demographic characteristics of the injured patients. Methods A retrospective hospital-based analysis of 1,871 earthquake injured patients, totaling 3,177 injuries, admitted between 12 and 31 May 2008 to the People's Hospital of Deyang city (PHDC). An electronic, webserver-based database with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-based classification of earthquake-related injury diagnoses (IDs), anatomical sites and additional background variables of the inpatients was used. We analyzed this dataset for injury profile and number of injuries per patient. We then included all patients (856) with two injuries for more in-depth analysis. Possible spatial anatomical associations were determined a priori. Cross-tabulation and more complex frequency matrices for combination analyses were used to investigate the injury profile. Results Out of the 1,871 injured patients, 810 (43.3%) presented with a single injury. The rest had multiple injuries; 856 (45.8%) had two, 169 (9.0%) patients had three, 32 (1.7%) presented with four injuries, while only 4 (0.2%) were diagnosed with five injuries. The injury diagnoses of patients presenting with two-injuries showed important anatomical intra-site or neighboring clustering, which explained 49.1% of the combinations. For fractures, the result was even more marked as spatial clustering explained 57.9% of the association pattern. The most frequent combination of IDs was a double-fracture, affecting 20.7% of the two-injury patients (n = 177). Another 108 patients (12.6%) presented with fractures associated with crush injury and organ-soft tissue injury. Of the 3,177 injuries, 1,476 (46.5%) were fractures. Most injuries were located in the head (22.9%) and lower extremities (30.8%). Conclusions Multiple injuries are put forward as an important component of the injury profile after this earthquake. A pattern of injury combinations and spatial aggregation of injuries was also found. Clinical diagnosis and treatment should be adapted to care of these patients. More studies are needed to generalize these findings. PMID:22594875

2012-01-01

48

Sharp force injury fatalities: a retrospective study (1982-2012) in Brescia (Italy).  

PubMed

A retrospective study was carried out on postmortem examination data of 131 sharp force-related casualties recorded by the Brescia Institute of Forensic Medicine between 1982 and 2012. The objective was to identify relevant parameters that may be used to distinguish the manner of deaths between homicide, suicide, and accident. The following variables were considered: manner of death; demographic data; scene; type of sharp object; location and numbers of wounds; the presence of hesitation marks/defense wounds; toxicological findings; psychiatric history. There were 92 homicides, 28 suicides, and 11 accidents. Most victims were male, with an average age of 43. Injuries in isolation were present in 9.8% of homicides, in 35.7% of suicides, and in 54.5% of accidents. Most injuries involved the left anterior chest in homicides and the forearms in suicides. This study underlines the importance of a meticulous postmortem examination of injuries on the body and their relationship with other results from the death scene investigation. PMID:24712913

Vassalini, Marzia; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Ferrari, Francesco

2014-11-01

49

Alpine skiing injuries in Finland - a two-year retrospective study based on a questionnaire among Ski racers  

PubMed Central

Background Alpine skiing is one of the most popular winter sports in the world. Nevertheless, it has always been associated with a high risk of injury. There are however, only a few studies that have examined the risk of injury of competitive skiers, especially of the junior ski racers. Methods The inclusion criterion was an injury in alpine skiing resulting in a pause in training longer than one week. Athletes of all ages were included. The study period was from the start of the season of 2008–2009 to end of the season of 2009–2010 (two years). Results The average annual number of ski racers in Finland was 661. There were 61 injuries (36 males with a median age of 14 years, 25 females with a median age of 14) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ligamentous knee injury was the most frequent (17) and lower leg fracture the second common (16) injury, respectively. There was a female dominance in the ACL injuries. Only one major abdominal injury and no major head injuries were observed. The overall training pause was 26 weeks after the ACL injury and 17 weeks after the lower leg fracture, respectively. Conclusion The most common and most disabling injuries affect the knee and the lower leg. The high number of lower leg and ACL injuries is alarming. A continuous and careful monitoring of injuries needs to be established to assess this trend. A systematic review of injuries is the appropriate way to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of safety. The present retrospective two-year pilot study forms a base for a continuous alpine ski injury survey in Finland. PMID:24565467

2014-01-01

50

Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster  

PubMed Central

Background The number of injured far exceeds those dead and the average injury to mortality ratio in earthquakes stands at 3:1. Immediate effective medical response significantly influences injury outcomes and thus the overall health impact of earthquakes. Inadequate or mismanagement of injuries may lead to disabilities. The lack of precise data from immediate aftermath is seen as a remarkable weak point in disaster epidemiology and warrants evidence generation. Objective To analyze the epidemiology of injuries and the treatment imparted at a secondary rural hospital in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India following the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Design/Methods Discharge reports of patients admitted to the hospital over 10 weeks were analyzed retrospectively for earthquake-related injuries. Results Orthopedic injuries, (particularly fractures of the lower limbs) were predominant and serious injuries like head, chest, abdominal, and crush syndrome were minimal. Wound infections were reported in almost 20% of the admitted cases. Surgical procedures were more common than conservative treatment. The most frequently performed surgical procedures were open reduction with internal fixation and cleaning and debridement of contaminated wounds. Four secondary deaths and 102 transfers to tertiary care due to complications were reported. Conclusion The injury epidemiology reported in this study is in general agreement with most other studies reporting injury epidemiology except higher incidence of distal orthopedic injuries particularly to the lower extremities. We also found that young males were more prone to sustaining injuries. These results warrant further research. Inconsistent data reporting procedures against the backdrop of inherent disaster data incompleteness calls for urgent standardization of reporting earthquake injuries for evidence-based response policy planning. PMID:21799668

Phalkey, Revati; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Marx, Michael

2011-01-01

51

Identifying future 'unexpected' survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

2013-01-01

52

Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007–2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Results Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age?injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p???0.01 for all). Conclusions Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with “minor” injuries at their previous event. PMID:25174531

2014-01-01

53

The common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in judo: a retrospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough high prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries (ACL) in judokas has been reported, there has been very little research concerning events preceding the injury.ObjectiveTo determine the common situations and mechanisms of ACL injury in judo.MethodsA total of 43 cases of ACL injuries that had occurred during judo competition or practice were investigated, using questionnaires with interviews conducted by a

S. Koshida; T. Deguchi; K. Miyashita; K. Iwai; Y. Urabe

2010-01-01

54

Foot Strike and Injury Rates in Endurance Runners: A Retrospective Study  

E-print Network

of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; 2 Department of Athletics, Harvard of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike. Traumatic injury rates were. Conclusions: Competitive cross-country runners on a college team incur high injury rates, but runners who

Lieberman, Daniel E.

55

A retrospective study on traumatic dental and soft-tissue injuries in preschool children in Zagreb, Croatia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, time elapsed before treatment and type of tooth from the records of traumatized children. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the University Dental Clinic in Zagreb, Croatia using the documentation of 128 patients (61 males and 67 females) aged 1 month to 6 years with injuries of primary teeth between February 2009 and January 2013. Trauma was seen in 217 primary teeth, which implies that the number of injured primary teeth was 1.69 per child. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently affected teeth (81.1%), they were followed by maxillary lateral incisors, while the least affected were mandibular central incisors. Traumatic dental injuries involved periodontal tissue 2.82 times more frequently than hard dental and pulp tissue. The main cause of teeth injury was fall (67.2%) and the majority of injuries occurred at home (51.6%) (p<0.05). Of 128 patients who received treatment 71 (55.5%) also had soft-tissue injuries. The distribution of soft-tissue injuries by gender (35 males, 36 females) was not statistically significant. Comparing children with soft-tissue injuries and those without them, a statistically significant difference was found in the time of arrival (p<0.01). The results of this study showed the need of informing about preventive measures against falls at home and the methods of providing first aid in dental trauma injuries. PMID:24579964

Vuleti?, Marko; Škari?i?, Josip; Batinjan, Goran; Trampuš, Zdenko; ?ukovi? Bagi?, Ivana; Juri?, Hrvoje

2014-02-01

56

Returning Veterans on Campus with War Related Injuries and the Long Road Back Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the growing numbers of returning military personnel attending higher education based on emerging national trends, including the new GI Educational Bill, amendments to the ADA, and the rising unemployment rate. The trauma of war and the high survival rate have resulted in a high percentage of veterans returning from the Global…

Church, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

57

Investigation of characteristics and risk factors of sports injuries in young soccer players: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The participation of children and adolescents in sports has become increasingly frequent, including soccer. This growing involvement gives rise to concerns regarding the risk of sports injuries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the musculoskeletal injuries in young soccer players. Methods 301 male soccer players with a mean age 14.67?±?2.08 years were randomly recruited. The Referred Condition Inquiry was used to collect information on the mechanism of injury and anatomic site affected as well as personal data on the participants. The variables were analyzed based on the degree of association using Goodman’s test for contrasts between multinomial populations, with the p?injury. With regard to height, taller individuals reported more injuries than shorter individuals (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively; p?Injuries were more frequent among players with a training duration greater than five years (69.65%) in comparison to those who trained for a shorter duration (30.35%) (p?injury. Conclusion The young practitioners of soccer analyzed had low rates of injury. The main causal mechanism was the impact. A taller height and longer exposure to training were the main risk factors for injury among young soccer players. PMID:23602027

2013-01-01

58

A retrospective study of gymnastics injuries to competitors and noncompetitors in private clubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the num ber and types of injuries which occur to competitive and noncompetitive gymnasts in private clubs. Sec ondary purposes were to determine which events were most hazardous, and whether or not the ratio between participant and instructor, the availability of safety equipment, and the conditioning programs used af fected the injury

Cathy Benton Lowry; Barney F. Leveau

1982-01-01

59

Work-related burn injuries in Ontario, Canada: a follow-up 10-year retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Work-related burn injuries contribute to a quarter of all burn injuries in USA. In 2009, the provincial Workplace Safety and Insurance Board reported 64,824 work-related injuries that resulted in time-lost, 1188 injuries (2%) were a result of burns. There have been two previous studies performed at a regional burn centre (1984-1990 and 1998-2000) looking at incidence and characteristics of work-related burns. There was no significant change between these two groups. The purpose of this study was to identify the recent pattern of work-related burns from 2001 to 2010 and to compare it to the previous studies. During the study period, 1427 patients were admitted for an acute injury to the regional burn centre. Of these, 330 were due to a work-related incident (23%). The mean age of patients was 40.5±11.9 years, 95% were male. The mean total body surface area burn was 11.9±16.2%. The most common mechanism of burn injury was flame (32.7%) followed by electrical (27%) and scald (19.7%), inhalation injury was present in 4.8% of patients and the mortality was 1.8%. Our study has shown that there has been a significant decrease in the incidence in work-related burns treated at the regional burn centre (23.1%, vs. 28.2% vs. 30.2% p<0.01), flame burns have now become the leading cause of injury, there was a significant reduction in inhalation injury (4.8% vs. 23% vs. 14.8%, p<0.00001), and mortality overtime (1.8%, vs. 4% vs. 6.7% p=0.02). These findings strongly suggests a change in the cause of work-related burns, improvement in burn care, and that prevention strategies may have been more effective. PMID:23352030

Clouatre, Elsa; Gomez, Manuel; Banfield, Joanne; Jeschke, Marc G

2013-01-01

60

Inferior alveolar nerve injuries associated with mandibular fractures at risk: a two-center retrospective study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury in mandibular fractures. This study is based on two databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two departments-Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy. Demographic, anatomic, and etiology variables were considered for each patient and statistically assessed in relation to the neurosensory IAN impairment. Statistically significant associations were found between IAN injury and fracture displacement (p?=?0.03), isolated mandibular fractures (p?=?0.01), and angle fractures (p?=?0.004). A statistically significant association was also found between IAN injury and assaults (p?=?0.03). Displaced isolated mandibular angle fractures could be considered at risk for increased incidence of IAN injury. Assaults seem to be the most important etiological factor that is responsible for IAN lesions. PMID:25383147

Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K; Forouzanfar, Tymour

2014-12-01

61

Effect of an Injury Awareness Education Program on Risk-Taking Behaviors and Injuries in Juvenile Justice Offenders: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Risk-taking behavior is a leading cause of injury and death amongst young people. Methodology and Principal Findings This was a retrospective cohort study on the effectiveness of a 1-day youth injury awareness education program (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth, P.A.R.T.Y.) program in reducing risk taking behaviors and injuries of juvenille justice offenders in Western Australia. Of the 3659 juvenile justice offenders convicted by the court magistrates between 2006 and 2010, 225 were referred to the P.A.R.T.Y. education program. In a before and after survey of these 225 participants, a significant proportion of them stated that they were more receptive to modifying their risk-taking behavior (21% before vs. 57% after). Using data from the Western Australia Police and Department of Health, the incidence of subsequent offences and injuries of all juvenile justice offenders was assessed. The incidence of subsequent traffic or violence-related offences was significantly lower for those who had attended the program compared to those who did not (3.6% vs. 26.8%; absolute risk reduction [ARR]?=?23.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.9%–25.8%; number needed to benefit?=?4.3, 95%CI 3.9–5.1; p?=?0.001), as were injuries leading to hospitalization (0% vs. 1.6% including 0.2% fatality; ARR?=?1.6%, 95%CI 1.2%–2.1%) and alcohol or drug-related offences (0% vs. 2.4%; ARR 2.4%, 95%CI 1.9%–2.9%). In the multivariate analysis, only P.A.R.T.Y. education program attendance (odds ratio [OR] 0.10, 95%CI 0.05–0.21) and a higher socioeconomic background (OR 0.97 per decile increment in Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage, 95%CI 0.93–0.99) were associated with a lower risk of subsequent traffic or violence-related offences. Significance Participation in an injury education program involving real-life trauma scenarios was associated with a reduced subsequent risk of committing violence- or traffic-related offences, injuries, and death for juvenille justice offenders. PMID:22355394

Ho, Kwok M.; Litton, Edward; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Gope, Monica; Burrell, Maxine; Coribel, Jacqueline; McDowall, Angela; Rao, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

62

A retrospective population-based study of injury types among elderly in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the article was to investigate the injury types and medical utilisations among patients more than 65 years in Taiwan. The data used in this study were obtained from the years 1997 to 2008 of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The patients with the age of 65 years and older as well as with ICM-9-CM discharge

Wu-Chien Chien; Chi-Hsiang Chung; Ching-Huang Lai; Chiu-Hsuan Chou

2012-01-01

63

Protective and risk factors in amateur equestrians and description of injury patterns: A retrospective data analysis and a case - control survey  

PubMed Central

Background In Switzerland there are about 150,000 equestrians. Horse related injuries, including head and spinal injuries, are frequently treated at our level I trauma centre. Objectives To analyse injury patterns, protective factors, and risk factors related to horse riding, and to define groups of safer riders and those at greater risk Methods We present a retrospective and a case-control survey at conducted a tertiary trauma centre in Bern, Switzerland. Injured equestrians from July 2000 - June 2006 were retrospectively classified by injury pattern and neurological symptoms. Injured equestrians from July-December 2008 were prospectively collected using a questionnaire with 17 variables. The same questionnaire was applied in non-injured controls. Multiple logistic regression was performed, and combined risk factors were calculated using inference trees. Results Retrospective survey A total of 528 injuries occured in 365 patients. The injury pattern revealed as follows: extremities (32%: upper 17%, lower 15%), head (24%), spine (14%), thorax (9%), face (9%), pelvis (7%) and abdomen (2%). Two injuries were fatal. One case resulted in quadriplegia, one in paraplegia. Case-control survey 61 patients and 102 controls (patients: 72% female, 28% male; controls: 63% female, 37% male) were included. Falls were most frequent (65%), followed by horse kicks (19%) and horse bites (2%). Variables statistically significant for the controls were: Older age (p = 0.015), male gender (p = 0.04) and holding a diploma in horse riding (p = 0.004). Inference trees revealed typical groups less and more likely to suffer injury. Conclusions Experience with riding and having passed a diploma in horse riding seem to be protective factors. Educational levels and injury risk should be graded within an educational level-injury risk index. PMID:21294862

2011-01-01

64

Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Comparison of two retrospective autopsy cohorts with evaluation of ApoE genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is still controversial. The aim of our retrospective autopsy study was to assess the impact of TBE and ApoE allele frequency on the development of AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 1. the incidence of AD pathology (Braak stageing, CERAD, NIA-Reagan Institute criteria)

Kurt A Jellinger; Werner Paulus; Christian Wrocklage; Irene Litvan

2001-01-01

65

Burn injuries resulting from hot water bottle use: a retrospective review of cases presenting to a regional burns unit in the United kingdom.  

PubMed

Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

2013-01-01

66

Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

2013-01-01

67

The role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with soft tissue injuries: experience from the second Israel-Lebanon war, 2006.  

PubMed

During the 2006 war between Israel and Lebanon, 282 Israeli soldiers were evacuated to Rambam Health Care Campus. Of these, 210 were admitted for observation or treatment, and 15 of these were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Thirty-five other soldiers, hospitalized in other departments, required the care of Plastic Surgeons, either for conservative or surgical treatment. The injury profile observed was consistent with data from previous low-intensity warfare, which demonstrated that over 80% of injuries were produced by fragmentation weapons, such as artillery, mortarshells, rockets, and missiles. It differs, however, from our experience in previous wars and our expectations regarding burn wounds, both in incidence and severity, which were significantly lower as compared with the past. This article presents our management of extensive soft tissue injuries, and details 3 representative cases. It highlights the role of the Plastic Surgeon as part of the whole treatment in this type of injury and helps to predict the needs of the medical system in preparation for the future. PMID:19131724

Sharony, Zach; Eldor, Liron; Klein, Yuval; Ramon, Yitzchak; Rissin, Yaron; Berger, Yosef; Lerner, Alexander; Ullmann, Yehuda

2009-01-01

68

Traumatic injuries of the permanent incisors in children in southern Turkey: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, etiologic factors and results of dental trauma and the effects of age and gender on the trauma in permanent incisors. Over a 3-year period, 514 permanent incisor teeth in 317 patients with trauma history, who applied to Suleyman Demirel University School of Dentistry, Department of Pedodontics from the southern cities of Turkey, were evaluated. Standardized trauma forms were filled for each patient. In all age groups, the most frequent cause of trauma was found to be unspecified falls (47.6%). Maxillary teeth (88.5%) and central incisors (87.5%) were the most affected teeth from dental trauma. Ellis class II crown fracture was the most frequently seen type of injury (43.8%). The percent of the patients who applied to a dental clinic in the first 3 days after the trauma occurred (22.8%) was less than the percent of the patients who applied after 3 months and more time period (45.1%). It reveals that it is important to inform the public about dental trauma and the importance of time in these cases. PMID:15660751

Zuhal, Kirzio?lu; Semra, Ozay Ertürk M; Hüseyin, Karayilmaz

2005-02-01

69

British dental surgery and the First World War: the treatment of facial and jaw injuries from the battlefield to the home front.  

PubMed

When Britain went to war in 1914, the British Expeditionary Force was deployed without a single dentist. Initially considered combatants, the only dental professionals who could serve at the Front were medically qualified dental surgeons in the Royal Army Medical Corps. In treating the traumatic facial and jaw injuries caused by trench warfare, the dental surgeons of this era earned their place on specialist surgical teams and established the principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery. This article will examine the contribution of specialist dental surgeons to the management of facial and jaw wounds in the First World War along the chain of evacuation from the battlefield to the home front, using illustrative examples from the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England. PMID:25415020

Hussey, K D

2014-11-21

70

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear

C. Cassel; M. McCally; H. Abraham

1984-01-01

71

Decreased Risk of Stroke in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Receiving Acupuncture Treatment: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) face increased risk of stroke. Whether acupuncture can help to protect TBI patients from stroke has not previously been studied. Methods Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of 7409 TBI patients receiving acupuncture treatment and 29,636 propensity-score-matched TBI patients without acupuncture treatment in 2000–2008 as controls. Both TBI cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and adjusted for immortal time to measure the incidence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of new-onset stroke in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Results TBI patients with acupuncture treatment (4.9 per 1000 person-years) had a lower incidence of stroke compared with those without acupuncture treatment (7.5 per 1000 person-years), with a HR of 0.59 (95% CI?=?0.50–0.69) after adjustment for sociodemographics, coexisting medical conditions and medications. The association between acupuncture treatment and stroke risk was investigated by sex and age group (20–44, 45–64, and ?65 years). The probability curve with log-rank test showed that TBI patients receiving acupuncture treatment had a lower probability of stroke than those without acupuncture treatment during the follow-up period (p<0.0001). Conclusion Patients with TBI receiving acupuncture treatment show decreased risk of stroke compared with those without acupuncture treatment. However, this study was limited by lack of information regarding lifestyles, biochemical profiles, TBI severity, and acupuncture points used in treatments. PMID:24586597

Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hsu, Yi-Ting; Wang, Hwang-Huei; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lane, Hsin-Long; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chiu, Wen-Ta

2014-01-01

72

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

73

The Risk of Suicide according to Drug Abuse and Nicotine Dependence in Patients with War Injuries and Chronic Traumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of suicide is higher in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. This prevalence rate is related to many factors including drug dependence. This study was conducted in people wounded during the Iran-Iraq war with PTSD, in order to compare the risk of suicide in those with and without drug and nicotine dependence. Methods This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2007-2008, comprised 104 male individuals who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and had a current diagnosis of PTSD. They had been referred to a psychiatry hospital and the psychiatrists' offices in Kerman, Iran. Three questionnaires were used including Davidson Trauma Scale, California Risk Estimator for Suicide and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence to assess the severity of PTSD, the risk of suicide, and nicotine dependence, respectively. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using chi-square, regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), student-t and correlation tests. Findings The severity of PTSD was significantly different in individuals with low to moderate dependence on cigarette smoking than in those with heavy dependence on smoking (P = 0.002). However, the corresponding figures were not significantly different in individuals with and without substance abuse. Although the risk of suicide had no significant difference among individuals with low to moderate dependence on cigarettes compared to those with high nicotine dependence, it was higher in subjects with substance abuse than in those without it (P = 0.0001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that dependence on cigarettes may not play a role in increasing the risk of suicide, whereas the dependence on opium and its derivatives may increase this risk. Therefore, prevention and treatment of drug abuse may be effective on the incidence of suicide in patients with war injuries and PTSD. PMID:24494115

Ghaffari Nejad, Alireza; Kheradmand, Ali; Mirzaiee, Mahdieh

2011-01-01

74

Application of RIFLE criteria in patients with multiple myeloma with acute kidney injury: a 15-year retrospective, single center, cohort study.  

PubMed

Abstract Although there have been numerous studies of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and acute kidney injury (AKI), the results from these studies have varied greatly because of inconsistent definitions of AKI. The RIFLE criteria, which were designed to standardize the staging of AKI, have been extensively validated worldwide, but rarely in patients with MM. We retrospectively analyzed the natural history of 78 patients with MM and AKI between July 1995 and December 2010. RIFLE criteria, solely on the basis of the serum creatinine standard, were applied to stage the severity of AKI as risk, injury or failure. Among patients at the risk, injury and failure stage, the chemotherapy response rates were 54.5%, 63.6% and 39.3% (p = 0.26), and the renal response rates were 72.7%, 90.9% and 30.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). Severity of AKI predicted renal response but not chemotherapy response. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, p = 0.01), hypercalcemia (OR = 2.57, p = 0.01) and reversibility of renal insufficiency (OR = 3.35 for no vs. yes, p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors associated with survival. Severity of AKI staged by RIFLE class (OR = 2.04, failure stage vs. risk and injury stages. p = 0.06) was associated with marginally better long-term outcome. The RIFLE criteria may play a critical role in the early prevention and management of AKI in this population. PMID:23865828

Shi, Hao; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Hong; Pan, Xiaoxia; Chen, Nan

2014-05-01

75

Retrospective review of injury severity, interventions and outcomes among helicopter and nonhelicopter transport patients at a Level 1 urban trauma centre  

PubMed Central

Background Air ambulance transport for injured patients is vitally important given increasing patient volumes, the limited number of trauma centres and inadequate subspecialty coverage in nontrauma hospitals. Air ambulance services have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared with ground transport in select circumstances. Our primary goal was to compare injuries, interventions and outcomes in patients transported by helicopter versus nonhelicopter transport. Methods We performed a retrospective 10-year review of 14 440 patients transported to an urban Level 1 trauma centre by helicopter or by other means. We compared injury severity, interventions and mortality between the groups. Results Patients transported by helicopter had higher median injury severity scores (ISS), regardless of penetrating or blunt injury, and were more likely to have Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 8, require airway control, receive blood transfusions and require admission to the intensive care unit or operating room than patients transported by other means. Helicopter transport was associated with reduced overall mortality (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.33–0.39). Patients transported by other methods were more likely to die in the emergency department. The mean ISS, regardless of transport method, rose from 12.3 to 15.1 (p = 0.011) during our study period. Conclusion Patients transported by helicopter to an urban trauma centre were more severely injured, required more interventions and had improved survival than those arriving by other means of transport. PMID:24461227

Hannay, R. Scott; Wyrzykowski, Amy D.; Ball, Chad G.; Laupland, Kevin; Feliciano, David V.

2014-01-01

76

Medicine and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As war predictably leaves injuries and ailments in its wake, medicine has long maintained a presence both on the battlefield and at hospitals where the wounded come home for treatment. This Report's Topic in Depth examines the role of medicine in war, and presents online resources and information regarding combat-related ailments, and services for active military and veterans. From PBS-NOVA, the first selection is a companion website to a program about an American Combat Support Hospital in Iraq. The website contains an article regarding combat medicine ethics, a Teacher's Guide, a visual tour of archival images from the American Civil War through the current Iraq War, and more (1). The second site, created by Civil War buff Jenny Goellnitz, posts a collection of old photos, and offers some interesting information about Civil War medicine, including a feature on amputation surgery (2). The third site, from the Gettysburg National Military Park, contains several photos and brief information for kids about medicine in the Civil War (3). From the Institute of Medicine, the fourth website presents information and reports relating to the health of veterans and deployed military forces. The site has sections for the Gulf War, Vietnam War, Korean War, World War II, and Deployment Health (4). The fifth site presents the Virtual Naval Hospital, which is a digital health sciences library of Naval and Military medicine. The site has separate sections for patients, providers, and administrators (5). From News@Nature.com, the sixth site contains a recent article discussing the debate over Gulf War syndrome (6). The seventh site presents Doctors Without Borders (MSF), an international medical relief organization that courageously enters regions of conflict to provide medical aid (7). The final selection is a companion website to a National Geographic television series reporting on the work of Doctors Without Borders. The site features profiles of MSF projects, episode summaries, and interviews with MSF staff and volunteers (8).

77

Injuries suffered by dogs from riding in the back of open pickup trucks: a retrospective review of seventy cases.  

