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1

Retrospective Evaluation of Colon Injury Cases  

PubMed Central

Objective: When considering abdominal region injuries, the colon is one of the most frequently wounded organs. Due to the septic contents of the colon, failure to treat or improper treatment of colon injuries increases the risk of major complications and may result in death. The aim of our study is a retrospective evaluation of colon injury cases over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine patients with a diagnosis of colon injury were included in the study. The cause of colon injury, injured area, Flint colon injury score, additional organs injured, type of surgical procedure performed, postoperative complications and mortality were evaluated. Results: The most frequent cause of colon injury was cutters (57.2%), followed by firearms (36.7%). The left colon was the most common site of injury (40.8%), followed by the transverse (28.6%) and right colon (20.4%). Primary treatment or resection and primary anastomosis were performed on 38 patients (77.6%), while primary treatment and proximal decompression colostomy were performed on 11 patients (22.4%). Eighteen of the patients (36.7%) experienced major postoperative complications, and 6 patients (12.2%) died. Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality of colonic injuries can be reduced by rapid patient transportation, good operational experience, use of wide spectrum antibiotics and postoperative care in an intensive care unit.

Sa??ro?lu, Tamer; Tunca, Fatih; Eren, Eryi?it; Meydan, Burhan; Gezer, Cem; Tunca, Erhan

2008-01-01

2

Musculoskeletal injuries in Homer's Iliad: the War of Troy revisited.  

PubMed

Homer's Iliad--the most famous and influential epic poem--has been previously reviewed with respect to head, craniomaxillofacial, neck, thoracic, and hand injuries in the literature. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no data regarding musculoskeletal injuries. This article describes the musculoskeletal injuries that had ensued during the war of Troy. The Turkish translation of the original epic poem Iliad was reviewed for musculoskeletal injuries, that is, their descriptions, outcome, the weapons used, and the engaged warriors. Extremity injuries were evaluated as regards the affected bones. The pertinent treatment methods were also recorded. In total, 103 musculoskeletal injuries were detected during 81 combats. The most commonly involved areas were the shoulder (15.5%), the head (14.5%), the cervical vertebrae (14.5%), and the thoracic vertebrae (8.7%). The weapons used were spear (n = 52); sword (n = 9); arrow (n = 9); stone (n = 8); and cane, animal, the hand, Chariot race, and broken yoke (n = 1 for each). Fifty-four combats (66.6%) resulted in death. Therapeutic herbs, compound of milk, and essence of fig were used as treatment alternatives. While providing a historic snapshot on the war of Troy, in this article, the authors have reviewed the musculoskeletal injuries and their management in those ancient times. Despite the long period in between, unfortunately, physicians/surgeons are still faced with war injuries in current medical practice. The authors strongly hope that, at least in the near future, physicians will be left with only natural health problems and without those artificially generated by human beings. PMID:24406735

Kömürcü, Erkam; Tok, Fatih; Sim?ek, Ay?e; Ozçakar, Levent

2014-04-01

3

Equine-associated maxillofacial injuries: retrospective 5-year analysis.  

PubMed

We explored the relation between the causes of facial injuries in equestrians and the presence or absence of associated injuries. Over a 5-year period we retrospectively reviewed all patients who presented to the John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, with facial injuries that had resulted from activity with horses. We analysed the rates of hard and soft tissue injuries, and of associated injuries by sex and mechanism. A total of 85 patients were included (50 female and 35 male) with an age range of 2-88 years. There was a significant difference in the rate of maxillofacial and associated injuries when groups were analysed for sex and mechanism of injury. Facial injuries caused by falling from a horse were more often associated with other injuries in men than in women (p<0.05), and men were 4 times more likely to present with associated injuries than women (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 14) We also found significant differences in the rates of facial fracture. Women who had been kicked by a horse were more likely to sustain bony injuries than men (p<0.05). Our data confirm the association between kicks and facial fracture, and this may provide an impetus for the development of appropriate protective equipment. Patients who sustain facial injuries when falling from a horse often present with associated injuries and this has practical implications for clinicians involved in their management. PMID:24168759

Islam, Shofiq; Gupta, Benjamin; Taylor, Christopher J; Chow, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Gary R

2014-02-01

4

Spinal cord injury in Italy: A multicenter retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celani MG, Spizzichino L, Ricci S, Zampolini M, Franceschini M, Retrospective Study Group on SCI. Spinal cord injury in Italy: a multicenter retrospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:589-96. Objective: To investigate certain factors influencing the length of stay (LOS) in a rehabilitation center, the incidence of pressure ulcers, and the neurologic improvement of patients with traumatic (T\\/SCI) and nontraumatic

M. Grazia Celani; Lorenzo Spizzichino; Stefano Ricci; Mauro Zampolini; Marco Franceschini

2001-01-01

5

Lower extremity injuries in lateral impact: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A retrospective analysis of the NASS/CDS database from 1993 to 2000 was used to investigate lower extremity injury in lateral impact. The analysis includes the study of the injury patterns, crash characteristics and the interactions between the occupant and the vehicle interior, including injuries to the farside occupants. The findings include significantly different injury patterns for the nearside and farside impacts. In particular, while the proportion of pelvis/hip injuries, with respect to AIS2 and AIS3 lower extremity skeletal injuries and 2-4 and 10-8 o'clock side impacts, was higher in nearside (70.4%) than farside (38.3%), the opposite trend was observed for the thigh (2.8% vs 4.5%), knee (6.2% vs 16.7%), leg (10.1% vs 19.5%) and foot/ankle (5.6% vs 14.7) injuries. Analysis of the PDOF suggested that a large proportion the impacts occurred obliquely, at approximately 10 and 2 o'clock, with a rearward component of force. It is hoped that the findings of the current study can help to investigate injury mechanisms. PMID:12941240

Banglmaier, R F; Rouhana, S W; Beillas, P; Yang, K H

2003-01-01

6

Shoulder injuries in professional rugby: a retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In the literature, little is known about the level and pattern of rugby injuries. Of the shoulder injuries reported, 51% of these are caused during a tackle, and 65% of all match injuries affected the shoulder. Objective The study aims to describe a sport-specific unique intra-articular shoulder pathology of professional rugby players, who presented with persistent pain and dysfunction despite physiotherapeutic treatment and rest. Method This study is a retrospective analysis set at a university sports medicine clinic. Eighty-seven professional rugby players, referred by their professional medical team since they could no longer play, underwent shoulder arthroscopy between June 2001 and October 2007 due to persistent shoulder pain and dysfunction. All were full-time professional male rugby union and rugby league players. They all had failed conservative treatment for their complaint, and the diagnosis was unclear. Arthroscopic findings were used as a measure of main outcome. Results The primary mechanism of injury was reported as direct tackling (56%; n = 49) followed in succession by falling onto the arm (10%; n = 8). However, in 30% of the cases, no definite injury could be recalled. The main operative finding was that most patients exhibited multiple shoulder pathologies, with 75% of cases presenting with two or more pathologies. A superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion was evident at arthroscopy in 72 of the 87 cases (83%), while rotator cuff tears were evident in 43% of cases (n = 37). One-third of all cases had a Bankart tear (n = 29), despite none of them reporting previous dislocations, while other labral tears, excluding SLAP tears, to the inferior or posterior labrum were present in 34% (n = 30) of the cohort. Conclusions Repeated tackling, which is clearly rugby specific, is most likely to be responsible for most of these shoulder injuries, which upon arthroscopic examination, showed signs of mixed pathology. We suggest that an early arthroscopic investigation is valuable in this population in order to confirm treatable diagnosis on the painful shoulder and expedite a safe return to play. PMID:23618008

2013-01-01

7

Increases in Retrospective Accounts of War-Zone Exposure Over Time: The Role of PTSD Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective reports of the frequency of war-zone exposure are commonly used as objective indices in studies investigating the mental health consequences of exposure to such stressors. To explore the temporal stability of these types of reports, we obtained frequency estimates of exposure to war-zone stressors at two time points from 460 U.S. soldiers who had served in the peace-keeping mission

Lizabeth Roeraer; Brett T. Litz; Susan M. Orsillo; Peter J. Ehlich; Matthew J. Friedman

1998-01-01

8

Tug-of-War Injuries: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 10-year-old boy presenting with radial nerve palsy due to injury during a tug-of-war game. Patient was managed nonoperatively and regained radial nerve function. Tug-of-war is a globally popular noncontact sport. Injuries during this game are inevitable and may range from simple sprains to life and limb threatening trauma. Combined hip and knee injuries and soft-tissue injuries involving the back are most frequent. Most injuries occur when tug-of-war was played in an informal setting and where the tug-of-war International Federation rules were less likely to be followed. Measures should be taken to increase the awareness about these safety rules and prevention of consequent injuries. Sports physicians, pediatricians, orthopedic surgeons, general physicians, and athletic trainers should be aware of potential injuries resulting from this game while caring for these athletes, so as to be well prepared for apt management of the injuries associated with TOW. PMID:25530897

Chotai, Pranit N.; Abdelgawad, Amr A.

2014-01-01

9

Psychosocial Adjustment in Siblings of Children with War-Related Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic symptomatology and emotional and behavioral difficulties in siblings of children who incurred war-related injuries. It was predicted that injury severity, gender and attributional style would account for a significant amount of the variance in post-traumatic stress symptoms and…

Khamis, Vivian

2013-01-01

10

A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide an extensive and up to date database for specific running related injuries, across the sexes, as seen at a primary care sports medicine facility, and to assess the relative risk for individual injuries based on investigation of selected risk factors. Methods: Patient data were recorded by doctors at the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre over a two year period. They included assessment of anthropometric, training, and biomechanical information. A model was constructed (with odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals) of possible contributing factors using a dependent variable of runners with a specific injury and comparing them with a control group of runners who experienced a different injury. Variables included in the model were: height, weight, body mass index, age, activity history, weekly activity, history of injury, and calibre of runner. Results: Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years was positively associated with injury in both sexes for tibial stress syndrome; and women with a body mass index less than 21 kg/m2 were at a significantly higher risk for tibial stress fractures and spinal injuries. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome. Conclusions: Although various risk factors were shown to be positively associated with a risk for, or protection from, specific injuries, future research should include a non-injured control group and a more precise measure of weekly running distance and running experience to validate these results. PMID:11916889

Taunton, J; Ryan, M; Clement, D; McKenzie, D; Lloyd-Smith, D; Zumbo, B

2002-01-01

11

[Disorders of olfactory function in penetrating head injuries sustained during war].  

PubMed

Olfactory function was estimated in the group of 37 patients with the penetrating war head injury. In 4 (10.8%) patients mutual anosmia was found. In comparison to healthy volunteers the injured showed worse performance on the level of the tested olfactory parameters. In 9 (24.3%) patients the offered smells were sensed as very unpleasant. The subgroup of patients from Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) < or = 8 showed the highest degree of olfactive disfunction. The patients with complicated penetrating head injury were less successful at the level of all olfactive qualities comparing to those without injury complications. The localization of the focal penetrating wound, regardless of the kind of a weapon causing the brain injury, was not significantly correlated with the results of olfactometry in distinction from hemisphere lateralization of the lesion. The recovery of the retested was minimal. PMID:7571538

Jovi?, N S; Oci?, G

1995-01-01

12

A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years

J E Taunton; M B Ryan; D B Clement; D C McKenzie; D R Lloyd-Smith; B D Zumbo; Allan McGavin; Vancouver Columbia

2007-01-01

13

Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.  

PubMed

Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding. PMID:22761707

Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

2012-01-01

14

Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.  

PubMed

In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits. PMID:24851626

Susi?, Mato; Brozovi?, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipovi?; Milenovi?, Aleksandar; Strinovi?, Davor; Brki?, Hrvoje; Panduri?, Dragana Gabri?

2014-03-01

15

Extremity war injuries: collaborative efforts in research, host nation care, and disaster preparedness.  

PubMed

The fourth annual Extremity War Injuries (EWI) Symposium addressed ongoing challenges and opportunities in the management of combat-related musculoskeletal injury. The symposium, which also examined host-nation care and disaster preparedness and response, defined opportunities for synergy between several organizations with similar missions and goals. Within the Department of Defense, the Orthopaedic Extremity Trauma Research Program (OETRP) has funded basic research related to a series of protocols first identified and validated at prior EWI symposia. A well-funded clinical research arm of OETRP has been developed to help translate and validate research advances from each of the protocols. The Armed Forces Institute for Regenerative Medicine, a consortium of academic research institutions, employs a tissue-engineering approach to EWI challenges, particularly with regard to tissue loss. Programs within the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and throughout the National Institutes of Health have also expanded tissue-engineering efforts by emphasizing robust mechanistic basic science programs. Much of the clinical care delivered by US military medical personnel and nongovernmental agencies has been to host-nation populations; coordinating delivery to maximize the number of injured who receive care requires understanding of the breadth and scope of resources available within the war zone. Similarly, providing the most comprehensive care to the greatest number of injured in the context of domestic mass casualty requires discussion and planning by all groups involved. PMID:20044486

Pollak, Andrew N; Ficke, Col James R

2010-01-01

16

Porcupine quill injuries in dogs: A retrospective of 296 cases (1998–2002)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify factors associated with quill injury in dogs. A second objective was to determine the risk of complications and any factors that would predict the likelihood of complications. Hospital records of 296 porcupine quill injuries in dogs from 1998 to 2002 were studied. There was an increased occurrence of porcupine encounters in the spring and fall months; Siberian huskies, rottweilers, and German shepherd crosses were significantly overrepresented for quill injuries. There was no association between risk of complications and either number of quills or antimicrobial use. Increasing time between quill injury and presentation was associated with an increased risk of complications. Because of the increased frequency of complication with a longer interval until presentation, clients should be strongly encouraged to bring the dog in as soon as the quill injury is discovered. Patients presented after 24 hours should be monitored closely during the first 3 weeks after injury, as most complications occurred during this time. PMID:16898110

Johnson, Matthew D.; Magnusson, Kristenn D.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Waldner, Cheryl

2006-01-01

17

Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Chest Injury Characteristics and Concurrent Injuries in Patients Admitted to Hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Methods We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. Results The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Conclusions Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. PMID:24816485

Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

2014-01-01

18

E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department—A Retrospective Study from Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Only six patients underwent surgery (S). Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated. PMID:24778880

Papoutsi, Sylvana; Martinolli, Luca; Braun, Christian Tasso; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

2014-01-01

19

A Retrospective Audit of Hundred Patients of Orbitozygomatic Fractures with Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Orbitozygomatic fracture that most commonly accompanies craniofacial injury is a challenge for medical science to reduce complications and to attain aesthetically satisfying results. Objective: To summarize our experiences with the optimum management of orbito-zygomatic fractures. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was aimed at investigating indications and surgical approaches for orbitozygomatic fractures with clinical follow-up, particularly with regard to postoperative complications. Since 2010, 100 cases with faciomaxillary injury were assessed for Orbitozygomatic fractures with the help of physical examination, non-invasive investigations including computed tomography of the orbit. Patients were retrospectively analysed for data, such as mechanism of injury, classification of fracture, and complications. Results: Amongst 100 consecutive patients with orbito-zygomatic fractures an overwhelming majority were males (n=83). In the age distribution a great majority (45%) were in 30-45 years age group, followed by 15-30 years (22%) and 45-60 years (18%). So in the productive age group i.e. 15-60 years age group were affected mostly (85%) in our series. Among different injury mechanism, Road traffic accident affected most (69%) that landed up in orbito-zygomatic fractures followed by altercations (22%). We preferred Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for 68% of the patients with orbito- zygomatic fractures, followed by closed reduction (12%). Conclusion: Ophthalmology consultation is recommended for all patients presenting with orbitozygomatic fractures, and is essential for patients with orbital blowout fractures, based on the high incidence of clinical ocular findings and injuries in this subgroup of patients. PMID:25177598

Gulzar, Gupta; Sanjeev, Uppal; Rajinder, Mittal; Ranabir, Pal; Nikhil, Garg

2014-01-01

20

Dog Bite Injuries: Primary and Secondary Emergency Department Presentations—A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Dog bites in humans are a complex problem, embracing both public health and animal welfare. The primary aim of this study is to examine primary and secondary presentations related to dog bite injuries in adults. Methods. We retrospectively assessed all adult patients admitted with a dog bite injury to the Emergency Department of Bern University Hospital. Results. A total of 431 patients were eligible for the study. Forty-nine (11.4%) of all patients were admitted with secondary presentations. Bites to the hands were most common (177, 41.1%). All patients (47, 100%) with secondary presentations were admitted because of signs of infection. The median time since the dog bite was 3.8 days (SD 3.9, range 1–21). Thirty-one patients had already been treated with antibiotic; coamoxicillin was the most common primary antibiotic therapy (27/47 patients, 57.4%). Patients with injuries to the hand were at increased risk of secondary presentations (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.21–3.55, P < 0.006). Conclusion. Dog bite injuries to the hands are a major problem. They often lead to infectious complications. Immediate antibiotic therapy should carefully be evaluated for each patient. PMID:24204203

Pfortmueller, Carmen A.; Efeoglou, Anastasios; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

2013-01-01

21

Neonatal Injury at Cephalic Vaginal Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Extent of Association with Shoulder Dystocia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF) and brachial plexus injury (BPI); and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia. Methods This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared between groups. The control group (1300) was composed of the four singleton vaginal deliveries that immediately followed each birth injury. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed in order to find independent risk factors associated with BPI and CF. A subgroup analysis involved comparison of features of BPI cases with or without associated shoulder dystocia. Results During the study period, the total number of vaginal deliveries was 44092. The rates of CF, BPI and shoulder dystocia during the study period were 0,6%, 0,16% and 0,29%, respectively. In the logistic regression model, shoulder dystocia, GDM, multiparity, gestational age >42 weeks, protracted labor, short second stage of labor and fetal birth weight greater than 4250 grams increased the risk of CF independently. Shoulder dystocia and protracted labor were independently associated with BPI when controlled for other factors. Among neonates with BPI whose injury was not associated with shoulder dystocia, five (12.2%) sustained permanent injury, whereas one neonate (4.5%) with BPI following shoulder dystocia sustained permanent injury (p?=?0.34). Conclusion BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia might have a higher rate of concomitant CF and permanent sequelae. PMID:25144234

Iskender, Cantekin; Kaymak, Oktay; Erkenekli, Kudret; Ustunyurt, Emin; Uygur, Dilek; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim; Danisman, Nuri

2014-01-01

22

Alpine skiing injuries in Finland – a two-year retrospective study based on a questionnaire among Ski racers  

PubMed Central

Background Alpine skiing is one of the most popular winter sports in the world. Nevertheless, it has always been associated with a high risk of injury. There are however, only a few studies that have examined the risk of injury of competitive skiers, especially of the junior ski racers. Methods The inclusion criterion was an injury in alpine skiing resulting in a pause in training longer than one week. Athletes of all ages were included. The study period was from the start of the season of 2008–2009 to end of the season of 2009–2010 (two years). Results The average annual number of ski racers in Finland was 661. There were 61 injuries (36 males with a median age of 14 years, 25 females with a median age of 14) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ligamentous knee injury was the most frequent (17) and lower leg fracture the second common (16) injury, respectively. There was a female dominance in the ACL injuries. Only one major abdominal injury and no major head injuries were observed. The overall training pause was 26 weeks after the ACL injury and 17 weeks after the lower leg fracture, respectively. Conclusion The most common and most disabling injuries affect the knee and the lower leg. The high number of lower leg and ACL injuries is alarming. A continuous and careful monitoring of injuries needs to be established to assess this trend. A systematic review of injuries is the appropriate way to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of safety. The present retrospective two-year pilot study forms a base for a continuous alpine ski injury survey in Finland. PMID:24565467

2014-01-01

23

Pulsatile lavage for pressure ulcer management in spinal cord injury: a retrospective clinical safety review.  

PubMed

Pressure ulcers are major complications of reduced mobility and/or sensation. Pulsatile lavage therapy delivers localized hydrotherapy directly to the wound utilizing a pulsatile pressurized stream of normal saline. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical safety of pulsatile lavage therapy, provided daily at the bedside, in routine management of Stage III and Stage IV pressure ulcers. Charts from 28 male patients with Stage III and Stage IV pressure ulcers and spinal cord injury (SCI) or spinal cord disorders (SCD) were retrospectively reviewed for documentation of adverse events/safety concerns. Mean therapy duration was 46 days (SD 37 days, range 6-152 days). Treatment was interrupted for 6 days in one patient due to minor wound bleeding. No other adverse events, including backsplash injuries, were documented. The results of this chart review suggest pulsatile lavage therapy can be administered at the patient's bedside without adverse events if appropriate protocols are followed. Additional research to confirm the efficacy and effectiveness of this treatment modality in a broader subject population is warranted. PMID:23475450

Bogie, Kath M; Ho, Chester H

2013-03-01

24

Paediatric hanging and strangulation injuries: A 10-year retrospective description of clinical factors and outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify early clinical factors that are correlated with death or severe disability in paediatric patients who have sustained an injury by hanging or strangulation. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patient records from January 1, 1997, to September 30, 2007, was conducted. Patient records were identified by International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Canada diagnostic codes for asphyxia, strangulation, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hanging, hypoxemia, hypoxia or anoxia. RESULTS: A total of 109 records were identified. Of these, 41 met the inclusion criteria for the study. Of 19 (46%) children who were pulse-less and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 16 died and the survivors were severely disabled. Of the 22 (54%) children who were found with a pulse, 18 made a full recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are pulseless at discovery for hanging injuries are at high risk of death or severe disability. Early clinical and neurophysiological indicators should be applied systematically to best guide clinicians and parents in their decision making. PMID:23204911

Davies, Dawn; Lang, Mia; Watts, Rick

2011-01-01

25

A retrospective review of swallow dysfunction in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

In the acute-care setting, it is difficult for clinicians to determine which patients with severe traumatic brain injury will have long-term oropharyngeal dysphagia (>6 weeks) and which patients will begin oral nutrition quickly. Patients frequently remain in the acute-care setting while physicians determine whether to place a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. To improve the acute-care clinician's ability to predict long-term oropharyngeal dysphagia and subsequent need for PEG tube placement in patients with severe traumatic brain injury [Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) ? 8), a novel prediction model was created utilizing clinical information and acute-care swallowing evaluation findings. Five years of retrospective data were obtained from trauma patients at a Level 1 trauma hospital. Of the 375 patients who survived their hospitalization with a GCS ? 8, a total of 269 patients received Ranchos Los Amigos (RLA) scores. Of those patients who were scored for RLA, 219 patients underwent swallowing evaluation. Ninety-six of the 219 patients were discharged from the hospital with a feeding tube, and 123 patients were discharged without one. Logistic regression models examined the association between clinical and patient characteristics and whether a patient with severe traumatic brain injury exhibited long-term oropharyngeal dysphagia. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that increased age, low RLA score, tracheostomy tube placement, and aphonia observed on the initial swallowing evaluation significantly increased the odds of being discharged from the acute-care hospital with a feeding tube. The resultant model could be used clinically to guide decision making and to counsel patients and families. PMID:24414375

Mandaville, Amy; Ray, Anjea; Robertson, Henry; Foster, Careen; Jesser, Christine

2014-06-01

26

Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: A retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Pedestrians contribute to 30-40 per cent of all road traffic injuries in India. However, there is a paucity of literature on pedestrian head injury as compared to two wheeler trauma. The purpose of the present study was to study the pattern of pedestrian injuries and their outcome with a special focus on head injuries. Methods: The study was conducted in two parts in the Trauma Center at National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences, Bangalore. A retrospective study was conducted at the casualty services of the hospital in which 529 consecutive pedestrians who sustained injury in a road traffic accident were studied from June to September 2009. In the second part, records from the hospital mortuary were retrospectively analyzed from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of 326 patients who died as a pedestrian in road accidents during this period was performed. Results: Patients in both paediatric and elderly age groups constituted 47.6 per cent (252/529) of all casualty admissions. Majority of the pedestrian injuries (41.7%, 221/529) occurred between 1600 - 2100 h; 87.1 per cent of all patients received some primary care before admission. The most common offending vehicle was a two wheeler (49.1%, 260/529). At the time of admission, 55.2 per cent (292/529) patients had sustained a moderate or severe head injury (GCS 3-13), and 40.5 per cent (214/529) had an abnormal CT scan. In addition, 90.4 per cent (478/529) patients had also sustained associated injuries. Major thoracoabdominal trauma was seen in 4 per cent and spine injury in 2.3 per cent of the patients. The mortality rate was 6.6 per cent. In the postmortem group, pedestrian deaths constituted 26.2 per cent of all the postmortems conducted. Two wheelers were the offending vehicle in the majority of the fatal crashes (39.9%). Interpretation & conclusions: Pedestrian injuries form a major part of the workload of a neurotrauma emergency. Majority of them sustained moderate to severe head injury. More attention, infrastructure and strict implementation of rules may help reduce this burden. PMID:23391802

Pruthi, Nupur; Ashok, M.; Shiva, Kumar V.; Jhavar, Ketaki; Sampath, S.; Devi, B. Indira

2012-01-01

27

Identifying future ‘unexpected’ survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

2013-01-01

28

Acute Kidney Injury after Major Abdominal Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in a cohort of patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Methods. A total of 450 patients were retrospectively studied. AKI was defined by an increase in serum creatinine (SCr) ? 0.3?mg/dl or by an increase in SCr ? 50% and/or by a decrease in urine output to 0.5?ml/kg/hour for 6 hours, in the first 48 hours after surgery. Logistic regression method was used to determine predictors of AKI and in-hospital mortality. A two-tailed P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. One hundred one patients (22.4%) had postoperative AKI. Age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.05), nonrenal Revised Cardiac Risk Index score (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–3.1, P = 0.003), intraoperative erythrocytes transfusions (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.5, P <.0001), and nonrenal Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06, P = 0.0191) were associated with postoperative AKI. AKI was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (20.8% versus 2.3%, P <.0001; unadjusted OR 11.2, 95% CI 4.8–26.2, P <.0001; adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.2–11.7, P = 0.024). Conclusion. AKI was common in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and was associated with in-hospital mortality. PMID:24719758

Teixeira, Catarina; Rosa, Rosário; Rodrigues, Natacha; Mendes, Inęs; Peixoto, Lígia; Dias, Sofia; Melo, Maria Joăo; Bicha Castelo, Henrique; Lopes, José António

2014-01-01

29

Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007–2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Results Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age?injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p???0.01 for all). Conclusions Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with “minor” injuries at their previous event. PMID:25174531

2014-01-01

30

Differences in Injury Pattern and Prevalence of Cartilage Lesions in Knee and Ankle Joints: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically) and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically) of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients) was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints. PMID:25568732

Aurich, Matthias; Hofmann, Gunther O.; Rolauffs, Bernd; Gras, Florian

2014-01-01

31

Returning Veterans on Campus with War Related Injuries and the Long Road Back Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the growing numbers of returning military personnel attending higher education based on emerging national trends, including the new GI Educational Bill, amendments to the ADA, and the rising unemployment rate. The trauma of war and the high survival rate have resulted in a high percentage of veterans returning from the Global…

Church, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

32

Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis.  

PubMed

Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key PointsWhile many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted.A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level.In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

2013-01-01

33

Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted. A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level. In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

2013-01-01

34

[The management in Marseille of facial injuries during the First World War].  

PubMed

World War I is still present for its millions of dead and wounded soldiers. New types of wounds came unexpected, and the military services were necessarily unprepared. Wounds in the face were so frequent and awful that new wards had to be organized and new methods to be invented. Among great persalities in the field are to be listed Morestin, Dufourmentel, Ginestet, Gillies, Joseph, and Kazandjian. PMID:21598571

Blanc, Jean-Louis

2011-01-01

35

A retrospective study of gymnastics injuries to competitors and noncompetitors in private clubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the num ber and types of injuries which occur to competitive and noncompetitive gymnasts in private clubs. Sec ondary purposes were to determine which events were most hazardous, and whether or not the ratio between participant and instructor, the availability of safety equipment, and the conditioning programs used af fected the injury

Cathy Benton Lowry; Barney F. Leveau

1982-01-01

36

VISUALLY-SYMPTOMATIC INDIVIDUALS WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the records of 220 visually symptomatic, ambulatory patients with acquired brain injury. These patients were examined at the State University of New York, State College of Optometry's Ray- mond J. Greenwald Rehabilitation Cen- ter (RJGRC). The records were divided into sub-groups of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cerebral vascular acci- dent (CVA). The former group accounted for

Ń Shoshana Craig; O. D. Ń Neera Kapoor; M. S. Ń Kenneth; J. Ciuffreda; Irwin B. Suchoff; D. O. S. Ń Myounghee; Esther Han; O. D. Ń Daniella

37

A retrospective population-based study of injury types among elderly in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to investigate the injury types and medical utilisations among patients more than 65 years in Taiwan. The data used in this study were obtained from the years 1997 to 2008 of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The patients with the age of 65 years and older as well as with ICM-9-CM discharge injury principal diagnoses 800-959 were included in this study. SPSS 18.0 was used for data analysis. The results showed that there were 518,601 older adults hospitalised because of injuries in the period of study. The average age among them was 76.1 years old and 51.7% of them were females. The common causes of injury were falls and motor vehicle accident. The average number of operations that patients received was one, and the average length of stay was 9.1 days. The total medical expenditure was over NT$ 28.9 billion, and the average expenditure was NT$ 55,738. The factors associated with deaths were sex, ages, co-morbidity disease, level of care, number of operations, length of stay, expenditure of medical care, injury types and causes of injury. This study concludes that in order to decrease the incident of injuries in elder patients, the education of preventing falls and traffic safety should be promoted continuously among elders. PMID:22924733

Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lai, Ching-Huang; Chou, Chiu-Hsuan

2014-01-01

38

Management of a complex hind foot war injury with negative pressure wound therapy: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) in a 39 year old patient with a complex open hind foot injury. The patient sustained an open calcaneal fracture with extensive soft tissue damage following the detonation of an explosively formed penetrating round in a confined space. A remarkable recovery was made following surgical debridement, internal fixation of the

T. J. Bonner; K. Allison; I. Sargent; S. Adedapo

2009-01-01

39

Protective and risk factors in amateur equestrians and description of injury patterns: A retrospective data analysis and a case - control survey  

PubMed Central

Background In Switzerland there are about 150,000 equestrians. Horse related injuries, including head and spinal injuries, are frequently treated at our level I trauma centre. Objectives To analyse injury patterns, protective factors, and risk factors related to horse riding, and to define groups of safer riders and those at greater risk Methods We present a retrospective and a case-control survey at conducted a tertiary trauma centre in Bern, Switzerland. Injured equestrians from July 2000 - June 2006 were retrospectively classified by injury pattern and neurological symptoms. Injured equestrians from July-December 2008 were prospectively collected using a questionnaire with 17 variables. The same questionnaire was applied in non-injured controls. Multiple logistic regression was performed, and combined risk factors were calculated using inference trees. Results Retrospective survey A total of 528 injuries occured in 365 patients. The injury pattern revealed as follows: extremities (32%: upper 17%, lower 15%), head (24%), spine (14%), thorax (9%), face (9%), pelvis (7%) and abdomen (2%). Two injuries were fatal. One case resulted in quadriplegia, one in paraplegia. Case-control survey 61 patients and 102 controls (patients: 72% female, 28% male; controls: 63% female, 37% male) were included. Falls were most frequent (65%), followed by horse kicks (19%) and horse bites (2%). Variables statistically significant for the controls were: Older age (p = 0.015), male gender (p = 0.04) and holding a diploma in horse riding (p = 0.004). Inference trees revealed typical groups less and more likely to suffer injury. Conclusions Experience with riding and having passed a diploma in horse riding seem to be protective factors. Educational levels and injury risk should be graded within an educational level-injury risk index. PMID:21294862

2011-01-01

40

Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis). PMID:24460844

2014-01-01

41

Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources to assist you in your report for the Civil War. Lesson Plan for the Civil War To begin doing reasearch for the Civil War teachers will need a lesson plan. History Place Civil War time line Lesson Plan for Civil War Civil War Maps and Photographs Civil War Maps Civil War Photographs Civil War, The Museum Pictures Civil War Potpourri Many links to the civil war History Place Civil War time line Home of the American Civil War Many, many, resources for Civil War More Civil War Resources Civil War Webquest and Plays Create a webquest or film a play during the Civil War era Civil War Webquest Mary Chestnut Play Civil ...