PubMed Central

Case records of 70 dogs injured while riding in the back of open pickup trucks during the period January 1, 1982, to May 1, 1993, were reviewed. Most dogs were young (mean age 2.4 y) and of medium to large size (average weight 22.6 kg). Sixty-five dogs (93%) were injured during the months of April through October. Forty-nine dogs (70%) had single injuries and 21 dogs (30%) sustained multiple injuries. Fractures were the most frequent injury incurred, with fractures of the femur the most common. Surgical repair was recommended in all but 2 cases. PMID:7585438

Houston, D M; Fries, C L; Alcorn, M J; Thomas, S S

1995-01-01

78

Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an accurate estimate of violent war deaths. Design Analysis of survey data on mortality, adjusted for sampling bias and censoring, from nationally representative surveys designed to measure population health. Estimated deaths compared with estimates in database of passive reports. Setting 2002-3 World health surveys, in which information was collected from one respondent per household about sibling deaths, including whether such deaths resulted from war injuries. Main outcome measure Estimated deaths from war injuries in 13 countries over 50 years. Results From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths (95% confidence interval 3.0 to 8.7 million) in 13 countries, ranging from 7000 in the Democratic Republic of Congo to 3.8 million in Vietnam. From 1995 to 2002 survey data indicate 36?000 war deaths annually (16?000 to 71?000) in the 13 countries studied. Data from passive surveillance, however, indicated a figure of only a third of this. On the basis of the relation between world health survey data and passive reports, we estimate 378?000 globalwar deaths annually from 1985-94, the last years for which complete passive surveillance data were available. Conclusions The use of data on sibling history from peacetime population surveys can retrospectively estimate mortality from war. War causes more deaths than previously estimated, and there is no evidence to support a recent decline in war deaths. PMID:18566045

2008-01-01

79

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.  

PubMed

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections. PMID:23634479

Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

2010-07-01

80

Accuracy of evidence-based criteria for identifying an incident hip fracture in the absence of the date of injury: a retrospective database study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hospital discharge data (HDD) in many health systems do not capture the date of injury (DOI); the absence of this date hinders researchers’ ability to distinguish repeat from incident injury admissions. Various approaches using somewhat arbitrary criteria have been explored to increase the accuracy of incident injury identification. However, these approaches have not been validated against a data source which contains DOI. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of evidence-based criteria for identifying fall-related incident hip fractures in the absence of DOI using HDD containing DOI as the reference standard. Design Retrospective database study. Setting New Zealand. Participants 8761 patients aged 65+ years admitted for fall-related hip fracture between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2008, inclusive. Outcome measures We defined person-identifying HDD containing DOI as the reference standard and calculated measures of the accuracy of evidence-based criteria for identifying fall-related incident hip fractures from HDD not containing DOI. The criteria were principal diagnosis of hip fracture, mechanism of injury indicating a fall, admission type emergency, admission source other than a transfer and presence of hip operation code(s). For a subsequent fall-related hip fracture, additional criteria were time between successive hip fractures ?120?days, and all external cause-of-injury codes being different to those for the previous hip fracture. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the criteria for identifying fall-related incident hip fractures from data not containing DOI were 96.7% and 99.3%, respectively, compared with the reference standard. The application of these criteria resulted in a slight underestimation of the percentage of patients with multiple hip fractures. Conclusions Although it is preferable to have DOI; this study demonstrates that evidence-based criteria can be used to reliably identify fall-related incident hip fractures from the person-identifying HDD when DOI is unavailable. PMID:23869105

Vu, Trang; Davie, Gabrielle; Barson, David; Day, Lesley; Finch, Caroline F

2013-01-01

81

Diagnosing and Treating Traumatic Brain Injury Among Veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars: Implications for Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious condition affecting many American veterans who have served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Using a biopsychosocial perspective, the authors delineate and discuss the challenges of diagnosing and treating this neurological disability among soldiers who have returned to the United States from combat theaters in the Middle East. They

Bette Speziale; Sarah Kulbago; Amy Menter

2010-01-01

82

Experience with regional flaps in the comprehensive treatment of maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in war victims.  

PubMed

This article presents our experience with regional flaps in the treatment of facial soft-tissue defects and deformities in 33 patients with various facial injuries from warfare during the period from 1986 to 1999. Thirty-two males and 1 female aged between 8 and 53 years (mean 24.18 years) were treated with facial soft-tissue injuries from high velocity projectiles and varying degrees of associated hard-tissue injuries. Bullets were the most common cause (70%), followed by injuries from shrapnel (21%), land mines (6%), and breech blocks (3%). The perioral region was involved in 15 cases (45%), the midface and cheeks were involved in 13 cases (39%), and the periorbital area was involved in 5 cases (15%). All soft-tissue injuries were treated primarily by debridement and primary closure and by combining, modifying, and tailoring standard regional flap techniques to fit the location of the injury and compensate for the extent of tissue loss. These procedures consisted basically of local-advancement or rotation-advancement flaps, used in conjunction with pedicled fat or subcutaneous supporting flaps, nasolabial, cheek, cervical, Dieffenbach, and Abbe-type flaps. Scar revision, tissue repositioning, and lengthening procedures, such as W, V-Y, Z, or multiple Z-plasty techniques were also used both primarily and secondarily. Revisions and secondary operations were done in 48% of the patients. Initial healing of the flaps was favourable in 76% of the patients. Postoperative discharge from the suture sites was seen in 24% of the patients, but this usually resolved within several weeks using daily irrigation, and these cases underwent scar revision subsequently. None of the soft-tissue flaps sloughed or developed necrosis. Form and function of the soft-tissue reconstructed regions usually recovered within one year postoperatively. The aesthetic results obtained were favourable. None required facial nerve grafting as only the terminal branches were injured in our cases and functional recovery was acceptable. Application of local tissue transfer procedures in our series of facial warfare injuries yielded acceptable tissue form, texture, and colour match, especially when these procedures were used in combination, and tailored to surgically fit the individual case. Moreover, application of these procedures is relatively easy and postoperative morbidity is limited, provided the general condition of the patient is stable, and the surgical techniques used have good indications and flap principles. PMID:10626260

Motamedi, M H; Behnia, H

1999-08-01

83

Exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, individually or in combination with other Gulf War agents, impairs synaptic integrity and neuronal differentiation, and is accompanied by subtle microvascular injury in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure.  

PubMed

Gulf War illness (GWI) is a currently untreatable multi-symptom disorder experienced by 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War (GW) veterans. The characteristic hallmarks of GWI include cognitive dysfunction, tremors, migraine, and psychological disturbances such as depression and anxiety. Meta-analyses of epidemiological studies have consistently linked these symptomatic profiles to the combined exposure of GW agents such as organophosphate-based and pyrethroid-based pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos (CPF) and permethrin (PER) respectively) and the prophylactic use of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as a treatment against neurotoxins. Due to the multi-symptomatic presentation of this illness and the lack of available autopsy tissue from GWI patients, very little is currently known about the distinct early pathological profile implicated in GWI (including its influence on synaptic function and aspects of neurogenesis). In this study, we used preclinical models of GW agent exposure to investigate whether 6-month-old mice exposed to CPF alone, or a combined dose of CPF, PB and PER daily for 10 days, demonstrate any notable pathological changes in hippocampal, cortical (motor, piriform) or amygdalar morphometry. We report that at an acute post-exposure time point (after 3 days), both exposures resulted in the impairment of synaptic integrity (reducing synaptophysin levels) in the CA3 hippocampal region and altered neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG), demonstrated by a significant reduction in doublecortin positive cells. Both exposures also significantly increased astrocytic GFAP immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex, motor cortex and the basolateral amygdala and this was accompanied by an increase in (basal) brain acetylcholine (ACh) levels. There was no evidence of microglial activation or structural deterioration of principal neurons in these regions following exposure to CPF alone or in combination with PB and PER. Evidence of subtle microvascular injury was demonstrated by the reduction of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 levels in CPF+PB+PER exposed group compared to control. These data support early (subtle) neurotoxic effects on the brain following exposure to GW agents. PMID:24118348

Ojo, Joseph O; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Reed, Jon Mike; Montague, Hannah; Mullan, Michael J; Crawford, Fiona C

2014-04-01

84

Children and war.  

PubMed

Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The International Criminal Court has outlawed as a War Crime, the conscription of children under 15 years of age. Nevertheless, there remain more than 300000 child soldiers active and enmeshed in psychopathic violence as part of both civil and international warfare. The typical profile of a child soldier is of a boy between the ages of 8 and 18 years, bonded into a group of armed peers, almost always an orphan, drug or alcohol addicted, amoral, merciless, illiterate and dangerous. Paediatricians have much to do to protect such war-enmeshed children, irrespective of the accident of their place of birth. Only by such vigorous and maintained advocacy can the world's children be better protected from the scourge of future wars. PMID:12654137

Pearn, J

2003-04-01

85

Effects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

von Hippel, F.

1983-01-01

86

Vietnam War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project outlines the impact of the Vietnam War on the Cold War. Students will discover and comprehend the progression of the Vietnam War, its significance within the context of the Cold War, and other important factors that impacted the outcome of the war. Directions: ~ We will split into 4 groups. Each group will read two documents on the website and answer the questions for the documents. ~ to access the documents, click here Was Vietnam a Turning Point in the Cold War? and then click on \\"How and Why America Got Into Vietnam.\\" ~ each group will share their results with the ...

Porter, Ms.

2007-02-27

87

Neuroimaging, behavioral, and psychological sequelae of repetitive combined blast/impact mild traumatic brain injury in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.  

PubMed

Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

Petrie, Eric C; Cross, Donna J; Yarnykh, Vasily L; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R

2014-03-01

88

Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

Dixon, C. Edward

2011-06-01

89

Reconstructive challenges in war wounds  

PubMed Central

War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent military conflicts, hydrosurgery jet debridement and negative pressure wound therapy have been successfully used in the preparation of war wounds. In war injuries, due to a heavy casualty load, a faster and reliable method of reconstruction is aimed at. Pedicle flaps in extremities provide rapid and reliable cover in extremity wounds. Large complex defects can be reconstructed using microvascular free flaps in a single stage. This article highlights the peculiarities and the challenges encountered in the reconstruction of these ghastly wounds. PMID:23162233

Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti

2012-01-01

90

Cerebrocerebellar hypometabolism associated with repetitive blast exposure mild traumatic brain injury in 12 Iraq war Veterans with persistent post-concussive symptoms.  

PubMed

Disagreement exists regarding the extent to which persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq combat Veterans with repeated episodes of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blasts represent structural or functional brain damage or an epiphenomenon of comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective assessment of brain function in this population may clarify the issue. To this end, twelve Iraq war Veterans (32.0 ± 8.5 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] years of age) reporting one or more blast exposures meeting American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine criteria for mTBI and persistent PCS and 12 cognitively normal community volunteers (53.0 ± 4.6 years of age) without history of head trauma underwent brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological assessments and completed PCS and psychiatric symptom rating scales. Compared to controls, Veterans with mTBI (with or without PTSD) exhibited decreased cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in the cerebellum, vermis, pons, and medial temporal lobe. They also exhibited subtle impairments in verbal fluency, cognitive processing speed, attention, and working memory, similar to those reported in the literature for patients with cerebellar lesions. These FDG-PET imaging findings suggest that regional brain hypometabolism may constitute a neurobiological substrate for chronic PCS in Iraq combat Veterans with repetitive blast-trauma mTBI. Given the potential public health implications of these findings, further investigation of brain function in these Veterans appears warranted. PMID:20385245

Peskind, Elaine R; Petrie, Eric C; Cross, Donna J; Pagulayan, Kathleen; McCraw, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Yu, Chang-En; Raskind, Murray A; Cook, David G; Minoshima, Satoshi

2011-01-01

91

Incidence and outcome of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in a mixed medical-surgical ICU population: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Contrast-enhanced radiographic examinations carry the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI). While CA-AKI is a well-known complication outside the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, data on CA-AKI in ICU patients are scarce. Our aim was to assess the incidence and short-term outcome of CA-AKI in a mixed medical-surgical ICU population. Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis between September 2006 and December 2008 on adult patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomography for urgent diagnostic purposes. CA-AKI was defined as either a relative increment in serum creatinine of???25% or an absolute increment in serum creatinine of???0.3?mg/dL within 48?hrs after contrast administration. ICU mortality rates of patients with and without CA-AKI were compared in univariate and multivariate analyses. The need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) was also recorded. Results CA-AKI occurred in 24/143 (16.8%) patients. Coexisting risk factors for kidney injury, such as sepsis, nephrotoxic drugs and hemodynamic failure were commonly observed in patients who developed CA-AKI. ICU mortality was significantly higher in patients with than in those without CA-AKI (50% vs 21%, p?=?0.004). In multivariate logistic regression, CA-AKI remained associated with ICU mortality (odds ratio: 3.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-11.46, p?=?0.04). RRT was required in 7 (29.2%) patients with CA-AKI. Conclusions In our cohort, CA-AKI was a frequent complication. It was associated with a poor short-term outcome and seemed to occur mainly when multiple risk factors for kidney injury were present. Administration of ICM should be considered as a potential high-risk procedure and not as a routine innocuous practice in ICU patients. PMID:23379629

2013-01-01

92

Non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations in Estonia—risk factors and association with the incidence of chronic conditions and quality of life: a retrospective study among the population aged 20–79  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence about the health and quality-of-life outcomes of injuries is obtained mainly from follow-up studies of surviving trauma patients; population-based studies are rarer, in particular for countries in Eastern Europe. This study examines the incidence, prevalence and social variation in non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations and outcomes of injuries in Estonia. Design A retrospective population-based study. Setting Estonia. Participants 7855 respondents of the face-to-face interviews of the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey conducted between 2004 and 2005 based on the nationally representative probability sample (n=11?192) of the resident population of Estonia aged 20–79. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cumulative incidence and prevalence of injuries leading to activity limitations was estimated. Survival models were applied to analyse variations in the injury risk across sociodemographic groups. The association between injuries and the development of chronic conditions and quality of life was examined using survival and logistic regression models. Results 10% (95% CI 9.4 to 10.7) of the population aged 20–79 had experienced injuries leading to activity limitations; the prevalence of activity limitations due to injuries was 4.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 4.9%). Significant differences in injury risk were associated with gender, education, employment, marital status and nativity. Limiting injury was associated with a doubling of the likelihood of having chronic conditions (adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.46). Injury exhibited a statistically significant negative association with most quality-of-life measures. Although reduced, these effects persisted after recovery from activity limitations. Conclusions Substantial variation in injury risk across population groups suggests potential for prevention. Men and workers in manual occupations constitute major target groups for injury prevention in Estonia. The association of injury with the development of chronic conditions and reduced quality of life warrants further investigation. PMID:23901024

Puur, Allan; Altmets, Katre; Saava, Astrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Sakkeus, Luule

2013-01-01

93

War Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

For humans, war remains an inexhaustible subject of storytelling and analysis—such a compelling topic that experts trace the origins of written history, historiography, to the Athenian general Thucydides, who wrote The Peloponnesian War nearly 2,500 years ago. The appeal of war stories, whether we read them for elevation or escape, is eternal. Science fiction, like every other genre whose authors

Marc Donner

2009-01-01

94

Outcome of occupational electrical injuries among French electric company workers: a retrospective report of 311 cases, 1996-2005.  

PubMed

This study reviewed records of all electrical incidents involving work-related injury to employees Electricité de France (EDF) from 1996 through 2005 and analysed data for 311 incidents. The results are compared with 1231 electrical incidents that occurred during 1970-1979 and 996 incidents during 1980-1989. A total of 311 electrical incidents were observed. The medical consequences of electrical incident remain severe and particularly, the current fatality rate (3.2%) is similar to that recorded in the 1980s (2.7%) and 1970s (3.3%). Among individuals with non-fatal incidents, any change has occurred in the prevalence of permanent functional sequelae (23.6% in the 1970s vs. 27.6% in the 1980s and 32.5% currently). An increase in the incidence of neuropsychiatric sequelae (5.4% in the 1980s vs. 13% currently) has been observed and they are now the second most common type of sequelae after those directly related to burns. Among the neurological sequelae, peripheral nervous system disorders are the most common, as observed in the 1980s. Since the definition of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has changed between the two periods, we can only report that the current prevalence of PTSD is 7.6%. This study emphasises the need for specific management of neurological and psychological impairments after electrical injuries, including especially early recognition and initiation of effective treatment. PMID:24028742

Piotrowski, Aleksandra; Fillet, Anne-Marie; Perez, Philippe; Walkowiak, Philippe; Simon, Denis; Corniere, Marie-Jean; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Lambrozo, Jacques

2014-05-01

95

75 FR 8789 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...strategies relating to the health consequences of military...Gulf War veterans' illnesses and updates on relevant...Gulf War Veterans' illnesses, chronic pain, potential health effects of exposure...the VA War Related Illness and Injury...

2010-02-25

96

Electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents with intellectual disability and severe self-injurious behavior and aggression: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

Efficacious intervention for severe, treatment-refractory self-injurious behavior and aggression (SIB/AGG) in children and adolescents with intellectual disability and concomitant psychiatric disorders remains a complex and urgent issue. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on severe and treatment-resistant SIB/AGG in young people with intellectual disability and current psychiatric disorder. We reviewed the charts of all patients (N = 4) who received ECT in the context of SIB/AGG with resistance to behavioral interventions, milieu therapy and pharmacotherapy from 2007 to 2011. We scored the daily rate of SIB/AGG per patient for each hospital day. Inter rater reliability was good (intraclass correlations = 0.91). We used a mixed generalized linear model to assess whether the following explanatory variables (time, ECT) influenced the course of SIB/AGG over time, the dependant variable. The sample included two girls and two boys. The mean age at admission was 13.8 years old [range 12-14]. The patients had on average 19 ECT sessions [range 16-26] and one patient received maintenance ECT. There was no effect of time before and after ECT start. ECT was associated with a significant decrease in SIB/AGG scores (p < 0.001): mean aggression score post-ECT was half the pre-ECT value. ECT appears beneficial in severe, treatment-resistant SHBA in adolescents with intellectual disability. PMID:22923049

Consoli, Angele; Cohen, Johan; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Wachtel, Lee; Cohen, David

2013-01-01

97

Wars, disasters and kidneys.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis'? as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

Lameire, N

2014-12-01

98

Effects of topiramate on aggressive, self-injurious, and disruptive/destructive behaviors in the intellectually disabled: an open-label retrospective study.  

PubMed

This study reviews the treatment response to the antiepileptic drug topiramate (Topamax-mean dose 202 mg/d, range 150-350 mg/d) of a group of 22 institutionalized intellectually disabled adults (8 males, 14 females, mean age 46.5 years, age range 25-70 years). These individuals were predominantly classified as having severe or profound intellectual disability and as having a mood disorder. The individuals studied were treated for aggression, self-injurious behaviors, destructive/disruptive behaviors or a combination of these, and/or other challenging and maladaptive behaviors. All subjects were receiving concurrent psychotropic and/or anticonvulsant medications. Effectiveness was determined by retrospective review of summaries of quarterly multidisciplinary Neuropsychiatric Behavioral Reviews. Assignment of global severity scores and evaluation of longitudinal behavioral graphs of target symptoms occurred. Overall, statistically significant decreases in global severity scores and in the cumulative aggression and worst behavior rates occurred in the subjects, especially when the 3 months before and the 3 to 6 months after starting topiramate were compared. The overall subject group showed no significant weight changes. One subject developed delirium, 1 developed hypoglycemia, 1 developed sedation, and 2 developed constipation. The results suggest that topiramate may have a role in the treatment of challenging/maladaptive behaviors in intellectually disabled individuals. PMID:14520128

Janowsky, David S; Kraus, John E; Barnhill, Jarrett; Elamir, Belal; Davis, John M

2003-10-01

99

Shoulder Injuries During Alpine Skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed alpine skiing injuries at a destination ski resort during three seasons to charac terize the incidence and types of shoulder injuries. A total of 3451 injuries in 3247 patients were reviewed. The overall injury rate was 4.44 injuries per 1000 skier- days. Injuries to the upper extremity represented 29.1% (N = 1004) of all alpine ski injuries.

Mininder S. Kocher; John A. Feagin

1996-01-01

100

From old wars to new wars and global terrorism  

E-print Network

Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

2005-01-01

101

World War II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Conflict How did the second world war progress in Europe?War in Europe What happened before and after the war in the Pacific?The Pacific Theatre How did World War II change the world?World War, 1939-1945 What did World War II mean to the United States?World War II ...

Croxall, Ms.

2006-11-30

102

Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future. PMID:22214518

2012-01-01

103

Gender differences in sport injury risk and types of injuries: a retrospective twelve-month study on cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05), and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%,

Leena Ristolainen; Ari Heinonen; Benjamin Waller; Urho M. Kujala; Jyrki A. Kettunen

104

Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

Achter, Paul

2010-01-01

105

Currency Wars?  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a dozen countries, including Brazil, China, India, Japan, and Korea, have been intervening in the foreign exchange market to prevent their currencies from appreciating. There are fears that the second dose of quantitative easing in the United States (dubbed QE2) may worsen currency appreciation. These developments raise the prospect of a currency war, which the Group of Twenty

William R. Cline; John Williamson

2010-01-01

106

THERMONUCLEAR WAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several criticisms are offered of statements made in the series of ; articles on thermonuclear war. The statement that human bodies would be ; particularly hazardous missiles seems erroneous in that their maximum ; translational velocity 15 miles from ground zero would not be over 24 ft\\/sec. ; Glass fragments at this 15-mile radius could attain, however, a velocity of

Mixter; G. Jr

1962-01-01

107

Gender Differences in Sport Injury Risk and Types of Inju-Ries: A Retrospective Twelve-Month Study on Cross-Country Skiers, Swimmers, Long-Distance Runners and Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05), and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%, p < 0.05). When the incidence of acute and overuse injuries both separately and combined was calculated per 1000 training hours, per 1000 competition hours and all exposure hours combined we found no gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 26.4, p < 0.05) while females were at increased risk for overuse injuries in the ankle compared to males (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p < 0.05). After adjustment for exposure time (injuries/1000 exposure hours) significance of the difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p < 0.05). Six athletes had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, of whom four were female soccer players. After combining all reported acute and overuse ankle and knee injuries, the proportion of athletes with such injury was higher in the female compared to male soccer players (75% and 54% respectively; p < 0.05), but no difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training. Key points Only a few sport injury studies have compared in-jury rates between the sexes Overall gender-related risk for acute and overuse injuries in top-level athletes between the sexes was small Some gender differences in the specific anatomical locations of injuries as well as in specific injuries in sports were found Some of these differences seem to be explained by the differences in the amount of training PMID:24150009

Ristolainen, Leena; Heinonen, Ari; Waller, Benjamin; Kujala, Urho M.; Kettunen, Jyrki A.

2009-01-01

108

War and Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

War has been a subject of many different mediums. Through the portrayal of war, great movies have given insights on human conditions in wartime. War has also been the subject of several video games that are incredibly popular in mass culture. The difference between war movies and war games are that war games are interactive, requiring the players to act

Nicholas A. Perry

2009-01-01

109

Injuries from antipersonnel mines: the experience of the International Committee of the Red Cross.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To describe and quantify patterns of injury from antipersonnel mines in terms of distribution of injury, drain on surgical resources, and residual disability. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis. SETTING--Two hospitals for patients injured in war. SUBJECTS--757 patients with injuries from antipersonnel mines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Distribution and number of injuries; number of blood transfusions; number of operations; disability. RESULTS--Pattern 1 injury results from standing on a buried mine. These patients usually sustain traumatic amputation of the foot or leg; they use most surgical time and blood and invariably require surgical amputation of one or both lower limbs. Pattern 2 injury is a more random collection of penetrating injuries caused by multiple fragments from a mine triggered near the victim. The lower limb is injured but there is less chance of traumatic amputation or subsequent surgical amputation. Injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen are common. Pattern 3 injury results from handling a mine: the victim sustains severe upper limb injuries with associated face injuries. Eye injuries are common in all groups. CONCLUSIONS--Patients who survive standing on a buried mine have greatest disability. Non-combatants are at risk from these weapons; in developing countries their social and economic prospects after recovery from amputation are poor. Images FIG 1 FIG 2-(a) FIG 2-(b) FIG 3 PMID:1838290

Coupland, R M; Korver, A

1991-01-01

110

Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) military mental health issues. Information on the wars' signature wounds: posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

This topic can be related to the nursing profession and the need to be better educated on military mental health. Since mood disorder, suicide, alcohol abuse, PTSD and TBI are evident in actively serving and returning service members, it is imperative to educate nurses and healthcare providers about these conditions, the available evidence-based treatments and referrals to programs for these signature OEF/OIF wounds. The authors encourage nurse educators to consider ways to include military mental health and other service-related health issues into nursing curricula and to use Veterans Administration and veterans-related healthcare facilities for clinical courses. As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continue into the foreseeable future, many veterans will be seen not only in VA facilities, but they will self-refer to academic and community hospitals, and psychiatric and rehabilitation centers. It is important for all nurses to be aware of the effects of PTSD, depression, suicide, substance abuse and TBI on our patients and to be effective advocates for quality care of veterans in all settings. Nurses need to advocate for screening and provision of mental health services in primary care settings. When such services are offered in primary care settings, it normalizes the care and the service member will more likely allow themselves to receive the care (Jones, 2004). All nurses must understand the price of war experienced by U.S. service members and their families, and in particular, the invisible wounds of war. PMID:21061780

Wieland, Diane; Hursey, Melodee; Delgado, Deborah

2010-09-01

111

Radiation combined injury: overview of NIAID research.  

PubMed

The term "radiation combined injury" (RCI) is used to describe conditions where radiation injury is coupled with other insults such as burns, wounds, infection, or blunt trauma. A retrospective account of injuries sustained following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima estimates that RCI comprised approximately 65% of all injuries observed. Much of the research that has been performed on RCI was carried out during the Cold War and our understanding of the clinical problem RCI presents does not reflect the latest advances in medicine or science. Because concerns have increased that terrorists might employ radiological or nuclear weapons, and because of the likelihood that victims of such terrorism would experience RCI, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting in 2007 to explore the state of the research in this area, identify programmatic gaps, and establish priorities for future research. As a follow-up to that meeting, in 2008 NIAID sponsored an initiative on RCI, leading to the award of several exploratory/developmental grants, the goals of which are to better understand biological synergy involved in RCI-induced damage, develop improved animal models for various type of RCI, and advance identification and testing of potential countermeasures to treat injuries that would be expected following a radiological or nuclear event. This program has already yielded new insight into the nature of combined injuries and has identified a number of novel and existing compounds that may be effective treatments for this condition. PMID:20445395

DiCarlo, Andrea L; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Hatchett, Richard J

2010-06-01

112

Cold War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold War is a major, 24-part series directed by renowned documentary filmmaker Jeremy Isaacs that recently premiered on CNN and BBC2. Whether or not this series will become "the definitive account of the Cold War" remains to be seen, but the research that has made it possible is quite impressive. This feature-filled, comprehensive site complements the series by offering, among other things, video previews and multimedia recaps of each episode; video, audio, and text excerpts from nearly 100 interviews filmed for the series; text from archival documents and contemporaneous Time and Russian newspaper stories; in-depth sections on Cold War culture; and a Knowledge Bank section containing a glossary, "Cold Warrior" profiles, related links, and a chronology. Additional resources include a classroom guide to the series, online Shockwave quiz games, and an online discussion group. As large as it is now, the site will continue to expand and add new features as the series progresses over the next three months.