Tohinaka, Karen

2004-11-29

42

Fatal firearm injuries in autopsy cases at central Bangkok, Thailand: A 10-year retrospective study.  

PubMed

Even though there have been previously published reports on firearm injuries in various countries, the incidence and pattern of death from firearm injuries in Thailand have not been studied before. In present study, 149 fatal firearm injuries from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. At total of 7126 autopsies, fatal firearm injuries comprised of 2.09% (n = 149) of total autopsies cases. Among those victims, 136 were male (91.3%), 13 (8.7%) were female. The youngest age of victim was 10 years and the oldest was 79 years. Mean age of the victims was 33.79 years and median age was 30 years. Outdoor incident was the most common scene of crime. Night time incident (18:00 PM-05:59 AM) was higher than day time one. Most of the cases occurred in week ends (n = 52). Homicide (77.2%) was the most frequent manner of death. Head/face and chest were the most common sites of entrance. The autopsy report also study on entrance wound, range and types of projectiles. Blood alcohol concentration was examined in 122 cases and 38 victims showed positive results, 11 cases revealed using of illegal substances in blood and urine analysis. This study also included the association between manner of death and other factors. Age group, time of incidence, place of incidence, number of entrance wound and range showed statistically significant association with manner of death. PMID:25440139

Myint, Sithu; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Peonim, Vichan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

2014-11-01

43

Causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries in India: 12-year retrospective study of 4437 patients in a tertiary hospital in Gujarat.  

PubMed

Maxillofacial injuries are unique because of the anatomical complexity of the area and their associated psychological effects. An understanding of the epidemiology of these injuries is important if we are to develop preventive measures, increase the efficiency and delivery of health services, improve the skills of healthcare providers, and better distribute resources. We retrospectively evaluated data on 4455 patients (aged between 3 and 84 years) who presented with maxillofacial injuries to a tertiary referral hospital in Ahmedabad, India, between 1 January 1999 and 31 January 2010. Of these, 18 needed only rest and medication so 4437 were included. Data included patients'characteristics and the cause of injury. Details on the presentation and severity of injury, associated injuries including head injuries, the influence of alcohol and other drugs, treatment, and outcome, were also included. Around one-third were aged between 21and 30 years, and the male to female ratio was 5:1. The main causes of injury were road traffic accidents (n=2347, 53%) and interpersonal violence (n=1041, 23%). Most road traffic accidents involved two-wheeled vehicles. Alcohol was associated with 11% of injuries. A total of 2546 patients (57%) had mandibular fractures. To reduce the number of injuries we need better road safety laws with stringent enforcement, and the public, particularly those between 15 and 45 years of age, must be educated about road safety. PMID:25086833

Weihsin, Hu; Thadani, Sandeep; Agrawal, Mohit; Tailor, Suket; Sood, Ramita; Langalia, Akshay; Patel, Twinkle

2014-10-01

44

Subaxial Injury Classification Scoring system Treatment Recommendations - External Agreement study based on Retrospective Review of 185 Patients.  

PubMed

Study design. Retrospective case series.Objective. To test validity of Subaxial injury classification (SLIC) treatment recommendations.Background. Though SLIC has been tested for reliability, external studies that test the validity of its treatment recommendations are lacking.Methods. SLIC score was determined by reviewing imaging studies and clinical records in a consecutive series of 185 patients with subaxial cervical spine trauma presenting to a level 1 spinal injuries referral center. Details including attending surgeon responsible for treatment decision, treatment received and surgical approach were collected.Results. Treatment received matched SLIC guidelines in 93.6% non-surgically managed and 96.3% surgically managed patients. The mean SLIC score of the surgically treated group of patients was significantly higher than the non-surgical group (7.14 vs. 2.22, p<0.001). 66 patients had a SLIC score of three or less and 94% of them were non-surgically managed (p<0.001). 102 patients had a SLIC score of five or more and 95% of them were surgically managed (p<0.001). 17 patients had a SLIC score of four, 65% were non-surgically managed (p = 0.032). Injury morphology scores were not predictive for surgical approach. Increasing SLIC scores correlated with increasing complexity of treatment (r = 0.77, P<0.001). The distribution of patients with regard to severity of injuries and treatment delivered by the seven spinal surgeons was comparable. The past practise of these seven fellowship- trained spine surgeons was individually in agreement with SLIC treatment recommendations.Conclusion. Our past practise reflects SLIC treatment recommendations of non-surgical treatment for SLIC score three or less and surgical treatment for SLIC scores five or more. The use of SLIC as an ordinal severity scale is validated as increasing SLIC scores correlated with increasing complexity of treatment. The injury morphology score did not predict surgical approach. Significantly higher numbers of patients with SLIC score of four were treated non-surgically. PMID:25341989

Samuel, Sumant; Lin, Jiun-Lih; Smith, Margaret M; Hartin, Nathan L; Vasili, Con; Ruff, Stephen J; Cree, Andrew K; Ball, Jonathan R; Sergides, Ioannis G; Gray, Randolph

2014-10-22

45

Effects of chronic mild traumatic brain injury on white matter integrity in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common source of morbidity from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. With no overt lesions on structural MRI, diagnosis of chronic mild TBI in military veterans relies on obtaining an accurate history and assessment of behavioral symptoms that are also associated with frequent comorbid disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Military veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan with mild TBI (n = 30) with comorbid PTSD and depression and non-TBI participants from primary (n = 42) and confirmatory (n = 28) control groups were assessed with high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). White matter-specific registration followed by whole-brain voxelwise analysis of crossing fibers provided separate partial volume fractions reflecting the integrity of primary fibers and secondary (crossing) fibers. Loss of white matter integrity in primary fibers (P < 0.05; corrected) was associated with chronic mild TBI in a widely distributed pattern of major fiber bundles and smaller peripheral tracts including the corpus callosum (genu, body, and splenium), forceps minor, forceps major, superior and posterior corona radiata, internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and others. Distributed loss of white matter integrity correlated with duration of loss of consciousness and most notably with "feeling dazed or confused," but not diagnosis of PTSD or depressive symptoms. This widespread spatial extent of white matter damage has typically been reported in moderate to severe TBI. The diffuse loss of white matter integrity appears consistent with systemic mechanisms of damage shared by blast- and impact-related mild TBI that involves a cascade of inflammatory and neurochemical events. PMID:22706988

Morey, Rajendra A; Haswell, Courtney C; Selgrade, Elizabeth S; Massoglia, Dino; Liu, Chunlei; Weiner, Jonathan; Marx, Christine E; Cernak, Ibolja; McCarthy, Gregory

2013-11-01

46

Effects of chronic mild traumatic brain injury on white matter integrity in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans  

PubMed Central

Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common source of morbidity from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. With no overt lesions on structural MRI, diagnosis of chronic mild TBI in military veterans relies on obtaining an accurate history and assessment of behavioral symptoms that are also associated with frequent comorbid disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Military veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan with mild TBI (n=30) with comorbid PTSD and depression and non-TBI participants from primary (n=42) and confirmatory (n=28) control groups were assessed with high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). White matter-specific registration followed by whole-brain voxelwise analysis of crossing fibers provided separate partial volume fractions reflecting the integrity of primary fibers and secondary (crossing) fibers. Loss of white matter integrity in primary fibers (p < .05; corrected) was associated with chronic mild TBI in a widely distributed pattern of major fiber bundles and smaller peripheral tracts including the corpus callosum (genu, body, splenium), forceps minor, forceps major, superior and posterior corona radiata, internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and others. Distributed loss of white matter integrity correlated with duration of loss of consciousness and most notably with “feeling dazed or confused,” but not diagnosis of PTSD or depressive symptoms. This widespread spatial extent of white matter damage has typically been reported in moderate to severe TBI. The diffuse loss of white matter integrity appears consistent with systemic mechanisms of damage shared by blast- and impact-related mild TBI that involves a cascade of inflammatory and neurochemical events. PMID:22706988

Morey, Rajendra A.; Haswell, Courtney C.; Selgrade, Elizabeth S.; Massoglia, Dino; Liu, Chunlei; Weiner, Jonathan; Marx, Christine E.; Cernak, Ibolja; McCarthy, Gregory

2013-01-01

47

Injury patterns in nordic ski jumpersA retrospective analysis of injuries occurring at the Intervale ski jump complex from 1980 to 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

No studies describing the types and frequencies of nordic ski jumping injuries have been reported in the medical literature. We examined records of injuries sustained at the Intervale Ski Jump Complex (15, 40, 70, and 90 meter jumps) in Lake Placid from 1980 to 1985. Forty-seven injured jumpers sustained 72 total injuries. The most frequent injuries were contusions. Fractures occurred

James R. Wright; Edward G. Hixson; Jay J. Rand

1986-01-01

48

Clinical and radiological outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 vertebral artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.  

PubMed

OBJECT Grade 3 and 4 blunt vertebral artery (VA) injuries may carry a different natural course from that of lower-grade blunt VA injuries. Proper screening, management, and follow-up of these injuries remain controversial. Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were identified. Grade 3 injuries were defined as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50% or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries were defined as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, radiographic imaging findings, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS A total of 79 high-grade (Grade 3 and 4) blunt VA injuries in 67 patients were identified. Fifty-nine patients with 66 high-grade blunt VA injuries were available for follow-up. There were 17 patients with 23 Grade 3 injuries and 42 patients with 43 Grade 4 injuries. The mean follow-up duration was 58 days for Grade 3 and 67 days for Grade 4 blunt VA injuries. Repeat imaging of Grade 3 blunt VA injuries showed that 39% of injuries were radiographically stable, 43% resolved, and 13% improved, while 1 injury radiographically worsened. Repeat imaging of the Grade 4 blunt VA injuries showed that 65% of injuries were radiographically stable (persistent occlusion), 30% improved (recanalization of the vessel), and in 2 cases (5%) the injury resolved. All Grade 3 injuries that were treated were managed with aspirin or clopidogrel alone, as were the majority of Grade 4 injuries. There were 3 cerebral infarctions thought to be related to Grade 4 blunt VA injuries, which were likely present on admission. All 3 of these patients died at a mean of 13.7 days after hospital admission. No cerebral infarctions directly related to Grade 3 blunt VA injuries were identified. CONCLUSIONS The majority of high-grade blunt VA injuries remain stable or are improved at final follow-up. Despite a 4% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 3 blunt VA injury group and a 35% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. No cerebral infarctions were noted in the Grade 3 group. A 7% stroke rate was identified in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group; however, this was confined to the immediate postinjury period and was associated with 100% mortality. While these data suggest that these high-grade vertebral artery injuries may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25343180

Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

2014-10-24

49

Association between systemic hemodynamics and septic acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The role of systemic hemodynamics in the pathogenesis of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between systemic hemodynamics and new or persistent of AKI in severe sepsis. Methods A retrospective study between 2006 and 2010 was performed in a surgical ICU in a teaching hospital. AKI was defined as development (new AKI) or persistent AKI during the five days following admission based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. We studied the association between the following hemodynamic targets within 24 hours of admission and AKI: central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). Results This study included 137 ICU septic patients. Of these, 69 had new or persistent AKI. AKI patients had a higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) (57 (46 to 67) vs. 45 (33 to 52), P?

2013-01-01

50

A retrospective chart review of heart rate and blood pressure abnormalities in veterans with spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Autonomic impairment may lead to increased prevalence of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) abnormalities in veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). In addition, comorbid medical conditions and prescription medication use may influence these abnormalities, including bradycardia, and tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension as well as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), and orthostatic hypotension (OH). Design A retrospective review of clinical and administrative datasets in veterans with SCI and compared the prevalence rates between clinical values and ICD-9 diagnostic codes in individuals with tetraplegia (T: C1–C8), high paraplegia (HP: T1–T6), and low paraplegia (LP: T7 and below). Results The prevalence of clinical values indicative of a HR ? 80  beats per minute was higher in the HP compared to the LP and T groups. A systolic BP (SBP) ? 110 mmHg was more common in the T compared to the HP and LP groups, whereas the prevalence of a SBP ? 140 mmHg was increased in the LP compared to the HP and T groups. Diagnosis of hypertension was 39–60% whereas the diagnosis of hypotension was less than 1%. Diagnosis of AD and OH was highest in the T group, but remained below 10%, regardless of categorical lesion level. Antihypertensive medications were commonly prescribed (55%), and patients on these medications were less likely to have high BP. The odds ratio of higher SBP and DBP increased with age and body mass index (BMI). Conclusion In veterans with SCI, the prevalence of HR and BP abnormalities varied depending on level of lesion, age, BMI, and prescription medication use. PMID:23941794

Zhu, Carolyn; Galea, Marinella; Livote, Elayne; Signor, Dan; Wecht, Jill M.

2013-01-01

51

Continuous venovenous hemofiltration versus extended daily hemofiltration in patients with septic acute kidney injury: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) is superior to extended daily hemofiltration (EDHF) for the treatment of septic AKI is unknown. We compared the effect of CVVHF (greater than 72 hours) with EDHF (8 to 12 hours daily) on renal recovery and mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods A retrospective analysis of 145 septic AKI patients who underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT) between July 2009 and May 2013 was performed. These patients were treated by CVVHF or EDHF with the same polyacrylonitrile membrane and bicarbonate-based buffer. The primary outcomes measured were occurrence of renal recovery and all-cause mortality by 60 days. Results Sixty-five and eighty patients were treated with CVVHF and EDHF, respectively. Patients in the CVVHF group had significantly higher recovery of renal function (50.77% of CVVHF group versus 32.50% in the EDHF group, P?=?0.026). Median time to renal recovery was 17.26 days for CVVHF patients and 25.46 days for EDHF patients (P?=?0.039). Sixty-day all-cause mortality was similar between CVVHF and EDHF groups (44.62%, and 46.25%, respectively; P?=?0.844). 55.38% of patients on CVVHF and 28.75% on EDHF developed hypophosphatemia (P?=?0.001). The other adverse events related to RRT did not differ between groups. On multivariate analysis, including physiologically clinical relevant variables, CVVHF therapy was significantly associated with recovery of renal function (HR 3.74; 95% CI 1.82 to 7.68; P?

2014-01-01

52

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

53

Injury patterns in nordic ski jumpers. A retrospective analysis of injuries occurring at the Intervale Ski Jump Complex from 1980 to 1985.  

PubMed

No studies describing the types and frequencies of nordic ski jumping injuries have been reported in the medical literature. We examined records of injuries sustained at the Intervale Ski Jump Complex (15, 40, 70, and 90 meter jumps) in Lake Placid from 1980 to 1985. Forty-seven injured jumpers sustained 72 total injuries. The most frequent injuries were contusions. Fractures occurred in 11 jumpers; most were nondisplaced. Upper extremity fractures outnumbered lower extremity fractures. Injuries requiring hospitalization were uncommon; none of these resulted in permanent disability. Injury rates for non-World Cup and for World Cup competitions were 4.3 and 1.2 injuries per 1,000 skier-days, respectively. This is roughly equivalent to injury rates in alpine skiing. Our study suggests that the dangers of nordic ski jumping have been overestimated. PMID:3777316

Wright, J R; Hixson, E G; Rand, J J

1986-01-01

54

Anti-epileptic prophylaxis in traumatic brain injury: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing craniotomy versus decompressive craniectomy  

PubMed Central

Background: Seizures account for significant morbidity and mortality early in the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there is sufficient literature suggesting short-term benefits of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in post-TBI patients, there has been no study to suggest a time frame for continuing AEDs in patients who have undergone a decompressive craniectomy for more severe TBI. We examined trends in a level-II trauma center in southern California that may provide guidelines for AED treatment in craniectomy patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy and those who underwent a standard craniotomy from 2008 to 2012. Results: Out of the 153 patients reviewed, 85 were included in the study with 52 (61%) craniotomy and 33 (39%) craniectomy patients. A total of 78.8% of the craniotomy group used phenytoin (Dilantin), 9.6% used levetiracetam (Keppra), 5.8% used a combination of both, and 3.8% used topiramate (Topamax). The craniectomy group used phenytoin 84.8% and levetiracetam 15.2% of the time without any significant difference between the procedural groups. Craniotomy patients had a 30-day seizure rate of 13.5% compared with 21.2% in craniectomy patients (P = 0.35). Seizure onset averaged on postoperative day 5.86 for the craniotomy group and 8.14 for the craniectomy group. There was no significant difference in the average day of seizure onset between the groups P = 0.642. Conclusion: Our study shows a trend toward increased seizure incidence in craniectomy group, which does not reach significance, but suggests they are at higher risk. Whether this higher risk translates into a benefit on being on AEDs for a longer duration than the current standard of 7 days cannot be concluded as there is no significant difference or trend on the onset date for seizures in either group. Moreover, a prospective study will be necessary to more profoundly evaluate the duration of AED prophylaxis for each one of the stated groups.

Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Dahlin, Robert; Hariri, Omid; Quadri, Syed A.; Farr, Saman; Miulli, Dan; Siddiqi, Javed

2015-01-01

55

Management of Jaw Injuries in the American Civil War: The Diuturnity of Bean in the South, Gunning in the North  

PubMed Central

James Baxter Bean published a series of articles in the Southern Dental Examiner in 1862 describing his work with “plaster and its manipulations.” This early experience included a new way of managing jaw fractures, with customized splints uniquely based on pretraumatic occlusion. Bean's oral splints and their method of construction, using an articulator, became the standard of care in the Atlanta region during the American Civil War and, by 1864, throughout The Confederacy. In short course, Bean's approach also swept The Union, following in large part the efforts of a colleague in the North, T.B. Gunning. Thus, what began in the early 1860s in a dental laboratory in the southeast swept the continental United States and revolutionized management of jaw-fractures during, and immediately after, the American Civil War. PMID:22655119

Pollock, Richard A.

2011-01-01

56

Retrospective review of injury severity, interventions and outcomes among helicopter and nonhelicopter transport patients at a Level 1 urban trauma centre  

PubMed Central

Background Air ambulance transport for injured patients is vitally important given increasing patient volumes, the limited number of trauma centres and inadequate subspecialty coverage in nontrauma hospitals. Air ambulance services have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared with ground transport in select circumstances. Our primary goal was to compare injuries, interventions and outcomes in patients transported by helicopter versus nonhelicopter transport. Methods We performed a retrospective 10-year review of 14 440 patients transported to an urban Level 1 trauma centre by helicopter or by other means. We compared injury severity, interventions and mortality between the groups. Results Patients transported by helicopter had higher median injury severity scores (ISS), regardless of penetrating or blunt injury, and were more likely to have Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 8, require airway control, receive blood transfusions and require admission to the intensive care unit or operating room than patients transported by other means. Helicopter transport was associated with reduced overall mortality (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.33–0.39). Patients transported by other methods were more likely to die in the emergency department. The mean ISS, regardless of transport method, rose from 12.3 to 15.1 (p = 0.011) during our study period. Conclusion Patients transported by helicopter to an urban trauma centre were more severely injured, required more interventions and had improved survival than those arriving by other means of transport. PMID:24461227

Hannay, R. Scott; Wyrzykowski, Amy D.; Ball, Chad G.; Laupland, Kevin; Feliciano, David V.

2014-01-01

57

Exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, individually or in combination with other Gulf War agents, impairs synaptic integrity and neuronal differentiation, and is accompanied by subtle microvascular injury in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure.  

PubMed

Gulf War illness (GWI) is a currently untreatable multi-symptom disorder experienced by 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War (GW) veterans. The characteristic hallmarks of GWI include cognitive dysfunction, tremors, migraine, and psychological disturbances such as depression and anxiety. Meta-analyses of epidemiological studies have consistently linked these symptomatic profiles to the combined exposure of GW agents such as organophosphate-based and pyrethroid-based pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos (CPF) and permethrin (PER) respectively) and the prophylactic use of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as a treatment against neurotoxins. Due to the multi-symptomatic presentation of this illness and the lack of available autopsy tissue from GWI patients, very little is currently known about the distinct early pathological profile implicated in GWI (including its influence on synaptic function and aspects of neurogenesis). In this study, we used preclinical models of GW agent exposure to investigate whether 6-month-old mice exposed to CPF alone, or a combined dose of CPF, PB and PER daily for 10 days, demonstrate any notable pathological changes in hippocampal, cortical (motor, piriform) or amygdalar morphometry. We report that at an acute post-exposure time point (after 3 days), both exposures resulted in the impairment of synaptic integrity (reducing synaptophysin levels) in the CA3 hippocampal region and altered neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG), demonstrated by a significant reduction in doublecortin positive cells. Both exposures also significantly increased astrocytic GFAP immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex, motor cortex and the basolateral amygdala and this was accompanied by an increase in (basal) brain acetylcholine (ACh) levels. There was no evidence of microglial activation or structural deterioration of principal neurons in these regions following exposure to CPF alone or in combination with PB and PER. Evidence of subtle microvascular injury was demonstrated by the reduction of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 levels in CPF+PB+PER exposed group compared to control. These data support early (subtle) neurotoxic effects on the brain following exposure to GW agents. PMID:24118348

Ojo, Joseph O; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Reed, Jon Mike; Montague, Hannah; Mullan, Michael J; Crawford, Fiona C

2014-04-01

58

Effects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

von Hippel, F.

1983-01-01

59

Neuroimaging, behavioral, and psychological sequelae of repetitive combined blast/impact mild traumatic brain injury in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.  

PubMed

Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

Petrie, Eric C; Cross, Donna J; Yarnykh, Vasily L; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R

2014-03-01

60

Vietnam War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project outlines the impact of the Vietnam War on the Cold War. Students will discover and comprehend the progression of the Vietnam War, its significance within the context of the Cold War, and other important factors that impacted the outcome of the war. Directions: ~ We will split into 4 groups. Each group will read two documents on the website and answer the questions for the documents. ~ to access the documents, click here Was Vietnam a Turning Point in the Cold War? and then click on \\"How and Why America Got Into Vietnam.\\" ~ each group will share their results with the ...

Porter, Ms.

2007-02-27

61

The prevalence of hypotension and hypoxaemia in blunt traumatic brain injury in the prehospital setting of Johannesburg, South Africa: A retrospective chart review.  

PubMed

Background. Each year, ~89 000 (180/100 000) new cases of head injury are reported in South Africa (SA), with the majority of patients being in the economically active population. Hypotension and hypoxaemia significantly increase the morbidity and mortality in patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral tissue is particularly vulnerable to these secondary insults in the period immediately following a TBI, emphasising the importance of prehospital care in TBI.Objective. To establish the prevalence of prehospital hypotension and hypoxaemia in moderate to severe blunt TBI in greater Johannesburg, Gauteng, SA.Methods. The records of adult patients who sustained a moderate to severe TBI between 1 January and 31 December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed for hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) and hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation <90%) during their prehospital phase of care. These results were subject to descriptive analysis.Results. A total of 299 records were identified, 66 of which met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of prehospital hypotension and hypoxaemia were 33.3% (n=22) and 37.9% (n=25), respectively, while 21.2% (n=14) of patients suffered double insults of hypotension and hypoxaemia. Hypotension and hypoxaemia were associated with haemorrhage (p=0.011) and chest injuries (p=0.001), respectively.Conclusion. The prevalence of hypotension in this study was similar to that observed in international studies, but the prevalence of hypoxaemia was much higher. There is a need for local guidelines to be developed to inform the quality of TBI care in the context of the developing world.  PMID:25214252

Stassen, W; Welzel, T

2014-06-01

62

Outcome of occupational electrical injuries among French electric company workers: a retrospective report of 311 cases, 1996-2005.  

PubMed

This study reviewed records of all electrical incidents involving work-related injury to employees Electricité de France (EDF) from 1996 through 2005 and analysed data for 311 incidents. The results are compared with 1231 electrical incidents that occurred during 1970-1979 and 996 incidents during 1980-1989. A total of 311 electrical incidents were observed. The medical consequences of electrical incident remain severe and particularly, the current fatality rate (3.2%) is similar to that recorded in the 1980s (2.7%) and 1970s (3.3%). Among individuals with non-fatal incidents, any change has occurred in the prevalence of permanent functional sequelae (23.6% in the 1970s vs. 27.6% in the 1980s and 32.5% currently). An increase in the incidence of neuropsychiatric sequelae (5.4% in the 1980s vs. 13% currently) has been observed and they are now the second most common type of sequelae after those directly related to burns. Among the neurological sequelae, peripheral nervous system disorders are the most common, as observed in the 1980s. Since the definition of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has changed between the two periods, we can only report that the current prevalence of PTSD is 7.6%. This study emphasises the need for specific management of neurological and psychological impairments after electrical injuries, including especially early recognition and initiation of effective treatment. PMID:24028742

Piotrowski, Aleksandra; Fillet, Anne-Marie; Perez, Philippe; Walkowiak, Philippe; Simon, Denis; Corniere, Marie-Jean; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Lambrozo, Jacques

2014-05-01

63

War Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit from the Newseum (last reviewed in the January 26, 2001 Scout Report) explores what it is like to be a war correspondent. The site is composed of three sections. The first contains a number of excerpts from some outstanding video interviews with reporters who have covered armed conflicts from World War Two to the Balkans. These may be browsed by war or by journalist. The second section is a Flash feature that examines war reporting and technology from the US Civil War to the present. Finally, the site offers a thoughtful essay by Harold Evans, the guest curator of the exhibit.

2001-01-01

64

Shoulder Injuries During Alpine Skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed alpine skiing injuries at a destination ski resort during three seasons to charac terize the incidence and types of shoulder injuries. A total of 3451 injuries in 3247 patients were reviewed. The overall injury rate was 4.44 injuries per 1000 skier- days. Injuries to the upper extremity represented 29.1% (N = 1004) of all alpine ski injuries.

Mininder S. Kocher; John A. Feagin

1996-01-01

65

Wars, disasters and kidneys.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

Lameire, N

2014-12-01

66

Playing war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that war video games are transitional spaces that connect players to the ‘war on terror’. It explores the pervasive influence of militarism in video games and how the US Army is enlisting play as an active force in blurring the distinctions between civilian and soldier. The paper begins by theorizing what exactly it means to ‘play’, and

Ian Graham Ronald Shaw

2010-01-01

67

From old wars to new wars and global terrorism  

E-print Network

Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

2005-01-01

68

Care and meaning in war zone nursing.  

PubMed

During the past century, nurses have served as caregivers for United States military personnel in every major theater of war. Military nurses in the war zone deliver patient care while working in austere conditions, and are under constant threat of personal danger. This article gives a historical overview of the role of nurses in war zones, followed by a review from the perspectives of environment, safety, the nature of injuries, and treatment of military personnel and civilians. PMID:19850184

Cuellar, Ernestine Tina

2009-12-01

69

Injuries presenting to a walk-in clinic at a summer dance intensive program: a three-year retrospective data analysis.  

PubMed

Summer dance intensive programs are an integral part of many serious dancers' training. The risk and rate of injury in this setting have not been well studied. The goal of this data analysis is to detail the epidemiology of dance injuries reported during a summer dance intensive over a consecutive 3 year period. Data collection included information regarding the number of evaluation and treatment sessions conducted at the program's walk-in clinic, body regions injured, whether the injuries were recurrences of pre-existing conditions or newly sustained during the intensive, and at what point in the program they were recorded. Overall, more of the clinic's clientele presented with multiple injuries than with single discrete injuries. The anatomic distribution of injuries appears to be consistent with previously reported data, with the four most commonly injured body regions being ankle, pelvis and hip, knee, and lumbar spine. Injuries sustained during the intensive (IR) occurred at a 2:1 ratio to pre-intensive injuries (PR). Relative to those with PR injuries, dancers with IR injuries were far more likely to present during the first half of the program. This study is a first step toward filling a gap in the literature by describing injury incidence in a specific population within the dance community. PMID:25474178

Fulton, Jessica; Burgi, Ciara; Canizares, Rosalinda C; Sheets, Charles; Butler, Robert J

2014-01-01

70

World War II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Conflict How did the second world war progress in Europe?War in Europe What happened before and after the war in the Pacific?The Pacific Theatre How did World War II change the world?World War, 1939-1945 What did World War II mean to the United States?World War II ...

Croxall, Ms.

2006-11-30

71

Violence, self-harm and drug or alcohol misuse in adolescents admitted to hospitals in England for injury: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Of adolescents in the general population in England, we aimed to determine (1) the proportion that has an emergency admission to hospital for injury related to adversity (violence, self-harm or drug or alcohol misuse) and (2) the risk of recurrent emergency admissions for injury in adolescents admitted with adversity-related injury compared with those admitted with accident-related injury only. Design We used longitudinally linked administrative hospital data (Hospital Episode Statistics) to identify participants aged 10–19?years with emergency admissions for injury (including day cases lasting more than 4?h) in England in 1998–2011. We used the Office for National Statistics mid-year estimates for population denominators. Results Approximately 4.3% (n=141?248) of adolescents in the general population (n=3?254?046) had one or more emergency admissions for adversity-related injury (girls 4.6%, boys 4.1%), accounting for 50% of all emergency admissions for injury in girls and 29.1% in boys. Admissions for self-harm or drug or alcohol misuse commonly occurred in the same girls and boys. Recurrent emergency admissions for injury were more common in adolescents with adversity-related injury (girls 17.3%, boys 16.5%) than in those with accident-related injury only (girls 4.7%, boys 7.4%), particularly for adolescents with adversity-related injury related to multiple types of adversity (girls 21.1%, boys 24.2%). Conclusions Hospital-based interventions should be developed to reduce the risk of future injury in adolescents admitted for adversity-related injury. PMID:25667148

Herbert, Annie; Gilbert, Ruth; González-Izquierdo, Arturo; Li, Leah

2015-01-01

72

Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

Achter, Paul

2010-01-01

73

Radiation combined injury: overview of NIAID research.  

PubMed

The term "radiation combined injury" (RCI) is used to describe conditions where radiation injury is coupled with other insults such as burns, wounds, infection, or blunt trauma. A retrospective account of injuries sustained following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima estimates that RCI comprised approximately 65% of all injuries observed. Much of the research that has been performed on RCI was carried out during the Cold War and our understanding of the clinical problem RCI presents does not reflect the latest advances in medicine or science. Because concerns have increased that terrorists might employ radiological or nuclear weapons, and because of the likelihood that victims of such terrorism would experience RCI, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting in 2007 to explore the state of the research in this area, identify programmatic gaps, and establish priorities for future research. As a follow-up to that meeting, in 2008 NIAID sponsored an initiative on RCI, leading to the award of several exploratory/developmental grants, the goals of which are to better understand biological synergy involved in RCI-induced damage, develop improved animal models for various type of RCI, and advance identification and testing of potential countermeasures to treat injuries that would be expected following a radiological or nuclear event. This program has already yielded new insight into the nature of combined injuries and has identified a number of novel and existing compounds that may be effective treatments for this condition. PMID:20445395

DiCarlo, Andrea L; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Hatchett, Richard J

2010-06-01

74

Civil War Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the following resources as you research the Civil War. Resources Pioneer Library World Book Web Albion Library Online Catalog "Name of Battle" NPS Civil War The American Civil War Homepage American Civil War The Civil War Causes of the Civil War What Caused the American Civil War? Secession North Carolina Majority Against Secession in 1860 (1866 Meeting) Slavery Abolition and Slavery Twenty Reasons for Total Abstinence from Slave-Labour Produce Influence of Prominent Abolitionists The Underground Railroad Battles of the Civil War Civil War Battle Summaries By State 10 Costliest Battles of the Civil War Battle of Gettysburg Virtual Tour Battle of Shiloh Battle of Antietam Important People in the Civil War Civil War Biographies Women of the American Civil War Political Cartoons John Tenniel and the American Civil War Lincoln vs. Douglas America in Caricature 1765-1865 Virtual Museums Civil War @ Smithsonian Gettysburg: Camp Life Selected Civil War Photographs ...

Bates, Albion M.

2009-06-09

75

Retrospective Evaluation of Canine and Feline Maxillomandibular Trauma Cases; A Comparison of Signalment with Non-Maxillomandibular Traumatic Injuries (2003-2012)  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To determine differences in signalment between maxillomandibular (MM) and non maxillomandibular (non-MM) trauma patients to help predict the type of injury sustained. Methods A medical records database was searched from December 2003-September 2012 to identify all MM trauma patients, and also a random sample of non-MM trauma patients was generated. Patient species, age, sex, weight, and injury aetiology were recorded for both populations. Results Sixty-seven MM trauma patients and 129 non-MM trauma patients were identified. Feline patients were almost twice as likely to be presented for MM trauma compared with non-MM trauma. The median weight of canine patients suffering MM injury was significantly less than that of non-MM patients (p=0.025). A significant association existed between the causes of injuries associated with MM and non-MM trauma populations (p=0.000023). The MM trauma patients were more likely to sustain injury as a result of an animal altercation (Bonferroni p=0.001) while non-MM injuries were more likely to result from motor vehicle accidents (Bonferroni p=0.001). Overall animals <1yr of age with traumatic injuries were overrepresented (65/196) in comparison to entire patient population. Clinical Significance The results of this study may help guide clinicians in the evaluation and screening of trauma patients that are presented as an emergency. Cats, small dogs and animals suffering from animal altercations should all be closely evaluated for maxillomandibular injury. PMID:24569903

Mulherin, Brenda L.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Soukup, Jason W.; Hetzel, Scott

2014-01-01

76

WORLD WAR I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will start to examine the causes for the war, as well as peoples attitudes towards it. World War I is often described as either "The Great War", or "The War to End all Wars". While it was great in scope and historical significance it unfortunatly did not halt future wars. In fact it's after effect was a direct cause ...

Amsden

2013-03-19

77

War and Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

War has been a subject of many different mediums. Through the portrayal of war, great movies have given insights on human conditions in wartime. War has also been the subject of several video games that are incredibly popular in mass culture. The difference between war movies and war games are that war games are interactive, requiring the players to act

Nicholas A. Perry

2009-01-01

78

The disease profile of poverty: morbidity and mortality in northern Uganda in the context of war, population displacement and HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

The population of Gulu District (northern Uganda) has been severely incapacitated by war, epidemics and social disruption. This study is aimed at describing disease patterns and trends in this area through a retrospective analysis of discharge records for 155205 in-patients of Lacor Hospital in the period 1992-2002. The burden of infectious diseases in childhood is overwhelming, with malaria accounting for the steepest increase in admissions. Admissions for war-related injuries and malnutrition fluctuated with the intensity of the war and the severity of famine. Emerging and re-emerging infections, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and Ebola, accounted for a heavy disease burden; however, there has been a trend for admissions related to HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis to decrease since the implementation of community-based services. Vulnerable groups (infants, children and women) accounted for 79.8% of admissions. Long-term war, population displacement, the collapse of social structures and the breakdown of the health system place people at a much greater risk of persistent, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, malnutrition and war-related injuries, shaping the 'disease profile of poverty'. Most of the disease burden results from infectious diseases of childhood, whose occurrence could be dramatically reduced by low-cost and effective preventive and curative interventions. PMID:15653126

Accorsi, S; Fabiani, M; Nattabi, B; Corrado, B; Iriso, R; Ayella, E O; Pido, B; Onek, P A; Ogwang, M; Declich, S

2005-03-01

79

The Forgotten War: Korea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

1990-01-01

80

Math Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Alan Schoenfeld presents his insightful commentary on a â??productive, middle-groundâ?ť theory in opposition to the extremist views of the math wars. Schoenfeld reviews the history of Mathematics education in the U.S. and how economic and political difficulties affected the education of Americaâ??s youth. He details the â??reformâ?ť of mathematics from standards-based to new math, and the downfall of that reform. It is a smart, interesting article that offers a tangible solution to a problem that has been looming in American school systems since the days of Sputnik.

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

81

The War (on Terror) on Alzheimer's.  

PubMed

In the decade following the tragedies of 9/11, a US-led "War on Terror" has coincided with a US-led "War on Alzheimer's disease". Not only has the rhetoric from these two wars overlapped and produced similar practical and conceptual problems, the campaigns have also become interwoven through the emerging public health issue of war-related head injuries, as well as a shared neglect for environmental contributions to human suffering. This article first explores similarities in the framing and prosecution of both wars, and then considers the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and traumatic environmental injuries (TEI) in the context of a society facing the increased prevalence of dementia. Ultimately, it is argued that addressing the challenges of cognitive aging and preventing violent social conflict both require a vernacular of higher ideals and values--as well as new language patterns rising out of the ecological movement--to trump the more expedient war rhetoric that has disproportionately marked public discourse around terrorism and Alzheimer's disease during the past decade. PMID:24381043

George, Daniel R; Whitehouse, Peter J

2014-01-01

82

Acts of Violence, Terrorism, or War: Triggers for Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...

83

Early intravenous unfractionated heparin and outcome in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome - a retrospective propensity matched cohort study  

E-print Network

, Garrard CS: Protein C in pneumonia. Thorax 2005, 60:705–706. 6. Ware LB, Fang X, Matthay MA: Protein C and thrombomodulin in human acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2003, 285:L514–L521. 7. Welty-Wolf KE, Carraway MS, Ortel TL... , Eichler HG, Speiser W, Jilma B: Heparin blunts endotoxin- induced coagulation activation. Circulation 1999, 100:2485–2490. 23. Darien BJ, Fareed J, Centgraf KS, Hart AP, MacWilliams PS, Clayton MK, Wolf H, Kruse-Elliott KT: Low molecular weight heparin...

Hofstra, Jorrit J; Vlaar, Alexander P J; Prins, David J; Koh, Gavin; Levi, Marcel; Schultz, Marcus J; Binnekade, Jan M; Juffermans, Nicole P

2012-08-15

84

Vietnam: Historians at War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

Moyar, Mark

2008-01-01

85

National Debt and Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will: determine if an exponential function adequately describes the changes in the National Debt from its inception; use technology (such as a spreadsheet program) to sketch graphs of functions and bar graphs of percent changes in the National Debt around war times; choose an appropriate scale and compare percent changes in the Debt around three major wars (the Civil War, World War I, and World War II).

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2009-02-12

86

Paranoid Disorders following War Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roughly 3,000 war veterans with moderate or severe brain injury have suffered from a psychiatric disturbance. Psychotic disorders are found in approximately 750 cases. The material of this preliminary report consists of the first 100 veterans with paranoid disorders. Delusional psychosis is the most common main diagnosis (28% of veterans), followed by major depression (21 %), delirium (18 %) and

Kalle Achté; Leo Jarho; Timo Kyykkä; Eija Vesterinen

1991-01-01

87

Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

Cassel, C.; Jameton, A.

1982-09-01

88

Bony destructive injuries of the calcaneus: long-term results of a minimally invasive procedure followed by early functional exercise: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Bony destructive injury of the calcaneus (BDIC) represents one of the most severe comminuted fractures of the calcaneus in which soft tissue coverage remains intact. The features of this injury include a collapsed articular surface, significant widening, severe loss of height and an unrecognisable outline of the calcaneus. This study aims to present the long-term outcomes of BDIC treated in a minimally invasive fashion followed by supervised early exercise. Methods Twelve patients with unilateral BDICs were treated at our institution. The main surgical procedures included percutaneous traction and leverage reduction and internal compression fixation with anatomic plates and compression bolts. Early functional exercise was encouraged to mould the subtalar joint. The height, length and width of the calcaneus; Böhler’s and Gissane’s angles; reduction of the articular surfaces; and functional recovery of the affected feet were assessed. Results The height, length and width of the calcaneus were substantially restored. The mean Böhler’s and Gissane’s angles of the affected calcaneus were 24.5 and 122.8 degrees, respectively. Five patients regained anatomical or nearly anatomical reduction of their posterior facets. Residual articular displacement of more than 3 mm was noted in three patients. Patients were followed for a mean of 93.9 months. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 83.8. Nine patients showed excellent or good results. Radiographic evidence of post-traumatic subtalar arthritis was observed in four cases. However, no subtalar arthrodesis was required. Conclusions BDICs can be treated effectively with percutaneous reduction and internal compression fixation followed by early active exercise. This protocol resulted in satisfactory radiological and functional outcomes. PMID:24725606

2014-01-01

89

The unfought chemical war  

SciTech Connect

In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

Freeman, K. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1991-12-01

90

Amputation versus functional reconstruction in the management of complex hind foot injuries caused by land-mine explosions: a long-term retrospective comparison.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of patients who were treated with either hind foot reconstruction or amputation in complex hind foot injuries accompanied with bone and soft tissue loss due to land-mine explosions. Between 1994 and 2004, all patients with hind foot complex injuries due to land-mine explosion, who were operated in our clinic, were enrolled to the study. All patients were evaluated with Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) after a mean of 15.1 ± 2.2 (range 9-19) years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, number of operations, necessity of psychiatric treatment and all complications were compared between groups. There were a total of 42 patients [21 in reconstruction group (Gr I) and 21 in amputation group (Gr II)]. The mean age at the time of final follow-up was 38.4 ± 3.04 years in Gr I and 38.2 ± 4.24 years in Gr II (p = 0.732). The mean follow-up duration was 15.7 ± 2.07 years in Gr I and 14.57 ± 2.29 years in Gr II (p = 0.081). The number of operations was significantly higher in Gr I (8.66 ± 10.2 times vs. 4.42 ± 7.7 times, respectively, p = 0.001). The mean FADI score at the final follow-up was 64.3 ± 18.1 in Gr I. In amputation group, more patients needed psychotherapy due to major depression (12 patients vs. 4 patients, p = 0.012). Major complications in Gr I were musculocutaneous flap atrophy in calcaneal region (n = 8 patients), limited ankle motion (n = 11) and painful osteophytes on plantar region (n = 6). In Gr II, stump problems were dominating (pain and tenderness n = 10, ulcer n = 2, allergic skin lesions n = 7, painful neuroma n = 10, bony spur n = 5, paresthesia n = 1, excessive sweating n = 12). At the final visit, although SF-36 scores were similar between groups (p = 0.182), extremity reconstruction group had significantly higher BIQLI scores than the amputation group (p = 0.016). If the dorsalis pedis is intact and midfoot and forefoot is relatively protected, hind foot reconstruction should be attempted. Long-term outcomes of hind foot reconstruction are satisfactory with minor complications and better BIQLI. PMID:24158743

Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ege, Tolga; Kose, Ozkan; Yurttas, Yuksel; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

2014-05-01

91

Early intravenous unfractionated heparin and outcome in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome – a retrospective propensity matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by a pro-coagulant state. Heparin is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. Unfractionated heparin has been found to be protective in experimental models of ALI. We hypothesized that an intravenous therapeutic dose of unfractionated heparin would favorably influence outcome of critically ill patients diagnosed with ALI. Methods Patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral center in the Netherlands between November 2004 and October 2007 were screened. Patients who developed ALI (consensus definition) were included. In this cohort, the impact of heparin use on mortality was assessed by logistic regression analysis in a propensity matched case–control design. Results Of 5,561 admitted patients, 2,138 patients had a length of stay?>?48?hours, of whom 723 were diagnosed with ALI (34%), of whom 164 received intravenous heparin. In a propensity score adjusted logistic regression analysis, heparin use did not influence 28-day mortality (odds ratio 1.23 [confidence interval 95% 0.80–1.89], nor did it affect ICU length of stay. Conclusions Administration of therapeutic doses of intravenous unfractionated heparin was not associated with reduced mortality in critically ill patients diagnosed with ALI. Heparin treatment did not increase transfusion requirements. These results may help in the design of prospective trials evaluating the use of heparin as adjunctive treatment for ALI. PMID:22894723

2012-01-01

92

Retrospective studies.  

PubMed

Large retrospective, epidemiological studies accumulated in the late 1980s, providing increasing evidence to the deeply rooted thought that perinatal events could persistently affect the individual's functioning and health/disease patterns throughout the lifetime. Evidences of such associations can be found in the literature since the beginning of the twentieth century, but studies from Barker, Hales, and colleagues serve as an important hallmark. They proposed the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis, stating that poor nutrition in fetal and early infant life is detrimental to the development and function of the individuals' organism, predisposing them to the later development of adult chronic diseases. At first used to explain the increased risk for type 2 diabetes in low birth weight individuals, the hypothesis was soon adapted to other systems, becoming one of the core assumptions of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease (DOHaD) model. The central nervous system is also vulnerable to the effects of environmental variation during fetal or neonatal life. Many researchers have explored the effects of perinatal programming on the human neurodevelopment, and some aspects of the brain structure and/or functioning (such as cognitive function, physiological reactivity to stress, and the risk for behavioral disorders or psychopathology) were shown to be modifiable by the exposure to certain adverse events early in life such as neonatal infections, exposure to gestational psychosocial stress, nutrition during gestation, exposure to drugs, or tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Until recently, most studies focused on birth weight as a strong surrogate of the intrauterine environment, investigating the effects of low birth weight (as a marker of suboptimal fetal environment) on a variety of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Despite the fact that literature reviews on this topic are as old as 1940, the more recent retrospective studies are summarized in this chapter. PMID:25287544

Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Manfro, Gisele Gus

2015-01-01

93

Snowboarding injuries in children  

PubMed Central

Objective To study injury patterns of snowboarding trauma in children. Design A retrospective case series. Setting A major pediatric trauma centre. Patients A cohort of 113 children (97 boys, 16 girls), mean age 13.9 years, who sustained 118 injuries secondary to snowboarding. Interventions All fractures were treated by immobilization in a cast; 19 children required a closed reduction. Outcome measures Sex and age of patients, mechanism of injury, injury sustained, treatments and complications. Results Falls on the outstretched hand from a loss of balance accounted for 66 (57%) of the injuries, uncontrolled falls for 42 (36%) and collisions for 5 (4%). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries were to the upper extremity, whereas 7% were to the lower extremity. Conclusions The predominance of snowboarding injuries of the upper extremity seen in children differs significantly from those in adults in whom lower extremity injuries are more common. PMID:11764877

Drkulec, John A.; Letts, Mervyn

2001-01-01

94

Early Korean War Coverage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

Lee, Raymond S. H.

1978-01-01

95

Science and War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a wide-ranging survey of relations between war, science, and technology from the days of the American colonies to the Vietnam War, indicating that the overall impact of science and technology on war has been overstated by historians in many fields. Includes military histories that science/technology historians have not used. (JN)

Roland, Alex

1985-01-01

96

Australian War Memorial: Of Love and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian War Memorial's online version of their exhibit Of Love and War illustrates how war impacts the availability of potential partners (especially from other countries), courtship, the sense of romantic urgency that war creates, and marriage. A reader's comment on the blog "Wedding Dresses, Part 3" sums up well what this exhibition is about in his comment regarding the display of wedding gowns in the exhibit: "Not the sort of item you usually associate with war, but on reflection at that time many sweethearts got married before the men went off to war and it helps paint a balanced picture of the times." Visitors should explore the themes the exhibit, which are divided up into: "First Glance", "Separation" and "The Future". Each theme has a multitude of sub-themes, including "Romance and Recruitment", "Loneliness" "Farewell and Fears" and "We Regret to Inform You". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Letters" sub-theme under "Separation", as there are several delicately embroidered silk greeting cards that were made in France in World War I.

97

The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe.  

PubMed

We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure-experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P; Winter, Joachim K

2014-03-01

98

Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given.?METHODS—It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase.?RESULTS—It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less.?CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.?? PMID:10837390

Muzaffar, W.; Khan, M. D.; Akbar, M; Khan, M. D.; Malik, A. M.; Durrani, O.

2000-01-01

99

Major peripheral veins injuries.  

PubMed

The injury was severe in wounded limb patients of this series who suffered from an associated major peripheral vein trauma. The presence of such an injury weighed heavily on the prognosis. Thirty eight patients with major peripheral veins injuries are reviewed. The injury had resulted from war wounds, work or road accidents. The superficial femoral vein was the most frequently injured vein. Associated injuries were frequently noted: soft tissues injuries in 35 patients, fractures in 33, arterial injuries in 32 and peripheral nerve injuries in 22 patients. Shock was more often present and more severe in patients who suffered also from a vein injury than in patients with an arterial injury only. The lacerated femoral vein was ligated in the majority of patients. Attempts were made to repair the lacerated popliteal veins. Repair of the vein was usually done by anastomosis of debrided ends. When an arterial injury was also present, it was repaired first. The postoperative complications were frequent and included infections, thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolisations. Twenty four patients were discharged with a viable limb. Complete function was recovered in seven patients only. Partial neurological deficit remained in twelve patients and complete paralysis in five. Twelve patients underwent subsequent amputation of the injured limb. Indications for amputation were ischemia in eight, infection or extensive destruction of tissues in four. Two patients died. PMID:961040

Romanoff, H; Goldberger, S

1976-01-01

100

To Win a Nuclear War: The Pentagon's secret war plans  

SciTech Connect

Kaku and Axelrod trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star Wars. To Win a Nuclear War takes readers beyond the details of the costs of nuclear attack into the attitudes of war planners and Presidents from Eisenhower to Reagan.

Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

1986-01-01

101

Treatment of War Wounds: A Historical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of war wounds is an ancient art, constantly refined to reflect improvements in weapons technology, transportation,\\u000a antiseptic practices, and surgical techniques. Throughout most of the history of warfare, more soldiers died from disease\\u000a than combat wounds, and misconceptions regarding the best timing and mode of treatment for injuries often resulted in more\\u000a harm than good. Since the 19th

M. M. Manring; Alan Hawk; Jason H. Calhoun; Romney C. Andersen

2009-01-01

102

National Debt and Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This algebra lesson from Illuminations has students collect data about the national debt, and then plot that data by decade. They will then determine whether an exponential curve is a good fit for the data. The interdisciplinary learning unit compares the national debt during the Civil War, World War I and World War II. The material is appropriate for grades 9-12 and should require 2 class periods to complete.

2011-01-19

103

US Civil War Generals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created using a number of print sources, this index by Kerry Webb is a fine resource for military historians and Civil War buffs. The index lists generals for each army alphabetically. Information provided includes date of birth and death, pre-war profession, war service, post-war career, and notes. Some entries also include suggestions for further reading and links to related sites. The main page of the site offers print references, a few links, and notes on the index entries. This site is a classic example of a "labor of love" resource that should prove useful and interesting to like-minded users.

104

The Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this site you will be able to find all the necessary information about the background of the Civil War. You will find out when it happened, why it happenend, and most importantly of all, what happened. Use the following resource to gain a good overall of the important dates, names, and events of the Civil War: A Nation Divided: The U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 One of the most important battles of the Civil War was the Battle of Gettysburg. President Abraham Lincoln gave one of the most famous speeches in American History after ...

Alex

2006-02-08

105

Causes of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed at analyzing the causes of death of prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War (1950-1953) who fought for the Communist side (North Korea and the People's Republic of China). In 1998, the United States Department of Defense released new information about the prisoners including, 7,614 deaths of the POW during the Korean War. The data on the causes of death of the POWs during the Korean War provides valuable information on the both the public health and history of the conflict. Materials and Methods To analyze the causes of death of the POWs, we classified the clinical diagnosis and findings on 7,614 deaths into 22 chapters, as outlined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision (ICD-10). Second, we traced changes in the monthly death totals of POWs as well as deaths caused by common infectious diseases and external causes of death including injury over time from August 1950 to September 1953. Results The most common category of causes of deaths of POWs was infectious disease, 5,013 (65.8%) out of 7,614 deaths, followed by external causes including injury, 817 (10.7%). Overall, tuberculosis and dysentery/diarrhea were the most common causes of death. Deaths caused by acute and chronic infection, or external causes showed different patterns of increases and decline over time during the Korean War. Conclusion The information and data on POWs' deaths during the Korean War reflects the critical impact of the POWs' living conditions and the effect of public health measures implemented in POW camps during the war. PMID:23364985

Lee, Myoung-Soon; Kang, Min-Jung

2013-01-01

106

An epidemiological investigation of training and injury patterns in triathletes.  

PubMed

Associated with the trend towards increased health consciousness and fitness, triathlon has established itself as a sport for masses. The goals of this study were to evaluate injury risk factors of non-professional triathletes and to compare prospective and retrospective evaluation methods. Using an online survey, 212 triathletes retrospectively answered a questionnaire about their training habits and injuries during the past 12 months. Forty-nine of these triathletes participated in a 12-month prospective trial. Injuries were classified with regard to the anatomical location, type of injury, incidence and associated risk factors. Most injuries occurred during running (50%) followed by cycling (43%) and swimming (7%). Fifty-four per cent (retrospective) and 22% (prospective) of the injuries were contusions and abrasions, 38% (retrospective) and 46% (prospective) were ligament and capsular injuries, 7% (retrospective) and 32% (prospective) were muscle and tendon injuries and 1% (retrospective) and 0% (prospective) were fractures. The incidence of an injury per 1000 training hours was 0.69 (retrospective) and 1.39 (prospective) during training and 9.24 (retrospective) and 18.45 (prospective) during competition. The main risk factor for injury in non-professional triathlon is participation in a competitive triathlon event. A retrospective design may underestimate the rate of overuse injuries. PMID:24102132

Zwingenberger, Stefan; Valladares, Roberto D; Walther, Achim; Beck, Heidrun; Stiehler, Maik; Kirschner, Stephan; Engelhardt, Martin; Kasten, Philip

2014-01-01

107

Economics of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

Solman, Paul

2008-01-01

108

War and the East  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes three lesson plans for teaching Asian military history to High School students. Each case study—Sun Tzu's Art of War, the Mongols, and the Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan—is structured around a primary source in translation and is designed to highlight the depth and diversity of the Asian experience with war. They allow us to see the

Andrew R. Wilson

2008-01-01

109

War Literature. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

Soderquist, Alisa

110

Terrorism and Civil Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the civil war and terrorism literature and then explores the international communities' responses to both. Both the academic literature and the international community tend to approach terrorism and civil war along separate tracks. A key question is whether or not this approach needs to be re-evaluated given the blurring of the distinction between what goes on inside

Jane Boulden

2009-01-01

111

Experience of War in 20th Century Europe  

E-print Network

-1930. Humanities and Social Sciences Index Retrospective: 1907-1984 (Online) PAIS: 1915-present (Online By Region European Find Background Information Selected Titles: Dictionary of European History and Politics History, 1763-1997 D299.C627 1998 The Macmillan Dictionary of the Second World War REF DA740 .W47 1995

Abolmaesumi, Purang

112

American Experience: War Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on the book by Andrew Carroll, War Letters is a television special airing on PBS on Sunday, May 26, at 9pm (Eastern Time). Revealing personal correspondence from the Revolutionary War to the Gulf War, War Letters gives accounts of famous battles, intimate declarations of love and longing, heartbreaking "Dear John" letters from home, and much more. The accompanying Web site provides a comprehensive description of the film and a transcript. It also provides a timeline of US military actions and wars from 1775 to the present, excerpts of letters from Carroll's book, and a teachers guide section grouped into categories of history, economics, geography, and civics. Additionally, for those interested in letter preservation, the site also provides tips on how to keep letters safe.

113

[Characteristics of war wound infection].  

PubMed

War wounds are the most complex type of non-targeted injuries due to uncontrolled tissue damage of varied and multifold localizations, exposing sterile body areas to contamination with a huge amount of bacteria. Wound contamination is caused by both the host microflora and exogenous agents from the environment (bullets, cloth fragments, dust, dirt, water) due to destruction of the host protective barriers. War wounds are the consequence of destructive effects of various types of projectiles, which result in massive tissue devitalization, hematomas, and compromised circulation with tissue ischemia or anoxia. This environment is highly favorable for proliferation of bacteria and their invasion in the surrounding tissue over a relatively short period of time. War wounds are associated with a high risk of local and systemic infection. The infection will develop unless a timely combined treatment is undertaken, including surgical intervention within 6 hours of wounding and antibiotic therapy administered immediately or at latest in 3 hours of wound infliction. Time is a crucial factor in this type of targeted combined treatment consisting of surgical debridement, appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy, and specific antitetanic prophylaxis. Apart from exposure factors, there are a number of predisposing factors that favor the development of polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic infection. These are shock, pain, blood loss, hypoxia, hematomas, type and amount of traumatized tissue, age, and comorbidity factors in the wounded. The determinants that define the spectrum of etiologic agents in contaminated war wounds are: wound type, body region involved, time interval between wounding and primary surgical treatment, climate factors, season, geographical area, hygienic conditions, and patient habits. The etiologic agents of infection include gram-positive aerobic cocci, i. e. Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp and Enterococcus spp, which belong to the physiological flora of the human skin and mucosa; gram-negative facultative aerobic rods; members of the family Enterobacteriacea (Escherichia coil, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae), which predominate in the physiological flora of the intestines, transitory flora of the skin and environment; gram-negative bacteria, i. e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus - A. baumanii complex; environmental bacteria associated with humid environment and dust; anaerobic gram-positive sporogeneous rods Clostridium spp, gram-negative asporogeneous rods Bacteroides spp and gram-positive anaerobic cocci; Peptostreptococcus spp and Peptococcus spp. The latter usually colonize the intestine, primarily the colon, and the skin, while clostridium spores are also found in the environment. Early empirical antibiotic therapy is used instead of standard antibiotic prophylaxis. Empirical antimicrobial therapy is administered to prevent the development of systemic infection, gas gangrene, necrotizing infection of soft tissue, intoxication and death. The choice of antibiotics is determined by the presumed infective agents and localization of the wound. It is used in all types of war wounds over 5-7-10 days. The characteristics of antibiotics used in war wounds are the following: broad spectrum of activity, ability to penetrate deep into the tissue, low toxicity, long half-life, easy storage and application, and cost effectiveness. The use of antibiotics is not a substitution for surgical treatment. The expected incidence of infection, according to literature data, is 35%-40%. If the time elapsed until surgical debridement exceeds 12 hours, or the administration of antibiotics exceeds 6 hours of wound infliction, primary infection of the war wound occurs (early infection) in more than 50% of cases. The keys for the prevention of infection are prompt and thorough surgical exploration of the wound, administration of antibiotics and antitetanic prophylaxis, awareness of the probable pathogens with respect to localization of the wound, and optimal choi

Kucisec-Tepes, Nastja; Bejuk, Danijela; Kosuta, Dragutin

2006-09-01

114

Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan  

MedlinePLUS

... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...

115

48 CFR 28.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...automatically receive war-hazard risk protection. (d) When the agency...Act to any contract, subcontract, work location, or classification of employees...compensation coverage against the risk of work injury or death and assume...

2011-10-01

116

48 CFR 28.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...automatically receive war-hazard risk protection. (d) When the agency...Act to any contract, subcontract, work location, or classification of employees...compensation coverage against the risk of work injury or death and assume...

2010-10-01

117

Civil War Traveler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tag line of this website is "Everything you Need to Plan your Civil War Trips." With the 150th anniversary of the Civil War being commemorated this year, this website offers everything for the mildly interested to the downright enthusiastic. Visitors can find every kind of map here, including "Civil War Trails Maps," almost two dozen "Podcast Tour Maps," "Interactive Maps," "National Park Service Maps," and relevant "State Highway Maps." The "Multimedia" link on the site gives visitors access to 26 podcasts of tours of Civil War sites. The podcasts are narrated by noted national park service historians and accompanied by period music. Also in the Multimedia area are the "Richmond Walking Tours" in Richmond, VA, which was the capitol of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. These include five tours, maps for each, and an hour-long podcast to accompany each tour. Visitors interested in going to some Civil War lectures, reenactments, tours, or demonstrations should definitely check out the "Events" link to see a list of all the Civil War events for the 150th anniversary, month by month. The month of April alone has over 100 on the calendar throughout the South.

118

Americans as Warriors: "Doughboys" in Battle during the First World War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)

Keene, Jennifer D.

2002-01-01

119

Tug-of-War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into tug-of-war physics. Groups of learners will test two tug-of-war strategies. Which is better: a team of a few big kids or lots of smaller kids? Learners form teams based on weight. Each team is timed as it pulls a sled of sand bags equal to their weight for 30 feet. Learners determine an average pull time for each time (after resting) and compare the results. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Tug O’ War.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

120

Penile injuries: A 10-year experience  

PubMed Central

We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

2014-01-01

121

Effects of World War I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Determine the effects of World War I on countries involved in the war. In this activity, read the links and use the information given to determine the effects of World War I on the major players in the war. Fill out the graphic organizer with the information you find. Organizer Casualties - Use this site to determine how many soldiers each country lost in ...

Kilpatrick, Mr.

2012-04-10

122

Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

123

Fog of War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In conjunction with the eighth anniversary of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the Washington Post Online has created this site, a compendium of information about and analysis of the 42-day air war waged by the US against Iraq in 1991. The site contains author William M. Arkin and General Charles Homer's analyses of the air war's effectiveness, information on the US war goals articulated at the time, an interactive air strike map and calendar (including Arkin's 1995 report "Collateral Damage" and Iraqi Civilian Deaths During Operation Desert Storm [available in Microsoft Word format only]), and images and Quicktime videos of war damage. Although the site is overzealous in its use of unnecessary javascript to propel navigation, the story it tells is both controversial and compelling. Note that content can be most easily accessed via the Resources section.

1998-01-01

124

Civil War Cartoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Civil War Cartoons is a paper that investigates American visual satire (political cartoons) during the Civil War era. An American Studies Project at the University of Virginia, the site was originally created by Ian Finseth and later edited with a graphic introduction by Dan Backer. Beginning at the start of the Civil War and ending with its aftermath, the site is a history lesson that emphasizes the importance of understanding the ways in which political cartoons contributed to the nation's social and political climate of the time. Furthermore, it reveals the potency of the medium, tracing the success and influence of visual images during the Civil War-era. It shows the period to be a significant landmark in the history of American political art.

2002-01-01

125

PRIV-WAR: Regulating Privatisation of War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it mean to have private military companies involved in the conduct of war? This is a subject of interest to the European University Institute, and a host of other partners, including the University of Sheffield and the Riga Graduate School of Law. The purpose of the PRIV-WAR project is to "assess the impact of the increasing use of private military companies and security companies in situations of armed conflict." The project was started in 2008, and on their website interested parties can learn about their activities and click on to the "Publications" area. The working papers are quite worthy of special attention, and they include "Passing the Buck: State Responsibility for Private Military Companies" and "A History of Private Warfare".

126

War Experiences Inventory: Initial Psychometric and Structural Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the structural and psychometric properties of the War Experiences Inventory (WEI) with data from 255 post deployed service members (224 men and 31 women). Results from principal components analyses yielded a five-factor solution assessing sexual trauma, combat exposure, interpersonal distress, circumstances of deployment, and personal injury. Psychometric analyses revealed scale scores were internally consistent; validity evidence showed WEI

Lori S. Katz; Geta Cojucar; Cory Davenport; Satish Clarke; John C. Williams

2012-01-01

127

Hemipelvectomy images of loss caused by war.  

PubMed

As we treat our 230th patient from the Syrian conflict, the pathology we see is more debilitating and the humanitarian needs of the wounded have become even more obvious. This case presents some graphic images of the realities of war. Care in the most advanced units cannot restore broken limbs, let alone broken lives. We present a case of a young war-injured man, who suffered severe crush injury to the pelvis and lower limb, arriving at our medical facility after a delay of hours. The lower limb was shattered from the pelvis down (essentially a traumatic hemipelvectomy). His life had been saved in Syria by ligation of the femoral vessels in an unknown facility by an unknown medical team. On arrival in a centre in Israel for definitive care of an unsalvageable leg, formal hemipelvectomy was performed. PMID:25008336

Salamon, Tal; Kassis, Shokrey; Lerner, Alexander

2014-01-01

128

The influence of war on the development of neurosurgery.  