113

The disease profile of poverty: morbidity and mortality in northern Uganda in the context of war, population displacement and HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

The population of Gulu District (northern Uganda) has been severely incapacitated by war, epidemics and social disruption. This study is aimed at describing disease patterns and trends in this area through a retrospective analysis of discharge records for 155205 in-patients of Lacor Hospital in the period 1992-2002. The burden of infectious diseases in childhood is overwhelming, with malaria accounting for the steepest increase in admissions. Admissions for war-related injuries and malnutrition fluctuated with the intensity of the war and the severity of famine. Emerging and re-emerging infections, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and Ebola, accounted for a heavy disease burden; however, there has been a trend for admissions related to HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis to decrease since the implementation of community-based services. Vulnerable groups (infants, children and women) accounted for 79.8% of admissions. Long-term war, population displacement, the collapse of social structures and the breakdown of the health system place people at a much greater risk of persistent, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, malnutrition and war-related injuries, shaping the 'disease profile of poverty'. Most of the disease burden results from infectious diseases of childhood, whose occurrence could be dramatically reduced by low-cost and effective preventive and curative interventions. PMID:15653126

Accorsi, S; Fabiani, M; Nattabi, B; Corrado, B; Iriso, R; Ayella, E O; Pido, B; Onek, P A; Ogwang, M; Declich, S

2005-03-01

114

Postresectional lung injury in thoracic surgery pre and intraoperative risk factors: a retrospective clinical study of a hundred forty-three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome (ARDS), defined as acute hypoxemia accompanied by radiographic pulmonary infiltrates without a clearly identifiable cause, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after pulmonary resection. The aim of the study was to determine the pre and intraoperative factors associated with ARDS after pulmonary resection retrospectively. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection at Adnan Menderes

Serdar ?en; Selda ?en; Ekrem ?entürk; Nilgün Kanl?o?lu Kuman

2010-01-01

115

Math Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Alan Schoenfeld presents his insightful commentary on a âÂÂproductive, middle-groundâ theory in opposition to the extremist views of the math wars. Schoenfeld reviews the history of Mathematics education in the U.S. and how economic and political difficulties affected the education of AmericaâÂÂs youth. He details the âÂÂreformâ of mathematics from standards-based to new math, and the downfall of that reform. It is a smart, interesting article that offers a tangible solution to a problem that has been looming in American school systems since the days of Sputnik.

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

2008-07-25

116

Persistence of civil wars  

E-print Network

A notable feature of post-World War II civil wars is their very long average duration. We provide a theory of the persistence of civil wars. The civilian government can successfully defeat rebellious factions only by ...

Acemoglu, Daron

117

Increasing paintball related eye trauma reported to a state eye injury registry  

PubMed Central

Methods—A retrospective review of cases reported to the database is reported, with representative case histories. Results—No injuries from paintball were reported during the period June 1992 to June 1996. Over the next two years 11 injuries were reported, representing 4% of all ocular trauma reports over this period. Visual outcome is poor in many of these eyes and more than one half present with posterior segment ocular injury. Conclusions—Severe ocular trauma results from impacts from paintball pellets, and the occurrence of injuries appears to be increasing due to growth in popularity of this war game. Diligent use of eye protection by all participants is necessary to prevent a continuing rise in ocular trauma prevalence from this activity. PMID:10628923

Kitchens, J.; Danis, R.

1999-01-01

118

Vietnam: Historians at War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

Moyar, Mark

2008-01-01

119

The War of Jenkins' Ear  

PubMed Central

Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

120

War and Chinese Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

with foreign powers-the Opium War with Britain, the Arrow War with Britain and France, the Sino-French War, and the Sino-Japanese War-left China weak; its sovereignty compromised; its self confidence as a Confucian civilization shattered. Although the scale of these wars was limited and the fighting often regional, the impact across China was universal. Far more devastating to the general populace,

Parks M. Coble

121

Paranoid Disorders following War Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roughly 3,000 war veterans with moderate or severe brain injury have suffered from a psychiatric disturbance. Psychotic disorders are found in approximately 750 cases. The material of this preliminary report consists of the first 100 veterans with paranoid disorders. Delusional psychosis is the most common main diagnosis (28% of veterans), followed by major depression (21 %), delirium (18 %) and

Kalle Achté; Leo Jarho; Timo Kyykkä; Eija Vesterinen

1991-01-01

122

Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

Cassel, C.; Jameton, A.

1982-09-01

123

The Power of Violence in War and PeacePost-Cold War Lessons from El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cold War sanitized the author's analysis of political violence among revolutionary peasants in El Salvador during the 1980s. A 20-year retrospective analysis of his fieldnote(s) documents the ways political terror and repression become embedded in daily interactions that normalize interpersonal brutality in a dynamic of everyday violence. Furthermore, the structural, symbolic and interpersonal violence that accompanies both revolutionary mobilization

Philippe Bourgois

2001-01-01

124

Early intravenous unfractionated heparin and outcome in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome - a retrospective propensity matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by a pro-coagulant state. Heparin is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. Unfractionated heparin has been found to be protective in experimental models of ALI. We hypothesized that an intravenous therapeutic dose of unfractionated heparin would favorably influence outcome of critically ill patients diagnosed with ALI. Methods Patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral center in the Netherlands between November 2004 and October 2007 were screened. Patients who developed ALI (consensus definition) were included. In this cohort, the impact of heparin use on mortality was assessed by logistic regression analysis in a propensity matched case–control design. Results Of 5,561 admitted patients, 2,138 patients had a length of stay?>?48?hours, of whom 723 were diagnosed with ALI (34%), of whom 164 received intravenous heparin. In a propensity score adjusted logistic regression analysis, heparin use did not influence 28-day mortality (odds ratio 1.23 [confidence interval 95% 0.80–1.89], nor did it affect ICU length of stay. Conclusions Administration of therapeutic doses of intravenous unfractionated heparin was not associated with reduced mortality in critically ill patients diagnosed with ALI. Heparin treatment did not increase transfusion requirements. These results may help in the design of prospective trials evaluating the use of heparin as adjunctive treatment for ALI. PMID:22894723

2012-01-01

125

WARS AND RUMORS OF (PREEMPTIVE) WARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's world where security concerns dominate political decision-making, Christians often grapple with the issue of just war. It is particularly difficult, but not impossible, to discern the basis for a just preemptive war. Three principles guide this discussion: human nature has a great capacity for violence; the purpose of governments is to protect their people; and God cares about

Chris Seiple

2003-01-01

126

Nature of War Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today s advances in evolutionary biology are unifying competing theories of natural selection and serve as a timely call for a similar unification of competing theories of war. This paper explores the relationship between war and natural selection by firs...

P. B. Olsen

2011-01-01

127

Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: A historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50–80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and

Tien Yin Wong; Major Benjamin Seet; Chong-Lye Ang

1997-01-01

128

Australian War Memorial: Of Love and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian War Memorial's online version of their exhibit Of Love and War illustrates how war impacts the availability of potential partners (especially from other countries), courtship, the sense of romantic urgency that war creates, and marriage. A reader's comment on the blog "Wedding Dresses, Part 3" sums up well what this exhibition is about in his comment regarding the display of wedding gowns in the exhibit: "Not the sort of item you usually associate with war, but on reflection at that time many sweethearts got married before the men went off to war and it helps paint a balanced picture of the times." Visitors should explore the themes the exhibit, which are divided up into: "First Glance", "Separation" and "The Future". Each theme has a multitude of sub-themes, including "Romance and Recruitment", "Loneliness" "Farewell and Fears" and "We Regret to Inform You". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Letters" sub-theme under "Separation", as there are several delicately embroidered silk greeting cards that were made in France in World War I.

129

Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War  

PubMed Central

The authors conducted an extensive search for published works concerning healthcare utilization and mortality among Gulf War veterans of the Coalition forces who served during the1990–1991 Gulf War. Reports concerning the health experience of US, UK, Canadian, Saudi and Australian veterans were reviewed. This report summarizes 15 years of observations and research in four categories: Gulf War veteran healthcare registry studies, hospitalization studies, outpatient studies and mortality studies. A total of 149?728 (19.8%) of 756?373 US, UK, Canadian and Australian Gulf War veterans received health registry evaluations revealing a vast number of symptoms and clinical conditions but no suggestion that a new unique illness was associated with service during the Gulf War. Additionally, no Gulf War exposure was uniquely implicated as a cause for post-war morbidity. Numerous large, controlled studies of US Gulf War veterans' hospitalizations, often involving more than a million veterans, have been conducted. They revealed an increased post-war risk for mental health diagnoses, multi-symptom conditions and musculoskeletal disorders. Again, these data failed to demonstrate that Gulf War veterans suffered from a unique Gulf War-related illness. The sparsely available ambulatory care reports documented that respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints were quite common during deployment. Using perhaps the most reliable data, controlled mortality studies have revealed that Gulf War veterans were at increased risk of injuries, especially those due to vehicular accidents. In general, healthcare utilization data are now exhausted. These findings have now been incorporated into preventive measures in support of current military forces. With a few diagnostic exceptions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mental disorders and cancer, it now seems time to cease examining Gulf War veteran morbidity and to direct future research efforts to preventing illness among current and future military personnel. PMID:16687261

Gray, Gregory C; Kang, Han K

2006-01-01

130

20 CFR 61.400 - Custody of records relating to claims under the War Hazards Compensation Act.  

...relating to claims under the War Hazards Compensation Act...INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION...COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT...relating to claims under the War Hazards Compensation Act...respect to the disability, death, or detention of...

2014-04-01

131

Treatment of War Wounds: A Historical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of war wounds is an ancient art, constantly refined to reflect improvements in weapons technology, transportation,\\u000a antiseptic practices, and surgical techniques. Throughout most of the history of warfare, more soldiers died from disease\\u000a than combat wounds, and misconceptions regarding the best timing and mode of treatment for injuries often resulted in more\\u000a harm than good. Since the 19th

M. M. Manring; Alan Hawk; Jason H. Calhoun; Romney C. Andersen

2009-01-01

132

When Kids Lose Parents in Our War in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As of July, more than 1,200 children had lost parents in the war in Iraq, and thousands more had parents with serious injuries, according to the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress at the Uniform Services University in Bethesda, Maryland. The war, which began three and a half years ago, has resulted in the deaths of more than 2,600 U.S.…

Hardy, Lawrence

2006-01-01

133

Association between amputation, arthritis and osteopenia in British male war veterans with major lower limb amputations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the association between amputation, osteoarthritis and osteopenia in male war veterans with major lower limb amputations. Specific questions were to determine whether lower limb amputees following trauma are at subsequent risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis of the hip on both the amputated and nonamputated sides.Design: Retrospective cohort study in British Male Second World War veterans

Jai Kulkarni; Judith Adams; Elaine Thomas; Alan Silman

1998-01-01

134

Causes of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed at analyzing the causes of death of prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War (1950-1953) who fought for the Communist side (North Korea and the People's Republic of China). In 1998, the United States Department of Defense released new information about the prisoners including, 7,614 deaths of the POW during the Korean War. The data on the causes of death of the POWs during the Korean War provides valuable information on the both the public health and history of the conflict. Materials and Methods To analyze the causes of death of the POWs, we classified the clinical diagnosis and findings on 7,614 deaths into 22 chapters, as outlined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision (ICD-10). Second, we traced changes in the monthly death totals of POWs as well as deaths caused by common infectious diseases and external causes of death including injury over time from August 1950 to September 1953. Results The most common category of causes of deaths of POWs was infectious disease, 5,013 (65.8%) out of 7,614 deaths, followed by external causes including injury, 817 (10.7%). Overall, tuberculosis and dysentery/diarrhea were the most common causes of death. Deaths caused by acute and chronic infection, or external causes showed different patterns of increases and decline over time during the Korean War. Conclusion The information and data on POWs' deaths during the Korean War reflects the critical impact of the POWs' living conditions and the effect of public health measures implemented in POW camps during the war. PMID:23364985

Lee, Myoung-Soon; Kang, Min-Jung

2013-01-01

135

Gulf War syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

From September 1990 to June 1991, the UK deployed 53,462 military personnel to the Gulf War. In 1993 reports began to surface in the UK about unexplained health problems occurring among Gulf War veterans. Unlike other research into this illness, this work focuses on sufferers' own accounts to better understand the way the illness is perceived by those it affects.

Susie Kilshaw

2004-01-01

136

War on the Terraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists, scientists and philosophers from Sigmund Freud to Konrad Lorenz and Bertrand Russell, concerned with the problem of war, have advanced the catharsis theory. Sport, they have argued, allows a cathartic discharge of the aggressive urge and provides a safety valve for war?like tendencies.Britain has a long history of adventurous aggression over the centuries when it was acquiring an empire.

Alfred Youngs

1986-01-01

137

Workbook to End War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workbook, written for use in local churches and synagogues, suggests projects and programs for concerned individuals who wish to contribute to an effort to end war. An introduction presents the rationale of the workbook, the creation of a network to end war, and ways in which groups and individuals can become involved in this endeavor. A chapter…

American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA. Peace Literature Service.

138

War Literature. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

Soderquist, Alisa

139

Reporting war and conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let me begin with a cautionary tale. Back in March 1901, a couple of months after the birth of Australian federation, a bloke called William Lambie – the correspondent whom The Age had sent to South Africa to cover the Boer War – achieved a remarkable but unenviable distinction. He became not only the first Australian war correspondent to be

P. Cole-Adams

1999-01-01

140

Saint Cuthbert and war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Saint Cuthbert was not one of the ‘warrior saints’, according to many chroniclers and hagiographers he often played an important role in war. As Cuthbert's legend developed through the twelfth century, it included numerous instances in which he intervened in war to help his own people and to punish his enemies. The most important story appears in several accounts

John R. E Bliese

1998-01-01

141

American Experience: War Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on the book by Andrew Carroll, War Letters is a television special airing on PBS on Sunday, May 26, at 9pm (Eastern Time). Revealing personal correspondence from the Revolutionary War to the Gulf War, War Letters gives accounts of famous battles, intimate declarations of love and longing, heartbreaking "Dear John" letters from home, and much more. The accompanying Web site provides a comprehensive description of the film and a transcript. It also provides a timeline of US military actions and wars from 1775 to the present, excerpts of letters from Carroll's book, and a teachers guide section grouped into categories of history, economics, geography, and civics. Additionally, for those interested in letter preservation, the site also provides tips on how to keep letters safe.

1999-01-01

142

Ladder fall injuries: patterns and cost of morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ladder fall injuries are associated with a wide spectrum of injury patterns. However, the healthcare cost of these injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the healthcare cost and duration of the morbidity associated with ladder fall injuries. A retrospective observational study involving patients with ladder injuries who presented to a Level 1 Trauma Centre over

J O’Sullivan; A Wakai; R O’Sullivan; C Luke; S Cusack

2004-01-01

143

Civil War Traveler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tag line of this website is "Everything you Need to Plan your Civil War Trips." With the 150th anniversary of the Civil War being commemorated this year, this website offers everything for the mildly interested to the downright enthusiastic. Visitors can find every kind of map here, including "Civil War Trails Maps," almost two dozen "Podcast Tour Maps," "Interactive Maps," "National Park Service Maps," and relevant "State Highway Maps." The "Multimedia" link on the site gives visitors access to 26 podcasts of tours of Civil War sites. The podcasts are narrated by noted national park service historians and accompanied by period music. Also in the Multimedia area are the "Richmond Walking Tours" in Richmond, VA, which was the capitol of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. These include five tours, maps for each, and an hour-long podcast to accompany each tour. Visitors interested in going to some Civil War lectures, reenactments, tours, or demonstrations should definitely check out the "Events" link to see a list of all the Civil War events for the 150th anniversary, month by month. The month of April alone has over 100 on the calendar throughout the South.

144

An epidemiological investigation of training and injury patterns in triathletes.  

PubMed

Associated with the trend towards increased health consciousness and fitness, triathlon has established itself as a sport for masses. The goals of this study were to evaluate injury risk factors of non-professional triathletes and to compare prospective and retrospective evaluation methods. Using an online survey, 212 triathletes retrospectively answered a questionnaire about their training habits and injuries during the past 12 months. Forty-nine of these triathletes participated in a 12-month prospective trial. Injuries were classified with regard to the anatomical location, type of injury, incidence and associated risk factors. Most injuries occurred during running (50%) followed by cycling (43%) and swimming (7%). Fifty-four per cent (retrospective) and 22% (prospective) of the injuries were contusions and abrasions, 38% (retrospective) and 46% (prospective) were ligament and capsular injuries, 7% (retrospective) and 32% (prospective) were muscle and tendon injuries and 1% (retrospective) and 0% (prospective) were fractures. The incidence of an injury per 1000 training hours was 0.69 (retrospective) and 1.39 (prospective) during training and 9.24 (retrospective) and 18.45 (prospective) during competition. The main risk factor for injury in non-professional triathlon is participation in a competitive triathlon event. A retrospective design may underestimate the rate of overuse injuries. PMID:24102132

Zwingenberger, Stefan; Valladares, Roberto D; Walther, Achim; Beck, Heidrun; Stiehler, Maik; Kirschner, Stephan; Engelhardt, Martin; Kasten, Philip

2014-01-01

145

War on Terrorism Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the ten year anniversary of Sept. 11, many have questioned the continuation of the War on Terrorism. Study the links and docmunets below to prepare yourself for a class debate on the question: Should the U.S. continue military action in the War on Terror? Debate Question : Should the U.S. continue military action in the War on Terror? Pro: The U.S. and its allies need to continue military action to disrupt terrorist networks and prevent further attacks. Con: The terrorist threat has been exaggerated and military operations can be scaled back. Debate Information : Use the following links to ...

Wheeler, Mrs.

2011-11-07

146

Tug-of-War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into tug-of-war physics. Groups of learners will test two tug-of-war strategies. Which is better: a team of a few big kids or lots of smaller kids? Learners form teams based on weight. Each team is timed as it pulls a sled of sand bags equal to their weight for 30 feet. Learners determine an average pull time for each time (after resting) and compare the results. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Tug Oâ War.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

147

War Experiences and War-related Distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina Eight Years after War  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine the relationship between war experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The survey was performed in the late 2003 on a representative sample of 3313 respondents. The face-to-face interviews included 15 items on war-related distress and 24 items on war experiences. From these items we developed the War-related Distress Scale, the Direct War Experiences Scale, and the Indirect War Experiences Scale. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between war-related distress symptoms and war experiences variables, controlling for a range of other variables. Results Almost half of the respondents did not report any war-related distress symptoms, while about 13% reported 7 or more symptoms. Direct war experiences had a significant effect on war-related distress even eight years after the war, while indirect war experiences showed no significant effect on war-related distress. We found that marital status weakly decreased war-related distress, while household size increased it. Conclusion Direct war experiences seem to have a long-lasting traumatic effect on a substantial number of residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:18293460

Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert

2008-01-01

148

Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

149

Fog of War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In conjunction with the eighth anniversary of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the Washington Post Online has created this site, a compendium of information about and analysis of the 42-day air war waged by the US against Iraq in 1991. The site contains author William M. Arkin and General Charles Homer's analyses of the air war's effectiveness, information on the US war goals articulated at the time, an interactive air strike map and calendar (including Arkin's 1995 report "Collateral Damage" and Iraqi Civilian Deaths During Operation Desert Storm [available in Microsoft Word format only]), and images and Quicktime videos of war damage. Although the site is overzealous in its use of unnecessary javascript to propel navigation, the story it tells is both controversial and compelling. Note that content can be most easily accessed via the Resources section.

1998-01-01

150

Epidemiology of injury in professional cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bicycle-related injuries are a major concern in most of countries and head injuries is one of the unwanted results of bicycle use. The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of injuries in professional cyclists. Injury data over a period of a year (2009–2010) on 93 cyclists were retrospectively collected and analysed using ?2. In total, 117 injuries (1.2

Sajjad Bagherian; Nader Rahnama

2010-01-01

151

PRIV-WAR: Regulating Privatisation of War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it mean to have private military companies involved in the conduct of war? This is a subject of interest to the European University Institute, and a host of other partners, including the University of Sheffield and the Riga Graduate School of Law. The purpose of the PRIV-WAR project is to "assess the impact of the increasing use of private military companies and security companies in situations of armed conflict." The project was started in 2008, and on their website interested parties can learn about their activities and click on to the "Publications" area. The working papers are quite worthy of special attention, and they include "Passing the Buck: State Responsibility for Private Military Companies" and "A History of Private Warfare".

152

PATENTS WARS Deuxime partie  

E-print Network

( 1 ) PATENTS WARS Deuxième partie : Les conséquences : la paralysie de l'industrie, le freinage de://pagesperso-orange.fr/lepouillou [ version 1 - juillet 2011 ] Dans le premier livrable sur les patents wars, l'analyse s'est concentrée sur patents américains et le système français des brevets d'invention. J'ai montré qu'une représentation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

War Experiences Inventory: Initial Psychometric and Structural Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the structural and psychometric properties of the War Experiences Inventory (WEI) with data from 255 post deployed service members (224 men and 31 women). Results from principal components analyses yielded a five-factor solution assessing sexual trauma, combat exposure, interpersonal distress, circumstances of deployment, and personal injury. Psychometric analyses revealed scale scores were internally consistent; validity evidence showed WEI

Lori S. Katz; Geta Cojucar; Cory Davenport; Satish Clarke; John C. Williams

2012-01-01

154

Neonatal head injuries  

PubMed Central

A retrospective case note review of head injuries in neonates admitted to the Neonatal Surgical Unit in Glasgow between 1990 and 1996 (n=25) was carried out. Most injuries were caused by a fall (68%) and resulted in scalp haematomata and associated skull fractures in the majority of patients. Three neonates were involved in high speed road traffic accidents, and these infants all had intracranial pathology identified by computed tomography. Isolated skull fractures were common and did not appear to be associated with any neurological deficit. Non-accidental injury was uncommon in this age group. Outcome was excellent in the majority of patients (92%). PMID:11005402

Graham, C.; O'Toole, S.; Haddock, G.

2000-01-01

155

Penile injuries: A 10-year experience  

PubMed Central

We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

2014-01-01

156

Penile injuries: A 10-year experience.  

PubMed

We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

Krishna Reddy, S V; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K

2014-09-01

157

Vomiting in children following head injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criteria for hospital admission of children who have suffered a minor head injury are highly subjective. Often the presence of post-traumatic emesis becomes an influential factor, but the mechanisms that trigger emesis following minor head injuries are not known. From a prospective study of 96 consecutive children with their first mild head injury (GCS 13–15) and a retrospective study

H. Hugenholtz; D. Izukawa; P. Shear; M. Li; E. C. G. Ventureyra

1987-01-01

158

Evaluation of pediatric cervical spine injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare historical features, clinical examination findings, and radiographic results among pediatric patients with cervical spine injury (CSI), a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with CSI was undertaken. Two main groups were identified: radiographically evident cervical spine injury (RESCI), and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). Demographic, historical, clinical, and radiographic information was obtained from patients' charts

Chris Baker; Howard Kadish; Jeff E Schunk

1999-01-01

159

Rationalist causes of war : mechanisms, experiments, and East Asian wars  

E-print Network

This dissertation specifies and tests rationalist mechanisms of war. Why would rational states fight each other despite their incentives for peaceful bargains that would avoid the costs of war? In the rationalist theory ...

Quek, Ch-yuan Kaiy

2013-01-01

160

People on War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in August 1999 to mark the 50th anniversary of the modern Geneva Conventions, the People on War Project has conducted interviews and surveys with over 20,000 people in seventeen countries on their perceptions of what is right and wrong in wartime. At present, users can read the full text of the resulting final comparative report and six country reports in HTML and .pdf formats. In addition, users can read a selection of "Best of People on War stories," view several excellent collections of annotated photographs, and (after free registration) enter CrossFire, an "interactive documentary" on the "dilemmas soldiers, civilians, and others face in war." Additional resources at the site include discussion forums, a questionnaire, and several reference sources, among them the full searchable text of the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

161

Life without war.  

PubMed

An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war. PMID:22605769

Fry, Douglas P

2012-05-18

162

Australian Army War Diaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian War Memorial site has worked diligently over the past several years to add to their rather nice online collections, and this particular addition is quite a find. It consists of excerpts from diaries from those who served Australia during the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, and in the South East Asian conflicts. The homepage for these diaries includes a brief introduction to the collection and a description of the general contents of these different digitized documents. Visitors can browse through selections from the diaries at their leisure and they can also print them out for detailed consideration. Finally, the site also provides a link to the Memorial's Research Centre in case visitors would like to send along questions or comments.

2007-01-01

163

Diamond Wars? Conflict Diamonds and Geographies of Resource Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1990s, natural resources such as oil, diamonds, and timber came under increased scrutiny by conflict analysts and media outlets for their purported role in many contemporary wars. This article discusses some of the limitations of conventional arguments linking wars and resources. Dominated by econometric approaches and rational choice theory interpretations, arguments pertaining to “resource wars” often oversimplify

Philippe Le Billon

2008-01-01

164

Accidental Nuclear War — A Post–Cold War Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Background In the 1980s, many medical organizations identified the prevention of nuclear war as one of the medical profession's most important goals. An assessment of the current danger is warranted given the radically changed context of the post-Cold War era. Methods We reviewed the recent literature on the status of nuclear arsenals and the risk of nuclear war. We

Lachlan Forrow; Bruce G. Blair; Ira Helfand; George Lewis; Theodore Postol; Victor Sidel; Barry S. Levy; Herbert Abrams; Christine Cassel

1998-01-01

165

The Impact of the Korean War on the Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of the cold war that stress the imperatives of the American domestic politico-economic system or the requirements of bipolarity are undermined by the argument that the Korean war strongly influenced international history and indeed brought about most of the characteristics which we associate with the cold war. Without Korea, U.S. policy would have been very different, and there were

Robert Jervis

1980-01-01

166

Injuries in whitewater kayaking  

PubMed Central

Objective—To provide epidemiological data on whitewater kayaking injuries using a descriptive study. Methods—A retrospective survey was distributed at whitewater events and club meetings, and made available and advertised on the world wide web, through postings and announcements to newsgroups, related sites, and search engines. Data on sex, age, experience, and ability were collected. Injury data collected included mechanism, activity, difficulty of rapid, and self reported severity. Results—Of the 392 kayaking respondents included in the final analysis, 219 suffered 282 distinct injury events. The number of days spent kayaking per season was the only independent predictor of injury. The overwhelming majority of injuries occurred while the kayaker was still in the boat (87%). Striking an object was the most common mechanism of injury (44%), followed by traumatic stress and overuse (25% each). The most common types of injury were abrasion (25%), tendinitis (25%), contusion (22%), and dislocation (17%). The upper extremity, especially the shoulder, was the most commonly injured area of the body. Although half of injured kayakers sought medical care for their injury, and almost one third missed more than one month of kayaking because of the injury, almost all (96%) reported a complete or good recovery. Conclusions—Factors relating to likelihood of injury appear to be connected with exposure, namely the number of days a year that the sport was pursued. Except for class V (extreme) kayakers, reports of injuries paralleled the number of participants. Kayakers reported injuries predominantly on rivers that they assessed to be at a level appropriate to their skills. Key Words: kayaking; whitewater; injuries PMID:11477016

Fiore, D; Houston, J

2001-01-01

167

Catastrophic injuries in the Olympic styles of wrestling in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIn this study, a profile of direct catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling was developed, and the possible risk factors were described.DesignSurvey and retrospective review.SettingCatastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsThe injuries included were 29 direct injuries (12 fatalities, 11

R Kordi; A Akbarnejad; W A Wallace

2010-01-01

168

Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

Shapiro, Charles S.

1988-01-01

169

Cold War Propaganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

Bennett, Paul W.

1988-01-01

170

Children and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 2000, and based in Bergen, Norway, the Children and War group is "dedicated to improve children's lives after wars and disasters." Their homepage has the latest news and results of the group's efforts, and visitors who have relationships with children will find advice on what to tell them about the tsunami and earthquake in Japan. The "Stories" link on the far left-hand side of any page allows visitors to put faces and names to some of the children of war and disaster. There is Luay, a 14-year-old boy from Iraq who was traumatized by helping bring dead bodies out of the ruins of his city after it was bombed. Miriam, an 11-year-old from Somalia, tells of seeing her pregnant mother being stabbed and killed by opposing clan members. Visitors interested in how children are assessed to determine the "effects of war, disaster and trauma" on them will find the "Measures" link helpful. Here they will find information on CRIES, a widely used assessment for post traumatic stress, a depression self-rating scale, and a "Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory". Additionally, many of the tests are available in multiple languages.