PubMed

The treatment of craniospinal war wounds proved to be a significant driving force in the early growth of neurosurgery as a specialty. This publication explores the historical relationship between the evolution of combat methodology from antiquity through modern conflicts as it dovetails with and drives corresponding advancements in the field of neurosurgery. Whether it's the basic management principles for intracranial projectile wounds derived from World War I experiences, the drastic improvement in the outcomes and management of spinal cord injuries observed in World War II, or the fact that both of these wars played a crucial role in the development of a training system that is the origin of modern residency programs, the influence of wartime experiences is pervasive. PMID:24116730

Dowdy, Justin; Pait, T Glenn

2014-01-01

129

Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Asia: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Study design A systematic review. Background The number of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) reports grows annually, especially in China and Korea. The epidemiological characteristics of TSCI in Asia differ from those in other countries. Thus, we compiled epidemiological factors from Asia to compare with those from other countries. Method We searched articles published in any language between January 1980 to December 2011 using the terms “spinal cord injury”, “traumatic spinal cord injury”, “epidemiology”, and “Asia”. The articles were reviewed for information regarding TSCI incidence, total cases, case criteria, case source, causes of injury, male/female ratio, mean age, prospective or retrospective, neurological level of injury, extent of injury, and America Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS)/grade. Results Epidemiological data were extracted from 39 reports in the published literature that met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies reported prevalence rates. Incidence rates ranged from 12.06 to 61.6 per million. The average age ranged from 26.8 to 56.6 years old. Men were at higher risk than women. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and falls were the main causes of TSCI. However, several countries reported war wounds as the major cause. The neurological level and extent of injury were mixed, and most patients were categorized as AIS/Frankel grade A. Conclusion TSCI is an important public health problem and a major cause of paralysis. We must understand the epidemiology to implement appropriate preventative measures. Asian epidemiology is different from that in other regions, so intervention measures must be established according to population-specific characteristics. PMID:22925749

Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Li, Yu-Lin; Feng, Shi-Qing

2012-01-01

130

Injuries among male and female World Cup alpine skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Limited knowledge exists on injuries among professional alpine skiers. Objective: To describe the risk of injury and the injury pattern among competitive World Cup alpine skiers during the competitive season. Methods: Retrospective interviews were performed with all World Cup athletes from 10 nations at the end of the 2006-7 and 2007-8 winter seasons, and all acute injuries occurring during

T Bere; L Nordsletten; S Heir; R Bahr

2010-01-01

131

Injuries among World Cup freestyle skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLimited knowledge exists on injuries among professional freestyle skiers.ObjectiveTo describe the risk of injury and injury patterns among competitive World Cup (WC) freestyle skiers during the competitive season.MethodsRetrospective interviews were conducted with WC freestyle skiers from 20 nations in a cohort study at the end of the 2006–2007, 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 winter seasons, and all acute injuries occurring during the

Tonje Wĺle Flřrenes; Stig Heir; Lars Nordsletten; Roald Bahr

2010-01-01

132

Rationalist causes of war : mechanisms, experiments, and East Asian wars  

E-print Network

This dissertation specifies and tests rationalist mechanisms of war. Why would rational states fight each other despite their incentives for peaceful bargains that would avoid the costs of war? In the rationalist theory ...

Quek, Ch-yuan Kaiy

2013-01-01

133

First World War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Almost all of the remaining veterans of World War One have passed on, but the "Great War" remains a subject of considerable interest for the general public and historians alike. This intriguing site created by the Guardian newspaper in Britain features slideshows, articles, and a set of external links to additional websites of note. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Series" section to read the four part set of articles that delves into topics such as "The western front" and "The road to war". The site also does a nice job of weaving in modern commentary and editorials on the current state of European affairs and armed conflicts both throughout the Continent and in other regions of the world. Additionally, the site also contains video clips of veterans talking about their time in the trenches and historians commenting on the legacy of this tremendous conflict.

134

Civil War Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Accuracy in mapping is crucial, and during the Civil War in the United States this important skill was vital to a successful campaign. In one of its most ambitious digital collections to date, the American Memory project at the Library of Congress has placed approximately 2240 Civil War maps and charts in this archive, along with 200 maps from the Library of Virginia and 400 maps from the Virginia Historical Society. Visitors can jump right in by browsing the entire collection by place, subject, creator, or title. Some real gems include the multitude of maps and views of Vicksburg in Mississippi and those of the infamous Andersonville Prison in Georgia. The site also contains a number of classroom resources for educators, and a very nice essay (divided into seven sections) by Richard W. Stephenson that explores the history of mapping the Civil War.

135

Unstable pelvic fractures: a retrospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analysed retrospectively. The mean age of the group was 41 years (range 15–77). Of these cases 35 had sustained high energy trauma. The mean Hospital Trauma Index-Injury Severity Score of the population was 32 (16–66). Nine cases were haemodynamically unstable on admission. The type of unstable pelvic fracture was classified according to Tile.

I. H. P. A. A. van Veen; A. A. M. van Leeuwen; T. van Popta; P. A. van Luyt; P. J. Bode; A. B. van Vugt

1995-01-01

136

War Report -- Iraq War and Afghan Aftermath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This helpful omnibus of links to timely research, editorials, papers, and other written material on the situation in both Iraq and Afghanistan is provided by the Project on Defense Alternatives. The Project was found in 1991, and part of its mission is to "adapt security policy to the challenges and opportunities of the post-Cold War era. Toward this end it promotes consideration of the broadest range of defense options." Their advisory board is made up of an impressive range of scholars, policymakers, and scientists. The War Report page itself contains numerous links to a wide array of sources, including special reports from the United Nations on the opium economy in Afghanistan and the latest reports on the status of nuclear inspections in Iraq. Equally valuable are numerous links to news coverage from around the world, including the Guardian, BBC News, Eurasian Insight, and Global Affairs Commentary. The site is updated frequently and will be quite beneficial to those persons interested in staying in touch with the most current news and reports dealing with these two countries.

2002-01-01

137

War Damage Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.

1994-01-01

138

The Impact of the Korean War on the Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of the cold war that stress the imperatives of the American domestic politico-economic system or the requirements of bipolarity are undermined by the argument that the Korean war strongly influenced international history and indeed brought about most of the characteristics which we associate with the cold war. Without Korea, U.S. policy would have been very different, and there were

Robert Jervis

1980-01-01

139

United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

1983-01-01

140

Diamond Wars? Conflict Diamonds and Geographies of Resource Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1990s, natural resources such as oil, diamonds, and timber came under increased scrutiny by conflict analysts and media outlets for their purported role in many contemporary wars. This article discusses some of the limitations of conventional arguments linking wars and resources. Dominated by econometric approaches and rational choice theory interpretations, arguments pertaining to “resource wars” often oversimplify

Philippe Le Billon

2008-01-01

141

Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

Shapiro, Charles S.

1988-01-01

142

Head Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

143

The War Against Pests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

Smith, Ray F.

1973-01-01

144

The Math Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

2004-01-01

145

Education and War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

2009-01-01

146

Stabilizing Star Wars  

SciTech Connect

An orderly replacement of offensive with defensive nuclear weapons is part of the defense-protected build-down (DPB) strategy described by Weinberg and Barkenbus. Differing from the administration's Star Wars approach by relying on interceptor missiles rather than costly and unproven lasers and particle beams, the plan also calls for a simultaneous freeze on offensive weapons. (DCK)

Weinberg, A.M.; Barkenbus, J.N.

1984-01-01

147

End the Math Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

2011-01-01

148

The Technological Culture of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

Pretorius, Joelien

2008-01-01

149

BA War & Society Module Information  

E-print Network

Theories of War 1 (compulsory) HUA102 War and Warfare in the Modern World (compulsory) HIH118 World History, 1500 ­ 1800 PO118War and Peace in the Nuclear Age (compulsory) HIH121 Europe of Extremes, 1789 ­ 1989 A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall: America in the 1960s HIH3328 Britain and United States in the Nuclear Age 1

Harman, Neal.A.

150

SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

CITATION TO LIEUTENANT GRAY. Reproduction. 14 ROLL OF THE DEAD, WORLD WAR I . Reproduction. 15 INTRODUCTIONRECORD OF SERVICE SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER #12;IN MEMORIAM #12$,T'r 113a,. #12;#12;RECORD OF SERVICE IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR THEUNIVERSITY OF BRITISHCOLUMBIA A Supplement

Handy, Todd C.

151

Nuclear War and Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

Hobson, Art

1983-01-01

152

WAR: Back to the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract War is a fraught subject. Those who study it often fight about it. This chapter examines the current state of the study of war, described and analyzed by anthropologists and nonanthropologists who employ concepts like culture in writing about the future of war. Warfare seems bound to keep us revisiting certain aspects of the past. At the same time,

Anna Simons

1999-01-01

153

War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

2004-01-01

154

War on!Why a 'war on cancer' should replace our 'war on crime' (and terror)  

Microsoft Academic Search

'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war

Jonathan Simon

2008-01-01

155

Traumatic War Stressors and Psychiatric Symptoms Among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans’ age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking

Alan Fontana; Robert Rosenheck

1994-01-01

156

In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of débridement.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The care of traumatic wounds has evolved over hundreds of years, largely as a result of armed conflicts. The lessons learned during World War I in the treatment of extensive soft-tissue injuries proved invaluable in reducing infection and preventing loss of limb and life. Foremost among these was the use of debridement. This report reviews the development of debridement as standard treatment of war wounds and highlights the surgeon largely responsible for its resurgence during one of this century's saddest chapters. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Before World War I, the care of wounds consisted of minimal exploration and liberal use of then-new antiseptics. For limited injuries, this approach appeared adequate. World War I saw the introduction of devastating weapons that produced injuries that caused extensive devitalization of tissue. Standard treatment of these patients proved woefully inadequate to prevent life-threatening infections. METHODS: This is a historical review of the conditions that occurred during World War I that prompted a change in wound management. One of those responsible for this change was the Belgian surgeon Antoine Depage. His life and contributions to the care of war wounds are profiled. Depage reintroduced the discarded French practice of wound incision and exploration (debridement) and combined it with excision of devitalized tissue. RESULTS: Through the use of debridement, excision, and delayed wound closure based on bacteriologic survey, Depage was able to reduce the incidence of infectious complications of soft-tissue injuries, particularly those involving fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Through his experiences in the Great War, Antoine Depage was able to formulate a treatment plan for wounds of war. All such injuries were assumed to be contaminated and, as such, they required early and careful debridement. Depage thought that wound closure should often be delayed and based his decision to close on the bacteriologic status of the wound. To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9712561

Helling, T S; Daon, E

1998-01-01

157

Civil War Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was Washington, D.C. like during the Civil War? It's an arresting and interesting question, and the people at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Center for Digital Research in the Humanities have created this digital archive to look into it. As their introductory statement notes, this collection "examines the U.S. national capital from multiple perspectives as a case study of social, political, cultural, and medical/scientific/transitions provoked or accelerated by the Civil War." On the homepage, visitors will find six sections, including Maps, Texts, Visual Works, and Data. For those with a spatial bent, the Maps area is a real find. Visitors can use the interactive GIS-enabled map to look at the layers of history throughout the city with a grain of detail that is remarkable. Moving along, the Interpretations area includes scholarly essays, such as "Washington, the Strategic Capital."

2012-08-24

158

Frontline: Drug Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the companion to the outstanding PBS Frontline program which aired in 2000. Simply put, the two-part Frontline film was probably the most balanced and detailed examination of America's war on drugs ever aired on television. In addition, it contained numerous interviews with figures on both sides of the drug war, including people who had never before made themselves available to American journalists. Whether or not you watched the program, the companion site offers some excellent and engaging content. This includes video excerpts, charts and graphs, excerpts and unused portions from interviews featured on the program, as well as numerous features unique to the site, one of the deepest companion sites PBS has ever produced.

2000-01-01

159

Civil War Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress (LOC) American Memory collection has recently expanded yet again with this new exhibit. This exhibit, from the LOC's Geography and Map Division, features a selection from the approximately 2,240 Civil War maps and charts and 76 atlases and sketchbooks held by the Division. The majority of the maps were made during the Civil War, although some were produced afterwards to illustrate certain events or battles. Of special interest are maps produced by Confederate Major Jedediah Hotchkiss, a topographical engineer responsible for battle maps that were used by Generals Lee and Jackson. Users can search the collection by keyword or browse by subject, creator, title, or geographic location. Maps are offered as thumbnail images with several size and zoom options. Updates will be made to the collection on a monthly basis.

160

Kuma\\\\War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuma\\\\War (KW), produced by Kuma Reality Games and released in 2003, is an ad-supported episodic third-person shooter that recreates (mostly)\\u000a topical news events as playable missions only weeks after they occur. First and foremost, KW is as much a technological platform as it is a game in the traditional sense. Assets libraries — that is, tagged archives\\u000a of reusable props

Stefan Werning

161

The Math Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the “reform” stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented, “standards-based” curricula are superficial and undermine classical mathematical values; reformers

Alan H. Schoenfeld

2004-01-01

162

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

163

[Two famous female nurses during the Crimean War].  

PubMed

During the Crimean War outbroken in 1854, there were massive death tolls due to delayed treatment of the injuries and shortage of battlefield medical workers. Nightingale, assigned by the government, and Mary Seacole, voluntarily went to the battlefield, to join the rescuing of the injured soldiers. These two nurses, with different family background and race, saved the lives of many injuries and patients. They were highly praised after the relevation by the media. The name of Nightingale was remembered by the later generations. Contrarily, that of the latter was forgotten. Historically, the deeds and contributions to nursing by Mary Seacole must be also respected similarly. PMID:24524640

Zhao, Xiao-Yun

2013-11-01

164

American Civil War Music & Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress has created this delightful site that brings together hundreds of items that tell of the musical culture of the American Civil War. First-time visitors will want to start by perusing the Civil War Sheet Music section. Here they will find 2,500 pieces culled from the Library's collection, including songs about various generals, battles, and a longing for the tranquility of home life. Further along, the site also includes the Civil War Era Band Music section. This area features over 700 musical compositions, along with over a dozen audio files of these fine ditties. Visitors shouldn't miss the Historic Events in the Civil War area, as it offers a new profile of an important event from this conflict every day. On the right-hand side of the page, visitors can also browse different collections such as Civil War Maps and Civil War Treasures from the New York Historical Society.

2012-08-17

165

On the Economic Consequences of Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the economic effects of civil war and the post-war period is developed. A key feature is the adjustment of the capital stock through capital flight. Post-war this flight can either be reversed or continue, depending partly upon how far the capital stock has adjusted to the war. The model is tested on data for all civil wars

Paul Collier

1998-01-01

166

Childhood eye injuries in North Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To provide epidemiological data on serious eye injuries among children that can be utilized in planning health education\\u000a and safety strategies for preventing such injuries. Materials and Methods: Records were reviewed of 116 children who sustained serious eye injuries which required admission to Princess Basma Teaching\\u000a Hospital between October 1995 and November 1998. The material was analyzed retrospectively with

Muawyah D. Al-Bdour; Mohammed A. Azab

1998-01-01

167

US Army War College  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Strategic Studies Institute is the primary research faculty of the U.S. Army War College, and includes both civilian scholars and uniformed military officers with extensive experience in national security and military affairs. The most common products of the Institute are SSI Studies which deal with topics having strategic implications for the Army, the Department of Defense, and the larger National Security community. Additional information is available on the mission, history, and organization of SSI, plus a link to the U.S. Army Military History Institute. http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usassi/

168

Civil War Leaders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will overview the material provided and be prepared to discuss the material in class. Students: 1. Read the background material provided about the four leaders to have a general understanding of who they were. Biography of Abe Background Lee s Background Grant in the war 2. Read over Lincoln's campaign backgound Abe s Political Background 3. Look at how the South viewed Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation and at the "Lost Cause" piece. The South s View Of Lincoln Lee s Lost Cause 4. Answer in a paragraph form: Describe the leaders backgrounds ...

Hud, Coach

2011-04-20

169

Consistency of Retrospective Reporting About Exposure to Traumatic Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime exposure to traumatic events was assessed by means of a multimethod protocol applied to 76 male military veterans. Consistency of retrospective reporting was determined for physical and sexual assault and abuse, accidents, disasters, combat and warzone experiences, serious illness or injury, and hazardous duty. Findings demonstrate that respondents are generally consistent in reporting traumatic events, although the majority report

Karen E. Krinsley; James G. Gallagher; Frank W. Weathers; Catherine J. Kutter; Danny G. Kaloupek

2003-01-01

170

Orofacial Injuries in Eclamptic Nigerians  

Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ Les blessures buccofaciales chez les Nigérianes éclamptiques. A retrospective review of one hundred and seventy three cases of eclampsia seen between 1994 and 2002 was conducted. Twenty one patients (12.1%) whose ages ranged from 18 to 35 years sustained orofacial injuries during the course of their eclamptic fits. Lacerations and bruises on the tongue, gingivae and lips accounted for

KC Ndukwe; VI Ugboko; IO Ogunlola; EO Orji; ON Makinde

171

The Geometry Of War The Geometry Of War  

E-print Network

in the ancient Roman Army 55-63 4.2 Troops Formations in the ancient Greek Army 63-64 4.3 Other MilitaryThe Geometry Of War 1 #12;The Geometry Of War GEM1518K Mathematics in Arts &Architecture Presenting. Later, the Byzantines made use of the inflammable `Greek fire' in naval warfare and the Arabs were also

Aslaksen, Helmer

172

How Much War Will we see?Explaining the Prevalence of Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative studies of civil war have focused on war initiation (onset) or war duration and termination and produced important insights into these processes. An empirical analysis of civil war prevalence is used to show that the prevalence or amount of war observed at any given time is important. Civil war prevalence is defined as the probability of observing either a

IBRAHIM ELBADAWI; NICHOLAS SAMBANIS

2002-01-01

173

Spanish Civil War Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress' collection of 120 Spanish Civil War posters dating from 1936-1939 are a good-looking group of items that portray both the Republican and Nationalist causes of Spain during the Spanish Civil War. In order to start searching or browsing all the images of this collection, click on "Search This Collection" in the middle of the page. To browse the images, click on "View All". If you would rather search, you have many modes to do so, including subjects and formats, creators and other associated names, and titles. As most of the text on the posters is in Spanish, visitors may wish to look over the English translations. Unfortunately, many of the posters can only be viewed as thumbnails, unless they are being viewed in person at the Library of Congress. Although many of the posters are in bold reds, blues and yellows, their undertones are dark. Some of the black and white prints look much like newsprint, and are more pedestrian in form.

174

Education and the Threat of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of education in preventing nuclear war. Includes information on projects and organizations involved in educating children and youth about nuclear war and profiles of organizations that have been promoting nuclear war education at colleges and universities. (JN)

Markusen, Eric

1982-01-01

175

Getting the Civil War Right  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

Loewen, James W.

2011-01-01

176

The ‘medicine is war’ metaphor  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Berlin Wall fell and the Iron Curtain was raised, we entered the post-Cold War era. Adapting to this new situation will require reconceptualizing how we interpret political events and make political decisions. Experiencing life in terms of war is more than mere rhetorical flourish. Metaphors may influence which ethical issues we raise, how we interpret problems, which alternatives

Virginia L. Warren

1991-01-01

177

War, Peace, and the Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for editors, reporters, and researchers, this publication contains background information on war and peace. Included are newspaper articles, essays, and excerpts from radio commentaries. The information is intended to help journalists provide more accurate coverage of war-and-peace issues, in particular more accurate coverage of the Soviet…

Zwicker, Barrie, Ed.

178

Rational War and Constitutional Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary accounts of the allocation of war powers authority often focus on textual or historical debates as to whether the President or Congress holds the power to initiate military hostilities. In this Essay, we move beyond such debates and instead pursue a purely functional or comparative institutional analysis of the relationship between Congress and the President on war powers. More

John C Yoo; Jide Nzelibe

2006-01-01

179

Giulio Douhet and modern war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giulio Douhet has long been acknowledged as one of the world's foremost airpower theorists. His insights into the use of the airplane in war, and his predictions on the form future wars would take, were among the first to be clearly articulated and presented to the public. Yet, he remains an elusive and vaguely understood figure. Only a handful of

Phillip S. Meilinger

1993-01-01

180

Star Wars and gravitational constants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Star Wars takes place in another galaxy in another age and the adventure plays out on ``inhabitable'' planets unknown to us. Yet, it is curious how all the planets and other astronomical bodies of different sizes and compositions that Star Wars characters visit seem to have the same gravitational field at the surface.

Ryan Doherty; JamesAlexRembert; Nathan Boice; Priscilla Laws

1998-01-01

181

The War Against Drug Producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model of a war against the producers of illegal hard drugs. This war occurs on two fronts. First, to prevent the cultivation of crops that are the raw material for producing drugs the state engages the drug producers in conflict over the control of arable land. Second, to impede further the production and exportation of drugs

Herschel I. Grossman; Daniel Mejia

2005-01-01

182

The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1940s were a turning point in married women's labor-force participation, leading many to credit World War II with spurring economic and social change. This paper uses two retrospective surveys from 1944 and 1951 to show that half of all married women employed in 1950 were working in 1940, and more than half of the decade's new entrants joined after

Claudia D Goldin

1991-01-01

183

Labor Day and the war on workers.  

PubMed

We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546

Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

1999-09-01

184

Spinal injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2009:chap 40. Torg JS. Cervical Spine Injuries: 1. Cervical spine injuries in the adult. In: DeLee JC, Drez ... chap 16, section A. Pizzutillo PD, Herman MJ. Cervical spine injuries: 2. Cervical spine injuries in the child. ...

185

Hand infections: a retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s) and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection. PMID:25210653

Capdarest-Arest, Nicole; Bertoch, Spencer T.; Bakken, Erik C.; Hoover, Susan E.; Zou, Jiyao

2014-01-01

186

Hand infections: a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s) and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection. PMID:25210653

Türker, Tolga; Capdarest-Arest, Nicole; Bertoch, Spencer T; Bakken, Erik C; Hoover, Susan E; Zou, Jiyao

2014-01-01

187

The patterns of facial injury suffered by patients in road traffic accidents: A case controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic accidents cause severe facial injuries and are frequently associated with injuries to other organ systems. The aims of this study were to define the facial injuries suffered by victims of road trauma and assess the need for a multidisciplinary approach to their management.A retrospective study of all patients over 14years of age suffering facial injuries over a five

Martin Druce Batstone; Francis N. T. Monsour; Pamela Pattel; Anthony Lynham

2007-01-01

188

Kepler's "War on Mars"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

2011-01-01

189

Give War a Chance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, an online complement to a PBS Frontline program aired earlier this week, explores how US diplomats and the military differ on the use of forceful interventions in the post-Vietnam era. The difference is explored through the experiences of US Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, UN Ambassador-nominee, and Admiral Leighton "Snuffy" Smith (ret.), a Vietnam war hero who commanded NATO forces in Bosnia. The site features biographies and interviews with Holbrooke and Smith, and also includes a report on American use of military might, an analysis of US foreign policy in regard to the nations of the former Yugoslavia, an interview with Major H.R. McMaster about the lessons learned from Vietnam, and a chronology of US military interventions in the last 30 years.

190

Illinois Civil War Newspapers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of an ambitious effort to digitize a wide range of documents related to the Civil War in Illinois, this site is a great resource for historians and the curious public. It's quite a trove, as it offers visitors access to over 1,900 documents including commentaries from Senator Stephen Douglas, letters from soldiers back home, the draft, and much more. The site also has a nice search engine that gives visitors the ability to perform a full-text search across all of the articles. Accounts of well known battles in places such as Richmond and Gettysburg can be read through the lenses of small town newspapers in Illinois. Finally, the site also has great links to the rest of the digitization projects at Northern Illinois University.

191

American prisoner of war policy and practice from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror  

E-print Network

, 1977). 10 Richard Garrett?s P. O. W. examined the treatment of POWs from the Hundred Years War to the Vietnam War, drawing conclusions about the experiences of POWs over the centuries. Organized... of the battlefield victors. Prehistoric societies almost always executed captured foes, rather than spend their meager resources maintaining 8 Richard Garrett, P. O. W. (London: David & Charles, 1981). 11...

Springer, Paul Joseph

2006-08-16

192

War and domestic violence.  

PubMed

A longterm study (begun in 1956) of the people of four villages in Gwembe District in Zambia provides information on deaths due to Rhodesian action or to Zimbabwean freedom fighters and on deaths due to domestic violence (which is likely to have been underreported because it is considered shameful). During the decade of the 1970s, one woman and three men died from Rhodesian action and 5 women were killed by kinsmen (two husbands, two sons, and one brother). The police left the kin to settle the case of the sister killed by the brother. One man who killed his mother persuaded a younger, unmarried kinsman to be charged and punished in his stead; another left the community. One of the men who killed his wife was released because of his age (he paid damages to his children in accordance with matrilineal tradition); the other was released for lack of evidence. Battered women usually do not press charges against their husbands but may leave them and, if young, marry again. In some cases, battered women seeking divorce have also won compensation for broken bones. Domestic violence may have been especially prevalent in this period because the economic situation deteriorated, men could not find work, and the Rhodesian war added stress and disrupted the local transportation system. In response, men began to drink more heavily and male violence directed against women and men brewed along with locally-produced alcohol. Domestic violence may be exacerbated when men use women as an outlet for their anger and frustration in stressful times of war. PMID:12295013

Colson, E

1995-01-01

193

Working toward exposure thresholds for blast-induced traumatic brain injury: Thoracic and acceleration mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in blast-induced lung injury resulted in exposure thresholds that are useful in understanding and protecting humans from such injury. Because traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure has become a prominent medical and military problem, similar thresholds should be identified that can put available research results in context and guide future research toward protecting war fighters as well

Michael W. Courtney; Amy C. Courtney

2011-01-01

194

Parental involvement in the war in Croatia 1991-1995 and suicidality in Croatian male adolescents  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the association between parental war involvement and different indicators of psychosocial distress in a community sample of early adolescents ten years after the war in Croatia 1991-1995. Methods A total of 695 adolescents were screened with a self-report questionnaire assessing parental war involvement, sociodemographic characteristics, and alcohol and drug consumption. Personality traits were assessed with the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; depressive symptoms with the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI); and unintentional injuries, physical fighting, and bullying with the World Health Organization survey Health Behavior in School-aged Children. Suicidal ideation was assessed with three dichotomous items. Suicidal attempts were assessed with one dichotomous item. Results Out of 348 boys and 347 girls who were included in the analysis, 57.7% had at least one veteran parent. Male children of war veterans had higher rates of unintentional injuries (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 2.63) and more frequent affirmative responses across the full suicidal spectrum (thoughts about death – OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.3; thoughts about suicide – OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.72 to 14.66; suicide attempts – OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.03 to 12.67). In boys, thoughts about suicide and unintentional injuries were associated with parental war involvement even after logistic regression. However, girls were less likely to be affected by parental war involvement, and only exhibited signs of psychopathology on the CDI total score. Conclusion Parental war involvement was associated with negative psychosocial sequels for male children. This relationship is possibly mediated by some kind of identification or secondary traumatization. Suicidality and unintentional injuries are nonspecific markers for a broad range of psychosocial distresses, which is why the suggested target group for preventive interventions should be veteran parents as vectors of this distress. PMID:22661138

Frani?, Tomislav; Kardum, Goran; Marin Prižmi?, Iris; Pavleti?, Nevia; Mar?inko, Darko

2012-01-01

195

[Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management].  

PubMed

Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy. PMID:24343140

Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn

2013-11-01

196

The Impact of War on Vaccine Preventable Diseases  

PubMed Central

Introduction: During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which lasted from 1992-1995, the functioning of all sectors was disturbed, including the health sector. The priority of the heath sector was treatment and less attention was paid to prevention, and this applies also to the Program of implementation of obligatory immunization, as one of the most important prevention measures. This program was conducted with difficulty and sometimes was completely interrupted because of the lack of necessary vaccines and the inability of adequate maintenance of the cold chain. It was difficult and sometimes completely impossible to bring children to vaccination. Because of these problems, a great number of children stayed unvaccinated so they suffered from vaccine-preventable diseases several years after the war. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological study. We analyzed data from January 1994 to July 2014 in Canton Sarajevo, and data about measles outbreak in 2014. Results: In the period from January 1994 to July 2014, 3897 vaccine-preventable diseases were registered in Canton Sarajevo. Among them measles, rubella and mumps were the most frequent. In March 2014, measles outbreak was registered. Almost all cases are unvaccinated (99%) and 43% of all cases are connected with failure of vaccination during the war. Conclusion: During the war, routine immunization program was disrupted in Bosnia and Herzegovina (also in Canton Sarajevo). The consequences are presented as vaccine preventable diseases cases.

Obradovic, Zarema; Balta, Snjezana; Obradovic, Amina; Mesic, Salih

2014-01-01

197

Lessons from history: morbidity of cold injury in the Royal Marines during the Falklands Conflict of 1982  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental conditions in the Falklands Conflict of 1982 favoured the genesis of cold injuries. Immediately, post-war, cold injury morbidity and its contributory factors were assessed, in the personnel of UK 3 Commando Brigade (3 Cdo Bde). Methods A questionnaire survey of the 3,006 members of 3 Cdo Bde who landed on the islands was conducted within 6–10 weeks of the end of hostilities. Questions included those relating to features of cold injury, body morphology, age, symptoms experienced, past medical history and other possible contributory causes. Additionally, the unit medical team conducted a cursory examination. Data were sent to the Royal Navy Institute of Naval Medicine (INM), where the degree of likely cold injury was broadly classified (‘asymptomatic’ ‘mild’, ‘moderate’ or ‘severe’). A sample (total 109) was then selected at random from each category and subsequently examined and tested at the INM (nerve conduction, photoplethysmography and thermography testing). Forty-seven non-cold exposed sailors acted as a control group. These contemporaneous records have now been identified and interrogated. Results Some 2,354 (78%) completed questionnaires were returned, revealing that 1,505 (64%) had experienced symptoms of non-freezing cold injury. The morbidity in the infantry units was significantly greater than that in the support troops (1,051 (76%) vs 454 (46%), p?injury. Whilst there was no significant relationship between past history and cold injury morbidity in the brigade as a whole, or within the infantry units alone, an association was identified in the collective infantry units (73%) and the support/headquarter units (59%) (p?retrospective interrogation of historical documents hard, the available data do appear to offer valuable historical and clinical insights. Cold injury affected the majority of those fighting in the cold temperate climate of the Falklands. The overwhelming environmental conditions meant that, for most, a past history of cold injury did not appear to represent a risk factor for subsequent injury, as is the case for less severe conditions. Importantly, even asymptomatic individuals when tested often showed physiological evidence of cold injury—perhaps predisposing them to subsequent elevation in risk. PMID:24070118

2013-01-01

198

Neurologic injury in snowmobiling  

PubMed Central

Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling. PMID:25024887

Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

199

Injuries among male and female World Cup alpine skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Limited knowledge exists on injuries among professional alpine skiers.Objective:To describe the risk of injury and the injury pattern among competitive World Cup alpine skiers during the competitive season.Methods:Retrospective interviews were performed with all World Cup athletes from 10 nations at the end of the 2006–7 and 2007–8 winter seasons, and all acute injuries occurring during the 4.5-month competitive season were

T W Flřrenes; T Bere; L Nordsletten; S Heir; R Bahr

2009-01-01

200

The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War  

Microsoft Academic Search

During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War

Lee E Ohanian

1997-01-01

201

Mechanisms of Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine and summarize previous retrospective and observational studies assessing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms and to examine such reported ACL injury mechanisms based on ACL loading patterns due to knee loadings reported in in vivo, in vitro, and computer simulation studies. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE from 1950 through 2007 using the key words anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms; anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + retrospective; and anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + video analysis. Study Selection: We selected retrospective studies and observational studies that specifically examined the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms (n ?=? 7) and assessed ACL loading patterns in vivo, in vitro, and using computer simulations (n ?=? 33). Data Extraction: The motion patterns reported as noncontact ACL injury mechanisms in retrospective and observational studies were assessed and critically compared with ACL loading patterns measured during applied external or internal (or both) forces or moments to the knee. Data Synthesis: Noncontact ACL injuries are likely to happen during deceleration and acceleration motions with excessive quadriceps contraction and reduced hamstrings co-contraction at or near full knee extension. Higher ACL loading during the application of a quadriceps force when combined with a knee internal rotation moment compared with an external rotation moment was noted. The ACL loading was also higher when a valgus load was combined with internal rotation as compared with external rotation. However, because the combination of knee valgus and external rotation motions may lead to ACL impingement, these combined motions cannot be excluded from the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms. Further, excessive valgus knee loads applied during weight-bearing, decelerating activities also increased ACL loading. Conclusions: The findings from this review lend support to ACL injury prevention programs designed to prevent unopposed excessive quadriceps force and frontal-plane or transverse-plane (or both) moments to the knee and to encourage increased knee flexion angle during sudden deceleration and acceleration tasks. PMID:18668173

Shimokochi, Yohei; Shultz, Sandra J

2008-01-01

202

Spanish Civil War Memory Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California, San Diego in collaboration with several Spanish civic associations, including the Federacion Estatal de Foros por La Memoria and others, have put together this remarkable digital archive of the Spanish Civil War and the Francoist Dictatorship. Since 2007, several teams of graduate students have been recording audiovisual testimonies of militants, witnesses, and victims of the Spanish Civil War and Francoist repression. On this site, visitors can listen to dozens of recorded testimonies in English and Spanish and also read about the interview protocol and methods. The Video Catalog area contains some helpful resources, including information about each participant and their specific involvement in the war.

203

World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.  