171

End the Math Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

2011-01-01

172

Education and War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

2009-01-01

173

Terrorism and War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses when terrorism can be classified as war (i.e. a use of force) under both ius ad bellum and ius in bello. It looks at how terrorist acts committed in a genuine armed conflict are prohibited and how those committing them must be treated under international humanitarian law (IHL). The article then analyses the relationship between armed conflicts,

Marco Sassňli

2006-01-01

174

Recent Cold War Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

Pineo, Ronn

2003-01-01

175

Florida's Civil War soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this thesis is to chronicle the actions of the soldiers of Florida during the Civil War, both within and without Florida. As there has not been a great deal written on this topic, it is hoped that this thesis will contribute to the discussion and perhaps lead others to study this field.The soldiers of Florida during the

Jennifer J Hawley

2005-01-01

176

The Math Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

2004-01-01

177

Nuclear War and Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

Hobson, Art

1983-01-01

178

War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

2004-01-01

179

Racquet sports--patterns of injury presenting to a sports injury clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in

M D Chard; S M Lachmann

1987-01-01

180

The Role of Community in Pediatric Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural variations between communities may impact injury rates, especially among children. We conducted a retrospective study\\u000a of three communities in Israel using data from the Israel National Trauma Registry (1998–2007). Pediatric injury hospitalization\\u000a rates in urban communities with varied levels of socio-economic status (low, medium, and high) were compared for all injuries\\u000a and cause-specific injuries. Age-standardized and age-specific rates were

Dena H. Jaffe; Sharon Goldman; Kobi Peleg

2011-01-01

181

Major injuries from “domestic” animals in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic animals are a potential cause of serious injury to handlers and children. In developed countries dogs are the most\\u000a common cause of such injuries, but in developing countries childhood injuries from domestic animals have not been given much\\u000a attention. A retrospective analysis of major injuries from domestic animal attacks in children aged 12 years or less in a\\u000a developing

Emmanuel A. Ameh

2000-01-01

182

Diaphragmatic injuries in childhood.  

PubMed

The early detection and surgical repair of diaphragmatic injury is vital for saving the life of symptomatic children suffering from trauma. Furthermore, an accurate diagnosis may be difficult, particularly in right-sided diaphragmatic injuries. Fifteen children with diaphragmatic injury treated at our department between 1977 and 1998 were evaluated retrospectively. They included 9 boys and 6 girls, and consisted of 8 left- and 6 right-sided injuries, and 1 midline retrosternal injury, due to a blunt (n = 13) or penetrating (n = 2) trauma. The most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (86.6%), and abdominal pain and vomiting (13.4%). The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively in 13 patients based on chest X-ray (n = 7), gastrointestinal series (n = 3), barium enema (n = 1), and computed tomography and/or ultrasonography findings (n = 2). Among these, a diagnostic delay occurred in 3 patients with right-sided injuries. A primary repair was performed through a laparotomy (n = 14) or thoracotomy (n = 1). Postoperative intussusception was the most frequent complication (n = 2). Diaphragmatic injury must be considered in any child who has sustained a thoracoabdominal trauma. Serial chest X-rays should be taken especially in right-sided injuries in which a considerable diagnostic delay may occur. Further radiological methods may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In addition, postoperative intussusception may be encountered following diaphragmatic repair. PMID:11213043

Karnak, I; Senocak, M E; Tanyel, F C; Büyükpamukçu, N

2001-01-01

183

Civil War Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was Washington, D.C. like during the Civil War? It's an arresting and interesting question, and the people at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Center for Digital Research in the Humanities have created this digital archive to look into it. As their introductory statement notes, this collection "examines the U.S. national capital from multiple perspectives as a case study of social, political, cultural, and medical/scientific/transitions provoked or accelerated by the Civil War." On the homepage, visitors will find six sections, including Maps, Texts, Visual Works, and Data. For those with a spatial bent, the Maps area is a real find. Visitors can use the interactive GIS-enabled map to look at the layers of history throughout the city with a grain of detail that is remarkable. Moving along, the Interpretations area includes scholarly essays, such as "Washington, the Strategic Capital."

2012-08-24

184

WAR & Military Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

2007-01-01

185

Frontline: Drug Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the companion to the outstanding PBS Frontline program which aired in 2000. Simply put, the two-part Frontline film was probably the most balanced and detailed examination of America's war on drugs ever aired on television. In addition, it contained numerous interviews with figures on both sides of the drug war, including people who had never before made themselves available to American journalists. Whether or not you watched the program, the companion site offers some excellent and engaging content. This includes video excerpts, charts and graphs, excerpts and unused portions from interviews featured on the program, as well as numerous features unique to the site, one of the deepest companion sites PBS has ever produced.

2000-01-01

186

In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of d?bridement.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The care of traumatic wounds has evolved over hundreds of years, largely as a result of armed conflicts. The lessons learned during World War I in the treatment of extensive soft-tissue injuries proved invaluable in reducing infection and preventing loss of limb and life. Foremost among these was the use of debridement. This report reviews the development of debridement as standard treatment of war wounds and highlights the surgeon largely responsible for its resurgence during one of this century's saddest chapters. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Before World War I, the care of wounds consisted of minimal exploration and liberal use of then-new antiseptics. For limited injuries, this approach appeared adequate. World War I saw the introduction of devastating weapons that produced injuries that caused extensive devitalization of tissue. Standard treatment of these patients proved woefully inadequate to prevent life-threatening infections. METHODS: This is a historical review of the conditions that occurred during World War I that prompted a change in wound management. One of those responsible for this change was the Belgian surgeon Antoine Depage. His life and contributions to the care of war wounds are profiled. Depage reintroduced the discarded French practice of wound incision and exploration (debridement) and combined it with excision of devitalized tissue. RESULTS: Through the use of debridement, excision, and delayed wound closure based on bacteriologic survey, Depage was able to reduce the incidence of infectious complications of soft-tissue injuries, particularly those involving fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Through his experiences in the Great War, Antoine Depage was able to formulate a treatment plan for wounds of war. All such injuries were assumed to be contaminated and, as such, they required early and careful debridement. Depage thought that wound closure should often be delayed and based his decision to close on the bacteriologic status of the wound. To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9712561

Helling, T S; Daon, E

1998-01-01

187

The Math Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the “reform” stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented, “standards-based” curricula are superficial and undermine classical mathematical values; reformers

Alan H. Schoenfeld

2004-01-01

188

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

189

War on fear  

PubMed Central

This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

Burney, Ian

2012-01-01

190

Injuries and injury prevention among indigenous children and young people.  

PubMed

Throughout the world, injuries and violence are a leading cause of mortality and suffering among Indigenous communities. Among American Indian and Alaska Native children aged 1 to 19 years, 71% of deaths are from injuries. Motor-vehicle accidents, attempted suicide, and interpersonal violence are the most common causes of injuries in highly industrialized countries. For Indigenous populations in middle- and low-income countries, trauma caused by motor-vehicle accidents, agricultural injuries, interpersonal violence, child labor, and the ravages of war are priorities for intervention. To be effective, injury-prevention efforts should be based on scientific evidence, be developmentally and culturally appropriate, and draw on the inherent strengths of Indigenous communities. PMID:19962034

Berger, Lawrence R; Wallace, L J David; Bill, Nancy M

2009-12-01

191

Shoulder injuries during alpine skiing.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed alpine skiing injuries at a destination ski resort during three seasons to characterize the incidence and types of shoulder injuries. A total of 3451 injuries in 3247 patients were reviewed. The overall injury rate was 4.44 injuries per 1000 skier-days. Injuries to the upper extremity represented 29.1% (N = 1004) of all alpine ski injuries. Injuries involving the shoulder complex (393 injuries in 350 patients) accounted for 39.1% of upper extremity injuries and 11.4% of all alpine skiing injuries. The rate of shoulder injury was 0.51 injuries per 1000 skier-days. Patients with shoulder injuries had a mean age of 35.4 years, and the male-to-female ratio of these patients was 3:1. Falls represented the most common mechanism of shoulder injury (93.9%) in addition to collisions with skiers (2.8%), pole planning (2.3%), and collisions with trees (1%). The most common shoulder injuries were rotator cuff strains (24.2%), anterior glenohumeral dislocations or subluxations (21.6%), acromioclavicular separations (19.6%), and clavicle fractures (10.9%). Less common shoulder injuries included greater tuberosity fractures (6.9%), trapezius muscle strains (6.4%), proximal humeral fractures (3.3%), biceps tendon strains (2.3%), glenoid fractures (1.5%), scapular fractures (1%), humeral head fractures (1%), sternoclavicular separations (0.5%), an acromial fracture (0.3%), a posterior glenohumeral dislocation (0.3%), and a biceps tendon dislocation (0.3%). PMID:8883689

Kocher, M S; Feagin, J A

1996-01-01

192

Tectorial membrane injury: frequently overlooked in pediatric traumatic head injury.  

PubMed

REHs and tectorial membrane injuries are rare complications of pediatric head and neck injuries. We aim to describe the neuroimaging findings in pediatric REHs, to summarize the mechanism of injury, and to correlate the imaging findings with the clinical presentation. We retrospectively evaluated CT and/or MR imaging studies of 10 children with traumatic REH. Most patients were involved in MVAs. The tectorial membrane was injured in 70% of patients, and REHs were medium to large in 80%. None of the patients had a focal spinal cord or brain stem injury, craniocervical junction dislocation, or vertebral fractures. Tectorial membrane disruption was diagnosed in most patients without craniocervical junction-related symptoms. Tectorial membrane lesions and REHs were seen in young children who sustained high-speed head and neck injuries. Clinical symptoms may be minimal or misleading. The radiologist should be aware of these injuries in children. MR imaging appears to be more sensitive than CT. PMID:21852371

Meoded, A; Singhi, S; Poretti, A; Eran, A; Tekes, A; Huisman, T A G M

2011-01-01

193

The Power of Brevity in War Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the poetry of war is often compressed and powerful and that students of writing and literature can learn from these poets that restraint creates resonance. Discusses war poems with emphatic conclusions; war poems that are short and direct; and teaching the dynamics of brevity through a variety of activities using war poems and war

Bartel, Roland; Grandberry, Diana

1997-01-01

194

[Two famous female nurses during the Crimean War].  

PubMed

During the Crimean War outbroken in 1854, there were massive death tolls due to delayed treatment of the injuries and shortage of battlefield medical workers. Nightingale, assigned by the government, and Mary Seacole, voluntarily went to the battlefield, to join the rescuing of the injured soldiers. These two nurses, with different family background and race, saved the lives of many injuries and patients. They were highly praised after the relevation by the media. The name of Nightingale was remembered by the later generations. Contrarily, that of the latter was forgotten. Historically, the deeds and contributions to nursing by Mary Seacole must be also respected similarly. PMID:24524640

Zhao, Xiao-Yun

2013-11-01

195

Civil War Leaders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will overview the material provided and be prepared to discuss the material in class. Students: 1. Read the background material provided about the four leaders to have a general understanding of who they were. Biography of Abe Background Lee s Background Grant in the war 2. Read over Lincoln's campaign backgound Abe s Political Background 3. Look at how the South viewed Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation and at the "Lost Cause" piece. The South s View Of Lincoln Lee s Lost Cause 4. Answer in a paragraph form: Describe the leaders backgrounds ...

Hud, Coach

2011-04-20

196

US Army War College  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Strategic Studies Institute is the primary research faculty of the U.S. Army War College, and includes both civilian scholars and uniformed military officers with extensive experience in national security and military affairs. The most common products of the Institute are SSI Studies which deal with topics having strategic implications for the Army, the Department of Defense, and the larger National Security community. Additional information is available on the mission, history, and organization of SSI, plus a link to the U.S. Army Military History Institute. http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usassi/

197

The study of reproductive outcome and the health of offspring of UK veterans of the Gulf war: methods and description of the study population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine whether Gulf war veterans and their partners are at increased risk of adverse reproductive events and whether their children have increased risk of serious health problems. Methods and response to the study are reported here. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of reproduction among UK Gulf war veterans, with a

Noreen Maconochie; Pat Doyle; Graham Davies; Samantha Lewis; Margo Pelerin; Susan Prior; Patrick Sampson

2003-01-01

198

The Arts of War and the War of Arts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's society is often referred to as the era of anxiety, since people increasingly experience uncertainties in their everyday lives. This article explores first the differences between fear and anxiety. Second, with the help of Lacanian psychoanalytic definition of anxiety, some examples of psychological breakdowns in wars are analyzed. And third, the attempts of contemporary military to create anxiety-free wars

Renata Salecl

2001-01-01

199

Gulf War: U.A.E. Participation in that War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with the events leading up to the Gulf war and the War itself. It begins with a history of the Gulf region and the creation of the Gulf states after the British colonial period. The study discusses the history and the events leading up to...

I. M. Al-Nakhi

1993-01-01

200

Small Wars Revisited: The United States and Nontraditional Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its own extensive experience in nontraditional wars, the United States has rarely excelled at this portion of the conflict spectrum in the past half century. Its current conventional military superiority will ensure that it gets much more experience in today's Small Wars Century, an era that began in the 1950s with the rise of revolutionary warfare. For several decades,

Frank G. Hoffman

2005-01-01

201

Endangering the War on Terror by the War on Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The century-old US War on Drugs based on supply control measures is endangering its War on Terror in Afghanistan. With opium poppy cultivation the most profitable crop available to Afghan farmers, the Taliban has been able to use the illegal profits from the trade to buy arms and recruit farmers by offering protection from US led aerial spraying of the

Deepak Lal

2008-01-01

202

WAR & PEACE & WAR THE LIFE CYCLES OF IMPERIAL NATIONS  

E-print Network

WAR & PEACE & WAR THE LIFE CYCLES OF IMPERIAL NATIONS PETER TURCHIN A Review of Chapters 13 & 14, if Russia succeeds in incorporating Chechnya, it will be a world empire #12;CHAPTER 14: The End of Empire OF IMPERIAL NATIONS because, "we still make babies the old-fashioned way, we kill each

White, Douglas R.

203

Suicide among War Veterans  

PubMed Central

Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

2012-01-01

204

Suicide among war veterans.  

PubMed

Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

2012-07-01

205

Consistency of Retrospective Reporting About Exposure to Traumatic Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime exposure to traumatic events was assessed by means of a multimethod protocol applied to 76 male military veterans. Consistency of retrospective reporting was determined for physical and sexual assault and abuse, accidents, disasters, combat and warzone experiences, serious illness or injury, and hazardous duty. Findings demonstrate that respondents are generally consistent in reporting traumatic events, although the majority report

Karen E. Krinsley; James G. Gallagher; Frank W. Weathers; Catherine J. Kutter; Danny G. Kaloupek

2003-01-01

206

Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capao Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcao-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

2003-01-01

207

REMARC Retrospective Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of California at Riverside has been using the Carrollton Press REMARC program for retrospective conversion since March 1983. This article outlines the contents of the REMARC records and the extent of the REMARC database. An explanation is given on how the REMARC method of conversion allows maximum use of a student workforce at UCR.

Nancy E. Douglas

1985-01-01

208

A Stagecast Retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Allen Cypher has been invited to present a retrospective of Stagecast Creator - a visual programming environment for children. Creator enables children to create their own interactive simulations and video games by demonstrating what the characters should do. In addition to being a creativity tool, Creator also teaches children the fundamental concepts behind programming, without burdening

Allen Cypher

2005-01-01

209

Thucydides' War as a Violent Teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beginning of his book The Peloponnesian War, Thucydides gave the account of the Peloponnesian war as the greatest motion ever. He claimed so without giving sufficient explanations. His later analogy, which compared war to a \\

Kai LIU

210

A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars  

E-print Network

We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. The interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of limited commitment ...

Aceoglu, Daron

2010-12-31

211

A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars  

E-print Network

We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. Our focus is on the interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of ...

Acemoglu, Daron

212

War, Journalism, and Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

Rice, Gary

2000-01-01

213

On Teaching Vietnam War Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes teaching a course, "Vietnam Literature," to high school seniors and reviews some books about the war, including Philip Caputo's "A Rumor of War," James Webb's "Fields of Fire," Tim O'Brien's "Going After Caciato," Michael Herr's "Dispatches," and Al Santoli's "Everything We Had." (EL)

Oldham, Perry

1986-01-01

214

Primary Sources Enliven Civil War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

Robelen, Erik W.

2011-01-01

215

Getting the Civil War Right  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

Loewen, James W.

2011-01-01

216

Preventive War and Democratic Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I define the concept of preventive war, distinguish it from preemption and other sources of better-now-than-later logic, and examine numerous conceptual issues that confound theoretical and empirical analyses of prevention. I then consider the argument that democracies rarely if ever adopt preventive war strategies because such strategies are contrary to the preferences of democratic publics and to the values and

Jack S. Levy

217

Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

Powers, Janet M.

2007-01-01

218

Conscientiously Objecting to War 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

lthough I will talk tonight about my own experience of conscientiously objecting to war, I want to try to put it into a larger context by first talking about the experiences of other sol- diers. What I hope I can accomplish by doing this is to demonstrate that we must allow for objection to war regardless of whether it is

James M. Skelly

219

Posthuman Soldiers in Postmodern War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centrality of human-machine weapon systems is a key aspect of postmodern war. Since 1939 such systems have proliferated while improved interfaces have led to several types of actual cyborg soldiers. As the crisis of postmodern war deepens it is producing a series of quite different militarized bodies. Cyborgs proliferate in type so it is no surprise that we have

Chris Hables Gray

2003-01-01

220

Behavior, society, and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

P. E. Tetlock; J. L. Husbands; R. Jervis; P. C. Stern; C. Tilly

1989-01-01

221

Injuries to polo riders: a prospective evaluation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the incidence, nature, and severity of injuries to polo riders competing in the 1996 Argentine High Polo season. METHODS: Assessment, documentation, and provision of care for all injuries sustained during the 1996 season by one of the authors. Riders were also surveyed retrospectively for their previous polo injuries. RESULTS: 34 riders took part in the study. Nine injuries were sustained prospectively and 55 injuries were reviewed retrospectively (64 total). The injuries were categorised as minor (10), moderate (13), and major (41). Twenty five (39%) injuries occurred in the arms, 20 (31%) in the legs, 12 (19%) in the head, 3 (5%) in the back, and 4 (6%) in the face. A fracture occurred in 25 (39%) injuries as most resulted from a fall from the horse. Additionally, facial lacerations occurred prospectively in five riders but did not result in missed play. An overall injury rate of 7.8/1000 player-game hours was calculated. CONCLUSIONS: Although many sports have injury rates much greater than 8/1000 player-game hours, the severity of most injuries occurring in polo was classified as major, with fractures and facial lacerations common. The use of a helmet with a face protector is recommended to decrease injury to players. A doctor experienced in the management of serious trauma should be present at all polo matches. ??? PMID:10522635

Costa-Paz, M.; Aponte-Tinao, L.; Muscolo, D. L.

1999-01-01

222

Hand infections: a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s) and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection. PMID:25210653

Türker, Tolga; Capdarest-Arest, Nicole; Bertoch, Spencer T; Bakken, Erik C; Hoover, Susan E; Zou, Jiyao

2014-01-01

223

Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

224

Dance Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... them just as susceptible to injury as are football players. In particular, as the majority of professional ... used, especially shoes Individual dancer’s body alignment Prior history of injury Nutritional deficiencies HOW CAN DANCE INJURIES ...

225

Labor Day and the war on workers.  

PubMed Central

We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546

Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

1999-01-01

226

War wounds of the foot and ankle: causes, characteristics, and initial management.  

PubMed

Foot and ankle trauma sustained in the Global War on Terror have unique causes and characteristics. At least one-quarter of all battle injuries involve the lower extremity. These severe lower extremity wounds require specialized early treatment. Ballistic mechanisms cause almost all injuries, and as such, most combat foot and ankle wounds are open in nature. Wounds are characteristically caused by blast mechanisms, but high velocity gunshot injuries are also common. The severe and polytraumatic nature of injuries sustained frequently call for damage control orthopaedics to be utilized. Cautious early treatment of irregular and highly exudative ballistic wounds with subatmospheric wound dressings may ease their early management. PMID:20189114

Bluman, Eric M; Ficke, James R; Covey, Dana C

2010-03-01

227

Sports related injuries in Scottish adolescents aged 11-15  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To measure the age and sex distribution of self reported sports and leisure injuries in a 12 month retrospective recall period among a representative national sample of Scottish adolescents, and to examine the characteristics (gender, age, handedness, and level of sports participation) of sports related injuries in relation to injuries sustained during other activities. DESIGN\\/SETTING: Self completion questionnaire survey

J. M. Williams; P. Wright; C. E. Currie; T. F. Beattie

1998-01-01

228

Ski Injury Statistics, 1982 to 1993, Jackson Hole Ski Resort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis was conducted on injury statistics compiled over 12 seasons, from 1982 to 1993 (2.55 million skier-days), at a Wyoming ski resort. The population at risk was determined by ticket sales per year. A total of 9749 skiing injuries was indexed by anatomic region and se verity according to diagnosis on initial evaluation. Injury rates were then analyzed

Winston J. Warme; John A. Feagin; Paul King; Kenneth L. Lambert; R. Raymond Cunningham

1995-01-01

229

War: Origins and Effects  

E-print Network

The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 - 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a cr...

Piepers, Ingo

2014-01-01

230

Children and war.  

PubMed

Millions of children are not merely bystanders but targets of war. Many are killed by bombs, bullets and landmines, many more are severely traumatized, though there is disagreement among carers as to how far the resulting symptoms should be managed as conventional psychiatric illness. Although a clear breach of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, large numbers of boys become active combatants, particularly in conflicts in Africa. The background factors to this and the rehabilitation of the boy soldiers at the end of the conflicts are discussed. A recent report to the United Nations proposes that the age limit of 15 for child soldiers under the Convention should be raised to 18. Governments should set up official machinery for implementing and monitoring the Convention. PMID:10605381

Barnett, L

1999-01-01

231

Give War a Chance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, an online complement to a PBS Frontline program aired earlier this week, explores how US diplomats and the military differ on the use of forceful interventions in the post-Vietnam era. The difference is explored through the experiences of US Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, UN Ambassador-nominee, and Admiral Leighton "Snuffy" Smith (ret.), a Vietnam war hero who commanded NATO forces in Bosnia. The site features biographies and interviews with Holbrooke and Smith, and also includes a report on American use of military might, an analysis of US foreign policy in regard to the nations of the former Yugoslavia, an interview with Major H.R. McMaster about the lessons learned from Vietnam, and a chronology of US military interventions in the last 30 years.

232

War and domestic violence.  

PubMed

A longterm study (begun in 1956) of the people of four villages in Gwembe District in Zambia provides information on deaths due to Rhodesian action or to Zimbabwean freedom fighters and on deaths due to domestic violence (which is likely to have been underreported because it is considered shameful). During the decade of the 1970s, one woman and three men died from Rhodesian action and 5 women were killed by kinsmen (two husbands, two sons, and one brother). The police left the kin to settle the case of the sister killed by the brother. One man who killed his mother persuaded a younger, unmarried kinsman to be charged and punished in his stead; another left the community. One of the men who killed his wife was released because of his age (he paid damages to his children in accordance with matrilineal tradition); the other was released for lack of evidence. Battered women usually do not press charges against their husbands but may leave them and, if young, marry again. In some cases, battered women seeking divorce have also won compensation for broken bones. Domestic violence may have been especially prevalent in this period because the economic situation deteriorated, men could not find work, and the Rhodesian war added stress and disrupted the local transportation system. In response, men began to drink more heavily and male violence directed against women and men brewed along with locally-produced alcohol. Domestic violence may be exacerbated when men use women as an outlet for their anger and frustration in stressful times of war. PMID:12295013

Colson, E

1995-01-01

233

A Review of 2,517 Childhood Injuries seen in a Singapore Emergency Department in 1999 - Mechanisms and Injury Prevention Suggestions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Childhood Injuries cause significant mortality and morbidity in Singapore. With injury surveillance, patterns of repeated injury can be identified and injury prevention strategies devised. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all children aged 12 and below seen for trauma in an Emergency Department over one year. Data captured in the real-time computer system was studied with regards to

M E H Ong; S B S Ooi; P G Manning

234

Parental involvement in the war in Croatia 1991-1995 and suicidality in Croatian male adolescents  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the association between parental war involvement and different indicators of psychosocial distress in a community sample of early adolescents ten years after the war in Croatia 1991-1995. Methods A total of 695 adolescents were screened with a self-report questionnaire assessing parental war involvement, sociodemographic characteristics, and alcohol and drug consumption. Personality traits were assessed with the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; depressive symptoms with the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI); and unintentional injuries, physical fighting, and bullying with the World Health Organization survey Health Behavior in School-aged Children. Suicidal ideation was assessed with three dichotomous items. Suicidal attempts were assessed with one dichotomous item. Results Out of 348 boys and 347 girls who were included in the analysis, 57.7% had at least one veteran parent. Male children of war veterans had higher rates of unintentional injuries (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 2.63) and more frequent affirmative responses across the full suicidal spectrum (thoughts about death – OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.3; thoughts about suicide – OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.72 to 14.66; suicide attempts – OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.03 to 12.67). In boys, thoughts about suicide and unintentional injuries were associated with parental war involvement even after logistic regression. However, girls were less likely to be affected by parental war involvement, and only exhibited signs of psychopathology on the CDI total score. Conclusion Parental war involvement was associated with negative psychosocial sequels for male children. This relationship is possibly mediated by some kind of identification or secondary traumatization. Suicidality and unintentional injuries are nonspecific markers for a broad range of psychosocial distresses, which is why the suggested target group for preventive interventions should be veteran parents as vectors of this distress. PMID:22661138

Franic, Tomislav; Kardum, Goran; Marin Prizmic, Iris; Pavletic, Nevia; Marcinko, Darko

2012-01-01

235

Homicidal firearm injuries: a study from Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Stabbing, mechanical asphyxia, blunt head injury and shooting are the most common methods of homicides, with firearm homicides on the increase throughout the world. This study was a retrospective study carried out by the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka over a 1 year period on firearm homicides examined at two principal forensic institutions in the western province (Office of the Judicial Medical Officer Colombo and Ragama) of Sri Lanka. During the period of the study (June 2005 to July 2006) 3100 medicolegal autopsies were carried out at these two institutions with 265 representing alleged homicides. Eighty-three cases (31%) were identified as homicides due to fatal firearm injuries. The majority of the victims (N = 76) were young adult males (aged 18-40 years). Almost half of the firearm homicides (47%; N = 39) were associated with previous enmity, while 33% (N = 27) were due to ethnic rebel killings in the North and East. Daylight hours (6.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m.) were preferred by rebels, while there was no relation to the time of day in the other firearm deaths. The weapon of choice was a rifled firearm (98%). While 70% of war-related deaths had one or two fatal shots, either to the head or chest, homicides motivated by personal enmity had multiple wounds, with an average of 5.7 fatal shots per victim. This study demonstrates that firearm homicides in Sri Lanka mainly involve young men, and that when related to armed conflict the fatal injury usually consists of a single shot to the head or chest. PMID:20169474

Edirisinghe, P A S; Kitulwatte, I G D

2010-06-01

236

World war I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.  