PubMed

During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'. PMID:25273498

Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2014-01-01

204

Ocular trauma resulting from paintball injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Paintball-related ocular injuries result in severe damage and loss of vision. Despite efforts to increase public awareness\\u000a and improve safety features, the incidence of eye injuries has increased over time. We examined the characteristics and ocular\\u000a effects of paintball injury at our tertiary referral center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective review of charts of patients with paintball injury between 1998–2005.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Fourteen patients were evaluated

Patricia J. Pahk; Ron A. Adelman

2009-01-01

205

Modeling Civil War Gerard Padr i Miquel  

E-print Network

Modeling Civil War Gerard PadrĂł i Miquel LSE March 2009 PadrĂł i Miquel (LSE) Civil War March 2009 1 half of countries have experienced some episode of civil war since 1960 If one is willing to consider violent communal and ethnic conict it is even more prevalent Civil war has killed more than 16.2 million

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

206

Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

2013-01-01

207

Cyber War Will Not Take Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost two decades, experts and defense establishments the world over have been predicting that cyber war is coming. But is it? This article argues in three steps that cyber war has never happened in the past, that cyber war does not take place in the present, and that it is unlikely that cyber war will occur in the future.

Thomas Rid

2011-01-01

208

Cyber War Will Not Take Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost two decades, experts and defense establishments the world over have been predicting that cyber war is coming. But is it? This article argues in three steps that cyber war has never happened in the past, that cyber war does not take place in the present, and that it is unlikely that cyber war will occur in the future.

Thomas Rid

2012-01-01

209

Environmental consequences of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2014-05-09

210

Environmental consequences of nuclear war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

2014-05-01

211

Rockets in World War I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

2004-01-01

212

The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

Galambos, Ellen

1983-01-01

213

Psychological aspects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

Thompson, J.

1985-01-01

214

Asia in a global war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the role of Asia in a future large?scale war between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet military buildup in the Far East and Asia's growing economic importance have led some observers to suggest that Asia rather than Europe may become the locus for a future U.S.?Soviet war. In spite of these changes, however, a

Francis Fukuyama

1987-01-01

215

Star Wars software debate  

SciTech Connect

David L. Parnas, Landsdowne Professor of Computer Science at the University of Victoria resigned from the SDI Organization's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management on June 28, 1985. Parnas, with 20 years of research on software engineering plus 8 years of work on military aircraft real-time software, says the software portion of SDI cannot be built error-free and he doesn't expect the next 20 years of research to change that fact. Since Parnas resigned, there have been several public debates on Star Wars software questions. In November 1985 the SDIO panel from which Parnas resigned released a draft of its report, reflecting its effort to critics of the project. While one might think that errors could be entirely eliminated with enough care and checking, most software professionals believe there will always be some residue of errors in a system of this size and complexity. The general line of the critics' argument is that the larger the amount of software in a single, unified system, the higher the percentage of errors it will contain. Proponents counter that the one very large system can be divided into a number of smaller, relatively independent pieces, thus reducing the proportionate number of errors in each separate piece. This approach is in turn countered by those who point to the intricate relations between these pieces, which themselves contribute to error.

Myers, W.

1986-02-01

216

First World War.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Michael Duffy, this site amasses an impressive amount of valuable cultural, historical, and social documentation of "the Great War." The site begins with some highlighted collections, such as Peace and Truce on the Western Front, Photo Reconnaissance, and Keeping 'em on The Farm. While the Web site is a work-in-progress, visitors will enjoy browsing through different sections that offer a broad portrait of the causes of the war (How it Began), the different political and military leaders involved in the conflict (Who's Who), and the war's technological innovations (such as flamethrowers and machine guns) that made this first modern war possible. Persons looking for first-hand accounts of the war should go to the Memoirs and Diaries section, which contains dozens of documents recounting the personal experiences. Historians will appreciate the primary documents that lead up to the beginning of the war itself and continue to 1919. Overall, it is a well-thought out site, and one that is both engaging and quite informative.

2000-01-01

217

Injury versus non-injury factors as predictors of post-concussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury in children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relative contributions of injury characteristics and non-injury child and family factors as predictors of postconcussive symptoms (PCS) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Methods Participants were 8- to 15-year-old children, 186 with mild TBI and 99 with mild orthopedic injuries (OI). Parents and children rated PCS shortly after injury and at 1, 3, and 12 months post-injury. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to predict PCS from (1) demographic variables; (2) pre-morbid child factors (WASI IQ; WRAT-3 Reading; Child Behavior Checklist; ratings of pre-injury PCS); (3) family factors (Family Assessment Device General Functioning Scale; Brief Symptom Inventory; and Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory); and (4) injury group (OI, mild TBI with loss of consciousness [LOC] and associated injuries [AI], mild TBI with LOC but without AI, mild TBI without LOC but with AI, and mild TBI without LOC or AI) Results Injury group predicted parent and child ratings of PCS but showed a decreasing contribution over time. Demographic variables consistently predicted symptom ratings across time. Premorbid child factors, especially retrospective ratings of premorbid symptoms, accounted for the most variance in symptom ratings. Family factors, particularly parent adjustment, consistently predicted parent, but not child, ratings of PCS. Conclusions Injury characteristics predict PCS in the first months following mild TBI but show a decreasing contribution over time. In contrast, non-injury factors are more consistently related to persistent PCS. PMID:23356592

McNally, Kelly A.; Bangert, Barbara; Dietrich, Ann; Nuss, Kathy; Rusin, Jerome; Wright, Martha; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen

2013-01-01

218

U.S. Civil War Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Civil War Center's area of interest includes all aspects of the Civil War and Reconstruction. The Center combines scholarly pursuits with projects and programs designed to enhance the general public's perception of the Civil War. Anyone with an interest in the Civil War is welcome to visit the CWC homepage and their collection of Web links related to the Civil War, which include indexes, letters, diaries, museums, discussion groups, newspapers, university archives, and Web-accessible documents.

219

Football Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... usually be treated by a quadriceps strengthening program. Heat Injuries Heat injuries are a major concern for youth football ... cooling and fluid replacement, this can progress to heat exhaustion and heat stroke — which can even result ...

220

Pediatric Genital Injury: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603

Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

2013-01-01

221

Evaluation of virtual reality therapy in augmenting the physical and cognitive rehabilitation of war veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

War veterans with neuromuscularskeletal injury often require significant treatment and rehabilitation, straining health care resources. In a study funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Virtual Reality Medical Center (VRMC) is applying virtual reality therapy to injured military personnel at the Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD). The goal of

B K Wiederhold; M D Wiederhold

2006-01-01

222

Physical injuries in the dissecting room.  

PubMed

Dissection of human cadavers remains an important element of learning anatomy in many medical and dental schools. During this activity, students are introduced to the safe handling of surgical instruments. The frequency, type, and mechanism of associated injuries are unknown. We undertook a retrospective cohort analysis of dissecting-room accidents during a 6-year period (2001-2006). Injury rates were adjusted to account for exposure risk. A total of 55 injuries, all minor, were recorded in 53 students, representing an overall injury rate of less than 4 injuries per 1,000 hr of dissection. Twenty-four injuries were documented in third-year medical students, 13 in second-year medical students, 10 in second-year dental students, and 8 in third-year science students. There was a statistically significant difference in injury rates between the groups due to a higher than expected rate among second-year medical students and a lower than expected rate among third-year medical students (P < 0.01). At least 38 (69%) injuries were from a scalpel blade. A further three injuries were from bone spicules. All except two injuries affected the hand. In conclusion, it is unusual for students to injure themselves in the dissecting room. Injuries tend to be minor and largely related to scalpel blades. A greater awareness of hazards due to sharps and safe handling techniques may reduce the risks of minor injury and better prepare students for future clinical practice. PMID:18058901

Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D

2008-01-01

223

Skateboard injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and nineteen cases of injuries sustained by skateboard users are reviewed. A significant proportion of the injuries sustained were fractures. The absence of adequate protective measures was noted. A decrease in the popularity of the sport, as judged by the annual incidence of skateboard injuries, is apparent in this series.

M. Sheila Christian; O. Khan

1980-01-01

224

Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.  

PubMed

Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

2013-01-01

225

World War I: an air war of consequence.  

PubMed

On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. PMID:24961713

Hallion, Richard P

2014-06-01

226

Brain Injury and Stress Disorder Strong Indicators of Vision Problems for Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... armed forces who have traumatic brain injury or post-traumatic stress disorder also have undiagnosed, chronic vision problems, according to ... Common in Seniors Strikes Sooner in Veterans with PTSD Another study of war veterans, conducted at the ...

227

[Muscle crush injury and crush syndrome].  

PubMed

Crush injury is defined as compression of extremities or other parts of the body that causes muscle breakdown (traumatic rhabdomyolysis). Systemic consequences of crush injuries are as follows: rhabdomyolysis, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure. Crush injuries are important injuries in disaster situations: earthquakes, hurricanes, mining and road traffic accidents, war, collapse of buildings, etc. In this review article, there are discussed about epidemiology of crush syndrome, risk factors, pathophysiology (mechanisms of muscle cell injury, release of substances from injured muscles, other consequences of reperfusion), clinical features, differential diagnosis, investigations, complications (acute renal failure, hypovolemic shock, hyperkalemia, infection, compartment syndrome), approach to treatment (adequate rehydration, a forced mannitol-alkaline diuresis, intravenous fluids, management of hyperkalemia, wound care, hyperbaric oxygen, etc.), prognosis, the mortality rate and prevention (timely support may reduce morbidity and mortality). PMID:20944453

Reingardien?, Dagmara; Jodži?nien?, Liucija; Lažauskas, Robertas

2010-01-01

228

Waterbike injuries.  

PubMed

Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. PMID:1810620

Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

1991-12-01

229

Activity of daily living and its associated factors in war survivors with no visual acuity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: War is a known cause of tremendous physical injuries to different body organs, and eyes are not exceptions. War-related no visual acuity (NVA) affects both the victim and the family. Activity of daily living (ADL) can display personal life independency and is considered as a morbidity index. This study was designed to investigate the ADL profile of war survivors with NVA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Iran. In this study, 500 Iranian people with war related NVA were invited to take part in a camp in Mashhad city. ADL was evaluated using Barthel Index and demographic data were collected using a data sheet. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the associates of ADL. RESULTS: The overall response rate to the invitation was 50%. From the total 250 participants 96.5% were male with a mean age of 43 ± 8 years. Only 8.3% had no dependency in ADL and other 91.7% had some ranges of dependency in at least one of the daily living activities. ADL score was higher in highly educated participants, those younger than 50 years old, those with less co-morbid physical problems (hearing loss) and those with regular physical exercises. According to regression analysis, age and duration of war related NVA were significant predictors of ADL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, both age and the time passed from war related NVA increase the dependency of people with war related NVA. PMID:21526082

Amini, Reza; Haghani, Hamid; Masoomi, Mehdi; Assari, Shervin

2010-01-01

230

Perilunate Injuries, Not Dislocated (PLIND)  

PubMed Central

Purpose?We reviewed a series of equivalents of perilunate dislocations and fracture-dislocations (PLDs–PLFDs) in which there was no dislocation of the capitate from the lunate on the initial radiographs. We propose to include these injuries as a variant of perilunate dislocations that we have termed a perilunate injury, not dislocated (PLIND) lesion in a modified classification of perilunate injuries. Methods?A review of the records of all acute perilunate injuries and displaced carpal fractures was done in a single-center university hospital wrist surgery unit over a 5-year period. All cases presenting at the acute stage with displaced fractures of scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, or capitate along with scapholunate and/or lunotriquetral dissociation but no dislocation of the capitate from the lunate in the sagittal or coronal plane were reviewed and considered as PLIND lesions. Results?We identified 11 patients with PLIND lesions. Three cases with clinical and radiological follow-up are presented. Discussion?Equivalents of PLDs–PLFDs presenting without dislocation of the capitate from the lunate do exist. These injuries may be overlooked despite their severity. They require both osseous and ligamentous repair. Including them into an existing perilunate injuries classification highlights their recognition and enables a better understanding and treatment of both acute and chronic nondislocated perilunate injuries. Level of Evidence?Level IV, retrospective case series. PMID:24436839

Herzberg, Guillaume

2013-01-01

231

Astronomers in the Chemist's War  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

Trimble, Virginia L.

2012-01-01

232

Netherlands Institute for War Documentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Promoting and facilitating the study of the global impact of World War II, the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIWD) actively encourages consultation of its archives and services -- some of which are accessible online, while others must be consulted in person. With extensive textual and photographic documentation of the war, especially aspects relating to the German occupation of the Netherlands, the NIWD is a fantastic resource for anyone attempting to conduct research on the traumatic impact of world war. Particularly strong in documenting the war as it impacted the Netherlands and its immediate geographic neighbors, the Institute supports research on the mistreatment and deportation of the Jews through meticulously maintained records, the majority of which are in Dutch or German. Aside from presenting lists of its holdings and areas of expertise, the NIWD site also makes available online bibliographies produced by its area scholars and archivists. Lastly, the site also serves as a source of information on associated organizations and their efforts, including forthcoming publications, conferences, and research awards.

233

Arterial injury in uncomplicated upper extremity dislocations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to analyze causes and consequences of arterial injury complicating simple dislocations of the upper extremity. This is a multicenter, 5-year, retrospective analysis of vascular injury in patients sustaining shoulder or elbow dislocations without associated fractures. Foci of the study were mechanisms of injury, preoperative imaging, incidence of closed reductions, types of arterial injury, methods of surgical repair, and ultimate outcome. Arterial injury in this patient cohort occurred in 0.74% of patients. Axillary artery injury occurred in 0. 97% and brachial in 0.47%. Both elbow and shoulder dislocations may cause severe arterial damage and strenuously test surgical expertise to achieve successful repair. PMID:10742423

Sparks, S R; DeLaRosa, J; Bergan, J J; Hoyt, D B; Owens, E L

2000-03-01

234

Brief Report: Parental Report of Sleep Behaviors Following Moderate or Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Determine the effect of moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) on the sleep of school-aged children. Methods A concurrent cohort-prospective design compared children aged 6-12 years who sustained moderate TBI (baseline n Ľ56), severe TBI (n Ľ53), or only orthopedic injuries (n Ľ80). Retrospective parental report of pre-injury sleep was collected about 3 weeks post-injury. Post-injury assessments occurred

Dean W. Beebe; Lauren Krivitzky; Carolyn T. Wells; Shari L. Wade; H. Gerry Taylor; Keith Owen Yeates

2007-01-01

235

[From war psychiatry to disaster and crisis psychiatry].  

PubMed

Psychiatry has derived much benefit from the combat experience of military medicine. The Allies' military psychiatry during the Second World War established cardinal modes of treatment, such as group therapy, the therapeutic community, and crisis intervention. The principles of field psychiatry consist in that the treatment be administered near the scene of the injury, in an early phase, be of short duration, be focused here and now, and be characterised by prognostic optimism; moreover the victim must retain his group identity. Many of these intervention techniques are now successfully used at disaster and crises in peacetime, e.g. at the recent ferry disaster on the Scandinavian Star. PMID:2367187

Weisaeth, L

1990-01-01

236

Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

1995-01-01

237

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

Romanyukha, Alex [Naval Dosimetry Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD, 20889 (United States); Trompier, Francois [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France 92262 (France)

2011-05-05

238

World War II - Prisoners of War - Stalag Luft I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Begun as a tribute to their father Dick Williams Jr., a prisoner of war in the WWII German prison camp Stalag Luft I, this website has become a comprehensive record of what life was like at the prison camp. Some of the many links on the website include POW's stories, photos, poetry, art, roommates, newspaper, and account of the evacuation. There are also links on the guards and interrogators at the Stalag Luft I. Visitors interested in verse will surely want to browse the Poetry section, which has dozens of poems and quotes taken from the diaries of WWII prisoners of war, as well as a song composed by a member of the kriegie (prisoner of war) orchestra, called "Low is the Sun". Visitors should also be sure to check out the Newspaper link, which is about the paper called the POW WOW, Prisoners of War - Waiting on Winning. The paper had a circulation of thousands and traveled to as many as seven camps. Visitors can appreciate how lucky they are to be able to read the six issues known to be in existence, as the newspaper was meant to be destroyed immediately after reading. Interestingly, there was even a newspaper parodying POW WOW, called BOW WOW, which can be found below the issues of POW WOW. Overall it is a fascinating site filled with a trove of primary resources and information about the WWII POW experience.

239

Differing injury patterns in snowboarding and alpine skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of all people presenting to ski patrollers with ski and snowboard injuries during the 1995 season. There were 476 casualties of whom 396 were skiers and 57 were snowboarders. Information was collected retrospectively on the mechanism, region and injury, and also personal details of the casualties. The information was compared with the numbers of ski and

A. G. Sutherland; J. D. Holmes; S. Myers

1996-01-01

240

Factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in war-survivors displaced in Croatia  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine the role of perceived stressfulness of trauma exposure and economic, social, occupational, educational, and familial adaptation after trauma in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in displaced war survivors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2000 and July 2002 with a sample of 173 internally displaced persons or refugees and 167 matched controls in Croatia. Clinical measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Results Displaced war survivors reported the exposure to a mean?±?standard deviation of 13.1?±?8.3 war stressors, including combat, torture, serious injury, death of close persons, and loss of property. Compared to controls, they reported higher rates of marked to severe impact of war on family (16.2% vs 51.6%), social (7.2% vs 43.5%), economic (12.6% vs 55.4%), occupational (1.8% vs 15.9%), and educational (2.4% vs 8.8%) adaptation. In two logistic regression analyses, the strongest predictor of PTSD and depression was high level of perceived distress during trauma exposure. PTSD but not depression was associated with economic, social, occupational, educational, and familial adaptation after trauma. Conclusion Displaced survivors who experienced multiple war events perceived greater negative impact of war on their life domains compared to individuals who lived in a war setting but had no trauma exposure. The most important determinant of psychological outcomes was perceived stressfulness of war stressors. Although post-trauma adaptation in different life spheres had an impact, its effect was not robust and consistent across disorders. These findings suggest that it would be effective to use a trauma-focused approach in rehabilitation of war survivors. PMID:22180270

Letica-Crepulja, Marina; Salcioglu, Ebru; Fran?iškovi?, Tanja; Basoglu, Metin

2011-01-01

241

STS.436 Cold War Science, Spring 2004  

E-print Network

This course examines the history and legacy of the Cold War on science, looking predominantly at examples in the United States. It begins by exploring scientists’ new political roles after World War II, ranging from elite ...

Kaiser, David

242

17.582 Civil War, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This course surveys the social science literature on civil war. It studies the origins of civil war, discusses variables affecting duration, and examines termination of conflict. This subject is highly interdisciplinary ...

Petersen, Roger

243

Sociology of War: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-print Network

Annotated bibliographies in the war-peace area have been pubblished by Robert Pickus and Robert Woito (To End War, Perennial Library, Harper and Row Publishers, 1970) and Blanche Wiesen Cook, Charles Chatfield and Sandi Cooper (The Garland Library...

Sariola, Sakari

1971-01-01

244

Children and Nuclear War. Reviews of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on children's and adolescents' knowledge, feelings, and fears about nuclear war. Offers suggestions for teachers who wish to address children's and adolescents' concerns about nuclear war. (Author/BB)

Wallinga, Charlotte; And Others

1991-01-01

245

War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition  

SciTech Connect

We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

Ziegler, D.W. (Western Washington Univ. (US))

1987-01-01

246

Children Exposed to War\\/Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related

Jon A. Shaw

2003-01-01

247

Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

McNamee, Abigail S.

248

Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

2009-01-01

249

The bioeconomic causes of war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wars are fought not only for material goals but for intangible ends such as honor and prestige. In biological terms the ultimate functional motives for fighting are food and sex, the essential elements of reproductive success. Like many other animals, humans seek food and sex directly, but also indirectly via dominance and prestige. In modern times the direct food and

Jack Hirshleifer

1999-01-01

250

Images of war: Picasso's Guernica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picasso painted Guernica following the bombing by German aeroplanes of the Basque town of that name during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. The painting provoked controversy and remains controversial. Its symbolism puzzles because of the discrepancy between its central images and the bombing. This paper resolves the puzzle first by distinguishing “Picasso's Guernica”, as a symbolic object in itself,

John Corbin

1999-01-01

251

Ghosts of terror wars past?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of 9\\/11 and the invasion of Afghanistan, then of Iraq, with all the talk of a renewed Clash of Civilizations, came a revival of interest in the lessons from what seemed to be the direct antecedent, namely the Barbary Wars of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. At that time, too, America had seemed to be

R. T. Naylor

2006-01-01

252

The Korean War: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

Robinson, Ken.

253

Images of the Cold War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

Chomsky, Noam

1989-01-01

254

Currency Wars Yesterday and Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energetic debate on the danger of a global currency war has flared up in recent months, stoked by a renewed move to “quantitative easing” in the United States, resurgent capital flows to developing countries and strong upward pressure on emerging market currencies. This Economic Premise reviews some of the arguments and concludes that the current U.S. monetary easing is

Milan Brahmbhatt; Otaviano Canuto; Swati Ghosh

2010-01-01

255

International War Veterans' Poetry Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by and for war veterans, this website contains poetry and short stories that are not only written about war veterans, but they are also written by them. The submissions can be from veterans of any nation, but must pertain to war, veterans, or the consequences of war. The website also includes resources for veterans who want to connect with other veterans and for those saddled with the unique challenges associated with being a veteran. "The Index of Authors" section at the top of the page will lead visitors to author pages and their writings. Some have photos, and others have extensive biographical essays. Visitors can find everything new added to the site, by month and year, going all the way back to 2001, by clicking on "Recent Additions" at the top of the page. The "Writing Resources" link at the top of the page has some great links to general writing sources, and to specific veteran writing resources, such as "Voice of the Vet: Veterans Writing Project", which takes place weekly at the National Vietnam Veterans Art Museum in Chicago. "Recommended Links", found at the top of the page, offers a slew of sites that honor veterans, help veterans, inform veterans, remember veterans, and tell the stories of veterans.

256

Redefining America's "War on Drugs"  

E-print Network

Redefining America's "War on Drugs" FSU Center for the Advancement of Human Rights presents Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Director Kerlikowske was nominated by President Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. In his position

McQuade, D. Tyler

257

Reflections on Gulf War illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of Britain's recent wars, the Falklands campaign of 1982 was anomalous in many respects, fought to defend a colony with a small but a loyal population, 8000 miles away, but it was also relatively straightforward. It involved high-level diplomacy and consultations at the United Nations, but it was decided on the battlefield in a series of short, but intense engagements

Simon Wessely; Lawrence Freedman

2006-01-01

258

The Politics of Star Wars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

Wilkins, Lee

259

Inside China's War on Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's war on terrorism is among its most prominent and least understood of campaigns. An indigenous insurgency with links to the global jihad has threatened the government's grip on a massive region of northwestern China known as Xinjiang. Riots, bombings, ambushes, and assassinations have rocked the region under separatist and Islamist banners. China acted early and forcefully, and, although initially

Martin I. Wayne

2009-01-01

260

An historical context of modern principles in the management of intracranial injury from projectiles.  

PubMed

The contemporary management of projectile head injuries owes much to the lessons neurosurgeons have distilled from their experiences in war. Through early investigation and an increasingly detailed account of wartime clinical experience, neurosurgeons--including the field's early giants--began to gain a greater understanding not only of intracranial missile pathophysiology but also of appropriate management. In this paper, the authors trace the development of the principles of managing intracranial projectile injury from the Crimean War in the 19th century through the Vietnam War to provide a context that frames a summary of today's core management principles. PMID:20568940

Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Dunn, Gavin P; Laws, Edward R

2010-05-01

261

CIVIL WARS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE Philippe Martin  

E-print Network

CIVIL WARS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE Philippe Martin Paris School of Economics (Université Paris 1 empirically the relationship between civil wars and international trade. We first show that trade destruction due to civil wars is very large and persistent and increases with the severity of the conflict. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Civil Wars and International Trade Philippe Martin  

E-print Network

Civil Wars and International Trade Philippe Martin Thierry Mayer Mathias Thoenig§ November 18, 2007 Abstract This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between civil wars and international trade. We first show that trade destruction due to civil wars is very large and persistent and increases

Boyer, Edmond

263

Suicide Prevention in the Pacific War (WWII).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During war against Japan, there were two facets of U.S. program to prevent suicide among the Japanese: research component in Foreign Morale Analysis Division of Office of War Information and a suicide prevention program itself put into effect toward the end of the war in battles of Saipan and Okinawa and undertaken by U.S. GIs. (Author/NB)

Suzuki, Peter T.

1991-01-01

264

The Conceptualization of War in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three procedures were used to elicit information from children 9-10 and 13-14 years old on their conceptions of war: (1) children were asked to give at least 10 answers to the question, "What is war?"; (2) each child was interviewed individually; and (3) children were asked to respond to magazine pictures of war scenes. The detailed and complex…

Asprea, Anna Maria; And Others

265

L252 Single Honours WAR STUDIES  

E-print Network

has this changed over time? How does war affect society and how does society affect war? How important Armed Forces and Society (Autumn and Spring) (40 credits) 4,000 word essay and three hour summer exam are technology, leadership and tactics to the outcome of wars? If these questions are of interest to you

Miall, Chris

266

World War II Memorial Learning Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June 1940";…

Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

267

The Emerging Criminal War on Sex Offenders  

E-print Network

Act (“AWA”) in combination with other sex offender laws triggered a transition to a criminal war on sex criminals? Third, if such a criminal war is emerging, what will be the likely effects of such a transition? Fourth, if such a criminal war...

Yung, Corey Rayburn

2010-01-01

268

THE "STAR WARS" COPYRIGHT CLAIM: AN AMBIVALENT  

E-print Network

THE "STAR WARS" COPYRIGHT CLAIM: AN AMBIVALENT VIEW OF THE EMPIRE By Justine Pila Reprinted from Publishers) #12;THE "STAR WARS" COPYRIGHT CLAIM: AN AMBIVALENT VIEW OF THE EMPIRE The first Supreme Court of objects created for use in the Star Wars films. The focus of the appeal was the Stormtrooper helmet: part

Oxford, University of

269

Fighting the War on Academic Terrorism. Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the attention of the country is focused on the global and national war on terrorism, the war on academic terrorism is being waged in classrooms, infiltrating the gifted programs, and altering the outcomes derived for students participating in gifted programs. The war on academic terrorism is related to the broad areas of curriculum and…

Kaplan, Sandra N.

2005-01-01

270

Common Lower Limb Sports-related Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sports injuries in children and adolescent present a unique challenge to the physician. They are often seen for clinical conditions unique to their age group. This paper highlights the epidemiological aspect of sports-related overuse injuries in this age group. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all the paediatric patients diagnosed with overuses injuries during a 5 years and

James Hui

2008-01-01

271

Factors associated with rectovaginal injuries in Holstein dairy cows in a herd in Tehran, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectovaginal injuries can result in subsequent infertility in cows. In a retrospective study, records of 147 Holstein cows with evidence of rectovaginal injuries were reviewed to determine the odds ratio (OR) of these injuries and their related risk factors. The study was conducted in a large dairy (typical herd size 1420 cows) in Tehran between the years 1993 and 1996.

M Farhoodi; I Nowrouzian; P Hovareshti; M Bolourchi; M. Gh Nadalian

2000-01-01

272

Dr. Seuss Went to War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Between 1941 and 1943, Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss) was the chief editorial cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM (1940-1948), penning over 400 editorial cartoons that commented first on American neutrality and then involvement in the Second World War. The entire collection of these cartoons (original drawings and/or newspaper clippings) is held by the Mandeville Special Collections Library at the University of California, San Diego. While the 1999 book Dr. Seuss Went to War reproduced 200 of these cartoons, the remaining half have not been published or studied since their original appearance. This amazing collection has now been placed online and is browseable by year, month, and day. Subject term browsing will be available in the future. The cartoons are presented as large thumbnails which link to a full-sized image presented in an unfortunately cramped frame. The cartoons comment on a wide variety of topics, including war preparedness, domestic politics, and isolationism, with particular criticism for the US Congress and Americans not prepared to sacrifice for the war effort. Caricatures of the Axis nations, especially the Japanese, reflect contemporaneous stereotypes. Drawn in characteristic Seuss style, with many creatures familiar to fans of his best-known work, these cartoons are both an excellent look into wartime US domestic politics and public opinion and clever, visually interesting cartoons in their own right. As an added bonus, the site also features some even rarer cartoons that Geisel drew for other publications and for war bond drives. This is simply an excellent resource for students, researchers, and any fan of Horton, the Grinch, the Lorax, and Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose.

273

Elbow injuries.  

PubMed

The elbow is a commonly injured joint, yet physicians may be less comfortable treating injuries to the elbow compared with knee and shoulder injuries. Common injuries involving the elbow are tendinosis, instability, tendon ruptures, osteochondritis dissecans, and fractures. Tendinosis is a common overuse injury and may occur on the lateral, medial, or infrequently, the posterior side of the elbow. Injury to the medial or lateral ulnar collateral ligaments may result in instability. Repetitive trauma from overuse is the most common etiologic factor in athletes. Distal biceps and triceps tendon injuries may result in elbow disability in active individuals. Partial tears are more difficult to diagnose than complete ruptures. Osteochondritis dissecans of capitellum affects adolescents involved in overhead throwing athletics. Fractures about the elbow most commonly involve the radial head in adults, and the distal humerus in children. Athletes are prone to elbow injuries resulting from both overuse and acute trauma. Our purpose is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of these common elbow injuries in athletes of all ages. PMID:11845021

Kandemir, Utku; Fu, Freddie H; McMahon, Patrick J

2002-03-01

274

Diaphragmatic injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: (1) To determine the actual incidence rate of blunt and penetrating diaphragmatic injuries (DI); (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of urgent surgical intervention for treatment of DI; and (3) to reveal main causes of postoperative complications. Methods: We reviewed: (1) forensic medical examination charts of 3353 subjects, who died due to polytrauma (including injuries to the chest and\\/or abdomen)

Romaldas Rubikas

2001-01-01

275

Chiropractic treatment of chronic ‘whiplash’ injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three per cent of patients will suffer long-term symptoms following ‘whiplash’ injury, for which no conventional treatment has proven to be effective. A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the effects of chiropractic in a group of 28 patients who had been referred with chronic ‘whiplash’ syndrome. The severity of patients' symptoms was assessed before and after treatment using the

M. N. Woodward; J. C. H. Cook; M. F. Gargan; G. C. Bannister

1996-01-01

276

Managing the health effects of the explosive remnants of war.  

PubMed

Many civilian deaths and injuries across the globe are a consequence of 'explosive remnants of war' (ERW). These ERW include mines, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and cluster bombs. The numbers of deaths, injuries and resulting disabilities from ERW are expected to increase as armed conflicts proliferate. This will have a substantial effect on all aspects of health. This article first describes the mechanisms of these ERW and the nature of the injuries they can cause. It then briefly outlines the immediate medical management such injuries require; the long-term outcomes and sequelae, and what can be done to manage them. It highlights how research and medical interventions must take into account cultural, social and economic factors in addition to utilising safe and appropriate techniques and practices. The article concludes by noting that medical personnel are well placed not only to intervene and manage the direct health effects of ERW, but also indirectly by advocating on behalf of those affected by adding their voices to campaigns against their proliferation. PMID:15602994

Kett, Maria E; Mannion, Steve J

2004-11-01

277

Traumatic brain injury caused by "balconing"  

PubMed

The term "balconing" refers to the practice of jumping from hotel balconies or roofs to swimming pools, or between hotel balconies. This activity is performed by young vacationists in certain European touristic locations, and it is perceived as a recreational practice. The activity generates a small but constant flow of patients with fall-related severe brain and systemic injuries. Our institution is a reference hospital for severe trauma in a geographic zone where "balconing" activity takes place. We have retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients sustaining "balconing"-related injuries. Salient features regarding epidemiology, neurosurgical injuries, systemic injuries, and outcome are described. With this series of cases, we aim to present "balconing" as a cause of traumatic brain injury and polytrauma in a defined population, and to express the concern this group of patients generate. PMID:25162559

Pérez-Bovet, Jordi; Lorencio, Carol; Taché, Abdo; Pujol Valverde, Pablo; Martín Ferrer, Secundino

2014-08-27

278

Contributions of psychology to war and peace.  

PubMed

The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being. PMID:24128314

Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

2013-10-01

279

World War I and II Poster Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

War posters from World War I and II encouraged the people of the nations at war to buy war bonds, plant gardens, ration, enlist, or work extra hard for the sake of the war effort. A collection of these posters can be found in abundance on the library website of the University of North Texas. The library has over 600 war posters, and fortunately, 493 of them are digitized. Some are quaint by today's standards, but some, like the fifth record on the homepage, entitled "Deliver Us From Evil: Buy War Bonds," has an eerie haunting quality to it. In the search box underneath the introduction to the poster collection, type in Geisel to see a poster by a familiar artist and author, encouraging Americans to "Starve the Squander Bug." Visitors should click on the thumbnail to see those "squander bugs" in full detail.

280

When Service Members with Traumatic Brain Injury Become Students: Methods to Advance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explain which evidence-based interventions in study strategies have been successful in helping soldiers and veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) return to the classroom. Military leaders have specifically identified TBI as one of the signature injuries of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with over a quarter of…

Helms, Kimberly Turner; Libertz, Daniel

2014-01-01

281

Air bags and ocular injuries.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

1999-01-01

282

Hawaii War Records Depository Photos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hawaii War Records Depository was established in 1943, and it contains over 880 photographs taken by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Navy during the Second World War. The Depository also holds around 1000 newspaper photographs from the Honolulu Star Bulletin and 330 photographs identified as being from the Honolulu Advertiser. These unique items depict various Army and Navy activities throughout Hawaii during this period. The University of Hawaii was able to digitize these items via a grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and they are now available for perusal by the web-browsing public. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, and they can do so by photo number, agency, category, or date. Browsing by category is a good way to start, and some of the headings include "Boy Scouts", "Civic Events", and "Religion". Additionally, visitors can use the "Search" section to explore the collection via keywords.

283

Hawaii War Records Depository Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life in Hawaii after World War II was documented in part due to a joint resolution passed by the Hawaii Territorial Legislature which stated that the University of Hawaii would be the official depository of material related to Hawaii's part in this global conflict. Over a five-year period, individuals and agencies donated personal accounts, reports, photographs, scrapbooks, newspapers, and maps to the collection. Parts of the collection have been digitized, and visitors can look through those revealing items here. The sections here include "Veterans' Essays", "Japanese American Veterans Timeline", and "Digitized Photographs". The "Veterans' Essays" is a good place to start, and visitors shouldn't miss the "Digitized Photographs", which contains hundreds of images related to life on the islands during the period. The site also contains links to other World War II collections online and contact information.

284

World War One Color Photos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While color photography was around by the start of World War I, it was not in widespread use. Interestingly enough, the French Army happened to take many photographs in color during the last two years of World War I. This site presents several hundred of these photographs, and visitors can browse through them at their leisure. Visitors can search the entire archive, or they may also wish to look through several of the galleries. While complete bibliographic information is not available for the photos, each photo does have a brief caption which describes the basic context and setting for each image. The site is rounded out by a selection of relevant links, including several online WWI forums and sites that compile military quotations.

285

Mortality and morbidity in children caused by falling televisions: a retrospective analysis of 71 cases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify injuries in children that result from toppled televisions. Methods Children presenting directly to emergency department due to injuries caused by falling televisions were identified from our digital patient database, and a retrospective chart review of 71 children was performed. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results 71(1.8%) out of 3856 admissions due to injuries sustained at home were TV-related injuries. There were 50 (70.4%) boys and 21(29.6%) girls. Mean age was 39.79 ± 20.14 SD months. Almost three quarters of the children (49/71) sustained various head and facial injuries. There was traumatic brain injury in 14 patients, extremity injuries in 30 patients, thoracic injuries in 13 patients and abdominal injuries in ten patients. 16 patients were hospitalized. 14 of them required follow-up in intensive care unit. Two patients (one with epidural hematoma and one with subdural hematoma) underwent surgical intervention. Four patients with subarachnoid bleeding died. The mean length of hospital stay was 71.25 hours (range, 48-168) in hospitalised patients. The overall mortality rate was 5.6%. Conclusions Falling TVs may cause significant morbidity and mortality in children particularly those younger than 3 years old. Head and facial injuries are the most common body region involved and traumatic brain injury is the major cause of death.

2011-01-01

286

Boarding injuries: the long and the short of it.  

PubMed

As the popularity of longboarding increases, trauma centers are treating an increased number of high severity injuries. Current literature lacks descriptions of the types of injuries experienced by longboarders, a distinct subset of the skateboarding culture. A retrospective review of longboarding and skateboarding injury cases was conducted at a level II trauma center from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2011. Specific injuries in addition to high injury severity factors (hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), patient treatment options, disposition, and outcome) were calculated to compare longboarder to skateboarder injuries. A total of 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. Skull fractures, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were significantly more common among longboard patients than skateboarders (P < 0.0001). All patients with an ISS above 15 were longboarders. Hospital and ICU LOS in days was also significantly greater for longboarders compared with skateboarders (P < 0.0001). Of the three patients that died, each was a longboarder and each experienced a head injury. Longboard injuries account for a higher incidence rate of severe head injuries compared to skateboard injuries. Our data show that further, prospective investigation into the longboarding population demographics and injury patterns is necessary to contribute to effective injury prevention in this population. PMID:24660063

Fabian, Leslie A; Thygerson, Steven M; Merrill, Ray M

2014-01-01

287

Comparing Fractions War Card Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math activity, learners practice comparing fractions. Learners use special cards (included in PDF) to play a card game similar to "War." Players each flip over a card and compare them to see who has the greater fraction. The person with the greater fraction collects that card pair. The object of the game is to collect the most card pairs by the end of the game.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

288

Patterns in blast injuries to the hand.  

PubMed

Blast injuries to the hand are not just a wartime phenomenon but also quite common in rural communities throughout northern California. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with blast injuries in the community and review the most common patterns in an attempt to identify the pathomechanics of the hand injury and the reconstructive procedures that are required. This is a retrospective study of blast injuries to the hand treated between 1978 and 2006. Medical records, X-rays, and photos were reviewed to compile standard patient demographics and characterize the injury pattern. Explosives were classified based on their rate of decomposition. Reconstructive solutions were reviewed and characterized based on whether damaged tissues were repaired or replaced. Sixty-two patients were identified with blast injuries to their hand. Patients were predominantly male (92%) with an average age of 27 years. Firecrackers were the most commonly encountered explosives. Thirty-seven patients were identified as holding a low explosive in their dominant hand and were used for characterization of the injury pattern. The apparent pattern of injury was hyperextension and hyperabduction of the hand and digits. Common injuries were metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint hyperextension with associated soft tissue avulsion, hyperabduction at the web spaces with associated palmar soft tissue tears, and finger disarticulation amputations worse at radial digits. Given the mechanisms of injury with tissue loss, surgical intervention generally involved tissue replacement rather than tissue repair. Blast injuries to the hand represent a broad spectrum of injuries that are associated with the magnitude of explosion and probably, the proximity to the hand. We were able to identify a repetitive pattern of injury and demonstrate the predominant use for delayed tissue replacement rather than microsurgical repair at the acute setting. PMID:18780004

Hazani, Ron; Buntic, Rudolf F; Brooks, Darrell

2009-03-01

289

Massachusetts Historical Society: Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many people, Massachusetts' role in the Civil War may be summed up by the impressive sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens that dominates one corner of the Boston Common. It depicts Colonel Robert Shaw leading the 54th Regiment (which was made up of African Americans) down Beacon Street in 1863 before they went off to battle in South Carolina. Those persons looking to learn more about the role that Massachusetts played in the Civil War will find this website from the Massachusetts Historical Society most edifying. On the site, visitors should start their journey via the monthly feature "Massachusetts Finds Her Voice." This rotating collection contains letters from the Society's archives, including a rather evocative letter from Captain Richard Cary of the Second Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment to his wife Helen. Each of these items can be viewed in its entirety, and many of them are complemented by links to additional online resources. The site also contains a timeline of Civil War events, complete with links to related web content. Finally, the site is rounded out by a selection of classroom tools and information about Society publications.

2012-03-30

290

Genital injury  

MedlinePLUS

... It is important to rule out sexual abuse, rape, and assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the object was placed there. In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having the toilet seat ...

291

Football Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

Football is one of the most popular sports played by young athletes, and it leads all other ... in emergency rooms, doctor’s offices, and clinics for football-related injuries, according to the U.S. Product Safety ...

292

Overuse Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... and terrain, hard versus soft surface in aerobic dance or running. HOW ARE OVERUSE INJURIES USUALLY DIAGNOSED? ... for any predisposing anatomic or biomechanical factors. Physical therapy and athletic training services may also be helpful. ...

293

Blast Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

Search form Search Basket Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Main menu Service Members & Veterans Family & Friends Medical Providers About DVBIC & TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press ...

294

Electrical injury  

MedlinePLUS

... injuries. In: Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive ... burns. In: Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive ...

295

Medical costs of war in 2035: long-term care challenges for veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan.  

PubMed

War-related medical costs for U.S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan may be enormous because of differences between these wars and previous conflicts: (1) Many veterans survive injuries that would have killed them in past wars, and (2) improvised explosive device attacks have caused "polytraumatic" injuries (multiple amputations; brain injury; severe facial trauma or blindness) that require decades of costly rehabilitation. In 2035, today's veterans will be middle-aged, with health issues like those seen in aging Vietnam veterans, complicated by comorbidities of posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. This article cites emerging knowledge about best practices that have demonstrated cost-effectiveness in mitigating the medical costs of war. We propose that clinicians employ early interventions (trauma care, physical therapy, early post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis) and preventive health programs (smoking cessation, alcohol-abuse counseling, weight control, stress reduction) to treat primary medical conditions now so that we can avoid treating costly secondary and tertiary complications in 2035. (We should help an amputee reduce his cholesterol and maintain his weight at age 30, rather than treating his heart disease or diabetes at age 50.) Appropriate early interventions for primary illness should preserve veterans' functional status, ensure quality clinical care, and reduce the potentially enormous cost burden of their future health care. PMID:23198496

Geiling, James; Rosen, Joseph M; Edwards, Ryan D

2012-11-01

296

The Logic of Violence in Civil War  

E-print Network

and civil war. This interest is driven by two political developments: first, the decline of interstate wars and the concomitant rise of internal or civil wars (David 1997); and second, the decline of civil wars that are classified as “ideological ” or class-based and the concomitant rise of conflicts classified as ethnic (Brubaker and Laitin 1998). Most research has focused on the causes of ethnic civil wars (Fearon and Laitin 1999). We know far less about the dynamics of civil war violence per se. First, I introduce three conceptual distinctions: (a) between “violence ” and “(violent) conflict, ” (b) between “violence in times of peace ” and “violence in times of war, ” and (c) between different types of violence based on the intersection of two criteria: the purpose and the production of violence. Second, I sketch a simple model of violence in civil war based on a corresponding theoretical understanding of the phenomenon. Third, I present preliminary systematic empirical evidence from Greece. Because the data come from a civil war which lacked the kind of deep ethnic, religious, and even class, cleavages deemed necessary for the eruption of large-scale violence, this paper provides a warning against making attractive but problematic connections between ethnic cleavages and high levels of violence. Likewise, this paper suggests that the widespread perception of civil war violence as a random, chaotic, and anarchical process (first suggested by Thucydides and Hobbes) or a phenomenon better (or even exclusively) approached from the perspective of passions and emotions are not warranted.

Stathis N. Kalyvas

2006-01-01

297

Elbow Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sports-related elbow injuries have increased over the last decade. With one in every four members of a household participating\\u000a in sports, both clinics and radiology departments are seeing more patients with elbow injuries. The most common clinical presentation\\u000a is lateral elbow pain. Familiar terms such as “tennis elbow,” “golfer’s elbow,” and “little leaguer’s elbow,” are mostly due\\u000a to the popularity

Kenneth S. Lee; Michael J. Tuite; Humberto G. Rosas

298

Orofacial injuries in eclamptic Nigerians.  

PubMed

A retrospective review of one hundred and seventy three cases of eclampsia seen between 1994 and 2002 was conducted. Twenty one patients (12.1%) whose ages ranged from 18 to 35 years sustained orofacial injuries during the course of their eclamptic fits. Lacerations and bruises on the tongue, gingivae and lips accounted for injuries in all the patients. Temporomandibular joint dislocation was also recorded in one patient. Tongue lacerations were mainly due to tongue biting. Forceful insertion of objects during convulsive episodes was responsible for the bruises and deep lacerations at the ventral surface of the tongue in two patients. Two patients died from severe and uncontrolled bleeding complicated by renal failure and aspiration pneumonia from lacerations on the tongue and gingivae. Vigorous campaign should be carried out to encourage antenatal care attendance by pregnant mothers so that potential cases of eclampsia could be nipped in the bud before progressing to frank eclampsia. Furthermore, additional injuries usually inflicted on pregnant women by anxious relatives from forceful insertion of unpadded objects as mouth props should be discouraged through public health promotional campaigns. Obstetricians should be aware of the possibility of these injuries in an unconscious eclamptic patient and their life-threatening consequences if not promptly diagnosed and managed. The need to seek appropriate and early dental or maxillofacial consultation where such injuries are suspected and where services are available is imperative. PMID:17348332

Ndukwe, K C; Ugboko, V I; Ogunlola, I O; Orji, E O; Makinde, O N

2004-12-01

299

Equestrian injuries: a comparison of professional and amateur injuries in Berkshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of horse riding injuries in Berkshire was undertaken over a one year period from November 1983. The information was obtained from the Ambulance Service, the Jockey Club and the St. John Ambulance Brigade. There was a total of 103 injured persons with no deaths. Information from the Jockey Club was compared with the other two groups, the

M R Whitlock; J Whitlock; B Johnston

1987-01-01

300

A decade of experience with injuries to the gallbladder  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that injuries to the gallbladder are rare, the purpose of this study was to evaluate injury patterns, operative procedures and outcomes in patients with trauma to the gallbladder. A retrospective review of traumatic injuries to the gallbladder at an urban level 1 trauma center from 1996 to 2008 was performed. Injuries were identified via imaging or during operative exploration. Results Injuries to the gallbladder occurred in 45 patients, 40 (89%) of whom suffered penetrating trauma. Associated injuries were present in 44 (98%) patients, including 10 (22%) pancreatic injuries requiring repair and/or drainage. Patients were severely injured (49% hemodynamically unstable at presentation; mean Injury Severity Score = 20; mean length of stay = 22 days; mortality rate = 24%). Cholecystectomy was performed in 42 patients (93%), while the remaining 3 had drainage only as part of a "damage control" operation related to their critical physiologic status. Injuries to the extrahepatic biliary ducts occurred in 3 patients (7%) as well. Although all patients developed trauma related complications, none were a direct result of their biliary tract injuries. Conclusion Injuries to the gallbladder are rare even in the busiest urban trauma centers. Almost all patients have associated intra-abdominal injuries, and nearly 50% of patients are hemodynamically unstable on admission. Rapid cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for all mechanisms of injury, except when the first operative procedure is of the damage control type. PMID:20398307

2010-01-01

301

2012 Cigital Cyber War, Cyber Peace,  

E-print Network

© 2012 Cigital Cyber War, Cyber Peace, Stones, and Glass Houses Gary McGraw, Ph.D. Chief Technology://www.cigital.com/papers/download/ mcgraw-fick-CNAS.pdf #12;© 2012 Cigital Cyber security How much of the cyber war talk is hype? What REALITY n To qualify as cyber war, the means may be virtual, but the impact should be real. n 1982 Soviet

302

If war is "just," so is abortion.  

PubMed

Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians. PMID:12178844

Kissling, F

1991-01-01

303

The Civil War-Important People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about the most important induviduals in the Civil War. First you will need to use the online guide; PBS Guide to the Civil War Then use the advanced Organizer to input information about important induviduals involved in the Civil War. If you need help finding intresting facts about our induviduals, try these websites for some assistance Abraham Linclon Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Ulysses S. Grant After you have successfully filled out all of the boxes, ...

Kaschak, Mr.

2011-04-06

304

Assessment and treatment of common persistent sequelae following blast induced mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and terrorist activity worldwide have been associated with an increased incidence of blast injuries. While blast injuries share similarities with blunt or penetrating traumatic injuries, there are unique mechanistic elements of blast injury that create increased vulnerability to damage of specific organs. This review highlights the mechanism of blast-related injury, describes the common sequelae of blast exposure that may impact rehabilitation care, and summarizes the intervention strategies for these blast-related sequelae. PMID:21725164

Schultz, Billie A; Cifu, David X; McNamee, Shane; Nichols, Michelle; Carne, William

2011-01-01

305

To win a nuclear war: The Pentagon's secret strategy  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a survey of U.S. plans concerning nuclear war from 1945 through the present. The authors explain U.S. nuclear war plans and contingencies. They also trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star wars.

Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

1986-01-01

306

America in the Great War: The Rise of the War Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

After such conflicts as World War II, Vietnam, and now the Persian Gulf, the First World War seems a distant, almost ancient event. It conjures up images of trenches, horse-drawn wagons, and old-fashioned wide-brimmed helmets--a conflict closer to the Civil War than to our own time. It hardly seems an American war at all, considering we fought for scarcely over

Ronald Schaffer

307

Democracy at War: Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until quite recently, many organizations (such as libraries and newspapers) kept extensive clipping files, thematically organized, and ready at a minute's notice for use by a columnist, researcher, or those who were just plain curious. One such organization was the Hamilton Spectator, a Canadian newspaper which kept a collection of 144,000 newspaper articles (culled from various Canadian newspapers) during the Second World War. With the cooperation and assistance of the Canadian War Museum, this rather amazing collection of articles is now available online, and is fully searchable as well. For those who may be overwhelmed by this material, the Museum has also created fifty-five short historical articles on some of the primary subjects covered here, such as the Battle of the Atlantic, the Royal Canadian Navy, and Axis Prisoners in Canada. Just perusing the various articles and examining their interpretations of events both in Canada and overseas is quite engaging, and visitors will also want to look at the brief article that tells how the digitization project unfolded.

308

Skateboards: Are they really perilous? A retrospective study from a district hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Skateboarding has been a popular sport among teenagers even with its attendant associated risks. The literature is packed with articles regarding the perils of skateboards. Is the skateboard as dangerous as has been portrayed? METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted over a 5 year period. All skateboard related injuries seen in the Orthopaedic unit were identified and data

Ulfin Rethnam; Rajam Sheeja Yesupalan; Amit Sinha

2008-01-01

309

[Frostbite injuries].  

PubMed

Frostbite injuries occur mainly in toes, fingers, ears, nose and cheek. Typically an initial vasoconstriction in the skin will protect from drop in core temperature. Ice crystal development occurs when tissue temperature drops to -2 degrees C, leading to increased osmolality of the extracellular fluid and intracellular dehydration. An additional insult occurs with thawing due to reperfusion of the tissue and thereby release of inflammatory mediators. Symptoms of frostbite injury are: White-cyanotic discoloration, pain and numbness followed by hypoaesthesia. General hypothermia should be prevented and treated before managing the local frostbite injuries. Direct contact with warm skin without rubbing should be used in superficial injuries. More severe and deeper injuries should not be thawed until definite treatment could be given in a hospital. Re-freezing and mechanical influence on the injured parts must be avoided. Thawing should preferably be done in stirred water of 40-42 degrees C with mild soap. Antibiotics may be indicated when the skin barrier is broken. Surgical debridement should be postponed until a clear demarcation occurs. PMID:10074836

Berg, A; Aas, P; Lund, T

1999-01-30

310

Indonesia the War in Aceh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 41-page report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) covers the conflict in Aceh, on the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. The war has been marked by human rights violations on both the part of the Indonesian security forces and GAM (an acronym for the Free Aceh Movement), and HRW here reports on both sides' infractions. To gather information for the report, HRW met with and interviewed military and civilian Indonesian government officials, GAM leaders, NGO representatives, and villagers. The report contains a series of recommendations for the Indonesian government and GAM as well as recommendations for the International community.

2001-01-01

311

Chicago History Museum: Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one teach young people about the Civil War? 150 years later, this is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination. The staff members at the Chicago History Museum have gathered all of their online classroom resources together on this site for use by educators and others. The items are divided into seven categories, including slavery, Abraham Lincoln, photography, and black soldiers. Each resource has a brief description, along with information about the appropriate grade level. The Abolitionist Movement and Northern Racism area is quite good and contains the resources "Living Under the Black Laws of Illinois" and "A House Divided: Slavery in the United States."

312

The August 2008 war in Georgia: from ethnic conflict to border wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the five days’ war between Georgia and Russia, a highly politicized debate began about ‘who started the war’. While this debate is far from over, it is important to analyse whether the 2008 war marks an important evolution in the series of conflicts that started in the Caucasus simultaneously with the weakening and collapse of the Soviet Union. While

Vicken Cheterian

2009-01-01

313

War Women: The Role of Women in Holland, Michigan during World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

When World War II began, men were either drafted or volunteered to join the armed forces, which left a void in most communities, including the city of Holland, Michigan. The women who remained behind rose to the occasion and dedicated themselves to the war effort. This research will demonstrate the extent to which the women of Holland aided the war

Hannah Boehme

2012-01-01

314

Civilian Women at War: Psychological Impact Decades After the Vietnam War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civilian women working in war zones may be vulnerable to posttraumatic stress reactions for decades. Some four decades since the Vietnam war, little is understood of how non-national civilian women have made sense of their experiences both in a war zone and returning to a hostile society and how this has affected their mental well-being over a lifetime. Female entertainers

Lynne McCormack

2009-01-01

315

War exposure and post-traumatic stress as predictors of Portuguese colonial war veterans' physical health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between war exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been largely investigated but the impact of the combat experience on physical health has only recently merited attention. The authors investigated the relationship between war exposure and psychological and physical health among 350 Portuguese colonial war veterans. The role of current PTSD symptoms as a mediator of these relationships

Ângela Maia; Teresa McIntyre; M. Graça Pereira; Eugénia Ribeiro

2011-01-01

316

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

317

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

318

Cervical spine injuries in children: A review of 103 patients treated consecutively at a level 1 pediatric trauma center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Cervical spine (C-spine) injuries occur infrequently in children but may be associated with significant disability and mortality. The purpose of this study was to review the experience of a level 1 pediatric trauma center to determine the epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms, levels, types of injury, comorbid factors, and outcomes associated with these potentially devastating injuries. Methods: A retrospective analysis

Rebeccah L. Brown; Margie A. Brunn; Victor F. Garcia

2001-01-01

319

Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... of Cold Injuries Hypothermia Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries Frostbite Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Injuries and Poisoning > Cold Injuries ...

320

Brooklyn in the Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Brooklyn Public Library's Brooklyn Collection, this engaging and interactive website lets students learn about that most famous city of "homes and churches" during the Civil War through the use of primary documents and other secondary materials. The overall goal of the site was to provide both students and teachers with online access to primary and secondary historical materials, and this admirable goal has been achieved quite effectively. Visitors will want to take a look at the interactive map which details the experiences of one James W. Vanderhoef, a Union Army soldier and officer who wrote letters during the war back to his sister in Brooklyn. Peppered with primary documents (such as digitized pages from his letters), the interactive map takes visitors through his travels. Besides this one fine feature, visitors may also explore the contents of the site through its four primary themes, which include soldiers, women, and slavery. The site is rounded out by a detailed timeline and a glossary of terms.

321

Moderators of the Safety Climate-Injury Relationship: A Meta-Analytic Examination  

E-print Network

and group levels of analysis. Hypotheses were posited regarding the effects of six moderators: study design (i.e., retrospective or prospective), the time frame for gathering injury data, the degree of content contamination and deficiency in safety climate...

Beus, Jeremy M.

2010-07-14

322

Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees  

PubMed Central

Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

2011-01-01

323

46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107...

2011-10-01

324

46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

2012-10-01

325

46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

2011-10-01

326

46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107...

2013-10-01

327

46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

2013-10-01

328

46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107...

2012-10-01

329

46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

2014-10-01

330

38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rebellion are included. (c) World War I. April 6, 1917, through November...before July 2, 1921 is considered World War I service if the veteran served in...before November 12, 1918. (d) World War II. December 7,...

2012-07-01

331

38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rebellion are included. (c) World War I. April 6, 1917, through November...before July 2, 1921 is considered World War I service if the veteran served in...before November 12, 1918. (d) World War II. December 7,...

2011-07-01

332

38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rebellion are included. (c) World War I. April 6, 1917, through November...before July 2, 1921 is considered World War I service if the veteran served in...before November 12, 1918. (d) World War II. December 7,...

2013-07-01

333

38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Rebellion are included. (c) World War I. April 6, 1917, through November...before July 2, 1921 is considered World War I service if the veteran served in...before November 12, 1918. (d) World War II. December 7,...

2014-07-01

334

17.42 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. ...

Van Evera, Stephen

335

Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

2010-01-01

336

Greed and Grievance in Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the causes of civil war, using a new data set of wars during 1960-99. Rebellion may be explained by atypically severe grievances, such as high inequality, a lack of political rights, or ethnic and religious divisions in society. Alternatively, it might be explained by atypical opportunities for building a rebel organization. Opportunity may be determined by access to

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2001-01-01

337

Greed and grievance in civil wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the causes of civil war, using a new data set of wars during 1960-99. We test a `greed’ theory focusing on the ability to finance rebellion, against a `grievance’ theory focusing on ethnic and religious divisions, political repression and inequality. We find that greed considerably outperforms grievance. Consistent with the greed theory, both dependence upon primary commodity exports

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2002-01-01

338

On Economic Causes of Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate whether civil wars have economic causes. The model is based on utility theory, rebels will conduct a civil war if the perceived benefits outweigh the costs of rebellion. Using probit and tobit models, the propositions are tested empirically. Four variables, initial income, ethno-linguistic fractionalization, the amount of natural resources, and initial population size are significant and strong

Paul Collier; Anke Hoefflert

1998-01-01

339

Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

Moyi, Peter

2012-01-01

340

How Could a Beaver Start a War?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

Millward, Robert

2010-01-01

341

World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

Hagar, Suzy

1990-01-01

342

Chapter Eight Post-War Research Program  

E-print Network

89 Chapter Eight Post-War Research Program Frank Dunnington (1946-1952) Postwar Rutgers University At the end of World War II, there was a dramatic transformation in the University. Rutgers had achieved its to Rutgers, the full-time enrollment rose from the prewar maximum of 7,000 to 16,000 in 1948. Excluding N

Glashausser, Charles

343

Power, perceptions and the Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold War Illusions: America, Europe and Soviet Power, 1969–1989 by Dana H. Allin. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. 267pp. $39.95.The Elusive Balance: Power and Perceptions During the Cold War by William Curti Wohlforth. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993. 317pp. Ł35.00 hbk, Ł15.00 pbk.

Gideon Rose

1996-01-01

344

Children in War: Community Strategies for Healing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's wars, children are on the front lines. This handbook, the result of a meeting of psychologists and humanitarian workers, presents a strategy to meet the needs of children in war and refugee crises that intends to be cost-effective, empowering, and child-focused. The strategy emerged from field work based on the belief that each…

Herbst, Laura

345

The Climatic Effects of Nuclear War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent

Richard P. Turco; Owen B. Toon; Thomas P. Ackerman; James B. Pollack; Carl Sagan

1984-01-01

346

War women: a motivating legacy enhanced  

E-print Network

Motivated by the need for strong female depictions in our culture, as well as the desire to research and pay tribute to the women workers of World War II, the author initiated the War Women project as the focus of this thesis. The objective...

House, Felice

2006-08-16

347

Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood  

E-print Network

naval codes. They inform the British who immediately recognize their importance. #12;....The body pressed a policy of "peace without victory" with no success. #12;· Germany sends a secret message war Drawing by Leonardo da Vinci of lancers charging a metal machine #12;The basis of modern war

Osgood, Brad

348

Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard

1997-01-01

349

Presidents choice: Star Wars or arms control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central problem with the President's Star Wars program, while built upon an understandable and common hope for a perfect defense shield, is that it is not technologically achievable. The power of nuclear weapons is such that any explosions will be too many. Political support for Star Wars will last only as long as the public believes it can make

M. Bundy; G. F. Kennan; R. S. McNamara; G. Smith

2009-01-01

350

HISTORY 483 THE FIRST WORLD WAR  

E-print Network

HISTORY 483 THE FIRST WORLD WAR Summer 2012 Saturday 9:00 ­ 14:30 ST139 Instructor: Paul Ramsey By far the most significant event of the twentieth century the legacy of the First World War continues to shape the contemporary world. As the centenary approaches it remains greatly debated. These debates

Habib, Ayman

351

The American Civil War Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Civil War Home Page has links to hundreds of resources, including general resources such as timelines and overviews, images, letters, accounts and diaries, bibliographies, state studies, specific battles, and rosters, among others. It is a very comprehensive page, and a good place to start for Civil War information.

352

[Liver injuries].  

PubMed

Mortality in blunt hepatic trauma is still high, death being most frequently caused by hemorrhage. Associated injuries are present in nearly all cases. A variety of possible surgical procedures allow treatment tailored to fit the individual situation. Even the sophisticated intensive care required by the frequent posttraumatic complications is not a substitute for adequate surgery. PMID:3520808

Glinz, W; Stoffel, D; Zellweger, G; Largiadčr, J

1986-04-26

353

Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

2014-01-01

354

Retrospective analysis of fatal falls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these

Annette Thierauf; Johanna Preuß; Eberhard Lignitz; Burkhard Madea

2010-01-01

355

Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan  

E-print Network

Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan± , Magdalena Balazinska± , Don Carney§ , Uur �etintemel the key lessons we learned throughout the design and implementation of the Aurora stream processing engine. For the past two years, we have built five stream-based applications using Aurora. We first describe in detail

Cherniack, Mitch

356

Gender in PER: A Retrospective  

E-print Network

diffs in batteries & bulbs gender diffs in HS experiences affecting undergrads gender bias in testing 12Gender in PER: A Retrospective Laura McCullough University of Wisconsin-Stout Physics Department 1Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Outline Gender in PER AAPT meetings TPT articles AJP articles PRST

Wu, Mingshen

357

Nursing and en route care: history in time of war.  

PubMed

The mission of the en route caregiver is to provide critical care in military helicopters for wounded Warriors. This care minimizes the effects of the wounds and injuries, and improves morbidity and mortality. This article will focus on the history of Army Nursing en route care. From World War II through Vietnam, and continuing through the War on Terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan, Army nurses served in providing en route care in military airplanes and helicopters for patients being transported to higher echelons of care. From aid stations on the battlefield to forward surgical teams which provide life, limb, and eyesight saving care, to the next higher level of care in combat support hospitals, these missions require specialized nursing skills to safely care for the high acuity patients. Before the en route care concept existed, there was not a program to train nurses in these critical skills. There was also a void of information about patient outcomes associated with the nursing assessment and care provided during helicopter medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of such unstable patients, and the consequent impact on the patient's condition after transport. The role of critical care nurses has proven to be essential and irreplaceable in providing full-spectrum care to casualties of war, in particular, the postsurgical patients transferred from one surgical facility to another in theatre. However, we have only recently developed the concepts over the required skill set, training, equipment, functionality, evidenced-based care, and sustainability of nursing in the en route care role. Much of the work to quantify and qualify nursing care has been done by individuals and individual units whose lessons-learned have only recently been captured. PMID:22124872

Davis, R Scott; Connelly, Linda K

2011-01-01

358

Association of Low Birth Weight Infants and Maternal Sociodemographic Status in Tuzla Canton during 1992–1995 War Period in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined association between incidence rate of low birth weight in liveborn infants and maternal sociodemographic status in Tuzla Canton during 1992–1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods. The present study covers a 22-year period (1988–2009), including the war period (1992–1995), and we retrospectively collected data on a total of 108 316 liveborn infants and their mothers from three different socioeconomic periods: before (1988–1991), during (1992–1995), and after the war (1996–2009). Association between incidence rate of low birth weight in liveborn infants and maternal sociodemographic status were determined for each study period. Results. There were 23 194 live births in the prewar, 18 302 during the war, and 66 820 in the postwar period. Among the liveborn infants born during the war, 1373 (7.5%) had birth weight of <2500?g, which is significantly more in comparison with 851 (3.6%) liveborn infants in this birth weight group born before and 1864 (2.8%) after the war. We found the number of examinations during pregnancy was 1.8 per pregnant woman in the war period, which was low in comparison with the number of examinations before (4.6 per pregnant woman) and after (7.1 per pregnant woman) the war (P<.001 for both). Prewar perinatal mortality LBW infants of 6.2 per 1000 live births increased to 10.8 per 1000 live births during the war (P<.001), but after the war, perinatal mortality LBW infants (5.2‰) and early neonatal mortality (2.4‰) decreased. Conclusions. We found statistically significant association between low-birth-weight and maternal sociodemographic status in Tuzla Canton during 1992–1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:21490700

Skoki?, Fahrija; Ba?aj, Dubravka; Selimovi?, Amela; Hasanovi?, Evlijana; Muratovi?, Selma; Halilbaši?, Amir

2010-01-01

359

War, peace, and fertility in Angola.  