PubMed

During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25273498

Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2014-01-01

237

Observations of a pediatric surgeon in the Persian Gulf War.  

PubMed

In Third-World countries, infectious disease is the principal cause of childhood death and disability. During the Persian Gulf War trauma became the leading cause of death in children, prompting this review of experience with the delivery of pediatric trauma care to noncombatant children at a military hospital. Eight hundred seventy-seven patients were admitted to the 410th Evacuation Hospital from January to April 1991. Fifty of the patients (6%) were children, and 40 of the 50 were admitted for trauma. The mean age of the children was 9 years. Sixty-five percent of pediatric patients sustained penetrating injuries; mechanisms of injury included shrapnel wounds, gunshot wounds, burns, motor vehicle accidents, crush injuries, and falls. The overall mortality rate for children admitted to the hospital was 12%, but no injured child died as a result of trauma. Complications of dehydration or malnutrition in infants accounted for all the deaths. PMID:8437083

Reyna, T M

1993-02-01

238

An injury profile of elite ironman competitors.  

PubMed

An injury questionnaire was administered to the 30 elite ironman competitors (mean age = 25.7 +/- 4.6 yrs) participating in a commercially sponsored seven race national series. Responses provided retrospective data from the preceding three years indicating the type, location, frequency, cause and severity of injuries sustained by ironmen, and associated these injuries with particular race components (run, swim, board, ski). Twenty self-reported questionnaires were returned for analysis that described a total of 67 injuries incurred by 19 subjects. Results indicated the following: (i) the most frequently injured body parts were the knee (n = 18) and shoulder (n = 14) with the lower extremity accounting for 55% of all injuries reported; (ii) knee, shin and calf injuries had a significant association with the run component and upper extremity injuries had a significant association with the swim component; (iii) running was perceived to be the most injurious race component in terms of the frequency and severity of injury; (iv) overtraining was perceived to be the main cause of injury; (v) tendinitis was perceived to be the main type of injury; (vi) athletes adjusted their training mode to accommodate injury so that total training volume could be maintained; and (vii) injury did not result in withdrawal from competition. Further research investigating the techniques used in the ironman event and their relationship to injury is recommended. PMID:8742860

Pen, L J; Barrett, R S; Neal, R J; Steele, J R

1996-03-01

239

War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

Dodd, Arleen; And Others

240

Is there a Gulf War syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background UK veterans of the Gulf War report more ill health than servicemen who were not deployed to the Gulf War. We investigated whether the pattern of symptom reporting by veterans of the Gulf War differed from that in active servicemen who had not fought in the Gulf War or who had fought in other conflicts. Methods We used

Khalida Ismail; Brian Everitt; Nick Blatchley; Lisa Hull; Catherine Unwin; Anthony David; Simon Wessely

241

WarWar && PeacePeace && WarWar: The Life: The Life Cycles of Imperial NationsCycles of Imperial Nations  

E-print Network

WarWar && PeacePeace && WarWar: The Life: The Life Cycles of Imperial NationsCycles of Imperial and fall? #12;Chapter 2: Life on the Edge: The Transformation of Russia ­ and America · Structured;Religious CohesionReligious Cohesion · Russia began to pull together as a long cultural change to hundreds

White, Douglas R.

242

BA War & Society Module Information  

E-print Network

and International Relations? HUP101 Ethics, Justice and Society CLH111 Classical Athens EN113 Literature and Society in Medieval Europe CLC101 Of Gods and Heroes ďż˝ Greek Mythology WAR AND SOCIETY Modules 2014-2015 (PCS) #12

Harman, Neal.A.

243

The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

Galambos, Ellen

1983-01-01

244

The chemical wars.  

PubMed

The culture of economic growth and rapid innovation has led the chemical industry to contaminate tens of thousands of locales with hazardous chemicals that are poorly understood. As a result, the chemical industry finds itself at war with citizens who are troubled by the widespread dissemination of industrial poisons and alarmed by the power and unaccountability of the corporations themselves. The current chemical regulatory system has not provided an effective or reassuring restraint on chemical contamination because it relies heavily on a technique called risk assessment instead of the newer approach being tried now in Europe and elsewhere, the precautionary principle. Here's a riddle to keep you up at night: How come, at a time when the environmental movement is stronger and richer than ever, our most pressing ecological problems just get worse? It's as though the planet has hit a Humpty-Dumpty moment in which unprecedented amounts of manpower and money are unable to put the world back together again. PMID:17208883

Montague, Peter

2004-01-01

245

Asia in a global war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the role of Asia in a future large?scale war between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet military buildup in the Far East and Asia's growing economic importance have led some observers to suggest that Asia rather than Europe may become the locus for a future U.S.?Soviet war. In spite of these changes, however, a

Francis Fukuyama

1987-01-01

246

Lessons from history: morbidity of cold injury in the Royal Marines during the Falklands Conflict of 1982  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental conditions in the Falklands Conflict of 1982 favoured the genesis of cold injuries. Immediately, post-war, cold injury morbidity and its contributory factors were assessed, in the personnel of UK 3 Commando Brigade (3 Cdo Bde). Methods A questionnaire survey of the 3,006 members of 3 Cdo Bde who landed on the islands was conducted within 6–10 weeks of the end of hostilities. Questions included those relating to features of cold injury, body morphology, age, symptoms experienced, past medical history and other possible contributory causes. Additionally, the unit medical team conducted a cursory examination. Data were sent to the Royal Navy Institute of Naval Medicine (INM), where the degree of likely cold injury was broadly classified (‘asymptomatic’ ‘mild’, ‘moderate’ or ‘severe’). A sample (total 109) was then selected at random from each category and subsequently examined and tested at the INM (nerve conduction, photoplethysmography and thermography testing). Forty-seven non-cold exposed sailors acted as a control group. These contemporaneous records have now been identified and interrogated. Results Some 2,354 (78%) completed questionnaires were returned, revealing that 1,505 (64%) had experienced symptoms of non-freezing cold injury. The morbidity in the infantry units was significantly greater than that in the support troops (1,051 (76%) vs 454 (46%), p?injury. Whilst there was no significant relationship between past history and cold injury morbidity in the brigade as a whole, or within the infantry units alone, an association was identified in the collective infantry units (73%) and the support/headquarter units (59%) (p?retrospective interrogation of historical documents hard, the available data do appear to offer valuable historical and clinical insights. Cold injury affected the majority of those fighting in the cold temperate climate of the Falklands. The overwhelming environmental conditions meant that, for most, a past history of cold injury did not appear to represent a risk factor for subsequent injury, as is the case for less severe conditions. Importantly, even asymptomatic individuals when tested often showed physiological evidence of cold injury—perhaps predisposing them to subsequent elevation in risk. PMID:24070118

2013-01-01

247

Injury risk of nonpowder guns.  

PubMed

Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys. PMID:15520121

Laraque, Danielle

2004-11-01

248

Neurologic injury in snowmobiling  

PubMed Central

Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling. PMID:25024887

Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

249

Hecamede: Homeric nurse of the battle-wounded in the Trojan War.  

PubMed

The Homeric epics present the 10-year lasting Trojan War, offering the description of battle wounds and medical care of injuries. Hecamede is referred by the Homer as a battlefield nurse who had knowledge of the treatment of bleeding battle wounds. PMID:24585844

Balanika, Alexia P; Baltas, Christos S

2014-02-01

250

Evaluation of virtual reality therapy in augmenting the physical and cognitive rehabilitation of war veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

War veterans with neuromuscularskeletal injury often require significant treatment and rehabilitation, straining health care resources. In a study funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Virtual Reality Medical Center (VRMC) is applying virtual reality therapy to injured military personnel at the Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD). The goal of

B K Wiederhold; M D Wiederhold

2006-01-01

251

Ocular trauma resulting from paintball injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Paintball-related ocular injuries result in severe damage and loss of vision. Despite efforts to increase public awareness\\u000a and improve safety features, the incidence of eye injuries has increased over time. We examined the characteristics and ocular\\u000a effects of paintball injury at our tertiary referral center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective review of charts of patients with paintball injury between 1998–2005.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Fourteen patients were evaluated

Patricia J. Pahk; Ron A. Adelman

2009-01-01

252

Snowmobile injuries in Antarctica 1989-1996.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of accidents involving snowmobiles experienced by members of the British Antarctic Survey between 1989 and 1996 revealed 37 injured individuals (or 1.9% of new consultations). The mean incidence was 26.5/1000 population/year, with the incidence rising over the study period. The commonest injury (35%) was a lower limb sprain. Head injuries accounted for 22% of cases. Both fractures and radiological investigations were recorded significantly (chi 2 p < 0.025) more frequently than for injuries of all causes, although no significant difference was found in Injury Severity Scores (1) between the two groups. Alcohol was implicated in 5.4% of cases. PMID:9494303

Cattermole, T J

1997-10-01

253

Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.  

PubMed

Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

2013-01-01

254

Skateboard injuries.  

PubMed

The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum. PMID:2377116

Cass, D T; Ross, F

1990-08-01

255

Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Injury Prevention Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Espańol ER 101 Where Should I Go? Check In Medical ... Admission to the Hospital Issues You Should Know ER Heroes Home > Health News > Injury Prevention About Emergencies ...

256

Pediatric Genital Injury: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603

Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

2013-01-01

257

Traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad. PMID:21149359

Risdall, Jane E.; Menon, David K.

2011-01-01

258

War rape, natality and genocide.  

PubMed

Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. PMID:21941691

Schott, Robin May

2011-01-01

259

Wisconsin in the Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There's lots of talk about the Civil War these days, and a myriad of organizations have started releasing digital collections, mobile applications, and so on. The Wisconsin Historical society has created this digital collection of over 20,000 original documents containing a wealth of diaries, regimental histories and hundreds of newspaper articles and maps. The materials are divided into sections that include Stories, People, Places, Regiments, and Battles. Visitors are encouraged to get started by clicking on the This Day in Civil War History to get a flavor for the events from each day during the four-year conflict. Also, the Brief Excerpts from the Collection allow visitors to dip into the offering here with ease. The Places area is quite excellent, as visitors can read narratives from those soldiers and other people who set forth into the war from towns small and large around the Badger State.

2011-01-01

260

Reconstruction of blast injuries of the hand and upper limb.  

PubMed

Over recent years, hand surgeons in the Middle East and Arabic region have particularly had to deal with an increasing number of war blast injuries to the upper extremity, in the acute, subacute and chronic phases. Many have been referred from War Zone countries such as Iraq and, more recently, Syria, where the resources to treat such complex injuries are scarce. The present article is a comprehensive review of the basic principles of management of blast injuries based on the available literature merged with the authors' personal experience of these injuries. The state of the art in treatment of blast injuries to the hand, from ammunition physics and wound ballistics to radiological investigation and, ultimately, the principles of surgical management are discussed. PMID:23357578

Bakhach, Joseph; Abu-Sitta, Ghassan; Dibo, Saad

2013-03-01

261

Outcomes of truncal vascular injuries in children  

PubMed Central

Background Pediatric truncal vascular injuries occur infrequently and have a reported mortality rate of 30% to 50%. This report examines the demographics, mechanisms of injury, associated trauma, and outcome of patients presenting for the past 10 years at a single institution with truncal vascular injuries. Methods A retrospective review (1997-2006) of a pediatric trauma registry at a single institution was undertaken. Results Seventy-five truncal vascular injuries occurred in 57 patients (age, 12 ± 3 years); the injury mechanisms were penetrating in 37%. Concomitant injuries occurred with 76%, 62%, and 43% of abdominal, thoracic, and neck vascular injuries, respectively. Nonvascular complications occurred more frequently in patients with abdominal vascular injuries who were hemodynamically unstable on presentation. All patients with thoracic vascular injuries presenting with hemodynamic instability died. In patients with neck vascular injuries, 1 of 2 patients who were hemodynamically unstable died, compared to 1 of 12 patients who died in those who presented hemodynamically stable. Overall survival was 75%. Conclusions Survival and complications of pediatric truncal vascular injury are related to hemodynamic status at the time of presentation. Associated injuries are higher with trauma involving the abdomen. PMID:19853755

Allison, Nathan D.; Anderson, Christopher M.; Shah, Shinil K.; Lally, Kevin P.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Tsao, Kuo-Jen; Andrassy, Richard J.; Cox, Charles S.

2011-01-01

262

War and the demographic trap.  

PubMed

Advice is offered on alleviating environmental damage and the suffering of women and children from the effects of war. It is postured that the demographic trap, which was described by King and Elliott, is responsible for environmental stress and many wars. The surface cause may be identified as ideology, politics, or ethnicity, but as in the case of Bosnia, the "ethnic cleansing" makes farmland available to sustain expanding Serbian or Croatian populations. If the land is environmentally damaged by war, then there is little hope of sustainable development. Conflicts in many countries have driven people to urban areas or periurban slums because of displacement and the failure of subsistence economics. Mortality from wars has reached more than a 100 million since the early 1990s. A comparable number have died indirectly from famine and disease associated with the disruption of agriculture and infrastructure from wars. Since 1945, 66-75% of mortality victims have been civilians, of whom 15 million have been women and children. In 1993, there were at least 30 conflicts ongoing throughout the world. Not all of these conflicts are as "ferocious" as the Bosnian conflict, but these "so called low intensity wars" nonetheless disrupt and kill. The manifestations of the demographic trap can be alleviated through interventions that focus on multisectoral aid and conflict resolution. There must be a cooperative effort on the part of health workers, agricultural scientists, mediators, and development personnel. Unfortunately, the amount of development assistance from Europe and America has been reduced in recent years. The recession has affected the provision of international aid. African nations, in particular, have been affected, yet these countries remain the neediest in the world. It would appear that aid agencies have given up hope that the demographic trap can be closed. Population growth must be limited, as the only hope for relieving environmental stress, ecological collapse, and demographic entrapment. The challenge of reducing population must be recognized, and has been recognized by the Union of Concerned Scientists. PMID:8102662

Last, J M

1993-08-28

263

Cold War: A War of Wills and Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The above unintended, on-the-air, radio remark made by President Reagan in the 1980s, 'We've decided to destroy the Soviet Union; bombing begins in five minutes' captures the frightening aspect of the Cold War and just how close the world may have come to...

J. E. Knauff

2000-01-01

264

Tracheobronchial injury.  

PubMed

Tracheobronchial injuries (TBI) can be challenging to diagnose, manage, and definitively treat. They encompass a heterogeneous group of injuries that are often associated with other injuries. Although relatively rare, diagnosis and treatment of TBI often requires skillful and creative airway management, careful diagnostic evaluation, and operative repairs that are often resourceful and necessarily unique to the given injury. An experienced surgeon with a high level of suspicion and the liberal use of bronchoscopy constitute the major tools necessary for diagnosing and treating these injuries. Most TBI can be repaired primarily using a tailored surgical approach and techniques specific to the injury. Associated injuries are common, and surgeons must be knowledgeable in treating a wide variety of physiologic abnormalities, especially those involving the chest wall and lung parenchyma, if a successful outcome is to be achieved in the management of these often challenging patients. PMID:18420127

Johnson, Scott B

2008-01-01

265

Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

1988-01-01

266

STS.436 Cold War Science, Spring 2004  

E-print Network

This course examines the history and legacy of the Cold War on science, looking predominantly at examples in the United States. It begins by exploring scientists’ new political roles after World War II, ranging from elite ...

Kaiser, David

267

17.582 Civil War, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This course surveys the social science literature on civil war. It studies the origins of civil war, discusses variables affecting duration, and examines termination of conflict. This subject is highly interdisciplinary ...

Petersen, Roger

268

Masters in War Studies Politics, Strategy & Operations  

E-print Network

the revolution to the war on terror British military power since 1945 European war and warfare in the age jacobites: the aborted invasion of England 1744 The life and times of General Sir Arthur Fremantle

Glasgow, University of

269

Approach to the 40-Year Drug War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1969, President Nixon started the now well-known 'War on Drugs.' The reason behind his 'declaration' of war was the increasing national security threat posed by transnational drug trafficking organizations (DTOs). In 1990, the Southwest border supporte...

D. E. Phillips

2012-01-01

270

Alternative Representations of War Zone Stressors: Relationships to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Male and Female Vietnam Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four conceptualizations of war zone stressor experiences were defined: traditional combat, atrocities–abusive violence, perceived threat, and malevolent environment. Items from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) were reviewed for content, and stressor indexes were created. Using retrospective self-report data from the NVVRS, intercorrelations among stressor scores and between these scores and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were computed

Daniel W. King; Lynda A. King; David M. Gudanowski; Dawn L. Vreven

1995-01-01

271

Children Exposed to War\\/Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related

Jon A. Shaw

2003-01-01

272

Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

McNamee, Abigail S.

273

Toys as discourse: children's war toys and the war on terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

War toys of different eras realize the dominant discourses of war of the time, and they do so in a way which allows children to enact these discourses and values in play. This paper examines war toys over the past 100 years before providing a detailed multimodal analysis of contemporary war toys distributed around the planet, mainly by global American

David Machin; Theo Van Leeuwen

2009-01-01

274

Exposure to War Trauma, War-Related PTSD, and Psychological Impact of Subsequent Hurricane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the impact of psychological outcomes to war on response to subsequent natural disaster. Participants were 312 military personnel, 66% of whom saw Gulf War duty. All were exposed to the 1992 Hurricane Andrew. Troops were compared on reported traumatic events, hurricane impact responses, and psychological symptoms in subgroups defined by war or no war exposure prior to

Patricia B. Sutker; Sheila A. Corrigan; Kirsten Sundgaard-Riise; Madeline Uddo; Albert N. Allain

2002-01-01

275

Low Paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War Veterans Self-Reporting Gulf War Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to organophosphate (OP's) insecticides and nerve gases during the Persian Gulf War has been implicated in the development of Gulf War Syndrome. Paraoxonase (PON1) present in human serum detoxifies OP's. We determined the levels of PON1 in the serum of Gulf War Veterans and compared these to those found in a control population. One hundred fifty-two Gulf War Veterans

Bharti Mackness; Paul N. Durrington; Michael I. Mackness

2000-01-01

276

War-Culture and Sacrifice  

Microsoft Academic Search

What would we say about the losses associated with war if we did not describe them as sacrifices? What would we say about Jesus’ life and death if we did not associate the Gospel narratives with a cosmic framework of sacrificial self giving? This article first explores and exposes the interpenetration of the ethos, institutions and culture of militarism in

Kelly Denton-Borhaug

2010-01-01

277

Woman, the State, and War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does `gender' as a category of analysis or as a central feature of a logic of explanation alter in significant ways Kenneth Waltz's famous `levels of analysis' as developed in his classic, Man, the State, and War? One overriding claim of feminist international relations has been that `gender' alters all levels of analysis; thus, changing `man' to `woman' in the

Jean Bethke Elshtain

2009-01-01

278

The Politics of Star Wars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

Wilkins, Lee

279

Images of the Cold War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

Chomsky, Noam

1989-01-01

280

International War Veterans' Poetry Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by and for war veterans, this website contains poetry and short stories that are not only written about war veterans, but they are also written by them. The submissions can be from veterans of any nation, but must pertain to war, veterans, or the consequences of war. The website also includes resources for veterans who want to connect with other veterans and for those saddled with the unique challenges associated with being a veteran. "The Index of Authors" section at the top of the page will lead visitors to author pages and their writings. Some have photos, and others have extensive biographical essays. Visitors can find everything new added to the site, by month and year, going all the way back to 2001, by clicking on "Recent Additions" at the top of the page. The "Writing Resources" link at the top of the page has some great links to general writing sources, and to specific veteran writing resources, such as "Voice of the Vet: Veterans Writing Project", which takes place weekly at the National Vietnam Veterans Art Museum in Chicago. "Recommended Links", found at the top of the page, offers a slew of sites that honor veterans, help veterans, inform veterans, remember veterans, and tell the stories of veterans.

281

Arlington: Marine Corps War Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Also called the Iwo Jima memorial, the Marine Corps War Memorial was designed by Felix de Weldon. He was inspired by the photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima taken by Joe Rosenthal during the Battle of iwo Jima. The memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have perished in battle since 1775, but features specifically Marines and a sailor

Chet Smolski

1995-01-01

282

Reflections on Gulf War illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of Britain's recent wars, the Falklands campaign of 1982 was anomalous in many respects, fought to defend a colony with a small but a loyal population, 8000 miles away, but it was also relatively straightforward. It involved high-level diplomacy and consultations at the United Nations, but it was decided on the battlefield in a series of short, but intense engagements

Simon Wessely; Lawrence Freedman

2006-01-01

283

The War on Illegal Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple model of the war against illegal drugs in producer and consumer countries. The analysis shows how the equilibrium quantity of illegal drugs, as well as their price, depend on key parametres of the model such as the price elasticity of demand and the effectiveness of the resources allocated to enforcement and prevention and treatment policies.

Daniel Mejía

284

Behavior, society, and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains chapters under the following headings: deterrence and reassurance; arms race and war; nuclear decisions: cognitive limit to the thinkable; is there a role for third parties as mediators for the prevention; sources of moderation in Soviet security policy.

P. E. Tetlock; J. L. Husbands; R. Jervis; P. C. Stern; C. Tilly

1991-01-01

285

Choosing Between Peace and War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most disputes between groups of people are settled peacefully, sometimes disputes result in war. This lecture uses historical examples to illustrate how the ability to negotiate a credible peaceful settlement of a dispute between sovereign states, typically a dispute over the control of territory or natural resources, depends on the divisibility of the outcome of the dispute, on the

Herschel I. Grossman

2003-01-01

286

Redefining America's "War on Drugs"  

E-print Network

Redefining America's "War on Drugs" FSU Center for the Advancement of Human Rights presents Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Director Kerlikowske was nominated by President Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. In his position

McQuade, D. Tyler

287

2012 Cigital Cyber War, Cyber Peace,  

E-print Network

to be secure #12;© 2012 Cigital War, espionage, and crime n Cyber espionage n Much more common than war n will address the cyber crime problem just as well as it will address cyber espionage and cyber war. We can kill Fake defense: castles are passé Today's computer and network security mechanisms are like the walls

288

The French Stock Market in War  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is interesting to identify the extreme cases of changes in the stock exchange caused by wars. Stock return depends on how the war is financed. The Franco-Prussian war was financed only by regular debt thus stocks reflected only situations of real activity. WWI was partially financed by short term debt; however, since capital markets kept their freedom, stock prices

David Le Bris

2009-01-01

289

Librarians and Censorship during Three Modern Wars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wars of the twentieth century have clarified American librarians' evolving attitudes toward censorship, while at the same time providing impetus for changes in those attitudes. This study uses content analysis to examine librarians' attitudes toward censorship during three periods: the First World War, the Second World War, and the Vietnam…

Murphy, Katherine B.

290

Have You Played the War on Terror?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The media paradigm by which we understand war is increasingly the video game. These changes are not only reflected in the real-time television war, but also an increased collusion between military and commercial uses of video games. The essay charts the border-crossing of video games between military and civilian spheres alongside attendant discourses of war. Of particular interest are the

Roger Stahl

2006-01-01

291

The Emerging Criminal War on Sex Offenders  

E-print Network

Act (“AWA”) in combination with other sex offender laws triggered a transition to a criminal war on sex criminals? Third, if such a criminal war is emerging, what will be the likely effects of such a transition? Fourth, if such a criminal war...

Yung, Corey Rayburn

2010-01-01

292

Judicial Review and the War on Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of the federal courts in the war on terrorism, and contrasts the different judicial roles in reviewing decisions about the conduct of war abroad and within the United States. It explains that judicial refusal to adjudicate questions concerning the initiation and conduct of the war abroad is consistent with a narrow view of judicial review

John C. Yoo

2007-01-01

293

Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished

Brzoska

1987-01-01

294

The American jeremiad in Civil War literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores and analyzes the religious rhetoric and Biblical allusions in literature written surrounding the American Civil War: Herman Melville's Battle Pieces: Aspects of the War ; Walt Whitman's Memoranda During the War ; selected poetry of John Greenleaf Whittier published in William Lloyd Garrison's abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator ; and, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Dred. Each chapter explores how

Jacob Hadley Stratman

2007-01-01

295

Duelling and the abolition of war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political scientists have long compared war to duelling in the hope that war could be abolished like duelling, that is, at the hands of a normative campaign. However, there has been limited investigation of duelling's past. What can the history of duelling teach us about the future of war? This paper advances two arguments. First, by refining the conventional wisdom,

Joseph M Parent

2009-01-01

296

Pyridostigmine bromide and Gulf War syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf War Syndrome has become a growing concern of US government, military Gulf war veterans and their families. It is suggested that research on genotype\\/phenotype of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase may help to discover the role of pyridostigmine bromide in the cause of Gulf War Syndrome.

Z.-X. Shen

1998-01-01

297

Gulf War syndrome - has it gone away?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991 a coalition of Allied Nations, including British and US troops, deployed to the Persian Gulf region. Although the war-fighting phase of the 1991 conflict was short and resulted in minimal casualties, few can have failed to notice the saga of 'Gulf War syndrome' which followed the conflict. The nature, and indeed existence, of Gulf War syndrome has been

Mark Tarn; Neil Greenberg; Simon Wessely

2008-01-01

298

The problem of Gulf War syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a war with widespread attention to and concern over the potential for numerous biological and chemical warfare exposures, some Gulf War veterans returned home and developed various illnesses. Although some of these illnesses are readily diagnosable, the so-called Gulf War syndrome has remained a controversial and nebulous diagnosis. It is characterized by multiple, subjective symptoms, and by a lack

R. Ferrari; A. S. Russell

2001-01-01

299

World War II Memorial Learning Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June 1940";…

Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

300

Aspects of the Russo-Japanese War  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 6 February 1998 a symposium was held in STICERD on Aspects of the Russo-Japanese War at which two papers were presented: 'The Japanese Military during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05: A Reconsideration of Command Politics and Public Images', by Dr Lone, and 'British Observers of the Russo-Japanese War', by Dr Towle.

Stewart Lone; Philip Towle

1998-01-01

301

The Civil War in Literature: English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Civil War in Literature is a course in which investigation is made into the legacy that this war left to humanity. Through the reading and discussion of literary works written during or about the Civil War, including "Jubilee,""Gone with the Wind,""Red Badge of Courage," poetry by Walt Whitman, and the essays of Frederick Douglass, students…

Boone, Dave

302

Karate injuries in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify risk factors for injury and to establish safety guidelines for children in Uechi–Ryu karate. Design: A 1-year retrospective survey of injuries. Setting: A private karate school (Uechi–Ryu style) in Plymouth, MA. Patients: A total of 68 athletes (age 6–16 years; mean age 10 years) who participated in karate during the 1995–1996 season. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures:

Merrilee N Zetaruk; Mariona A Violan; David Zurakowski; Lyle J Micheli

2000-01-01

303

MR imaging of rectus femoris origin injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To describe the MR imaging findings of acute and chronic rectus femoris origin (RFO) injuries.Materials and methods  A retrospective review of pelvic and hip MR imaging procedures was performed over a 4-year period for detection of cases with injuries to the RFO. Subjects were classified as having either acute or chronic symptoms. MR imaging studies, radiographs, CT scans, radiology reports, medical

Hugue Ouellette; Bijoy J. Thomas; Erik Nelson; Martin Torriani

2006-01-01

304

Hospitalizations for injury in New Zealand: prior injury as a risk factor for assaultive injury.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This study sought to determine the degree to which injury hospitalization, especially for assaultive injury, is a risk for subsequent hospitalization due to assault. METHODS. A New Zealand hospitalization database was used to perform a retrospective cohort study. Exposure was defined as an injury hospitalization, stratified into assaultive and nonassaultive mechanisms. Hospitalizations for an assault during a 12-month follow-up period were measured. RESULTS. Individuals with a prior nonassaultive injury were 3.2 times more likely to be admitted for an assault than those with no injury admission (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7, 3.9). The relative risk associated with a prior assault was 39.5 (95% CI = 35.8, 43.5), and the subsequent admission rate did not vary significantly by sex, race, or marital or employment status. Among those readmitted for an assault, 70% were readmitted within 30 days of the initial hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS. Prior injury is a risk for serious assault, and the risk is even greater if the injury is due to assault. Risk of readmission for assault is largely independent of demographic factors and greatest within 30 days of the initial assault. PMID:8669515

Dowd, M D; Langley, J; Koepsell, T; Soderberg, R; Rivara, F P

1996-01-01

305

Skiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

Bartlett, L. H.

1975-01-01

306

Pease and War in Man's Mind  

E-print Network

sought to trace the origins of war in clash of interests. The Trojan War originated as much in pursuit of love as in pursuit of trade. The Crusades were not so much to uphold the Cross as to gain direct access to the eastern markets. The Mongols... F PEACE AND WAR IN MANIS MIND - Nirmal C. Sinha In the aftermath of the World War statesmen and thinkers of the West said "War begins in the mind and is fought in the field later", Western thinkers in the nineteenth century and since have...

Sinha, Nirmal Chandra

1983-01-01

307

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

...false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342...1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World War II active service only...

2014-04-01

308

In War's Wake: Contextualizing Trauma Experiences and Psychosocial Well-being Among Eritrean Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines war trauma experienced by Eritrean youth, their psychological symptoms, and contextual factors related to their psychosocial well-being in the postwar environment in Eritrea. The youth offered retrospective accounts of trauma experiences in semistructured interviews that included open- and closed-ended questions and the administration of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Among the ninety-seven youth in this school-based sample from

Nancy Farwell

2003-01-01

309

Follow-up Imaging Studies in Children with Splenic Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a retrospective study of pediatric blunt splenic injuries treated nonoperatively at our institution from 1990 to 1995 (n=72) to assess the impact of serial computed tomography (CT) scans on the outcome. Median number of studies per child was three. The result showed that the appearance of the splenic injury remained unchanged or improved in 95% of the imaging

Shahid Shafi; James C. Gilbert; Michael S. Irish; Philip L. Glick; Michael G. Caty; Richard G. Azizkhan

1999-01-01

310

Contributions of psychology to war and peace.  

PubMed

The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being. PMID:24128314

Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

2013-10-01

311

Are Gulf War veterans suffering war-related illnesses? Federal and civilian hospitalizations examined, June 1991 to December 1994.  

PubMed

A previous epidemiologic study demonstrated no unexplained increase in risk for postwar hospitalization among Gulf War veterans who had remained on active duty. The authors sought to expand this study to include Reserve and separated military personnel. They examined hospitalization data from the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital systems for the years 1991-1994. Since denominator data were not available, the authors compared the proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) of hospitalization discharge diagnoses (both large categories and specific diagnoses) between Gulf War veterans and other veterans of the same era. There were no indications that Gulf War veterans were suffering increased PMRs for infectious diseases; neoplasms; endocrine diseases; blood diseases; skin conditions; or diseases of the nervous system, circulatory system, or musculoskeletal system. However, these veterans did experience proportionally more hospitalizations for various specific diagnoses, namely, fractures and bone and soft-tissue injuries (Department of Defense and California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development), various diseases of the respiratory (including asthma) and digestive systems (VA), and diverse symptom diagnoses (VA). While these findings may be influenced by chance or by a number of potential confounders, including health registry participation, they merit further examination using other study designs. PMID:10625175

Gray, G C; Smith, T C; Kang, H K; Knoke, J D

2000-01-01

312

Firecracker eye injuries during Deepavali festival: A case series  

PubMed Central

We report a large series of ocular injuries caused by fire-crackers. This study was a hospital-based, singlecenter, retrospective case series in which the records of 51 patients with ocular injuries were analyzed. Injuries were classified according to Birmingham eye trauma terminology system (BETTS). Visual outcomes before and after the intervention were recorded. Ten patients were admitted for further management. As ocular firecracker injuries result in significant morbidity, public education regarding proper use of firecrackers may help in reducing the incidence of ocular injuries. PMID:20195044

Kumar, Ravi; Puttanna, Manohar; Sriprakash, K S; Sujatha Rathod, B L; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C

2010-01-01

313

Hawaii War Records Depository Photos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hawaii War Records Depository was established in 1943, and it contains over 880 photographs taken by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Navy during the Second World War. The Depository also holds around 1000 newspaper photographs from the Honolulu Star Bulletin and 330 photographs identified as being from the Honolulu Advertiser. These unique items depict various Army and Navy activities throughout Hawaii during this period. The University of Hawaii was able to digitize these items via a grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and they are now available for perusal by the web-browsing public. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, and they can do so by photo number, agency, category, or date. Browsing by category is a good way to start, and some of the headings include "Boy Scouts", "Civic Events", and "Religion". Additionally, visitors can use the "Search" section to explore the collection via keywords.

314

World War One Color Photos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While color photography was around by the start of World War I, it was not in widespread use. Interestingly enough, the French Army happened to take many photographs in color during the last two years of World War I. This site presents several hundred of these photographs, and visitors can browse through them at their leisure. Visitors can search the entire archive, or they may also wish to look through several of the galleries. While complete bibliographic information is not available for the photos, each photo does have a brief caption which describes the basic context and setting for each image. The site is rounded out by a selection of relevant links, including several online WWI forums and sites that compile military quotations.

315

Hawaii War Records Depository Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life in Hawaii after World War II was documented in part due to a joint resolution passed by the Hawaii Territorial Legislature which stated that the University of Hawaii would be the official depository of material related to Hawaii's part in this global conflict. Over a five-year period, individuals and agencies donated personal accounts, reports, photographs, scrapbooks, newspapers, and maps to the collection. Parts of the collection have been digitized, and visitors can look through those revealing items here. The sections here include "Veterans' Essays", "Japanese American Veterans Timeline", and "Digitized Photographs". The "Veterans' Essays" is a good place to start, and visitors shouldn't miss the "Digitized Photographs", which contains hundreds of images related to life on the islands during the period. The site also contains links to other World War II collections online and contact information.

316

Iraq the Vote: Retrospective and Prospective Foreign Policy Judgments on Candidate Choice and Casualty Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we model the effect of foreign policy attitudes on both vote choice and casualty tolerance, using survey\\u000a data collected during the 2004 election. We show that prospective judgments of the likelihood of success in Iraq and retrospective\\u000a judgments of whether the war in Iraq was right are significant determinants of both vote choice and casualty tolerance. The

Christopher Gelpi; Jason Reifler; Peter Feaver

2007-01-01

317

Eye injuries in Canadian hockey.  

PubMed Central

Increasing public concern led the Canadian Ophthalmological Society, in January 1974, to form a committee to study the incidence, types and causes of hockey eye injuries and to devise means of reducing such injuries. Retrospective and current studies were undertaken, and face protectors were tested. In both pilot studies, sticks were the commonest cause and the highest number of eye injuries was in players 11-15 years old. An average of 15% of all injured eyes were rendered legally blind. Cooperation with hockey authorities has resulted in changed rules and their sticter enforcement, and formulation of standards for face protection approved by the Canadian Standards Association. In this interim report the committee recommends that all amateur hockey players wear eye protectors and urges ophthalmologists to participate in efforts to improve the design of protective equipment. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1181024

Pashby, T. J.; Pashby, R. C.; Chisholm, L. D.; Crawford, J. S.

1975-01-01

318

Trojan War and Cultural Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the western cultural tradition no story, exempting the Bible, has inspired more artists, writers, painters, sculptors and\\u000a so on, than the Trojan War. This is evident from the masterpieces of paintings and sculptures already presented in the previous\\u000a chapters, representing a small part only of the tradition developed through the centuries. It is remarkable that various artists\\u000a place the

S. A. Paipetis

319

Dismantling the Cold War economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a

A. Markusen; J. Yudkin

1992-01-01

320

Pregnancy following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed Central

Each year about 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States have a spinal cord injury. Only a few mostly anecdotal reports describe pregnancy after such an injury. In a retrospective study of 16 women with a spinal cord injury, half of whom have a complete injury and about half quadriplegia, 25 pregnancies occurred, with 21 carried to full term. The women delayed pregnancy an average of 6.5 years after their injury, with an average age at first pregnancy of 26.8 years. Cesarean section was necessary in 4 patients because of inadequate progress of labor. In 5 deliveries an episiotomy and local anesthesia were required, 7 required epidural anesthesia, including all cesarean sections, and 10 did not require anesthesia. Several complications have been identified in the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods including autonomic hyperreflexia, premature labor, pressure sores, urinary tract infections, abnormal presentation, and failure to progress. Ultrasonography and amniocentesis were used selectively. Women with spinal cord injuries can have healthy children, although there are significant risks and these women have special needs. PMID:1866960

Cross, L. L.; Meythaler, J. M.; Tuel, S. M.; Cross, A. L.

1991-01-01

321

Head Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... in long-term damage. One of the most common reasons kids get concussions is through sports , so make sure yours wear appropriate protective gear and don't let them continue to play if they've had a head injury. If your child sustains an injury to the ...

322

Genital injury  

MedlinePLUS

Genital injury in young girls may be caused by placing items into the vagina. Young girls (usually less than 4 years of age) may ... assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the ... In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having ...

323

Athletic Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family physicians routinely treat many athletic injuries in their clinical practice. The benefits of long-term exercise in the prevention of common illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and falls in the elderly are well established. With the increased interest in fitness in the general population, the number of people resuming more active exercise as they age is increasing. Injuries sustained

Michael L. Tuggy; Cora Collette Breuner

324

Musculoskeletal injuries in young ballet dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries, site and type of injury, and the most common\\u000a injury diagnoses in young ballet dancers at the Royal Swedish Ballet School, a public school in Stockholm.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This retrospective study of 476 students (297 girls and 179 boys) aged 10–21 years was based on medical records for the period

Johan Leanderson; Anders Wykman; Lars-Erik Strender; Sven-Erik Johansson; Kristina Sundquist

325

Rowing Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

2012-01-01

326

Injury In The Elderly: A Hospital Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Hospital and community survey reports from Nigeria, on the epidemiology of injuries in the elderly are lacking. This data is useful for planning effective treatment and prevention strategies. Patients and methods A retrospective case analysis is done, of patients attending the Accident & Emergency unit. Results Out of 3839 patients, 32 injured patients were 65 years and older,

L. O. A. Thanni

327

Risk factors for perineal injury during delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to identify risk factors for anal sphincter injury during vaginal delivery. Study Design: This was a retrospective, case-control study. We reviewed 2078 records of vaginal deliveries within a 2-year period from May 1, 1999, through April 30, 2001. Cases (n = 91) during the study period were defined as parturients who had documentation of greater than a

L. M. Christianson; V. E. Bovbjerg; E. C. McDavitt; K. L. Hullfish

2003-01-01

328

Bomb blast, mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric morbidity: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) arising from blast exposure during war is common, and frequently complicated by psychiatric morbidity. There is controversy as to whether mild TBI from blast is different from other causes of mild TBI. Anxiety and affective disorders such as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression are common accompaniments of blast injury with a significant overlap in the

Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld; Nick L. Ford

2010-01-01

329

American prisoner of war policy and practice from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror  

E-print Network

prisoners for labor, rowing galleys or in gladiatorial contests. The Romans rarely allowed ransoms, as freed prisoners might again fight against the empire. In the Middle Ages, captured common soldiers still risked death or enslavement, but knights... and nobility protected themselves with a code of chivalry that required participants to treat prisoners kindly and allowed them to ransom themselves. This behavior did not extend to wars fought with non-European populations; the Crusaders and their foes...

Springer, Paul Joseph

2006-08-16

330

Epidemiologic Change of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the epidemiologic change of patients with spinal cord injury who were admitted to a Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, during 1987-1996 and 2004-2008. Methods Medical records of 629 patients with spinal cord injury admitted to the Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, from 2004 to 2008 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. Results The male-to-female ratio decreased to 2.86:1, the mean age at injury increased, nontraumatic etiology increased, traffic accident remained to be the most common in traumatic spinal cord injury, and falling increased significantly. Tumor was the most common etiology in nontraumatic spinal cord injury, tetraplegia and incomplete injuries occurred more than paraplegia and complete injuries, indwelling catheter was the most common voiding method, and the duration of hospitalization decreased. Conclusion Many trends changed in epidemiology of spinal cord injury. PMID:23525183

Shin, Ji Cheol; Yu, Su Jin; Yang, Hea Eun; Yoon, Seo Yeon

2013-01-01

331

A retrospective review of homicides in Mangalore, South India.  

PubMed

A five-year retrospective study of homicides was carried out to determine the profile of victims and the pattern of injuries sustained between 2001 and 2005 at Government District Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore, South India. Of the 89 victims of homicide, 71 were males and 18 were females. On an average, about 17 cases of fatal assault cases were autopsied each year. The commonest age group affected was the 21-30 age group (28.1%). The head was found to be the most common site of injury followed by the extremities, abdomen and chest. In 49.4% of the cases, the victims had sustained sharp force injuries while in 34.8% blunt force injuries were present. Fatal injuries to the head were the commonest cause of death. Homicide by strangulation was seen in 8 cases and involved mostly women. The incidence of homicidal burns was low (n = 2, 2.2%). In 61.8% of the cases, death was immediate. In 52.8% of the cases the assailant(s) had a pre-planned motive for killing. PMID:20650419

Vij, Akshat; Menon, Anand; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj; Rastogi, Prateek

2010-08-01

332

Medical costs of war in 2035: long-term care challenges for veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan.  

PubMed

War-related medical costs for U.S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan may be enormous because of differences between these wars and previous conflicts: (1) Many veterans survive injuries that would have killed them in past wars, and (2) improvised explosive device attacks have caused "polytraumatic" injuries (multiple amputations; brain injury; severe facial trauma or blindness) that require decades of costly rehabilitation. In 2035, today's veterans will be middle-aged, with health issues like those seen in aging Vietnam veterans, complicated by comorbidities of posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. This article cites emerging knowledge about best practices that have demonstrated cost-effectiveness in mitigating the medical costs of war. We propose that clinicians employ early interventions (trauma care, physical therapy, early post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis) and preventive health programs (smoking cessation, alcohol-abuse counseling, weight control, stress reduction) to treat primary medical conditions now so that we can avoid treating costly secondary and tertiary complications in 2035. (We should help an amputee reduce his cholesterol and maintain his weight at age 30, rather than treating his heart disease or diabetes at age 50.) Appropriate early interventions for primary illness should preserve veterans' functional status, ensure quality clinical care, and reduce the potentially enormous cost burden of their future health care. PMID:23198496

Geiling, James; Rosen, Joseph M; Edwards, Ryan D

2012-11-01

333

Civilians and war: A review and historical overview of the involvement of non?combatant populations in conflict situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of light weapons are now regularly seen on television and are becoming an international issue, particularly regarding their impact on civilians. It is claimed that 80% or more of deaths and injuries in today's wars are civilian; there is no objective evidence for this as little accurate information is available. Recent surveys suggest, however, a proportion of between

David R. Meddings

2001-01-01

334

Social science in the Cold War.  

PubMed

This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life. PMID:20718280

Engerman, David C

2010-06-01

335

Air bags and ocular injuries.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

1999-01-01

336

If war is "just," so is abortion.  

PubMed

Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians. PMID:12178844

Kissling, F

1991-01-01

337

Memories of three wars: a nurse's story.  

PubMed

This is the personal story of a civilian critical care nurse who has worked for several decades with war casualties. It begins with her memories of the Vietnam era and her reflections on that war. It then describes how the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, prepared for the Desert Storm War and continues through the current war in Iraq. The article provides a glimpse of a long and meaningful nursing career and expresses the joy and satisfaction of caring for the wounded warriors of today's conflict. PMID:18206586

Aiken, Loretta J

2008-03-01

338

Conscientious objectors during Britain's last popular war  

E-print Network

before the Great War. They grew up hearing the horror stories of v:ar from their parents and reading the anti-war literature published in the 1920's and 30's. This younger generation protested the war for many of the same reasons as the objectors... are now saying. " And at the London Tribunal Sir Edinund Phipps reportedly remarked "What miserable creatures!" and said "What tosh!" during the middle of one of the applicant's answers. ' Reports such as these surfaced throughout the war. However...

Breech, Allyson

2013-02-22

339

Boarding Injuries: The Long and the Short of It  

PubMed Central

As the popularity of longboarding increases, trauma centers are treating an increased number of high severity injuries. Current literature lacks descriptions of the types of injuries experienced by longboarders, a distinct subset of the skateboarding culture. A retrospective review of longboarding and skateboarding injury cases was conducted at a level II trauma center from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2011. Specific injuries in addition to high injury severity factors (hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), patient treatment options, disposition, and outcome) were calculated to compare longboarder to skateboarder injuries. A total of 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. Skull fractures, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were significantly more common among longboard patients than skateboarders (P < 0.0001). All patients with an ISS above 15 were longboarders. Hospital and ICU LOS in days was also significantly greater for longboarders compared with skateboarders (P < 0.0001). Of the three patients that died, each was a longboarder and each experienced a head injury. Longboard injuries account for a higher incidence rate of severe head injuries compared to skateboard injuries. Our data show that further, prospective investigation into the longboarding population demographics and injury patterns is necessary to contribute to effective injury prevention in this population. PMID:24660063

Fabian, Leslie A.; Thygerson, Steven M.; Merrill, Ray M.

2014-01-01

340

Ski injury statistics, 1982 to 1993, Jackson Hole Ski Resort.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis was conducted on injury statistics compiled over 12 seasons, from 1982 to 1993 (2.55 million skier-days), at a Wyoming ski resort. The population at risk was determined by ticket sales per year. A total of 9749 skiing injuries was indexed by anatomic region and severity according to diagnosis on initial evaluation. Injury rates were then analyzed as a function of time. The injury rate remained constant at 3.7 injuries per 1000 skier-days during the 12 seasons. The rate of lower extremity to upper extremity injury decreased from 4:1 to 2:1 during the study period (P < 0.03). The ankle injury rate also decreased with time (P < 0.04). Ulnar collateral ligament sprains make up 7% of all injuries. Knee sprains in general account for 30% of all injuries. The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears increased as a function of time (P < 0.04) and accounted for 16% of all skiing injuries during the study period. The medial collateral ligament sprain was the most common injury, making up 18% of skiing injuries. Forty-seven snowboard injuries from the 1992 to 1993 season are also presented. Our injury statistics mirror those currently reported in North America, except our data reflect a higher incidence of knee sprains. PMID:8526277

Warme, W J; Feagin, J A; King, P; Lambert, K L; Cunningham, R R

1995-01-01

341

Physical and Mental Health Costs of Traumatic War Experiences Among Civil War Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the role of traumatic war expe- riences in predicting postwar nervous and physical dis- ease and mortality using archival data from military and medical records of veterans from the Civil War. Design: An archival examination of military and medi- cal records of Civil War veterans was conducted. De- gree of trauma experienced (prisoner-of-war experi- ence,percentageofcompanykilled,beingwounded,and early age

Judith Pizarro; Roxane Cohen Silver; JoAnn Prause

2006-01-01

342

Back Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... but might include medicines, icing, bed rest, physical therapy, or surgery. You might be able to prevent some back injuries by maintaining a healthy weight, lifting objects with your legs, and using lower-back support when you sit.

343

Injury Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 2012 1998 Electrocutions Associated With Consumer Products July 17, 2012 2000 Electrocutions Associated with Consumer Products (9999) ... Furniture and Decor Injury Statistics Other Sports July 17, 2012 Unpowered Scooters July 10, 2012 Trampolines May ...

344

Patterns in Blast Injuries to the Hand  

PubMed Central

Blast injuries to the hand are not just a wartime phenomenon but also quite common in rural communities throughout northern California. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with blast injuries in the community and review the most common patterns in an attempt to identify the pathomechanics of the hand injury and the reconstructive procedures that are required. This is a retrospective study of blast injuries to the hand treated between 1978 and 2006. Medical records, X-rays, and photos were reviewed to compile standard patient demographics and characterize the injury pattern. Explosives were classified based on their rate of decomposition. Reconstructive solutions were reviewed and characterized based on whether damaged tissues were repaired or replaced. Sixty-two patients were identified with blast injuries to their hand. Patients were predominantly male (92%) with an average age of 27 years. Firecrackers were the most commonly encountered explosives. Thirty-seven patients were identified as holding a low explosive in their dominant hand and were used for characterization of the injury pattern. The apparent pattern of injury was hyperextension and hyperabduction of the hand and digits. Common injuries were metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint hyperextension with associated soft tissue avulsion, hyperabduction at the web spaces with associated palmar soft tissue tears, and finger disarticulation amputations worse at radial digits. Given the mechanisms of injury with tissue loss, surgical intervention generally involved tissue replacement rather than tissue repair. Blast injuries to the hand represent a broad spectrum of injuries that are associated with the magnitude of explosion and probably, the proximity to the hand. We were able to identify a repetitive pattern of injury and demonstrate the predominant use for delayed tissue replacement rather than microsurgical repair at the acute setting. PMID:18780004

Buntic, Rudolf F.; Brooks, Darrell

2008-01-01

345

Ocular Paintball Injury with and without Eye Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Paintball' is a war game in which 2 teams use special carbon dioxide or air compressed guns to shoot gelatin or latex balls filled with paint. The balls rupture on impact marking the victim with the extruded dye. Ocular paintball injuries are increasingly being reported, probably due to the popularity and unrestricted use of this game without consideration for safety.

Hanna Garzozi

346

Shoulder Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The shoulder plays a vital role in many sporting activities and is vulnerable to injury both through direct acute trauma and\\u000a through chronic repetitive injury. These are particularly seen in overhead throwing athletes. The shoulder joint is dependent\\u000a on both the rotator cuff and the labroligamentous complex to maintain its stability and these structures are important in\\u000a the pathophysiology of

Andrew J. Grainger; Phillip F. J. Tirman

347

Cricket injuries.  

PubMed

English and Australian cricket teams on tour used to travel by ship, and many enjoying shipboard life, reached their destination considerably overweight and thus unfit and vulnerable to injury in their sport. Now they travel by air and most national teams employ a fitness coach to supervise sessions of rigorous exercise before and during the season. However the international cricket season is longer than it was and the incidence of overuse injuries is increasing. PMID:6497768

Corrigan, A B

1984-08-01

348

Epidemiology and aetiology of marathon running injuries.  

PubMed

Over the last 10-15 years, there has been a dramatic increase in popularity of running marathons. Numerous articles have reported on injuries to runners of all experience, with yearly incidence rates for injury reported to be as high as 90% in those training for marathons. To date, most of these studies have been cohort studies and retrospective surveys with remarkably few prospective studies. However, from the studies available, it is clear that more experienced runners are less prone to injury, with the number of years running being inversely related to incidence of injuries. For all runners, it is important to be fully recovered from any and all injury or illness prior to running a marathon. For those with less experience, a graduated training programme seems to clearly help prevent injuries with special attention to avoid any sudden increases in running load or intensity, with a particularly high risk for injury once a threshold of 40 miles/week is crossed. In both sexes, the most common injury by far was to the knee, typically on the anterior aspect (e.g. patellofemoral syndrome). Iliotibial band friction syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis and meniscal injuries of the knee were also commonly cited. PMID:17465629

Fredericson, Michael; Misra, Anuruddh K

2007-01-01

349

The World At War 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This concise and sobering page from the Center for Defense Information (CDI) (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report) offers an overview of the 38 major (those with over 1,000 casualties, both military and civilian) conflicts in the world at the start of 2000. After an introduction and a list of major events of the past year, users can view a chart of ongoing conflicts which lists the main warring parties, year began, cause(s), and other foreign involvement. A chart of potential hot spots is also included.

350

Indonesia the War in Aceh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 41-page report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) covers the conflict in Aceh, on the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. The war has been marked by human rights violations on both the part of the Indonesian security forces and GAM (an acronym for the Free Aceh Movement), and HRW here reports on both sides' infractions. To gather information for the report, HRW met with and interviewed military and civilian Indonesian government officials, GAM leaders, NGO representatives, and villagers. The report contains a series of recommendations for the Indonesian government and GAM as well as recommendations for the International community.

2001-01-01

351

Chicago History Museum: Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one teach young people about the Civil War? 150 years later, this is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination. The staff members at the Chicago History Museum have gathered all of their online classroom resources together on this site for use by educators and others. The items are divided into seven categories, including slavery, Abraham Lincoln, photography, and black soldiers. Each resource has a brief description, along with information about the appropriate grade level. The Abolitionist Movement and Northern Racism area is quite good and contains the resources "Living Under the Black Laws of Illinois" and "A House Divided: Slavery in the United States."

352

War Zone Stress, Personal Resources, and PTSD in Persian Gulf War Returnees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur subsequent to war stress, but not all troops are negatively affected. A discriminant function model was used to study associations between personal and environmental resources and psychological outcomes subsequent to war zone stress. Among 775 Persian Gulf War exposed troops, 2 subsets were identified: 97 with PTSD diagnoses and 484 who had no psychological

Patricia B. Sutker; J. Mark Davis; Madeline Uddo; Shelly R. Ditta

1995-01-01

353

Survey Design and Operation in Areas of War Conflict: The Lebanon Wars Surveys Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wars inflict tremendous damage on societies. While, there is a large body of literature dedicated to investigating the impact of war, little attention has been given to the methodological complexities encountered by researchers in conducting wartime surveys. Lebanon has been a scene of wars since 1975. The Institute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC) was initially founded in

ZEINA N. MNEIMNEH; ELIE G. KARAM; AIMEE NASSER KARAM; NADINE MELHEM; MARIANA SALAMOUN

354

Americans’ Attitudes toward War: Trend Analysis of Public Opinion for the Iraq War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an analysis of public attitudes toward war for the contemporary Iraq War. In total, 23 surveys conducted by the Gallup Organization starting March 2003 and ending in February 2006 were analyzed. This article examines the social characteristics of those people who are more or less likely to oppose war. The research reported here was

Emanuel G. Boussios; Stephen Cole

2010-01-01

355

WAR AND THE HOME FRONT: DEVON IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR, 1914-1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation contributes to the existing scholarship on Britain and the First World War by examining the war's impact on the county of Devon in southwest England. More specifically, this study pays particular attention to how communities, families, and individuals responded to the pressures of war and to what extent social unity was achieved at the county level. By exploring

Bonnie White

2008-01-01

356

Keynes and the Non-neutrality of Russian War Finance during World War One  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the particular methods of war finance that were used by Russia during World War One in relation to the total cost of the war, and evaluates them against a theoretical ideal that was outlined by the Cambridge economist J. M. Keynes. It then asks whether there were any consequences of two particular chosen means of financing the

Vincent Barnett

2009-01-01

357

Civilian Women at War: Psychological Impact Decades After the Vietnam War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civilian women working in war zones may be vulnerable to posttraumatic stress reactions for decades. Some four decades since the Vietnam war, little is understood of how non-national civilian women have made sense of their experiences both in a war zone and returning to a hostile society and how this has affected their mental well-being over a lifetime. Female entertainers

Lynne McCormack

2009-01-01

358

Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.  