PubMed

Using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996, some two years after the end of a major outbreak of war, we examine the impact of war on the timing of recent births and war-related differences in reproductive preferences in Angola. We find evidence of a wartime drop and a postwar rebound in fertility, but these trends vary greatly, depending on the type and degree of exposure to war and on women's socioeconomic characteristics. At the same time, variations by parity are nonsignificant. In fertility preferences, the relative antinatalism of Angola's most modernized urban area stands out, but outside this area, differences between areas that were more and less affected by war are also noticeable. We offer interpretations of our findings and outline their implications for Angola's demographic future and demographic trends in similar settings. PMID:12048949

Agadjanian, Victor; Prata, Ndola

2002-05-01

360

Britain and the American Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Civil War, both the Confederacy and the Union tried to curry favor with Britain in order to support their respective causes. This online exhibition explores these relationships through original period maps, photographs, diplomatic documents, and much more. The Highlights area is a great place to start, as it showcases great finds from the collection including Civil War songs, silk cords from Abraham Lincoln's cortege, and Confederate banknotes. The Anglo-American Relations area provides a brief summary of the relationship and mentions various activities that took places between the United States and Britain during this conflict. Mapping the Civil War is another great feature on the site. Selected by curator, Matthew Shaw, the collection illustrates the terrain, history, and progress of the war. These items include a "Bird's-eye view of the Seat of War" and a fascinating composite portrait of Union Army generals titled, "The Field of Battle.âÂÂ

361

Mothering during war and postwar in Bosnia.  

PubMed

The study aim was to describe displaced Bosnian mothers' experiences caring for their children during and immediately after the war (1992-1995). Mothers described their progression into war, through war, and into vastly changed lives. Using ethnographic methods, narrative data were collected near Sarajevo, Bosnia, from 14 displaced women who participated in one to three interviews each between 1996 and 1999. Data from the semistructured interviews were analyzed to determine patterns in participants' descriptions of mothering during war. Four common themes of mothering were identified in the data: "on the move," "I have to feed them," "living somewhere in between," and "still living the war inside." As care providers and policy makers develop initiatives to improve the health of women and children during complex humanitarian emergencies, there is much to learn from the narratives of Bosnian women about their extraordinary struggle to protect the lives of their children amid violence and loss. PMID:18180470

Robertson, Cheryl Lee; Duckett, Laura

2007-11-01

362

ASSESSING THE BARGAINING MODEL OF WAR TERMINATION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR, 1899-1902  

E-print Network

Through a detailed case study of the Philippine-American War (1899-1902), this thesis presents a test of the bargaining model of war termination. The study begins with a review of the war termination theory literature, ...

Brown, Adam David

2008-05-27

363

Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We performed both a laboratory and field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, Pb-210, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha emission of a Pb-210 decay product, Po-210. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks cm{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) is proportional to the surface alpha activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha activity should be proportional to the accumulated Po-210 and hence, the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to: (1) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, (2) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass implanted polonium activities, and (3) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted Po-210 activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type.

Field, R W.; Steck, D J.; Parkhurst, Maryann (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mahaffey, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Alavanja, M C. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD)

1998-11-01

364

Relationship between Hippocampal Volume changes and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Traumatic Brain Injury in US Military Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the most common, and serious injuries suffered by United States servicemen in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Compared to roughly 2% of the civilian population, nearly 20% of military personnel returning from current military operations in the Middle East have been diagnosed with TBI. Additionally, an increasing number of military personnel returning

Toby Emanuel

2011-01-01

365

"Doomed to go in company with miserable pain": surgical recognition and treatment of amputation-related pain on the Western Front during World War 1.  

PubMed

The principal feature of injuries from World War 1 was musculoskeletal trauma and injury to peripheral nerves as a result of damage to the upper and lower limbs caused by gunshot wounds and fragments of artillery munitions. Amputation was used as a treatment in field hospitals to save lives; limb conservation was a secondary consideration. A century later, the principal feature of injuries to soldiers in today's wars in Iraq and Afghanistan is also musculoskeletal trauma and injury to the peripheral nerves caused by improvised explosive devices. Common to both types of injury is postamputation pain. We searched The Lancet's archives in this Series paper to show the efforts of surgeons in World War 1 to understand and treat postamputation pain in its own right both during and immediately after the war. Despite unprecedented patient numbers and levels of civilian medical expertise, little progress was made in providing relief from this type of pain, a grave concern to the surgeons treating these soldiers. Today postamputation pain is understood beyond a surgical context but remains a complex and poorly understood condition with few effective treatments. PMID:25441202

Edwards, Dafydd S; Mayhew, Emily R; Rice, Andrew S C

2014-11-01

366

Atomic Platters: Cold War Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along with ushering in a new age of global unrest and high anxiety, the emergence of the atomic bomb had a curious and not totally unpredictable effect on the world of popular (and not-so-popular) music. This site brings together these various subgenres of "atomic" music in a way that's rather fun, intriguing, and at times, a bit scary. Visitors can look through such subgenres as "Atomic", "Cold War", "Flying Saucer", and so on. While most of the songs are not available in their full form, visitors can read all of the lyrics and interpretive essays. Of course, visitors can find plenty of audio joy at the "CONELRAD Audio Archives" area. Herein are contained such gems as the positively odd "The Complacent Americans" and the equally lovable novelty album "The Goldwaters Sing Folk Songs to Bug the Liberals".

367

Newfoundland and the Great War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Project, this site is a good example of how to use the Web to showcase primary source materials that document the participation of a region or group in a major historical event, in this case, Newfoundland's participation in World War I. The site has four major sections based on material type, so that users can read articles, look at pictures or videos, or listen to audio clips. Some highlights are a virtual scrapbook of images, marches and ballads played by the Royal Newfoundland Regiment Band, and video clips from the film "For the Folks Back Home" featuring archival footage from the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador.

368

World War I Sheet Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Digital Initiatives at Brown University has created a number of fine collections since its inception in 2001, and this latest offering is no exception to that trend. The site is focused on providing access to hundreds of instances of sheet music that addresses various aspects of World War I. In this area, it is a definite success as the material is perfect for historians, musicians, or others who may be studying material and visual culture in the early 20th century. Users may browse through the sheet music by title, publisher, subject, and creator. Additionally, a historical essay and general introduction should be forthcoming on the site in the near future. Visitors would do well to check out such fine titles as "America He's for You", "Salvation Sal", and of course, "The Girl Behind the Man Behind the Gun," with lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse.

369

Ankle Injury TYPES OF ANKLE INJURIES  

E-print Network

Ankle Injury TYPES OF ANKLE INJURIES: Ankle injuries can be acute or chronic in nature. Inverting (turning in) of the ankle, accounts for most acute injuries. Damage occurs when ankle is twisted or moved beyond its normal range. Overuse of the ankle can cause tearing of the ligaments or strain tendon fibers

Virginia Tech

370

Effects of injury level and severity on direct costs of care for acute spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

New treatments are being investigated for spinal cord injury (SCI), and any improvement may result in incremental cost savings. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of care 2 years after an SCI, stratifying for completeness and level of injury. A retrospective database analysis was carried out using data from the Quebec Trauma Registry, the Quebec Medical Insurance Board, and the Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation between 1997 and 2007. Excluding individuals sustaining moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries, 481 individuals who sustained an SCI from motor vehicle accidents were identified. Individuals were classified as complete and incomplete in the following categories: C1-C7, C8-T6, T7-L1, L2-S5. Using data from governmental public healthcare organizations makes this study comprehensive. For C1-C7 complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries, the first-year cost was $157?718 and $56?505, respectively (2009 Canadian dollars calculated per patient). Similar differences between complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries were seen for the other groups. Furthermore, for complete injuries, costs were higher for higher levels of injury during both the first and the second year after injury. For incomplete lesions, costs did not differ significantly between groups during the first or the second year. Incomplete spinal cord injuries result in lower healthcare costs compared with complete injuries across all groups during the first 2 years after injury. As less severe levels of injury result in measurably lower costs, the funds spent to reduce the severity or level of SCI could at least partially be recouped through healthcare savings. PMID:25192008

Radhakrishna, Mohan; Makriyianni, Ioli; Marcoux, Judith; Zhang, Xun

2014-12-01

371

Misinformation, disinformation, and violent conflict: from Iraq and the "War on Terror" to future threats to peace.  

PubMed

The dissemination and control of information are indispensable ingredients of violent conflict, with all parties involved in a conflict or at war seeking to frame the discussion on their own terms. Those attempts at information control often involve the dissemination of misinformation or disinformation (i.e., information that is incorrect by accident or intent, respectively). We review the way in which misinformation can facilitate violent conflicts and, conversely, how the successful refutation of misinformation can contribute to peace. We illustrate the relevant cognitive principles by examining two case studies. The first, a retrospective case, involves the Iraq War of 2003 and the "War on Terror." The second, a prospective case, points to likely future sources of conflict arising from climate change and its likely consequences. PMID:24128313

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Stritzke, Werner G K; Freund, Alexandra M; Oberauer, Klaus; Krueger, Joachim I

2013-10-01

372

[Injuries of the female genitalia in cases of sexual assault].  

PubMed

Sexual violence is a global problem that particularly affects women and children. A retrospective analysis of 390 clinical-forensic examinations and 120 autopsies regarding injuries of the female genitalia in cases of sexual violence was performed. In the majority of cases no injuries of the female genitalia were found. Autopsy cases showed significantly more (and more serious) injuries of the genitalia than clinical forensic examinations (43 % vs. 25 %; p = 0.0004). Predominantly found were injuries of the external anogenital area, mostly tears or soft tissue lesions. In the current literature, data regarding the rate of injuries in victims of sexual violence vary strongly and their comparability is limited. Regarding the reconstruction of an offence, a forensic examination with an appropriate documentation of the injuries is evidently crucial. PMID:21850881

Schröder, Ann Sophie; Güzel, Muammer Okan; Seifert, Dragana; Püschel, Klaus; Anders, Sven

2011-01-01

373

Open globe injuries: factors predictive of poor outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDespite advances in ocular and orbital imaging, instrumentation, materials, and surgical procedures, the management of open globe injuries continues to pose difficult management dilemmas. In this retrospective study, we identify clinical characteristics and outcome of a series of open globe injuries presenting to a major UK centre.MethodOperating department records were reviewed to identify all patients who had undergone repair of

I Rahman; A Maino; D Devadason; B Leatherbarrow

2006-01-01

374

Cerebral infarct in head injury: relationship to child abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To determine whether CT-detected cerebral infarct in young children is associated more often with abuse or unintentional head injury.Methods: Retrospective case-control study of injured children under age 6 who had abnormal initial head CT scans and who were admitted to the only Level I pediatric trauma center in Washington State for closed head injury (CHI) from January 1, 1992

Galen H Ransom; Frederick A Mann; Monica S Vavilala; Richard Haruff; Frederick P Rivara

2003-01-01

375

Crossbow injuries.  

PubMed

The crossbow is an uncommon source of fatal injury. In Los Angeles County, two crossbow homicides have occurred in the past 20 years. Following the second case, a crossbow was test-fired into a fresh pork thigh, resulting in distinctive wounds. Experimental studies also showed that the vanes of the bolt (arrow) may be a source of trace material found in the wound. PMID:2391480

Rogers, C; Dowell, S; Choi, J H; Sathyavagiswaran, L

1990-07-01

376

Post-operative hyponatraemia in orthopaedic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-operative hyponatraemia can be dangerous and can go unrecognised as the presenting signs and symptoms are often confused with post-operative or post-anaesthesia sequelae. Infusion of dextrose containing fluids in the peri-operative period is a well-documented cause of this electrolyte imbalance.We conducted a retrospective study to identify the incidence of hyponatraemia following surgery for orthopaedic injury. Medical notes and fluid charts

A. A. Tambe; R. Hill; P. J. Livesley

2003-01-01

377

Retrospect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

Weaver, Anthony

1971-01-01

378

Retrospective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic ice shelves.

Brooks, David A.

379

Transition from the Afghanistan and Iraqi battlefields to home: an overview of selected war wounds and the federal agencies assisting soldiers regain their health.  

PubMed

Occupational health nurses are encountering veterans in the workplace who have served one or more tours of duty in Afghanistan or Iraq. Soldiers making the transition from combat to civilian life may have physical and mental injuries from war. Occupational health nurses who recognize the unique nature of these injuries and are knowledgeable about resources for meeting veterans' needs will be instrumental in facilitating their return to civilian life. PMID:18717300

Brown, Norman D

2008-08-01

380

Abdominal hollow viscus injuries are associated with spine and neurologic infections after penetrating spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

Penetrating spinal cord injuries are rare but potentially devastating injuries that are associated with significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of abdominal hollow viscus injuries (HVIs) on neurologic and spinal infectious complications in patients sustaining penetrating spinal cord injuries. We performed a 13-year retrospective review of a Level I trauma center database. Variables analyzed included demographics, injury patterns and severity, spine operations, and outcomes. Spine and neurologic infections (SNIs) were defined as paraspinal or spinal abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with SNI. Of 137 patients, there were 126 males (92%) with a mean age of 27 ± 10 years. Eight patients (6%) underwent operative stabilization of their spine. Fifteen patients (11%) developed SNI. There was a higher incidence of SNI among patients with abdominal HVI compared with those without (eight [26%] vs six [6%], P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, after controlling for injury severity, solid abdominal injury and HVI, vascular injury, and spine operation, abdominal HVIs were independently associated with an increased risk for SNI (odds ratio, 6.88; 95% confidence interval, 2.14 to 22.09; P = 0.001). Further studies are required to determine the optimal management strategy to prevent and successfully treat these infections. PMID:25264640

Schwed, Alexander C; Plurad, David S; Bricker, Scott; Neville, Angela; Bongard, Fred; Putnam, Brant; Kim, Dennis Y

2014-10-01

381

War casualties on the home front  

SciTech Connect

On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

Brenda J. Flinn

2005-11-01

382

The causes and prevention of war  

SciTech Connect

This book seeks to answer what has become a species-survival question: how can humankind reduce the role of large-scale violence in society. Based partially on the serious thought of past scholars and statesmen on the determinants of war and the conditions for peace, but mainly on the author's own studies and observations of world politics, a wide-ranging examination of both small-scale and international acts of violence are provided. The author realistically appraises the efforts and means of reducing the role of war in international relations and concludes by offering an integrated strategy to prevent and control war.

Brown, S.

1987-01-01

383

Risk of needle stick and sharp object injuries among medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Much is known about sharp object and needle stick injuries among employee health care workers, but relatively little attention has been directed to exposures among medical students. Method: The frequency and mechanisms of needle stick and sharp object injuries were determined retrospectively by surveying students in their fourth year of medical school. Students were questioned about the number of

Caroline Shen; Janine Jagger; Richard D. Pearson

1999-01-01

384

Martial Arts Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. Data sources: The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. Main results: In general, the absolute

W. Pieter

2005-01-01

385

BOUNDING THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM Jeffrey Record  

E-print Network

BOUNDING THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM Jeffrey Record December 2003 #12;ii ***** The views expressed FOREWORD The United States is now in the third year of the global war on terrorism. That war began of Iraq. As part of the war on terrorism, the United States has committed not only to ridding the world

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

386

Photojournalism: A Record of War. Learning Page Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photography has been used to record war since the Crimean War in 1855. This lesson plan explores how and why war has been photographed and also gives students an opportunity to see the bias within the recording/reporting of war. The lesson plan: cites educational objectives; gives time required; recommends a grade level; notes curriculum fit; and…

Fricke, Chris; Ritz, Glenda

387

The World War II Era and Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war

Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

2012-01-01

388

Middle School Students, Science Textbooks, Television and Nuclear War Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which the issue of nuclear war technology is treated in middle-school science texts, and how students learn about nuclear war and war technology were studied. Five raters compared the most widely used textbooks for grades 6 and 7 to determine the amount of content on: (1) population growth; (2) world hunger; (3) war technology; (4)…

Hamm, Mary

389

Using Case Studies to Expand Economic Models of Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on a comparative case study design to refine formal-quantitative models of civil war, expanding them to highlight political processes that lead to civil war. It uses 21 case studies of civil war onset and avoidance to show the shortcomings in prom- inent rationalist models of civil war that rely heavily on economic variables. These shortcomings include measurement

Nicholas Sambanis

2004-01-01

390

Consumed by War: European Conflict in the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe endured incessant political discord throughout the twentieth century, and some historians refer to the period's conflicts as the Long War. During the Balkan Wars of 1912–13, regional fighting in southeastern Europe ignited conflict across the continent which continued through both world wars and the Cold War. This book illuminates the complex diplomatic and military struggles of a region whose

Richard C. Hall

2009-01-01

391

The anthropology of war and peace  

SciTech Connect

Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

1989-01-01

392

Changed by War Five stories from the  

E-print Network

Changed by War Five stories from the University of Toronto's most testing time Cyberbullying is Everywhere The Internet makes it easy to be mean. No wonder cyberbully- ing among teens has everyone worried

Toronto, University of

393

The Mounting Prospects of Nuclear War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postulates that the probability of a nuclear world war is steadily increasing due to the aims race escalation, the spread of nuclear technology, the international trade in arms, and the failure of arms controls. (SL)

Barnaby, Frank

1977-01-01

394

Moral Judgment and Concern About Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on two studies relating moral development to concern about nuclear war and to antinuclear activism. Two Dutch samples tested the following hypothesis: the higher the level of moral judgment, the more concern there is about nuclear arms. (LHW)

Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.

1987-01-01

395

Talking to Children about Terrorism and War  

MedlinePLUS

... possible preoccupation with violent movies or war theme video/computer games. Children who seem preoccupied or very stressed about ... Children After a Disaster #13 Children and TV Violence #47 The Anxious Child #54 Children and Watching ...

396

Newspaper Pictorials: Word War I Rotogravures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During World War I, a number of newspapers aggressively worked to take advantage of the rotogravure printing process to offer their readers higher quality images. Expansive pictorial sections helped document the wartime experience and brought the war vividly home to people a long way from the front in Europe. This digital collection from the Library of Congress's American Memory Project brings together hundreds of images from the New York Times, the New York Tribune, and the War of the Nations. Visitors can browse these items by date or start by reading one of the five essays that accompany the collection, including "Events and Statistics," "Military Technology in World War I," and "Pictures as Propaganda." The more casual users will want to browse through the Gallery for highlights like images of young soldiers, American munitions in use at Argonne, and the Egyptian Camel Corps.

397

War dogs: the U.S. K-9 Corps in World War II  

E-print Network

Department) August 1990 ABSTRACT War Dogs: The U. S. K-9 Corps in World War II (August 1990) Donald Alan Whatley, B. A, , Texas AQ1 University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Joseph G. Dawson Shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor a group... to the Holy Land during the Middle Ages. Some 75, 000 were "enlisted" by both sides in the Great War but the United States did not make dogs an official part of the Armed Forces until its entry into World War II. After Pearl Harbor a group of professional...

Whatley, Donald Alan

2012-06-07

398

British women and the First World War  

E-print Network

in the seventeen-ward hospital--were women. ', '12 For women with no nursing skills or whose responsi- bilities precluded their going abroad, the donation of their homes was one way they could contribute to the war cause. Many houses and estates were turned...- hind closed doors. When the war began removing large numbers of men from the homefront, women found their roles in society and in the workforce changed. Initially women undertook volun- teer work, especially nursing; eventually the government...

Monday, JoAnne Amey

1981-01-01

399

Economic Growth, Civil Wars, and Spatial Spillovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neoclassical growth model is used to empirically test for the influences of a civil war on steady-state income per capita both at home and in neighboring countries. This model provides the basis for measuring long-run and short-run effects of civil wars on income per capita growth in the host country and its neighbors. Evidence of significant collateral damage on

JAMES C. MURDOCH; TODD SANDLER

2002-01-01

400

Delayed psychiatric sequelae among Falklands war veterans  

PubMed Central

The only published account to date of psychiatric complications among Falklands war veterans suggests that acute reactions are rare. Reported here are three cases of severe delayed reactions in Falklands veterans from South Wales. All three cases demonstrate a common pattern similar to that shown by Vietnam war veterans. Possible aetiological factors and prevention are discussed. It seems likely that relatives of combatants will also be affected and general practitioners are in a unique position to recognize and treat these problems. PMID:3668924

Jones, Gareth H.; Lovett, Jonathan W.T.

1987-01-01

401

War, gender and culture: Mozambican women refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the psychological sequelae of war-related violence for women tend to rely on the concepts developed in research on male combatants. Post-traumatic stress disorder or varying combinations of its symptoms are identified as the principal outcomes of war-related events for women. By and large, the dominant literature does not examine possible outcomes which could be specified by gender. This

Tina Sideris

2003-01-01

402

The Civil War (1861-1865)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objectives: Students will use weblinks to examine the major battles of the Civil War. Students will use the provided links to answer questions on a history \\"scavenger hunt\\" on the Civil War. 1861 Battle of Fort Sumter Battle of Bull Run (nps) 1862 Battle of Shiloh (nps) Battle of Antietam 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville Battle of Gettysburg Battle of Vicksburg 1864 Battle of Atlanta (nps) 1865 Battle of Petersburg Appomattox (nps) Scavenger Hunt ...

Harward, Jennifer

2007-11-01

403

Vietnam War Era Ephemera Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The traumatic and unsettled backdrop of social and cultural change throughout the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s will not soon be forgotten by any of those persons who lived through that period. Some groups of people came together under the banner of the women's liberation movement, and still others surrounded themselves in the unifying guise of ethnic solidarity and pride, such as those who participated in the American Indian Movement. No one ongoing event garnered as much attention, however, as the Vietnam War did. That particular event inspired a host of posters, handouts, and other printed ephemera that may have quickly disappeared, as do many pieces of material culture often do. Fortunately, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections division has created this online archive which brings many of these documents together in one place. The documents are divided into thematic categories, such as racism, socialism, farm workers, gay rights, and religion. There are some real compelling documents on the site, and those with a penchant for social and cultural history will enjoy this fine collection.

404

The Vietnam War Declassification Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the fall of Phnom Penh and Saigon, this month the Ford Presidential Library released nearly 30,000 pages of newly declassified material concerning the Vietnam War. Most of the documents "are from the White House offices of national security advisers Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft or from the files of National Security Council staff. Included are President Ford's 'Country Files' for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; a 'Backchannel' collection of especially sensitive messages; and 'Memcons,' transcript-like memoranda of high level conversations." At the site, users can view a list of topics covered by the recently opened documents and the Library's core holdings on Vietnam, read a press release, and of course, view the full text of a number of selected documents as well as some photos. The majority of documents are offered as page images, and include Henry Kissinger's cable informing Saigon of President Ford's decision to evacuate, Helicopter pilot radio transmissions during the evacuation, Cabinet meeting minutes, National Security Council meeting minutes, General Fred C. Weyand's Vietnam Assessment Report of April 4, 1975, and materials related to the Mayaguez Incident, among others. While this release will certainly grab the attention of scholars and researchers, almost anyone interested in the waning days of American involvement in Vietnam will find multiple items of interest.

405

Can We Prevent a Second ’Gulf War Syndrome’? Population-Based Healthcare for Chronic Idiopathic Pain and Fatigue after War  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1991 Gulf War less than 150 of nearly 700,000 deployed US troops were killed in action. Today, however, over 1 in 7 US veterans of the war has sought federal healthcare for related-health concerns, and fully 17% of UK Gulf War veterans describe themselves as suffering from the ’Gulf War syndrome’, a set of poorly defined and heterogeneous

C. Engel; A. Jaffer; J. Adkins; J. Riddle; R. Gibson

2006-01-01

406

20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

2011-04-01

407

20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

2012-04-01

408

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404...Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2012-04-01

409

20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

2014-04-01

410

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404...Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2011-04-01

411

20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

2013-04-01

412

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404...Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2010-04-01

413

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404...Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2013-04-01

414

20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

2010-04-01

415

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404...Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2014-04-01

416

Children's conceptions of conventional and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The general objective of this study was to investigate the development of the conceptions of conventional and nuclear war in the preadolescent and adolescent child. Subjects consisted of children in three age groups: 5-6, 9-10, and 13-14 year olds (N = 63) drawn from public and private schools in the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Children were administered an interview and supplementary measures. Parents were administered questionnaires examining related areas. The principal findings were as follows: (1) The development of the war concepts. Regarding the concept of conventional war, by the age of five or six, the child usually can recognize the word war and indicate that the word has to do with fighting between two or more parties. However, the notion of nationality is evidently not solidly grasped until around the ages of 8-11 years old. In this study, 45% of the 5 and 6 year olds were minimally aware of the concept of nuclear war. By the time the child reaches the age of 9 or 10, the proportion of those with minimal awareness rises to about 80%. By 13 and 14 years old, 100% are familiar with the concept. (2) Levels of Worry. Of the children aware of the subject of nuclear war, 76% indicated that they were very worried by its possibility.

Boone, R.P.

1985-01-01

417

What Causes Pediatric Injury?  

MedlinePLUS

... parents, caregivers, and families about ways to prevent childhood injury, safety recommendations, and product warnings and recalls. For ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ...

418

Growth Plate Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

Growth Plate Injuries May 2014 Questions and Answers about Growth Plate Injuries This publication contains general information about ... Classification of Growth Plate Injuries What Is the Growth Plate? The growth plate, also known as the ...

419

Pediatric Fireworks-Related Injuries in the United States: 1990-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Our goal was to describe the epidemiology of pediatric fireworks-related injuries among children aged 19 years and younger by using a nationally repre- sentative sample. DESIGN.We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 1990-2003. RESULTS.An estimated 85 800 pediatric fireworks-related injuries were treated in US emergency departments during

Rachel J. Witsaman; R. Dawn Comstock; Gary A. Smith

420

Ethnographic analysis of traumatic brain injury patients in the national Model Systems database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burnett DM, Kolakowsky-Hayner SA, Slater D, Stringer A, Bushnik T, Zafonte R, Cifu DX. Ethnographic analysis of traumatic brain injury patients in the national Model Systems database. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:263-7. Objective: To compare demographics, injury characteristics, therapy service and intensity, and outcome in minority versus nonminority patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: Twenty medical

Derek M. Burnett; Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner; Dan Slater; Anthony Stringer; Tamara Bushnik; Ross Zafonte; David X. Cifu

2003-01-01

421

Epidemiology of head injuries in children: a pilot study.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of children with head injuries and head lacerations in an active emergency department (Vancouver General Hospital) revealed differences in incidence with age and sex, as well as relationships between the frequency of visits and the season, the day of the week and the time of day. Radiographs were taken of a large number of the patients with head injuries and a significant proportion of these children were admitted to hospital.A prospective study is proposed which would examine the natural history of accidental head injuries in children. PMID:6023998

Klonoff, H; Robinson, G C

1967-05-13

422

Injuries among World Cup ski and snowboard athletes.  

PubMed

There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports. PMID:20561277

Flřrenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

2012-02-01

423

Iatrogenic Gastrointestinal Injuries During Obstetrical and Gynecological Operation  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal Injuries (GI) during gynecological operation are uncommon but proper management of these injuries is very important. Objectives The aim of this study was to review the causes and management of gastrointestinal injuries during gynecological and obstetrical operations. Patients and Methods In this descriptive retrospective study, 25 patients with gastrointestinal injuries during gynecological and obstetrical operation at Shabihkhani Maternity Hospital in Kashan city were reviewed. Demographic data such as age, gravid, parity, type of surgery or procedure, history of laparotomy, the surgical operation, injury site, time of diagnosis and method of treatment were extracted from medical records. Results The mean age of women was 33.2 ± 7.57 years. Fourty-four percent of the patients had a history of abdominal scar. Thirty-two percent of all GI injuries occurred during total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). The small bowel was injured in 36% of cases. Fifty-two percent of injuries were diagnosed during the operation and the mean time of injury diagnosis was 2.8 ± 0.9 days. Conclusions All of the gynecologic surgeons must be aware of gastrointestinal injuries and should anticipate injury to these organs especially in high-risk patients for decreasing patient morbidity. PMID:24396799

Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Hedayati, Mehrdad; Moussavi-Bioki, Nushin

2013-01-01

424

Thermal injury.  

PubMed

The burned patient is a challenging problem to the emergency physician. The vast majority of burns are minor and can be managed effectively on an outpatient basis. There are many therapeutic options, and specific burn care must be based on an understanding of the pathophysiology, tailoring it to the patient's needs. The major burn victim may have life-threatening circulatory and pulmonary problems that must be addressed through aggressive fluid therapy and airway management. Multisystem complications may follow, and one needs to be aware of these to prevent their occurrence. Specific directed therapy begins in the field and continues through the Emergency Department until the patient is stabilized and sent to his or her final destination. Early assessment of burn extent, location, and severity is important in determining therapy and disposition. Close monitoring of the patient and accurate record keeping is essential, as thermal injury is a dynamic process. Transfer to burn center often will be necessary and requires early contact with the center to ensure appropriate treatment and transfer arrangement. Certain other injuries require close follow-up care by physicians experienced in burn care. PMID:1559476

Griglak, M J

1992-05-01

425

[Vaginal injuries during coitus].  

PubMed

Based on a prospective study on a continuous series of women admitted on emergency for post-coitus hemorrhage. The authors present an epidemiology and prognosis of vaginal injuries in to coitus in the Dakar University Teaching Hospital. Over a period of 33 months (October 1991 to December 1994), 106 cases were recorded, giving an incidence rate of 32 cases per year. The average profile is that of young women (26 years), usually during the post-partum period (41.5%) or in the second phase of menstrual cycle (32%). The main influencing factors found included: chronic vaginal infection (74%), position during coitus (especially that dorsal decubitus with hyperflexion and abduction of the lower members (56%), sexual abstinence of 3 months on average (21 days to 2 years), and use of aggressive product "aphrodisiac" for vaginal mucus. The damage was most often located at the bottom of dead end of Douglas and could be estimated at 5 cm long and 5 mm deep. The immediate prognosis was favourable, after stitching with absorbable thread, healing was obtained within 8 to 15 days. Given a retrospective view about 2 to 5 years, morbidity was represented by 3 recurrent cases and 13% after effects of the deep dyspareunia type. PMID:10797947

Cisse, C T; Dionne, P; Cathy, A; Mendes, V; Diadhiou, F; Ndiaye, P D

1998-01-01

426

Student attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war: Friends as influential reference persons  

SciTech Connect

A renewed interest in research into the psychology of the threat of nuclear war occurred in the past decade as national attention focused increasingly on the arms race between the US and the USSR. Some of this research began the task of exploring the social influences upon attitudes and responses to the nuclear threat. Research on friends as potential influences upon nuclear attitudes was minimal. The present study investigated the role of college friends as potential reference persons in the formation of nuclear attitudes. A battery of questionnaires addressing various nuclear war and non-nuclear war attitudes was completed by 200 student-friend dyads from introductory psychology and sociology courses at the University of North Dakota. Three hypotheses were presented in this study. One hypothesis was that students would perceive their friends as having similar attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war. A second hypothesis was that the actual attitudes between pairs of students and friends would be similar. The third hypothesis was that the attitudes would have become more similar over the course of the development of the friendship (as measured retrospectively). The first hypothesis was borne out by the data. The second and third hypotheses were not supported. There are several implications of the findings. One implication is that the nuclear issue may not be as salient to college students as other, more immediate, issues. Another implication is that a relative lack of communication between college students on political issues precludes more effective mutual influence upon the development and change of such attitudes. A false consensus bias appeared to be operative when the students perceived that their attitudes were similar. Further discussion is presented in regard to past and future psychological research upon nuclear war attitudes.

Marasch, M.J.