PubMed

US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training. PMID:25344715

Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

2014-01-01

359

The neurological manifestations of trauma: lessons from World War I.  

PubMed

Changes in the clinical presentation of functional disorders and the influence of social and cultural factors can be investigated through the historical case notes from mental hospitals. World War I (WWI) was a potent trigger of functional disorders with neurological or psychiatric symptoms. We analysed 100 randomly selected case files of German servicemen admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of the Charité Medical School of Berlin University during WWI and classified them according to contemporaneous and retrospective modern diagnoses. We compared the clinical presentations with accounts in the German and British medical literature of the time. Most patients obtained the contemporaneous diagnosis of 'psychopathic constitution' or hysteria reflecting the general view of German psychiatrists that not the war but an individual predisposition was the basis for the development of symptoms. The clinical picture was dominated by pseudoneurological motor or sensory symptoms as well as pseudoseizures. Some soldiers relived combat experiences in dream-like dissociative states that partly resemble modern-day post-traumatic stress disorder. Most servicemen were classified as unfit for military service but very few of them were granted compensation. Severe functional disorders of a neurological character could develop even without traumatic exposure in combat, which is of interest for the current debate on triggers of stress disorders. The high incidence of pseudoseizures accords with the psychiatric literature of the time and contrasts with accounts of war-related disorders in Britain. The tendency of German psychiatrists not to send traumatised servicemen back to active duty also distinguished between German and British practice. Our data contribute to the debate on the changing patterns of human responses to traumatic experience and their historical and social context. PMID:22065177

Linden, Stefanie C; Hess, Volker; Jones, Edgar

2012-04-01

360

Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War*  

PubMed Central

The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family’s migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work. PMID:20852719

Lundquist, Jennifer H.; Massey, Douglas S.

2010-01-01

361

Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.  

PubMed

Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

Fish, R M

2000-01-01

362

Sports related injuries in Scottish adolescents aged 11-15  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To measure the age and sex distribution of self reported sports and leisure injuries in a 12 month retrospective recall period among a representative national sample of Scottish adolescents, and to examine the characteristics (gender, age, handedness, and level of sports participation) of sports related injuries in relation to injuries sustained during other activities. DESIGN/SETTING: Self completion questionnaire survey administered in schools during April- June 1994. SUBJECTS: 4710 pupils aged 11, 13, and 15 years drawn from a representative sample of 270 classes with returns from 224 classes (83% completion rate). RESULTS: 42.1% of the sample reported a medically attended injury. These were significantly more frequent among boys but there were no significant age differences in overall frequency of injury. Sport related injuries accounted for 32.2% of all medically attended injuries. As with all injuries, frequency was greater in boys than girls at all ages, and there are differences in the pattern of lesions in sports and nonsports injuries. Lower limb injuries were more frequent than upper limb injury in sports (57.6 v 23.9%), whereas there were no differences in non-sports injuries (31.5 v 31.3%). Age and handedness differences in sports injury rates were also identified. High sports participation was significantly associated with a higher risk of injury in general and sports related injury in particular. CONCLUSION: Age, gender, handedness, and level of sports participation have been shown to be implicated in differential risk of sports related injury. Reducing sports injury among adolescents should be a priority, but research into the injury profiles of different sports is needed before detailed injury prevention strategies can be developed. ??? PMID:9865398

Williams, J. M.; Wright, P.; Currie, C. E.; Beattie, T. F.

1998-01-01

363

Brooklyn in the Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Brooklyn Public Library's Brooklyn Collection, this engaging and interactive website lets students learn about that most famous city of "homes and churches" during the Civil War through the use of primary documents and other secondary materials. The overall goal of the site was to provide both students and teachers with online access to primary and secondary historical materials, and this admirable goal has been achieved quite effectively. Visitors will want to take a look at the interactive map which details the experiences of one James W. Vanderhoef, a Union Army soldier and officer who wrote letters during the war back to his sister in Brooklyn. Peppered with primary documents (such as digitized pages from his letters), the interactive map takes visitors through his travels. Besides this one fine feature, visitors may also explore the contents of the site through its four primary themes, which include soldiers, women, and slavery. The site is rounded out by a detailed timeline and a glossary of terms.

364

Cohort Studies: Prospective versus Retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort studies form a suitable study design to assess associations between multiple exposures on the one hand and multiple outcomes on the other hand. They are especially appropriate to study rare exposures or exposures for which randomization is not possible for practical or ethical reasons. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies have higher accuracy and higher efficiency as their respective main

Anne M. Euser; Carmine Zoccali; Kitty J. Jager; Friedo W. Dekker

2009-01-01

365

Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan  

E-print Network

Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan± , Magdalena Balazinska± , Don Carney§ , Uur �etintemel the key lessons we learned throughout the design and implementation of the Aurora stream processing engine. For the past two years, we have built five stream-based applications using Aurora. We first describe in detail

Cherniack, Mitch

366

Gender in PER: A Retrospective  

E-print Network

Gender in PER: A Retrospective Laura McCullough University of Wisconsin-Stout Physics Department 1Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Outline Gender in PER AAPT meetings TPT articles AJP articles PRST-PER articles Conceptual tests Author info Semantics 2Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Gender in PER How does

Wu, Mingshen

367

Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

2014-01-01

368

17.423 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2001  

E-print Network

Examines the causes of war, with a focus on practical measures to prevent and control war. Topics covered include: causes and consequences of national misperception; military strategy and policy as cause of war; US foreign ...

Van Evera, Stephen

369

17.42 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. ...

Van Evera, Stephen

370

From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

Johannessen, Larry R.

1995-01-01

371

Clinical evidence of a familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSeveral risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been evaluated in the literatures. It is highly probable that many of the identified risk factors for ACL injury are passed through families. However few articles describe a familial predisposition to ACL injury.ObjectiveTo investigate whether there is a familial predisposition to ACL injury.DesignRetrospective study.MethodsThe study group comprised 350 consecutive patients

K Goshima; K Kitaoka; J Nakase; R Takahashi; H Tsuchiya

2011-01-01

372

Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES  

E-print Network

Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES: Knee injuries can be acute or chronic in nature. A direct blow or twisting of the knee accounts for most acute injuries. Chronic problems arise from overuse of the joint, such as contact sports or any repetitive movements involving the knee can increase risk for injury. TREATING KNEE

Virginia Tech

373

Turkmenistan during the Second World War  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the English literature, for the first time, the history of the Turkmen people in days of the Second World War is described. As it is known, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was one of fifteen republics of the former USSR. Therefore, since the first days Turkmens as citizens of the Soviet Union took active part in this war. In

Jumadurdy Annaorazov

2012-01-01

374

World War Two and the Holocaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

Boas, Jacob

375

Social psychologists in national war agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social psychology is one of the fields of psychology which have found new and valuable applications in critical areas of the war effort. The analysis of group attitudes is apparently following the pattern of development and exploitation which intelligence testing followed in World War I. The present report is a review of the agencies and persons involved in social psychological

D. G. Marquis

1944-01-01

376

Impaired immune function in Gulf War Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) remains a serious health consequence for at least 11,000 veterans of the first Gulf War in the early 1990s. Our understanding of the health consequences that resulted remains inadequate, and this is of great concern with another deployment to the same theater of operations occurring now. Chronic immune cell dysfunction and activation have been demonstrated

Toni Whistler; Mary Ann Fletcher; William Lonergan; Xiao-R Zeng; Jin-Mann Lin; Arthur LaPerriere; Suzanne D Vernon; Nancy G Klimas

2009-01-01

377

Teaching about Women and the Vietnam War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures for teaching about women and the Vietnam War using class activities and discussion questions are presented. The topics for which activities are suggested include: analysis of quotes by nurses and military women; dealing with the war-caused deaths; journalists; and civilian women. A list of seven references is included. (DB)

Haas, Mary E.

378

Foreign Aid, War, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign Aid, War, and Economic Development traces the economic history of South Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. During this period encompassing the Vietnam war, high-level officials paid relatively little attention to the economy of South Vietnam even though economic development was a necessary condition for the country's survival. A generous foreign aid program was designed to pay local troops and

Douglas C. Dacy

379

Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

Moyi, Peter

2012-01-01

380

Women at the Heart of War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of study explores the experiences and the role of women during World War II. The unit can serve as an introduction or supplement to commonly taught topics such as Nazism in Germany, the Holocaust, the "home front," the USSR's Great Patriotic War, and the struggle between Nationalists and Communists in China. It begins with an overview…

Chapman, Anne

381

Jorge Molina EXT. WAR AIRPLANE, FLYING -DAY  

E-print Network

below. INT. WAR AIRPLANE, FLYING - DAY A GROUP OF SOLDIERS sits on one of the sides of the airplaneHEROES Written by Jorge Molina #12;EXT. WAR AIRPLANE, FLYING - DAY A plane overflies jungle lands. A GENERAL screams at them. He holds a large black bag. GENERAL Change of plans, troop! You will now land

Southern California, University of

382

War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

383

Antibodies to Squalene in Gulf War Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) is a multisystemic illness afflicting many Gulf War-era veterans. The molecular pathological basis for GWS has not been established. We sought to determine whether the presence of antibodies to squalene correlates with the presence of signs and symptoms of GWS. Participants in this blinded cohort study were individuals immunized for service in Desert Shield\\/Desert Storm during

Pamela B. Asa; Yan Cao; Robert F. Garry

2000-01-01

384

Is Gulf War Syndrome Really a Mystery?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the 1991 Gulf War about 20,000 United States veterans and similar proportions of troops from other allied contingents have been affected by a variety of symptoms which have collectively become known as ‘Gulf War Syndrome’. Similar symptoms have been reported in Iraqi civilians including children. Despite extensive investigations no agreement has been reached on whether there

Milada Emmerova; František Jirava

2004-01-01

385

Vestibular dysfunction in Gulf War syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods : Vestibular complaints of Gulf War veterans were characterized by a nested case-control study of 23 veterans with 3 different Gulf War syndromes and 20 matched control subjects. All subjects completed a standardized symptom questionnaire and underwent standard audiovestibular tests administered by audiologists blinded to group identities. Results : The prevalence of reported dizzy spells was higher in veterans

PETER S. ROLAND; ROBERT W. HALEY; WENDY YELLIN; KRIS OWENS; ANGELA G. SHOUP

2000-01-01

386

Neuropsychological correlates of Gulf War syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a comprehensive multispecialty project, the present study reports on the neurocognitive and psychological function of veterans who report Persian Gulf War-related symptoms. The neuropsychological and psychological performances of 26 ill Gulf War veterans were compared to 20 well veterans from the same military unit. Neurocognitive functions assessed included intelligence, abstraction and problem-solving, attention and concentration, memory and

Thomas L. Kurt

1997-01-01

387

World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

Hagar, Suzy

1990-01-01

388

Was the Cold War a Security Dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the security dilemma, tensions and conşicts can arise between states even when they do not intend them. Some analysts have argued that the Cold War was a classic example of a security dilemma. This article disputes that notion. Although the Cold War contained elements of a deep security dilemma, it was not purely a case in which tensions and

Robert Jervis

2001-01-01

389

WRW: Worldwide Robotic Wars Ramy Ghattas  

E-print Network

WRW: Worldwide Robotic Wars Ramy Ghattas Paul Giampuzzi A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment Wars (WRW) is to provide a robot battle game that would appeal to an audience looking for a fun inflatables with electronic game systems. They also offer the wildly popular Phazer Zone Paintless Paintball

Sun, Yu

390

Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

2009-01-01

391

How Could a Beaver Start a War?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

Millward, Robert

2010-01-01

392

Chapter Eight Post-War Research Program  

E-print Network

89 Chapter Eight Post-War Research Program Frank Dunnington (1946-1952) Postwar Rutgers University At the end of World War II, there was a dramatic transformation in the University. Rutgers had achieved its uni- versity. Large numbers of veterans joined the student body. With the return of the veterans

Glashausser, Charles

393

The reported thoracic injuries in Homer's Iliad.  

PubMed

Homer's Iliad is considered to be a prominent and representative work of the tradition of the ancient Greek epic poetry. In this poem Homer presents the battles which took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War between Achaeans and Trojans. We wanted to examine the chest wounds, especially those which are described in detail, according to their localization, severity and mortality. Finally, there are reported 54 consecutive thoracic injuries in the Iliad. The mostly used weapons were the spear (63%), the stones (7.4%), the arrow (5.5%) and the sword (5.5%). We divided the injuries according to their severity in mild (those which did not cause serious injury to the victim), medium (those which cause the victim to abandon the battlefield), and severe (those which cause death of the victim). According to this classification, the reported injuries were mild in 11.11%, medium in 18.52%, and severe in the last 70.37% of the reported cases. In other words, 89% of the injuries belong to the medium or severe category of thoracic injury. As far as the mortality of the injuries is concerned, 38 out of 54 thoracic injuries include death, which makes the mortality percentage reach 70.37%. Concerning the "allocation of the roles", the Achaean were in 68% perpetrators and the Trojans in only 32%. In terms of gravity, out of 38 mortal injuries 30 involve a Trojan (78.95%) and the remaining 8 an Achaean (21.05%). The excellent and detailed description of the injuries by Homer, as well as of the symptoms, may reveal a man with knowledge of anatomy and medicine who cared for the injured warriors in the battlefield. PMID:21087529

Apostolakis, Efstratios; Apostolaki, Georgia; Apostolaki, Mary; Chorti, Maria

2010-01-01

394

The reported thoracic injuries in Homer's Iliad  

PubMed Central

Homer's Iliad is considered to be a prominent and representative work of the tradition of the ancient Greek epic poetry. In this poem Homer presents the battles which took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War between Achaeans and Trojans. We wanted to examine the chest wounds, especially those which are described in detail, according to their localization, severity and mortality. Finally, there are reported 54 consecutive thoracic injuries in the Iliad. The mostly used weapons were the spear (63%), the stones (7.4%), the arrow (5.5%) and the sword (5.5%). We divided the injuries according to their severity in mild (those which did not cause serious injury to the victim), medium (those which cause the victim to abandon the battlefield), and severe (those which cause death of the victim). According to this classification, the reported injuries were mild in 11.11%, medium in 18.52%, and severe in the last 70.37% of the reported cases. In other words, 89% of the injuries belong to the medium or severe category of thoracic injury. As far as the mortality of the injuries is concerned, 38 out of 54 thoracic injuries include death, which makes the mortality percentage reach 70.37%. Concerning the "allocation of the roles", the Achaean were in 68% perpetrators and the Trojans in only 32%. In terms of gravity, out of 38 mortal injuries 30 involve a Trojan (78.95%) and the remaining 8 an Achaean (21.05%). The excellent and detailed description of the injuries by Homer, as well as of the symptoms, may reveal a man with knowledge of anatomy and medicine who cared for the injured warriors in the battlefield. PMID:21087529

2010-01-01

395

Mothering during war and postwar in Bosnia.  

PubMed

The study aim was to describe displaced Bosnian mothers' experiences caring for their children during and immediately after the war (1992-1995). Mothers described their progression into war, through war, and into vastly changed lives. Using ethnographic methods, narrative data were collected near Sarajevo, Bosnia, from 14 displaced women who participated in one to three interviews each between 1996 and 1999. Data from the semistructured interviews were analyzed to determine patterns in participants' descriptions of mothering during war. Four common themes of mothering were identified in the data: "on the move," "I have to feed them," "living somewhere in between," and "still living the war inside." As care providers and policy makers develop initiatives to improve the health of women and children during complex humanitarian emergencies, there is much to learn from the narratives of Bosnian women about their extraordinary struggle to protect the lives of their children amid violence and loss. PMID:18180470

Robertson, Cheryl Lee; Duckett, Laura

2007-11-01

396

Years of life lost among Iranian people killed in the Iraq-Iran war: the 25-year perspective.  

PubMed

To estimate the years of life lost (YLL), registered deaths due to Iraq-Iran war (1980-2005) were identified considering ICD10 codes of Y36.0 to Y36.9. Estimated YLL was calculated by taking age-weighting options and discount rates. Population life expectancy in each corresponding year was retrieved from the national health database. During 1980-2005, 178,298 Iranian men and 5325 Iranian women died in war. The mean death age was 22.8 ± 9 years, 96.6% occurred during the years of war (September 1980-August 1988). In the years after the war (1988-2005) 6243 (3.4%) of deaths occurred as the result of complication of the war-related injuries or implanted landmines/unexploded ordnances (ICD10 code: Y36.8). YLL in Iraq-Iran war among Iranian victims were calculated as 10,479,405.0 years considering the age weighting and discount rate equal to 0. Age-adjusted YLL were estimated as 10,169,546.2 years in males. Female cases that comprised 2.9% of total victims lost 309,858.8 years. The mean YLL was calculated as 57.1 years for each Iranian victim killed in Iraq-Iran war. The war-related YLL was estimated more than 10 million years that comprised a majority of young men. This study is the first step in estimation of disability adjusted life year (DALY) of Iraq-Iran war on Iranian side. PMID:24344985

Mousavi, Batool; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Soroush, Mohammadreza

2014-12-01

397

Nursing and en route care: history in time of war.  

PubMed

The mission of the en route caregiver is to provide critical care in military helicopters for wounded Warriors. This care minimizes the effects of the wounds and injuries, and improves morbidity and mortality. This article will focus on the history of Army Nursing en route care. From World War II through Vietnam, and continuing through the War on Terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan, Army nurses served in providing en route care in military airplanes and helicopters for patients being transported to higher echelons of care. From aid stations on the battlefield to forward surgical teams which provide life, limb, and eyesight saving care, to the next higher level of care in combat support hospitals, these missions require specialized nursing skills to safely care for the high acuity patients. Before the en route care concept existed, there was not a program to train nurses in these critical skills. There was also a void of information about patient outcomes associated with the nursing assessment and care provided during helicopter medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of such unstable patients, and the consequent impact on the patient's condition after transport. The role of critical care nurses has proven to be essential and irreplaceable in providing full-spectrum care to casualties of war, in particular, the postsurgical patients transferred from one surgical facility to another in theatre. However, we have only recently developed the concepts over the required skill set, training, equipment, functionality, evidenced-based care, and sustainability of nursing in the en route care role. Much of the work to quantify and qualify nursing care has been done by individuals and individual units whose lessons-learned have only recently been captured. PMID:22124872

Davis, R Scott; Connelly, Linda K

2011-01-01

398

Injuries in the 1987 national amateur volleyball tournament.  

PubMed

In a prospective study of injuries in the 1987 United States Volleyball Association's national tournament, we found 154 injuries in 1520 participants during 7812 hours of play. The injury rate in this study was 1.97/100 hours of play. Before the tournament, the participants' history was taken, and during the week of participation, records were kept of every player who presented with an injury. Players ranged in age from 17 to 60 and competed in five age/gender groups. Females had an injury rate of 2.3 and males had an injury rate of 1.7. The highest injury rate was seen in the men's open division, ages 17 to 35 (2.7), and the lowest rate was seen in the men's Golden Masters, ages 46 and up (1.5). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries occurred during the tournament and 21% were considered to be chronic injuries with an acute exacerbation. The upper extremities accounted for 20% of the injuries. The ankle (17.6%), low back (14.2%), and knee (11%) were the most common injury sites. Strains (36%) and sprains (28%) were the most frequent types of injury. Only eight (5.2%) injuries resulted in more than 5 days of time loss. Two of these injuries involved the knee and two others required surgery. It is likely that in studies relying upon retrospective methods, fewer of the less severe injuries are found, thereby leading to an overestimation of the percentages of knee and ankle injuries and the proportion of severe injuries. The clinician contemplating providing care for a high-level tournament should expect a preponderance of minor injuries occurring in a variety of anatomical locations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2126673

Schafle, M D; Requa, R K; Patton, W L; Garrick, J G

1990-01-01

399

Retrospect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

Weaver, Anthony

1971-01-01

400

Retrospective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic ice shelves.

Brooks, David A.

401

Carnosine treatment for gulf war illness: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (B-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

Baraniuk, James Nicholas; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib; Timbol, Christian

2013-05-01

402

Carnosine Treatment for Gulf War Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

Baraniuk, James Nicholas; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib; Timbol, Christian

2014-01-01

403

CRANIOCEREBRAL INJURIES  

PubMed Central

The postconcussion syndrome is a definite entity, and the patient's complaints are due to legitimate injury. The following three factors contribute to the symptomatology: 1. Headaches, caused by the associated sprain of the cervical spine with resultant radiculitis—giving rise to muscle spasm and suboccipital headaches. 2. Vertigo, due to trauma of the vestibular and labyrinthine apparatus. 3. A vasomotor imbalance and instability resulting from the reaction to “stress.” In treatment of an unconscious patient great care must be taken to prevent anoxia and to balance the fluids and electrolytes. If coma develops following brain injury, hemorrhage into the cerebellar fossa as well as above the tentorium must be considered. PMID:13304695

Seletz, Emil

1956-01-01

404

Atomic Platters: Cold War Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along with ushering in a new age of global unrest and high anxiety, the emergence of the atomic bomb had a curious and not totally unpredictable effect on the world of popular (and not-so-popular) music. This site brings together these various subgenres of "atomic" music in a way that's rather fun, intriguing, and at times, a bit scary. Visitors can look through such subgenres as "Atomic", "Cold War", "Flying Saucer", and so on. While most of the songs are not available in their full form, visitors can read all of the lyrics and interpretive essays. Of course, visitors can find plenty of audio joy at the "CONELRAD Audio Archives" area. Herein are contained such gems as the positively odd "The Complacent Americans" and the equally lovable novelty album "The Goldwaters Sing Folk Songs to Bug the Liberals".

405

World War I Sheet Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Digital Initiatives at Brown University has created a number of fine collections since its inception in 2001, and this latest offering is no exception to that trend. The site is focused on providing access to hundreds of instances of sheet music that addresses various aspects of World War I. In this area, it is a definite success as the material is perfect for historians, musicians, or others who may be studying material and visual culture in the early 20th century. Users may browse through the sheet music by title, publisher, subject, and creator. Additionally, a historical essay and general introduction should be forthcoming on the site in the near future. Visitors would do well to check out such fine titles as "America He's for You", "Salvation Sal", and of course, "The Girl Behind the Man Behind the Gun," with lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse.

406

Preventing Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

407

Retrospective Memories of Racialized Experiences  

E-print Network

Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR Approved by: Research Advisor: Joe Feagin Associate Dean for Undergraduate Research: Robert C. Webb April 2010... Major: Sociology iii? ? ABSTRACT Retrospective Memories of Racialized Experiences. (April 2010) Hannah Margaret Price Department of Sociology Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Joe Feagin Department of Sociology This thesis...

Price, Hannah M.

2010-07-14

408

Moderators of the Safety Climate-Injury Relationship: A Meta-Analytic Examination  

E-print Network

and group levels of analysis. Hypotheses were posited regarding the effects of six moderators: study design (i.e., retrospective or prospective), the time frame for gathering injury data, the degree of content contamination and deficiency in safety climate...

Beus, Jeremy M.

2010-07-14

409

Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees  

PubMed Central

Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

2011-01-01

410

Upper limb reconstructive surgery uptake for persons with tetraplegia in New Zealand: a retrospective case review 2001–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective case series.Objective:To describe the uptake of upper limb surgery by individuals with tetraplegia in New Zealand (NZ).Setting:New Zealand.Methods:The clinical notes of all individuals who sustained a cervical spinal cord injury between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed for those who met the clinical criteria to undergo upper limb surgery. Cases were cross-referenced to the

J A Dunn; E J C Hay-Smith; L C Whitehead; S Keeling; A G Rothwell

2010-01-01

411

The causes and prevention of war  

SciTech Connect

This book seeks to answer what has become a species-survival question: how can humankind reduce the role of large-scale violence in society. Based partially on the serious thought of past scholars and statesmen on the determinants of war and the conditions for peace, but mainly on the author's own studies and observations of world politics, a wide-ranging examination of both small-scale and international acts of violence are provided. The author realistically appraises the efforts and means of reducing the role of war in international relations and concludes by offering an integrated strategy to prevent and control war.

Brown, S.

1987-01-01

412

Walking index for spinal cord injury (WISCI): criterion validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective examination.Objectives:To compare the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) and current scales for their sensitivity to walking changes in subjects with a spinal cord lesion (SCL) and further validate the WISCI for use in clinical trails.Setting:A large rehabilitation hospital in the center of Italy.Patients and methods:Retrospective review was performed on 284 patient records with an SCL. Measurements

B Morganti; G Scivoletto; P Ditunno; J F Ditunno; M Molinari

2005-01-01

413

Gramsci, the First World War, and the Problem of Politics vs Religion vs Economics in War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines Gramsci’s writings about the First World War, primarily his immediate reflections in 1914–1918, but also relevant prison notes (1926–1937). The most striking feature of his attitude during the war years is ‘Germanophilia’, a label I adapt from Croce, whose writings on the Great War also exhibited this attitude. A key common motivation was that political conflicts should

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

2005-01-01

414

Compliance with the Laws of War: Dataset and Coding Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a dataset on compliance with the laws of war in 20th century interstate wars. We introduce the dataset, discuss sources, and explain the coding schemes. The unit is a directed warring dyad in a given war for one of nine issues. We collect five dimensions of compliance, including quality of the data, and construct a single measure

James D. Morrow; Hyeran Jo

2006-01-01

415

War, terrorism and the public's health.  

PubMed

War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights, increase militarism, and divert resources from health care and from other needed services. War and terrorism may be best prevented through addressing their causes, which include limited resources, injustice, poverty and ethnic and religious enmity, and through strengthening the United Nations and the treaties controlling specific weapons systems, particularly weapons of mass destruction. In particular, the United States should cease its interference in the internal affairs of other nations and its advocacy of unilateral pre-emptive war. PMID:18771191

Sidel, Victor W

2008-01-01

416

The Cold War: A Yearbook Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how the photographs, valedictorian addresses, nicknames, cartoons and other material contained in high school yearbook can yield information regarding the world views of Americans at the start of the Cold War. (JDH)

Graebner, William

1986-01-01

417

Tolstoy's Mathematics in \\\\War and Peace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nineteenth century Russian author Leo Tolstoy based his egalitarian views on sociology and history on the then newfangled statistical physics and also proposed a mathematical theory of waging war.

Paul Vit

418

Cold-War Echoes in American Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

Winn, Ira Jay

1984-01-01

419

Operation Overlord and the Principles of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation OVERLORD provides an ideal case study for the joint military planner. An analysis of Operation OVERLORD using the timeless principles of war provides insight that can still be useful today when planning combined, joint, and coalition operations....

S. S. Seitz, K. M. Oakeley, F. Garcia-Huidobro

2002-01-01

420

The Mounting Prospects of Nuclear War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postulates that the probability of a nuclear world war is steadily increasing due to the aims race escalation, the spread of nuclear technology, the international trade in arms, and the failure of arms controls. (SL)

Barnaby, Frank

1977-01-01

421

Health Care for Gulf War Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... Toll Free Numbers VA » Health Care » Public Health » Military Exposures » Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses » Benefits » Health Care ... Veterans Public Health Public Health Public Health Home Military Exposures Military Exposures Home 4 Ways to Find ...

422

CWIHP: Cold War International History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cold War International History Project was established in 1991 to facilitate the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War, and to disseminate new information and perspectives on Cold War history emerging from previously inaccessible sources. This web site is the latest CWIHP initiative to make available these documents. The core of the site is the CWIHP Virtual Library, a searchable collection of documents, working papers, and articles from the CWIHP Bulletin. The library covers numerous topics related to the Cold War and users can sort the documents by several methods, including keyword, subject, geographic subject, and bulletin issue. Other features at the site include the CWIHP Bulletin (in .pdf format) and a discussion group (free registration required).