1992-01-01

427

Management of major bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the presentation, characteristics, related investigation, and treatment results of major bile duct injuries (MBDI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 27 patients who were treated between the time span of January 1995 and December 2002 for MBDI after LC at a single unit in a tertiary

L. Kaman; A. Behera; R. Singh; R. N. Katariya

2004-01-01

428

Cultural Capital in Spain'S MeMory WarS Dr. SebaStiaan Faberoberlin College  

E-print Network

History MeMory trutH Cultural Capital in Spain'S MeMory WarS Dr. SebaStiaan Faberoberlin College Since the late 1990s, Spain has seen a series of public disputes over the historical memory tell it--and the relationship that today's Spain should have with that past. In the past fifteen years

Andrews, Peter B.

429

Empire and Race in Anglo-American Wars from Korea to the War on Terror  

E-print Network

Empire and Race in Anglo-American Wars from Korea to the War on Terror INDERJEET PARMAR, the State, and the Anglo-American Alliance, 1939­ 1945 and Think Tanks and Power in For- eign Policy of International Affairs, 1939­1945. INDERJEET PARMAR City University of London The Department of American Studies

Indiana University

430

Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

McAninch, Stuart A.

1995-01-01

431

The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…

Kreso, Adila Pasalic

2008-01-01

432

Teaching about the Period between World War I and World War II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a teaching guide to accompany a forthcoming Mobil Showcase television series, "Between the Wars." The series chronicles events between the end of World War I and the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The guide contains background information, discussion questions, and activities for each of the 16 programs in the series. (Author/AV)

Social Education, 1978

1978-01-01

433

Adjective self-descriptions of world war II and korean prisoner of war and combat veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-descriptions were generated among 71 former prisoners of war (POWs) and 35 combat veterans of similar ages, personal backgrounds, and war duty assignments using the Adjective Check List format. Former POWs differed significantly from combat controls in selection of self-descriptive identifiers across the 37 scales, specifically on Number of Favorable Adjectives Checked, Need Scales measuring Affiliation, Exhibition, Change, Succorance, and

Patricia B. Sutker; Bradley T. Thomason; Albert N. Allain

1989-01-01

434

Life satisfaction and quality in Korean War veterans five decades after the war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Military service is considered to be a hidden variable underlying current knowledge about well- being in the elderly. This study aimed to examine life satisfaction and quality of life in Australia's surviving male Korean War veterans and a community comparison group, and to investigate any association with war deployment- related factors. Methods: Participants completed a postal questionnaire which included

J. F. Ikin; M. R. Sim; D. P. McKenzie; K. W. A. Horsley; E. J. Wilson; W. K. Harrex; M. R. Moore; P. L. Jelfs; S. Henderson

2009-01-01

435

Casualty Reporting and Domestic Support for War: The US Experience during the Korean War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common argument that public support for war is casualty sensitive ignores the fact that casualty figures are not revealed automatically. While the military decides when, and to whom, to release such information, political elites can question, even condemn, how the government goes about this business. After briefly exploring how the US military operated during the two world wars, this

Steven Casey

2010-01-01

436

War mobilization and the life course: A cohort of World War II veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men experience historical events, such as wars, at different times in their lives and are thereby influenced in different ways. Using data on a cohort of veterans from World War II, this study investigates the proposition that entry into the armed forces at a relatively early age maximized discontinuity and facilitated a redirection of the life course through psychological development,

1987-01-01

437

Beyond the War on Terror: Into the Fifth Generation of War and Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifth generation warfare has arrived and is irreversibly changing the character and nature of human conflict. It confronts the United States with the evolving strategic dilemma of not only dealing with the War on Terror, but of simultaneously crafting strategies that look beyond military preparedness for past wars and embrace the perspective of national preparedness for the spectrum of future

Donald J. Reed

2008-01-01

438

Full and Partial Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among World War II Prisoners of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of full and partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 66 World War II Nazi prisoners of war, some of whom had been deported to death camps. Methods: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to assess the presence of PTSD and major depression. The Dissociative Experiences

Angela Favaro; Elena Tenconi; Giovanni Colombo; Paolo Santonastaso

2006-01-01

439

Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals: United Nations War Crimes Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress' Military Legal Resources has a section on its website that highlights war criminal trials from World War II that offer "major points of municipal and international law that were raised and settled during the trials as well as the potential for the greatest legal interest." The trials cover the time period of 1947-1949, and comprise 15 volumes, each with an introduction by the chairman of the United Nations War Crimes Commission. Visitors will find that each volume's table of contents contains the breakdown of each case, including "Outline of the Proceedings" which is typically comprised of facts and evidence, defense of the accused, and the findings and resulting sentences. The "Notes on the Case" name and discuss the appropriateness of the laws or statutes applied to the case. Visitors interested in World War II history will find these cases provide an interesting perspective by which to view the war.

440

[Injuries to the upper limbs in competitive wrestlers].  

PubMed

Great variety of tackling and defence in wrestling in standing position and on the floor cannot be compared to other kind of sports. High demand to motoric characteristics and tournament specific movability is required. However wrestling in Germany belongs to a fringe sport there is an increase of professionality. This leads to a sufficient and high-demanded supervision. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate sport injuries using a questionnaire and to figure out a correlation between kind and frequency of sport injuries of different body regions. 163 questionnaires out of 200 had been evaluated. In the region of the upper limb injuries had been found in 23%. The injury rate was higher in the athletes wrestling in the 2nd league. Wrestling is a technically and tactically ambitious sport. Injuries should be evaluated very careful to minimize the risk changing tactics and training methods. PMID:18543163

Michael, J W-P; Müller, L; Schikora, N; Eysel, P; König, D P

2008-06-01

441

Injuries among elite snowboarders (FIS Snowboard World Cup)  

PubMed Central

Background Although snowboarding is already established as an Olympic sport, it is still a developing sport, with new disciplines, more demanding snow installations, and spectacular tricks. A recent study on subjects at Norwegian national elite level showed that injury risk is high and that injuries among competitive snowboarders differ from those seen in recreational snowboarders, with fewer wrist injuries and more knee and back injuries. Objective To describe the incidence and type of injuries among female and male snowboarders at international elite level. Method At the last race of the Fédération Internationale de Ski Snowboard World Cup, acute injuries resulting in missed participation and overuse injuries influencing performance, were recorded during a retrospective interview (91% response rate). The registration period was from April 2002 (end of season) until March 2003. Exposure was recorded as the number of runs in all disciplines, and the incidence was calculated as number of injuries per 1000 runs. Results The 258 athletes interviewed reported 3193 competition days (n?=?46?879 runs) in all disciplines. In total, 135 acute injuries were recorded; 62 (46%) during competition in the official disciplines. Of the 135 acute injuries, the most common injury locations were knee (n?=?24; 18%), shoulder (n?=?18; 13%), back (n?=?17; 13%), and wrist (n?=?11; 8%). The overall incidence during competition was 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.7) injuries per 1000 runs; 2.3 (0.9 to 3.8) for big air (n?=?10), 1.9 (1.1 to 2.8) for halfpipe (n?=?21), 2.1 (1.2 to 3.0) for snowboard cross (n?=?20), 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0) for parallel giant slalom (n?=?8), and 0.3 (0.0 to 0.7) for parallel slalom (n?=?3). The severity of injuries was graded based on time loss (27% lost >21?days) and score on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (38% AIS 1, 61% AIS 2 and 1% AIS 3). There were 122 overuse injuries, 38 (31%) of these to the knee. Conclusion The injury risk for big air, snowboard cross, and halfpipe disciplines is high, while that for the snowboard slalom disciplines is lower. The injury pattern is different from recreational athletes, with a greater share of knee injuries and fewer wrist injuries. Compared with national level, the injury risk appears to be lower at World Cup level. PMID:16505079

Torjussen, J; Bahr, R

2006-01-01

442

Uncovering the problem-solving process: cued retrospective reporting versus concurrent and retrospective reporting.  

PubMed

This study investigated the amounts of problem-solving process information ("action," "why," "how," and "metacognitive") elicited by means of concurrent, retrospective, and cued retrospective reporting. In a within-participants design, 26 participants completed electrical circuit troubleshooting tasks under different reporting conditions. The method of cued retrospective reporting used the original computer-based task and a superimposed record of the participant's eye fixations and mouse-keyboard operations as a cue for retrospection. Cued retrospective reporting (with the exception of why information) and concurrent reporting (with the exception of metacognitive information) resulted in a higher number of codes on the different types of information than did retrospective reporting. PMID:16393033

van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Witte, Puk

2005-12-01

443

Ocular injuries from improvised explosive devices  

PubMed Central

Purpose To document the characteristics, treatments, and anatomical and functional outcomes of patients with ocular trauma from improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Methods Retrospective review of ocular injuries caused by IEDs, admitted to our tertiary referral centre. Results In total, sixty-one eyes of the 39 patients with an average age of 24 years (range, 20–42 years) were included in the study. In total, 49 (80%) eyes of the patients had open-globe and 12 (20%) had closed-globe injury. In eyes with open-globe injury, intraocular foreign body (IOFB) injury was the most frequently encountered type of injury, observed in 76% of eyes. Evisceration or enucleation was required as a primary surgical intervention in 17 (28%) of the eyes. Twenty-two (36%) eyes had no light perception at presentation. Patients were followed up for an average of 6 months (range, 4–34 months). At the last follow-up, 26 (43%) of 61 eyes had no light perception. Postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) developed in 12 (50%) of the 24 eyes that underwent vitreoretinal surgery, and four of these eyes became phthisical. There were no cases of endophthalmitis. The presence of open-globe injury and presenting visual acuity worse than 5/200 were significantly associated with poor visual outcome (<5/200, P<0.05). In eyes with open-globe injury, the presence of an IOFB was not associated with poor visual outcome (P>0.05). Conclusion Ocular injuries from IEDs are highly associated with severe ocular damage requiring extensive surgical repair or evisceration/enucleation. Postoperative PVR is a common cause of poor anatomical and visual outcome. PMID:21852806

Erdurman, F C; Hurmeric, V; Gokce, G; Durukan, A H; Sobaci, G; Altinsoy, H I

2011-01-01

444

Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages (GWVRP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages provides a single resource for information on Gulf War Syndrome. Included is information on the syndrome and how to obtain benefits; hyperlinked versions of reports and studies of Gulf War syndrome and its possible causes and treatments; information about and newsletters from Gulf War veteran activist organizations; direct links to the Department of Veteran Affairs Home Page and other online resources of interest to veterans, their families and others concerned. The site is fully searchable by keyword. A new feature is "Tracings in the Sand," a section where veterans can share their experiences of their Gulf War service, and how it has affected their lives. Also included are weekly news flashes, such as the following: "Jan Williams of Sen. Rockefeller's office has indicated an interest in how PL 103-446 is being administered. If you are a Persian Gulf veteran and have been turned down for VA disability, please call Jan Williams at 202 224-2074. She is looking for records and the reasons stated on the decision letter."

Beer, Jeff.; Szabo, Grant.

1997-01-01

445

Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

Kevles, Daniel

2015-01-01

446

Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.  

PubMed

Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

Forge, John

2009-03-01

447

War with Iraq: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released as part of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Committee on International Security Studies Occasional Papers series, this 93-page report from December 2002 examines the political, military, and economic consequences of war with Iraq. The report is divided into three self-contained chapters, with each one exploring a different facet that illustrates the potential costs of war for the United States. In the first chapter, Carl Kaysen, John D. Steinbruner, and Martin B. Malin engage in an extended appraisal of the national security strategy behind the move toward a preventive war against Iraq. The second chapter finds Steven E. Miller considering a number of potentially detrimental military and strategic outcomes of war for the United States. The third chapter, John Nordhaus offers his economic cost estimations of war with Iraq by looking at scenarios that are both favorable and unfavorable to the United States. All in all, this paper is a thought-provoking and scholarly examination of a pressing topic that often receives only superficial consideration by the mainstream media.

Kaysen, Carl.; Malin, Martin B.; Miller, Steven E.; Nordhaus, William D.; Steinbruner, John D., 1941-.

2002-01-01

448

Trends and Characteristics of Head and Neck Injury from Falls  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this retrospective descriptive hospital-based study was to determine the trend in the number, incidence and pattern of head and neck injuries involved with falls. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out of 1,952 patients who were treated at the Accident and Emergency and Trauma centres of Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar, for head (n = 1,629), neck (n = 225) and both (n = 98) injuries during the period 2001–2006. Head and neck injuries were determined according to the International Classification of Disease, ICD-10 criteria. Details of all the trauma patients who were involved in falls were extracted from the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Hamad Medical Corporation. Results: The majority of the victims were non-Qataris (78.6%), men (86.6%) and in the age group 20–29 years (26.8%). There was a disproportionately higher incidence of head and neck injuries from falls during weekends (27.1%). Nearly half of the head and neck injuries from falls occurred at work (49.4%). Neck injuries (10.2%) were more severe than head injuries (7.3%). The incidence rate of head and neck injuries per 10,000 population increased from 2.1 in the year 2001 to 5.5 in 2006, particularly among the elderly population above 60 years of age (13.1 in 2003 to 18.6 in the year 2006). Superficial injury to the head (29.4%) was more common among trauma patients. Conclusion: The present study findings revealed that the incidence of head and neck injuries was higher among young adults and the elderly population. PMID:21969897

Bener, Abdulbari; Abdul Rahman, Yassir S.; Abdel Aleem, Eltayib Y.; Khalid, Muayad K.

2011-01-01

449

Mortality of first world war military personnel: comparison of two military cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the impact of the first world war on the lifespan of participating military personnel (including in veterans who survived the war). Design Comparison of two cohorts of military personnel, followed to death. Setting Military personnel leaving New Zealand to participate in the first world war. Participants From a dataset of the New Zealand Expeditionary Forces, we randomly selected participants who embarked on troopships in 1914 and a comparison non-combat cohort who departed on troopships in late 1918 (350 in each group). Main outcome measures Lifespan based on dates of birth and death from a range of sources (such as individual military files and an official database of birth and death records). Results A quarter of the 1914 cohort died during the war, with deaths from injury predominating (94%) over deaths from disease (6%). This cohort had a significantly shorter lifespan than the late 1918 “non-combat” cohort, with median ages of death being 65.9 versus 74.2, respectively (a difference of 8.3 years shown also in Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank P<0.001). The difference for the lifespan of veterans in the postwar period was more modest, with median ages of death being 72.6 versus 74.3, respectively (a difference of 1.7 years, log rank P=0.043). There was no evidence for differences between the cohorts in terms of occupational class, based on occupation at enlistment. Conclusions Military personnel going to the first world war in 1914 from New Zealand lost around eight years of life (relative to a comparable military cohort). In the postwar period they continued to have an increased risk of premature death. PMID:25516379

Clement, Christine; Summers, Jennifer A; Bannister, John; Harper, Glyn

2014-01-01

450

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... most eye injuries, followed by water sports and racquet sports. When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high ... baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ... eye injuries? Common types of eye injuries are blunt trauma, ...

451

Wounded by bayonet, ball, and bacteria: medicine and neurosurgery in the American Civil War.  

PubMed

The American Civil War was a holocaust that illustrated the mid-19th century's unpreparedness for the delivery of medical care to the mass casualties due to both wounds and disease. Several major considerations are offered to explain the soldiers' morbidity. Incomplete understanding of pathophysiology and its management is exemplified by the treatment of the battlefield head injury. Accepting these concepts and the extent of the knowledge of the time, that higher mortality did not occur is in part testimony to the admirable care that was rendered and human resilience in an effort to survive. PMID:3906424

Zellem, R T

1985-11-01

452

Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with Reintegration Problems: Differences by Veterans Affairs Healthcare User Status.  

PubMed

We studied 1,292 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who participated in a clinical trial of expressive writing to estimate the prevalence of perceived reintegration difficulty and compare Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare users to nonusers in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. About half of participants perceived reintegration difficulty. VA users and nonusers differed in age and military background. Levels of mental and physical problems were higher in VA users. In multivariate analysis, military service variables and probable traumatic brain injury independently predicted VA use. Findings demonstrate the importance of research comparing VA users to nonusers to understand veteran healthcare needs. PMID:24913102

Sayer, Nina A; Orazem, Robert J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Gravely, Amy; Frazier, Patricia; Carlson, Kathleen F; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather

2014-06-11

453

The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars  

PubMed Central

Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

2011-01-01

454

Brandeis University Spanish Civil War Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Composed of North American volunteers, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was one of several international brigades that fought on the side of the Republicans against Franco's fascist Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9). The Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archive (ALBA) was founded in 1975 by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (VALB) to preserve the history of the Brigade's actions in Spain and the post-war activities of its veterans in America. Part of ALBA's mission includes supervising the comprehensive archive of materials related to the North American involvement in the Spanish Civil War at Brandeis University. The site provides a description of the collections, a select reading list, and related links.

455

History of Vietnam and the Vietnam War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Vets With A Mission, "a non-political organization of Vietnam veterans which seeks to alleviate the widespread suffering still victimizing the people of Vietnam," this Website offers a plethora of articles, research, book excerpts, and other learning materials about the Vietnam War and the history of Vietnam. There are sections here on Vietnamese history; Vietnam War research; the Tet Offensive; Marine, Army, and Air Force Operations; the History of the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NFL); as well as personal profiles of veterans of the war. Updates seem to have been somewhat infrequent, but given the historical nature of the materials, this may not be a significant drawback to an otherwise useful and interesting site.

456

Library of Congress Web Archives: Iraq War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress' web archives of the 2003 Iraq war offer an overview of the collection, a brief history of why the war began, plus search and browse capabilities. The types of materials in the archives include newspapers, websites, veteran organizations, maps, photos, official government documents, legal materials, scholarly papers, editorial cartoons and periodicals. Visitors who know exactly what they are looking for can use the search feature, with delimiters that include name, title, subject and year captured. Browsing visitors can select the browse tab and choose subject, name, or title. There are a vast number to choose from, including 71 subjects, 163 names, and 231 titles. Some of the subjects include "Children and War", the "Koran", "Social Justice", and "Prayers for Peace".

457

Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

2012-10-01

458

Blast-related traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries. PMID:23884075

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; McFarlane, Alexander C; Bragge, Peter; Armonda, Rocco A; Grimes, Jamie B; Ling, Geoffrey S

2013-09-01

459

Impact of World War I on Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

Trimble, Virginia L.

2015-01-01

460

The new military medical ethics: legacies of the Gulf Wars and the War on Terror.  

PubMed

United States military medical ethics evolved during its involvement in two recent wars, Gulf War I (1990-1991) and the War on Terror (2001-). Norms of conduct for military clinicians with regard to the treatment of prisoners of war and the administration of non-therapeutic bioactive agents to soldiers were set aside because of the sense of being in a 'new kind of war'. Concurrently, the use of radioactive metal in weaponry and the ability to measure the health consequences of trade embargos on vulnerable civilians occasioned new concerns about the health effects of war on soldiers, their offspring, and civilians living on battlefields. Civilian medical societies and medical ethicists fitfully engaged the evolving nature of the medical ethics issues and policy changes during these wars. Medical codes of professionalism have not been substantively updated and procedures for accountability for new kinds of abuses of medical ethics are not established. Looking to the future, medicine and medical ethics have not articulated a vision for an ongoing military-civilian dialogue to ensure that standards of medical ethics do not evolve simply in accord with military exigency. PMID:21752039

Miles, Steven H

2013-03-01

461

Posterior calf injury.  

PubMed

Acute injuries of the Achilles tendon are common among athletes and non-athletes alike. Injuries of other posterior calf muscles are far less common but should be considered in the differential, to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of patients with calf injuries. This article focuses on these calf injuries, including injuries of the gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, and flexor hallucis longus, which may occasionally be mistaken for Achilles tendon disorders. PMID:19857847

Campbell, John T

2009-12-01

462

Wood burning related injuries.  

PubMed

During the past two years, 80 patients were seen in the emergency department of The Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital (Cooperstown, NY) for injuries related to the use of wood burning stoves. The types of injuries included 25 lacerations, 19 crush injuries, 10 fractures, 7 eye injuries and 7 burns. Seven of these patients required hospitalization, and five required operative procedures. There was no mortality. Physician and patient education about the potential dangers of wood stove use may help prevent these injuries. PMID:2733888

Nicholson, J J; Dietz, P A

1989-05-01

463

Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.  

PubMed Central

Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369

Gill, G V; Bell, D R

1982-01-01

464

World War One: The British Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Library has gone above and beyond with this multimedia collection of materials related to World War One. Offered as a form of scholarly rumination and educational resource, the site examines key themes in the history of the Great War, along with 50 newly commissioned historical articles, teachers' notes, and much more. First-time visitors might look over the Explore area to find manuscripts, illustrations, letters, maps, and other items contributed by several dozen European institutions. The Teaching Resources includes 40 different items that cover topics such as aerial warfare, propaganda, and bombing raids. The Articles section is a masterstroke and it covers the lives of soldiers, civilians, and colonial troops.

465

Documents about the Effects of Nuclear War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A militarily plausible nuclear attack, even "limited," could be expected to kill people and to inflict economic damage on a scale unprecedented in American experience; a large-scale nuclear exchange would be a calamity unprecedented in human history. This collection of documents includes: "The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki" by The Manhattan Engineer District (1946), "The Effects of Nuclear War, Worldwide Effects of Nuclear War" by U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" by Samuel Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan.

Christopher Griffith

466

The World War I Document Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by volunteers of the World War I Military History List (WWI-L) and provided by Brigham Young University, this site offers a large number of primary documents related to the First World War. The main body of documents is sorted chronologically and includes government papers, memoranda, letters by significant figures, reports, and agreements. Other documents include Conventions, Treaties, Memorials, and Personal Reminiscences. Additional resources at the site include a biographical dictionary, an image archive, commentary articles, and a collection of related links.

467

Identification of Serum MicroRNA Signatures for Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in a Closed Head Injury Model  

PubMed Central

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have highlighted the problems of diagnosis and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). MTBI is a heterogeneous injury that may lead to the development of neurological and behavioral disorders. In the absence of specific diagnostic markers, mTBI is often unnoticed or misdiagnosed. In this study, mice were induced with increasing levels of mTBI and microRNA (miRNA) changes in the serum were determined. MTBI was induced by varying weight and fall height of the impactor rod resulting in four different severity grades of the mTBI. Injuries were characterized as mild by assessing with the neurobehavioral severity scale-revised (NSS-R) at day 1 post injury. Open field locomotion and acoustic startle response showed behavioral and sensory motor deficits in 3 of the 4 injury groups at day 1 post injury. All of the animals recovered after day 1 with no significant neurobehavioral alteration by day 30 post injury. Serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles clearly differentiated injured from uninjured animals. Overall, the number of miRNAs that were significantly modulated in injured animals over the sham controls increased with the severity of the injury. Thirteen miRNAs were found to identify mTBI regardless of its severity within the mild spectrum of injury. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that the more severe brain injuries were associated with a greater number of miRNAs involved in brain related functions. The evaluation of serum miRNA may help to identify the severity of brain injury and the risk of developing adverse effects after TBI. PMID:25379886

Barry, Erin S.; Bhomia, Manish; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Balakathiresan, Nagaraja S.; Grunberg, Neil E.; Maheshwari, Radha K.

2014-01-01

468

Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

2012-01-01

469

The Great War: Ethnic Conflict for Chicago's German-Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the struggles of German-Americans in Chicago, Illinois during World War I. Contends these German-Americans met conflict, hostility, and pressure to compromise and reevaluate their place in Chicago as a result of the war. (BSR)

Miller, Liesl K.

1987-01-01

470

ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS WITH THE WAR ALGORITHM: REVIEW AND UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will review uses of the WAR algorithm and current developments and possible future directions. The WAR algorithm is a methodology for analyzing potential environmental impacts of 1600+ chemicals used in the chemical processing and other industries. The algorithm...

471

World War I Soldier Gives New Clues to Fighting Dysentery  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. World War I Soldier Gives New Clues to Fighting Dysentery Sample of bacterium that ... War I soldier is giving today's scientists important new insights into the gastrointestinal disease. Researchers focused on ...

472

54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, LOOKING WEST 56/43A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

473

Recording injuries among World Cup skiers and snowboarders: a methodological study.  

PubMed

No long-term injury surveillance programs exist for competitive skiing or snowboarding. The objective of this study was, therefore, to compare different methods to record injuries among World Cup athletes in alpine, freestyle, and cross-country skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping and Nordic combined. Information regarding injuries sustained during the 2006-2007 winter season was recorded through three separate and independent systems: prospective injury reports by technical delegates (TD) from the International Ski Federation, prospective medical team registration by selected teams, and retrospective athlete interviews at the end of the season. A total of 100 unique injuries to 602 World Cup athletes were identified from any of the three recording methods. Of these, 91% were registered through the athlete interviews, 47% by the medical team registration and 27% by the TD reports. Only 20 injuries (20%) were captured by all three methods. A total of 64 time-loss injuries were registered. The interviews captured 60 (94%), the medical team registration 39 (61%), and the TD reports 23 (36%) time-loss injuries, while 18 (28%) were registered by all three systems. Retrospective interviews with athletes/coaches regarding injuries during the last 6 months gave the most complete picture of injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. PMID:20030778

Flřrenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

2011-04-01

474

Hamstring Injuries in Professional Football Players  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for detailed evaluation of hamstring injuries; however, there is no classification that allows prediction of return to play. Purpose: To correlate time for return to play in professional football players with MRI findings after acute hamstring strains and to create an MRI scoring scale predictive of return to sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Thirty-eight professional football players (43 cases) sustained acute hamstring strains with MRI evaluation. Records were retrospectively reviewed, and MRIs were evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists, graded with a traditional radiologic grade, and scored with a new MRI score. Results were correlated with games missed. Results: Players missed 2.6 ± 3.1 games. Based on MRI, the hamstring injury involved the biceps femoris long head in 34 cases and the proximal and distal hamstrings in 25 and 22 cases, respectively. When < 50% of the muscle was involved, the average number of games missed was 1.8; if > 75%, then 3.2. Ten players had retraction, missing 5.5 games. By MRI, grade I injuries yielded an average of 1.1 missed games; grade II, 1.7; and grade III, 6.4. Players who missed 0 or 1 game had an MRI score of 8.2; 2 or 3 games, 11.1; and 4 or more games, 13.9. Conclusions: Rapid return to play (< 1 week) occurred with isolated long head of biceps femoris injures with < 50% of involvement and minimal perimuscular edema, correlating to grade I radiologic strain (MRI score < 10). Prolonged recovery (missing > 2 or 3 games) occurs with multiple muscle injury, injuries distal to musculotendinous junction, short head of biceps injury, > 75% involvement, retraction, circumferential edema, and grade III radiologic strain (MRI score > 15). Clinical Relevance: MRI grade and this new MRI score are useful in determining severity of injury and games missed—and, ideally, predicting time missed from sports. PMID:23016038

Cohen, Steven B.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Zoga, Adam; Irrgang, Jay J.; Makda, Junaid; Deluca, Peter F.; Bradley, James P.

2011-01-01

475

Terror Attacks Increase the Risk of Vascular Injuries  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT), as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented VT (N?=?1,545) was analyzed and further subdivided into those suffering from terror-related vascular trauma (TVT) and non-terror-related vascular trauma (NTVT). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment. Results: Out of 2,446 terror-related trauma admissions, 243 sustained TVT (9.9%) compared to 1302 VT patients from non-terror trauma (1.1%). TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. Intensive care unit admissions and hospital length of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS???16) and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly much lower extremity injuries. Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care. PMID:24910849

Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

2014-01-01

476

Gunshot Injuries in Children Served by Emergency Services  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, injury severity, resource use, mortality, and costs for children with gunshot injuries, compared with other injury mechanisms. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study (January 1, 2006–December 31, 2008) including all injured children age ?19 years with a 9-1-1 response from 47 emergency medical services agencies transporting to 93 hospitals in 5 regions of the western United States. Outcomes included population-adjusted incidence, injury severity score ?16, major surgery, blood transfusion, mortality, and average per-patient acute care costs. RESULTS: A total of 49?983 injured children had a 9-1-1 emergency medical services response, including 505 (1.0%) with gunshot injuries (83.2% age 15–19 years, 84.5% male). The population-adjusted annual incidence of gunshot injuries was 7.5 cases/100?000 children, which varied 16-fold between regions. Compared with children who had other mechanisms of injury, those injured by gunshot had the highest proportion of serious injuries (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.6–28.4), major surgery (32%, 95% CI 26.1–38.5), in-hospital mortality (8.0%, 95% CI 4.7–11.4), and costs ($28?510 per patient, 95% CI 22?193–34?827). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being less common than other injury mechanisms, gunshot injuries cause a disproportionate burden of adverse outcomes in children, particularly among older adolescent males. Public health, injury prevention, and health policy solutions are needed to reduce gunshot injuries in children. PMID:24127481

Kuppermann, Nathan; Holmes, James F.; Haukoos, Jason S.; Wetzel, Brian; Hsia, Renee Y.; Wang, N. Ewen; Bulger, Eileen M.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Mann, N. Clay; Barton, Erik D.; Wintemute, Garen

2013-01-01

477

Select Bibliography of the Korean War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

Sandler, Stanley

2000-01-01

478

African Americans and World War II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

Kersten, Andrew E.

2002-01-01

479

Post-war fascism in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practically all the countries of western Europe attempts were made, shortly after the ending of the Second World War, to inject new life into national socialism and fascism. This also happened in the Netherlands. Such efforts were being made in the face of severe restrictions since, after 1945, fascist and racist activists could expect to encounter considerably more resistance

Jaap Van Donselaar

1993-01-01

480

Greed and Grievance in Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 27 major armed conflicts that occurred in 1999, all but two took place within national boundaries. As an impediment to development, internal rebellion especially hurts the world's poorest countries. What motivates civil wars? Greed or grievance? This paper compares two contrasting motivations for rebellion: greed and grievance. Most rebellions are ostensibly in pursuit of a cause, supported by

Paul Collier; Anke Hoefflery

2000-01-01

481

The 1997 mathematics standards war in California  

E-print Network

The 1997 mathematics standards war in California H. Wu Department of Mathematics #3840 University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-3840 http://www.math.berkeley.edu/wu/ wu@math.berkeley.edu Setting the stage The controversy discussed in this article has its origin in the 1992 Math- ematics Framework for California Public

Wu, Hung-Hsi

482

The Quantum Gravity wars: Quantum Physics confronts  

E-print Network

#12;Reality: · Quantum physics is part of everyday technology. · Special relativity -- speed of lightThe Quantum Gravity wars: Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser #12;Phoenix Society 3 October 2004 #12;Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Abstract: The search

Visser, Matt

483

Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans  

PubMed Central

Concerns about unexplained illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War appeared soon after that conflict ended. Many environmental causes have been suggested, including possible exposure to depleted uranium munitions, vaccines and other drugs used to protect troops, deliberate or accidental exposure to chemical warfare agents and pesticides and smoke from oil-well fires. To help resolve these issues, US and UK governments have sought independent expert scientific advice from prestigious, independent scientific and public health experts, including the US National Academies of Science and the UK Royal Society and Medical Research Council. Their authoritative and independent scientific and medical reviews shed light on a wide range of Gulf War environmental hazards. However, they have added little to our understanding of Gulf War veterans' illnesses, because identified health effects have been previously well characterized, primarily in the occupational health literature. This effort has not identified any new health effects or unique syndromes associated with the evaluated environmental hazards. Nor do their findings provide an explanation for significant amounts of illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Nevertheless, these independent and highly credible scientific reviews have proven to be an effective means for evaluating potential health effects from deployment-related environmental hazards. PMID:16687269

Brown, Mark

2006-01-01

484

Just War Theory and the IRA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) sometimes claims that their violent actions are sanctioned by traditional just war doctrine. Examines the extent to which this is true, concluding that violence for the sake of Irish unity or violence committed outside the borders of Northern Ireland is unacceptable. (JDH)

Simpson, Peter

1986-01-01

485

Star Wars in a nuclear world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lord Zuckerman is a world authority on the rivalries and politics of the nuclear age. Few scientists distinguished in their own right have had as much experience as he has of both the national and international corridors of power. During World War Two he was Strategic Planning Adviser to Air Marshal Tedder and General Eisenhower. From 1960 to 1971 he

Zuckerman

1987-01-01

486

Diplomats and the Civil War at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil War created problems for Anglo-American relations as Confederate interests attempted to build commerce raiders in British shipyards and to provide blockade-runners to service the Southern economy. US consuls in such key places as Liverpool and Bermuda were instrumental in attempting to stop this traffic by diplomatic means. Confederate commerce raiders, most notably the Alabama and the Shenandoah, were

Francis M. Carroll

2010-01-01

487