423

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

424

The Cold War and American Education  

E-print Network

American historians who have studied the Cold War have usually focused upon either the events on the international scene which gave rise to tensions or on the policies and rhetoric of national political leaders such as President Truman and Senator...

Marden, David L.

1975-10-01

425

The Great War: 80 Years On: BBC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

November 11 marks the 80th anniversary of the armistice that ended "the war to end all wars," a conflict which took as many as ten million lives, wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, and helped to spark a revolution in Russia. This new site from the BBC commemorates the war and offers users a number of interesting resources. Multimedia offerings include a ten-minute video collage of photos and newsreel footage produced by the Imperial War Museum and a selection of fascinating and poignant audio interviews of veterans, including one man who was just fourteen when he left to fight in France. The site also contains a selection of soldiers' letters home, overviews of four major battles (Gallipoli, Verdun, the Somme, and Passchendaele), and a number of topical articles.

426

War stress and late-life mortality in World War II male civilian resistance veterans.  

PubMed

The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war stress veterans had died, and only 35% of the comparison group. The baseline quality of life was significantly poorer in the war stress veterans than in the comparison group. Baseline variables explained 42% of the increased risk of mortality among war stress veterans. Smoking was the largest single contributor to mortality. PMID:21675559

Op Den Velde, Wybrand; Deeg, Dorly J H; Hovens, Johannes E; Van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Aarts, Petra G H

2011-04-01

427

Ocular air-gun injury: 19 cases  

PubMed Central

There have been many calls for preventive action against injuries caused by air-guns. Eye injuries are particularly serious, and we conducted a retrospective study to review their characteristics. Ophthalmic consultants in the south-west region of England and South Wales were asked to recollect any injuries that had resulted from air weapons. Information was recorded on the nature and circumstances of the injury, subsequent management, and long-term effects. 19 cases of ocular injury were identified, sustained at mean age 19.7 years, all in the past decade. 15 of the victims were male. At least 12 shootings were accidental but 2 were deliberate. The injury was self-inflicted in 5 cases, and in 6 the assailant was known to the victim. 9 sustained ruptured globes and 8 had severe contusions. Ultimately 4 individuals required enucleation and 2 evisceration. At last review, visual acuity was no perception of light in 10 (53%) and ‘counting fingers’ or worse in 16. Victims spent an average of nearly 10 days as an inpatient. The characteristics of the incidents that lead to ocular air-weapon injuries are unchanged. Reform of the firearms laws is probably the best way to prevention. PMID:11461983

Shuttleworth, G N; Galloway, P H

2001-01-01

428

The Vietnam War Declassification Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the fall of Phnom Penh and Saigon, this month the Ford Presidential Library released nearly 30,000 pages of newly declassified material concerning the Vietnam War. Most of the documents "are from the White House offices of national security advisers Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft or from the files of National Security Council staff. Included are President Ford's 'Country Files' for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; a 'Backchannel' collection of especially sensitive messages; and 'Memcons,' transcript-like memoranda of high level conversations." At the site, users can view a list of topics covered by the recently opened documents and the Library's core holdings on Vietnam, read a press release, and of course, view the full text of a number of selected documents as well as some photos. The majority of documents are offered as page images, and include Henry Kissinger's cable informing Saigon of President Ford's decision to evacuate, Helicopter pilot radio transmissions during the evacuation, Cabinet meeting minutes, National Security Council meeting minutes, General Fred C. Weyand's Vietnam Assessment Report of April 4, 1975, and materials related to the Mayaguez Incident, among others. While this release will certainly grab the attention of scholars and researchers, almost anyone interested in the waning days of American involvement in Vietnam will find multiple items of interest.

429

Vietnam War Era Ephemera Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The traumatic and unsettled backdrop of social and cultural change throughout the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s will not soon be forgotten by any of those persons who lived through that period. Some groups of people came together under the banner of the women's liberation movement, and still others surrounded themselves in the unifying guise of ethnic solidarity and pride, such as those who participated in the American Indian Movement. No one ongoing event garnered as much attention, however, as the Vietnam War did. That particular event inspired a host of posters, handouts, and other printed ephemera that may have quickly disappeared, as do many pieces of material culture often do. Fortunately, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections division has created this online archive which brings many of these documents together in one place. The documents are divided into thematic categories, such as racism, socialism, farm workers, gay rights, and religion. There are some real compelling documents on the site, and those with a penchant for social and cultural history will enjoy this fine collection.

430

War Peace Film Guide. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This filmography is a selective listing of 287 films dealing with the topics of war and peace for use with K-12 and college students and with adults. The annotated guide will be of use to anyone planning a world affairs program and of special value to those interested in the problem of war. A wide variety of subject areas are treated in the films.…

Dowling, John

431

Sexual Violence during War and Forced Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rape in the context of war has been described since earliest historical times (Brownmiller, 1975). The vast literature on\\u000a this topic has dealt with issues of military command and discipline, male violence, evolution of legal norms, and documentation\\u000a of egregious instances of mass rape. In the conventional nation-state wars of the 20th century, such documentation often lagged\\u000a long after the

Jennifer Leaning; Susan Bartels; Hani Mowafi

432

The Iran-Iraq War: A Reassessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The Iran-Iraq war remains one of the longest conflicts in the history of the modern Middle East. The war would define Iran’s foreign policy orientation, as the exigencies of the conflict conditioned its approach to the United States, the Arab world, and even Israel. Along the way, Iran’s leaders made a series of mistakes and miscalculations that ensured a

Ray Takeyh

2010-01-01

433

The Pulse of War: Writing a Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and a series of articles and poetry concerning the war on terror being imposed by the U.S., and more.\\u000aWrites Kevin Bowen:\\u000aOne year into the war in Iraq, the ugliness of the undertaking has become more and more inescapable. If anything, the experience has reaffirmed a few simple facts that deserve reiteration. There is no such thing as

Kevin Bowen; Tony Aiello; Chris Agee; Almira El-Zein; Fred Marchant; Carolyn Forché; Fanny Howe

2005-01-01

434

Review Article: Refighting the First World War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richard F. Hamilton and Holger H. Herwig. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. xvi, 266. $60.00 (US), cloth; $17.99 (US), paper; Michael S. Neiberg. Fighting the Great War: A Global History. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2005. Pp. xx, 395. $27.95 (US); Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson. The Somme. New Haven and London:

John H. Morrow Jr

2006-01-01

435

Effects of injury level and severity on direct costs of care for acute spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

New treatments are being investigated for spinal cord injury (SCI), and any improvement may result in incremental cost savings. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of care 2 years after an SCI, stratifying for completeness and level of injury. A retrospective database analysis was carried out using data from the Quebec Trauma Registry, the Quebec Medical Insurance Board, and the Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation between 1997 and 2007. Excluding individuals sustaining moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries, 481 individuals who sustained an SCI from motor vehicle accidents were identified. Individuals were classified as complete and incomplete in the following categories: C1-C7, C8-T6, T7-L1, L2-S5. Using data from governmental public healthcare organizations makes this study comprehensive. For C1-C7 complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries, the first-year cost was $157?718 and $56?505, respectively (2009 Canadian dollars calculated per patient). Similar differences between complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries were seen for the other groups. Furthermore, for complete injuries, costs were higher for higher levels of injury during both the first and the second year after injury. For incomplete lesions, costs did not differ significantly between groups during the first or the second year. Incomplete spinal cord injuries result in lower healthcare costs compared with complete injuries across all groups during the first 2 years after injury. As less severe levels of injury result in measurably lower costs, the funds spent to reduce the severity or level of SCI could at least partially be recouped through healthcare savings. PMID:25192008

Radhakrishna, Mohan; Makriyianni, Ioli; Marcoux, Judith; Zhang, Xun

2014-12-01

436

Computed tomography to diagnose blunt diaphragm injuries: not ready for prime time.  

PubMed

Diaphragm injuries after blunt trauma are uncommon but require early diagnosis to expedite repair. The advancing technology of computed tomography (CT) scanners has improved the detection of almost all traumatic injuries; however, the literature regarding the diagnostic accuracy of CT scan for blunt diaphragm injuries is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the CT scan findings in the setting of known blunt diaphragm injury. We performed a retrospective review of all blunt trauma patients with a known diaphragm injury confirmed at laparotomy who also had a preoperative CT scan of the torso. Every CT scan was retrospectively reviewed by a board-certified radiologist for evidence of diaphragm injury as well as associated abdominal and thoracic injuries. Forty-two patients sustaining blunt trauma had preoperative CT scans of the torso and a diaphragm injury confirmed at laparotomy. Only 57 per cent of CT scans showed evidence of diaphragmatic injury. The most common thoracic injury identified was a pulmonary contusion (79%). Although the advancement of imaging technology has markedly improved the diagnosis and management of blunt traumatic injuries, the detection of diaphragm injuries using CT continues to be low and reconstructions do not help in finding diaphragm injuries. PMID:25347503

Sprunt, Julie M; Brown, Carlos V R; Reifsnyder, Andrew C; Shestopalov, Alex V; Ali, Sadia; Fielder, W Drew

2014-11-01

437

Analysis and Comparison between War Driving and War Walk-ing in Metropolitan WiFi Radio Maps  

E-print Network

Analysis and Comparison between War Driving and War Walk- ing in Metropolitan WiFi Radio Maps Arvin method for building large-scale radio maps in metropolitan Wi-Fi localization. Although the human effort than that of war walking. This work compares radio maps built from war driving and walking and analyzes

Ouhyoung, Ming

438

HTST 383 WAR AND SOCIETY III: COLD WAR AND T/R 1200-1445. EDC 388  

E-print Network

HTST 383 ­ WAR AND SOCIETY III: COLD WAR AND BEYOND SPRING T/R 1200-1445. EDC 388 ADAM LAJEUNESSE. This course is the history of the Cold War. The military struggle, the economic competition For nearly half a century the world stood on the brink of total, perhaps even apocalyptic, war. The competing

Habib, Ayman

439

Pediatric injuries in maxillofacial trauma: a 5 year study.  

PubMed

Fractures of the facial skeleton in children are less frequent. This clinical retrospective study of 5 year was conducted on 95 patients aged less than 16 years who sustained maxillofacial injuries during the period 2003 to 2008. Age, sex, etiology incidence and type of fracture were studied. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.9:1. The 7-12 year age group was commonly involved and the highest incidence was at age of ten years. Falls were the most common cause of injury accounting for 41%, followed by road traffic accidents (30%). Sports related injuries, assault and child abuse were also the causes of injury in children. Dentoalveolar injuries were found to be highest incidence with 42.1% followed by mandibular fractures. The soft tissue injuries were associated the pediatric maxillofacial trauma were found to be 34.7% of all cases. PMID:23139495

Kumaraswamy, S V; Madan, Nanjappa; Keerthi, R; Singh, Deora Shakti

2009-06-01

440

Children's conceptions of conventional and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The general objective of this study was to investigate the development of the conceptions of conventional and nuclear war in the preadolescent and adolescent child. Subjects consisted of children in three age groups: 5-6, 9-10, and 13-14 year olds (N = 63) drawn from public and private schools in the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Children were administered an interview and supplementary measures. Parents were administered questionnaires examining related areas. The principal findings were as follows: (1) The development of the war concepts. Regarding the concept of conventional war, by the age of five or six, the child usually can recognize the word war and indicate that the word has to do with fighting between two or more parties. However, the notion of nationality is evidently not solidly grasped until around the ages of 8-11 years old. In this study, 45% of the 5 and 6 year olds were minimally aware of the concept of nuclear war. By the time the child reaches the age of 9 or 10, the proportion of those with minimal awareness rises to about 80%. By 13 and 14 years old, 100% are familiar with the concept. (2) Levels of Worry. Of the children aware of the subject of nuclear war, 76% indicated that they were very worried by its possibility.

Boone, R.P.

1985-01-01

441

Avoidable factors contributing to death of children with head injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of potentially avoidable complications contributing to death of children with head injuries. DESIGN--Retrospective review of children who died with head injuries from 1979 to 1986 from data of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Hospital Activity Analyses, case notes, coroners' records, and necropsy reports. SETTING--District general hospitals and two regional neurosurgical centres in Northern region.

P M Sharples; A Storey; A Aynsley-Green; J A Eyre

1990-01-01

442

Occurrence of Cervical Spine Injuries During the Rugby Scrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs

Merrick J. Wetzler; Toks Akpata; William Laughlin; Andrew S. Levy

1998-01-01

443

The pattern of injury and poisoning in South East Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and even more so in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Iran is a LMIC and lacks information regarding injury for program and policy purposes. This study aimed to describe the incidence and patterns of injury in one province in South Eastern Iran. Methods A hospital-based, retrospective case review using a routinely collected registry in all Emergency Departments in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran for 12 months in 2007–2008. Results In total 18,155 injuries were recorded during the study period. The majority of injuries in South Eastern Iran were due to road traffic crashes. Individuals living in urban areas sustained more injuries compared to individuals from rural areas. Males typically experienced more injuries than females. Males were most likely to be injured in a street/alley or village whereas females were most likely to be injured in or around the home. In urban areas, road traffic related injuries were observed to affect older age groups more than younger age groups. Poisoning was most common in the youngest age group, 0 to 4 years. Conclusions This study provides data on incidence and patterns of injury in South Eastern Iran. Knowledge of injury burden, such as this paper, is likely to help policy makers and planners with health service planning and injury prevention. PMID:22958398

2012-01-01

444

Alpine skiing injuries. A nine-year study.  

PubMed Central

Injury patterns in alpine skiing have changed over time as ski, boot, binding, and slope-grooming technologies have evolved. We retrospectively examined injury patterns in alpine skiers over a 9-year period at the Mammoth and June mountains (California) ski area. A total of 24,340 injuries were reported for the 9 seasons studied, and total lift tickets sold numbered 9,201,486. The overall injury rate was 2.6 injuries per 1,000 skier days and increased slowly over the period studied. The knee was the most frequently injured area at 35% of all injuries. Increasing trends (P < .05) were noted for the rates of lower extremity injuries (37%) and knee injuries (45%). A decreasing trend was noted for the rate of lacerations (31% decrease). Slight increases were noted in upper extremity and axial injury rates. Skiing injuries continue to be a worrisome recreational problem despite improvements in ski equipment and slope-grooming techniques. The increasing trend in lower extremity, particularly knee, injury rates highlights the need for continued skier education and equipment innovation. PMID:8732730

Davidson, T M; Laliotis, A T

1996-01-01

445

A 15 year retrospective review of homicide in the elderly.  

PubMed

With constant improvements in socioeconomic conditions, the people of most industrialized nations are living longer. Most elderly individuals lead productive lives within the community. Unfortunately, when elderly individuals suffer from a debilitating disease or injury, society seems ill-equipped to care for them. The frailty and social isolation that comes with illness or advanced age renders the elderly more vulnerable to crime. This study examines the circumstances that surround homicides of those 65 years of age or older which occurred in Jefferson County, Alabama over a 15 year span. We conducted a retrospective study of all decedents brought to the Jefferson County Coroner/Medical Examiner Office during the 15 years from 1981-1995. A computer search identified 150 homicide victims who were 65 years or older. In these 150 cases the causes of death were as follows: gunshot wound 50%, blunt force injuries 19%, knife wounds 14%, and asphyxiation 10%. Younger homicide victims were much less likely to be killed as the result of a direct physical assault; blunt force injuries and asphyxiation combined caused death in only 7% of the younger population. Robbery was the most common motive for death in the elderly population, which accounted for 37% of cases. The most common location for homicides in the elderly population was in their own residence, which accounted for 71% of cases. Four elderly homicide victims were shot by the police. Three elderly decedents died as a result of abuse. PMID:9544544

Falzon, A L; Davis, G G

1998-03-01

446

Abdominal hollow viscus injuries are associated with spine and neurologic infections after penetrating spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

Penetrating spinal cord injuries are rare but potentially devastating injuries that are associated with significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of abdominal hollow viscus injuries (HVIs) on neurologic and spinal infectious complications in patients sustaining penetrating spinal cord injuries. We performed a 13-year retrospective review of a Level I trauma center database. Variables analyzed included demographics, injury patterns and severity, spine operations, and outcomes. Spine and neurologic infections (SNIs) were defined as paraspinal or spinal abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with SNI. Of 137 patients, there were 126 males (92%) with a mean age of 27 ± 10 years. Eight patients (6%) underwent operative stabilization of their spine. Fifteen patients (11%) developed SNI. There was a higher incidence of SNI among patients with abdominal HVI compared with those without (eight [26%] vs six [6%], P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, after controlling for injury severity, solid abdominal injury and HVI, vascular injury, and spine operation, abdominal HVIs were independently associated with an increased risk for SNI (odds ratio, 6.88; 95% confidence interval, 2.14 to 22.09; P = 0.001). Further studies are required to determine the optimal management strategy to prevent and successfully treat these infections. PMID:25264640

Schwed, Alexander C; Plurad, David S; Bricker, Scott; Neville, Angela; Bongard, Fred; Putnam, Brant; Kim, Dennis Y

2014-10-01

447

Combat blast injuries: injury severity and posttraumatic stress disorder interaction on career outcomes in male servicemembers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe career performance outcomes after combat blast injury and to examine the relationship between the injury severity and type of military discharge. A retrospective cohort study of 4,255 male servicemembers injured in a combat blast as a part of Operation Iraqi Freedom was completed. In the total sample, 37.8% experienced a normal discharge and 8.3% had an early discharge. Of the 2,229 members who had a discharge code, 29.8% experienced a disability discharge. Both early attrition and disability discharge proportions were higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than in those without PTSD. There was a significant interaction between PTSD and injury severity in the discharge disability outcome. In those without PTSD, there was a dose-response relationship between injury severity and disability discharge. In those with PTSD, injury severity predicted disability discharge. The relationship between injury severity and disability discharge was less striking in servicemembers with PTSD than without PTSD. The effect of PTSD and injury severity on career performance outcomes after blast injuries should be factored into outcome planning. PMID:23516079

Eskridge, Susan L; Macera, Caroline A; Galarneau, Michael R; Holbrook, Troy L; Woodruff, Susan I; Macgregor, Andrew J; Morton, Deborah J; Shaffer, Richard A

2013-01-01

448

The association between hip and groin injuries in the elite junior football years and injuries sustained during elite senior competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo establish the relationship between the history of hip and groin injuries in elite junior football players prior to elite club recruitment and the incidence of hip and groin injuries during their elite career.DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingAnalysis of existing data.Participants500 Australian Football League (AFL) players drafted from 1999 to 2006 with complete draft medical assessment data.Assessment of risk factorsPrevious history of

B. J. Gabbe; M. Bailey; J. L. Cook; M. Makdissi; E. Scase; N. Ames; T. Wood; J. J. McNeil; J. W. Orchard

2010-01-01

449

Martial Arts Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. Data sources: The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. Main results: In general, the absolute

W. Pieter

2005-01-01

450

The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…

Kreso, Adila Pasalic

2008-01-01

451

Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

Engdahl, Brian E.

452

An ideology of war, not peace: jus in bello and the Grotian tradition of war  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grotian tradition of war developed in a particular manner in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in the context of the framing of the modern laws of war. This article will seek to trace the core elements of this tradition, which drew heavily on the writings of Hugo Grotius (1583–1645). Its important values were law, order, power, and

Karma Nabulsi

1999-01-01

453

Accuracy Performance Analysis between War Driving and War Walking in Metropolitan  

E-print Network

Accuracy Performance Analysis between War Driving and War Walking in Metropolitan WiFi Localization that contains WiFi signals received at various locations, and uses the map for location estimation. Thus the difference between the positional accuracies of the driving and walking radio maps in WiFi fingerprint- based

Huang, Polly

454

Homo Economicus Goes to War: Methodological Individualism, Rational Choice and the Political Economy of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoclassical economic theories of violent conflict have proliferated in recent years and, with their application to contemporary wars, have influenced donors and policy makers. This paper reviews the intellectual foundations and empirical substance of such theories and offers a critique drawing on a political economy perspective. There are strong grounds for arguing that orthodox economic theories of war are reductionist,

C. Cramer

2002-01-01

455

War and Peace in Literature. Prose, Drama and Poetry Which Illuminate the Problem of War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literary works that will help teachers of humanities and conflict resolution courses lead their students to a better understanding of the problems of war and peace are summarized. The document is based on two premises: (1) literature that captures the experience and the meaning of war leads to an understanding of that phenomenon, and (2) the…

Dougall, Lucy, Comp.

456

Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

Vadas, Robert E.

2007-01-01

457

Responding To The Call: Just War And Jihad In The War Against Al-Qaeda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is an examination of the War against al-Qaeda from the field of religious ethics. In response to September Eleventh, the United States has spent the last decade fighting a war against a diffuse and elusive network of militant Islamists. These events have not been neglected by the scholarly community, and a range of material on al-Qaeda and the

Nahed Artoul Zehr

2011-01-01

458

Waging the inchoate war: Defining, fighting, and second-guessing the ‘Long War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article answers three questions: What is the nature of the Long War? How is progress (or lack thereof) to be assessed? Where is it likely to go next? An appreciation of Clausewitz shows that practical centers of gravity exist for the Long War, and that the conflict pivots upon the ability to persuasively link ideology to events via a

Frank ‘Scott’ Douglas

2007-01-01

459

The China–Pakistan–United States Strategic Triangle: From Cold War to the “War on Terrorism”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy SEAL raid in Abbottabad, Pakistan, and Islamabad's subsequent turn toward China have highlighted one of the most remarkable legacies of the Cold War: the persistence of a strategic triangle composed of China, Pakistan, and the United States. Throughout much of the Cold War, China and the United States competed to keep Pakistan within their particular sphere of

Paul J. Smith

2011-01-01

460

Teaching about the Period between World War I and World War II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a teaching guide to accompany a forthcoming Mobil Showcase television series, "Between the Wars." The series chronicles events between the end of World War I and the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The guide contains background information, discussion questions, and activities for each of the 16 programs in the series. (Author/AV)

Social Education, 1978

1978-01-01

461

National football head and neck injury registry: report on cervical quadriplegia, 1971 to 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on cervical spine injuries resulting from participation in football have been compiled by a national registry established in 1975. Information has been collected retrospectively by defined criteria since 1971. Efforts have been made to establish the mechanism of injury responsible in the majority of instances on the basis of epidemiologic evidence and recognized biome chanical principles. During the 5-year

Joseph S. Torg; Theodore C. Quedenfeld; Albert Burstein; Alan Spealman; Claude Nichols

1979-01-01

462

Significant Pediatric Morbidity and Mortality from Intracranial Ballistic Injuries Caused by Nonpowder Gunshot Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpowder (ball-bearing and pellet) weapons derive their source of energy from compressed air or carbon dioxide. Such weapons are dangerous toys that cause serious injuries and even death to children and adolescents. A retrospective chart review study was undertaken to describe nonpowder gun injuries at a southwestern US urban level I adult and pediatric trauma center. Specific emphasis was placed

Patrick J. O’Neill; Mary Foster Lumpkin; Benjamin Clapp; Tammy R. Kopelman; Marc R. Matthews; Jordy C. Cox; Daniel M. Caruso; Iman Feiz-Erfan

2009-01-01

463

Children's head injuries in the Vietnamese refugee population in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

All Vietnamese patients with head injuries from two of the largest refugee camps in Hong Kong are routinely referred to the Neurosurgical Unit of the Prince of Wales Hopital for management. In order to determine the epidemiology of head injuries in this population group, we have retrospectively reviewed all hospitalized cases over a 4 year period from January 1990 to

K. Y. C. Goh; W. S. Poon

1995-01-01

464

Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction

A D Faigenbaum; G D Myer

2010-01-01

465

Interactions Between Child Behavior Patterns and Parenting: Implications for Children's Unintentional Injury Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Two factors were considered as predictors of children's risk for unintentional injury: (a) children's temperamentally difficult behavior patterns and (b) parenting. Along with hypotheses to replicate previous univariate effects, it was hypothesized that active, involved parents with sufficient time resources might reduce injury risk among temperamentally at-risk children. Methods Study 1 used a retrospective design with a diverse sample

David C. Schwebel; Carl M. Brezausek; Sharon L. Ramey; Craig T. Ramey

2004-01-01

466

Maxillofacial injuries in a group of South Africans under 18 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective — To find out the incidence of maxillofacial injuries in South African children aged 18 years or less. Design — Retrospective study of casenotes. Setting —Six teaching hospitals affiliated to the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, serving a population of about 5 million people. Subjects — All 326 children treated for facial injuries in the maxillofacial and oral departments of

Y. Bamjee; J. F. Lownie; P. E. Cleaton-Jones; M. A. Lownie

1996-01-01

467

Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells  

SciTech Connect

The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

2005-04-19

468

Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals: United Nations War Crimes Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress' Military Legal Resources has a section on its website that highlights war criminal trials from World War II that offer "major points of municipal and international law that were raised and settled during the trials as well as the potential for the greatest legal interest." The trials cover the time period of 1947-1949, and comprise 15 volumes, each with an introduction by the chairman of the United Nations War Crimes Commission. Visitors will find that each volume's table of contents contains the breakdown of each case, including "Outline of the Proceedings" which is typically comprised of facts and evidence, defense of the accused, and the findings and resulting sentences. The "Notes on the Case" name and discuss the appropriateness of the laws or statutes applied to the case. Visitors interested in World War II history will find these cases provide an interesting perspective by which to view the war.

469

Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.  

PubMed

Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

Forge, John

2009-03-01

470

Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages (GWVRP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages provides a single resource for information on Gulf War Syndrome. Included is information on the syndrome and how to obtain benefits; hyperlinked versions of reports and studies of Gulf War syndrome and its possible causes and treatments; information about and newsletters from Gulf War veteran activist organizations; direct links to the Department of Veteran Affairs Home Page and other online resources of interest to veterans, their families and others concerned. The site is fully searchable by keyword. A new feature is "Tracings in the Sand," a section where veterans can share their experiences of their Gulf War service, and how it has affected their lives. Also included are weekly news flashes, such as the following: "Jan Williams of Sen. Rockefeller's office has indicated an interest in how PL 103-446 is being administered. If you are a Persian Gulf veteran and have been turned down for VA disability, please call Jan Williams at 202 224-2074. She is looking for records and the reasons stated on the decision letter."

Beer, Jeff.; Szabo, Grant.

1997-01-01

471

Snowblower injuries to the hand.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the nature and incidence of hand injuries caused by snowblowers, as well as the accident conditions and accident prevention. We conducted a retrospective evaluation over ten consecutive winters. Nine patients were included. All were men with an average age of 49.7 years (17-71). The accidents occurred at home in seven out of nine patients. The machine was running in 50% of the injury events. In most cases, the injuries occurred when the patient tried to unclog snow from the lateral discharge chute. Only four out of the nine patients had read the instructions or received instructions from the salesperson. The dominant hand was injured in 7 out of 9 patients. An average of 2.7 fingers were injured. The longest fingers were most commonly injured: 8 middle fingers, 7 ring fingers, 4 little fingers, 2 indexes and 1 thumb. All the fractures were open. Three patients were operated on several times. In 7 out of 9 cases, the patients had sequelae such as amputation. The mean time off work was 11.4 weeks (3-24). All the patients were experienced snowblower users (9 years and 57th use on average). Snowblower accidents are very mutilating. Prevention must include protected access to blades and better verbal and written safety warnings. PMID:24996696