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1

Popliteal artery war injuries.  

PubMed

The early postoperative results of 44 surgically treated popliteal arterial injuries from the Yugoslav civil war are reported. Of these patients, 41 (93%) were males and three (7%) were females, average age was 28 (range 6-45) years. Twenty patients (45%) had gunshot wounds and 24 (55%) explosive wounds. Twelve (28%) suffered isolated vascular damage, while 32 (72%) suffered concomitant bone fractures. Isolated arterial lesions were found in 24 (55%) cases, and concomitant arterial and venous lesions in 20 (45%). Twenty-four (55%) had primary reconstructions after haemostasis in the initial war hospital, and 20 (45%) secondary reconstructions after inadequate primary reconstruction in a regional war hospital. Artery procedures included 19 reverse saphenous vein graft interpositions, 10 reverse saphenous vein bypasses, 12 'in situ' saphenous vein bypasses and five lateral subcutaneous saphenous vein bypasses. The early graft patency rate was 100%, and limb salvage 72%. Major amputation was performed in 28%. Concomitant bone fractures, secondary reconstructions, secondary haemorrhage from an infected graft, and explosion wounds significantly increased the amputation rate (P < 0.01). Eleven amputations were performed after an anatomic, and only one after an extra-anatomic reconstruction (P < 0.01). The authors recommend an in situ or lateral subcutaneous reconstruction in cases of complicated popliteal artery injuries, such as concomitant bone fractures accompanied by massive soft tissue damage, and this type of reconstruction should also be used if infection is present or the procedure is delayed. PMID:9158121

Davidovi?, L; Lotina, S; Kosti?, D; Velimirovi?, D; Duki?, P; Cinara, I; Vranes, M; Markovi?, M

1997-02-01

2

Craniofacial war injuries.  

PubMed

In this paper, recent concepts in the management of war wounds of the maxillofacial region are described. A brief differentiation is also given between general practice medicine and military medicine. PMID:17333841

Salama, O M M

2006-11-01

3

Maxillofacial war injuries during the Iraq–Iran War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following study focuses on three hundred maxillofacial war casualties that were admitted to the Basra Republic Hospital during the Iraq–Iran War. These three hundred cases were chosen on the basis of them being only oral and maxillofacial injuries. Of these cases, there was no mortality recorded. This was in part due to the rapid evacuation, immediate resuscitation and proper

R. S Sadda

2003-01-01

4

Acute Arteriovenous Fistulas in War Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six among 60 arterial injuries at the 18th Surgical Hospital (MA) and 71st Evacuation Hospital, Vietnam, were treated for arteriovenous fistulas. Five of six fistulas caused by war injuries were acute, and one was chronic. All injuries were caused by frag...

D. J. Collins R. L. Hewitt

1968-01-01

5

Management of maxillofacial injuries in the Iran-Iraq war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study discusses types of maxillofacial injury, their treatment, and complications encountered in the Iran-Iraq war.Patients and Methods: During 1981 to 1986, 210 casualties were treated with 250 operations in Mostafa-Khomeini hospital in Tehran. Their records were analyzed retrospectively. The operations were mostly reconstructive and consisted of methods adopted because of available instruments of that time.Results: Mandibular defects were

Fahimeh Akhlaghi; Fariborz Aframian-Farnad

1997-01-01

6

Extremity War Injuries VIII: sequelae of combat injuries.  

PubMed

The 2013 Extremity War Injury symposium focused on the sequelae of combat-related injuries, including posttraumatic osteoarthritis, amputations, and infections. Much remains to be learned about posttraumatic arthritis, and there are few circumstances in which a definitive arthroplasty should be performed in an acutely injured and open joint. Although the last decade has seen tremendous advances in the treatment of combat upper extremity injuries, many questions remain unanswered, and continued research focusing on improving reconstruction of large segmental defects remains critical. Discussion of infection centered on the need for novel methods to reduce the bacterial load following the initial débridement procedures. Novel methods of delivering antimicrobial therapy and anti-inflammatory medications directly to the wound were discussed as well as the need for near real-time assessment of bacterial and fungal burden and further means of prevention and treatment of biofilm formation and the importance of animal models to test therapies discussed. Moderators and lecturers of focus groups noted the continuing need for improved prehospital care in the management of junctional injuries, identified optimal strategies for both surgical repair and/or reconstruction of the ligaments in multiligamentous injuries, and noted the need to mitigate bone mineral density loss following amputation and/or limb salvage as well as the necessity of developing better methods of anticipating and managing heterotopic ossification. PMID:24382880

Andersen, Romney C; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Ficke, James R

2014-01-01

7

Penetrating missile injuries in the Gulf war 1991.  

PubMed

During the recent Gulf war 63 patients with penetrating missile injuries (including 29 Iraqi prisoners of war) underwent operation in a British Army Field Hospital. Their injuries and initial operative management are reported. Fifty-one casualties (81 per cent) suffered an average of nine wounds (range 1-45) due to fragmentation weapons, and 12 casualties sustained bullet wounds. All wounds were explored following the established principles of war surgery. The extremities were involved in 48 patients (76 per cent). Eight compound long bone fractures were managed with external skeletal fixators applied at the time of initial operation. Laparotomy was performed on seven patients, one of whom died. The average duration of operation was 77 min for shrapnel wounds and 85 min for bullet wounds. PMID:1933196

Spalding, T J; Stewart, M P; Tulloch, D N; Stephens, K M

1991-09-01

8

Musculoskeletal injuries in Homer's Iliad: the War of Troy revisited.  

PubMed

Homer's Iliad--the most famous and influential epic poem--has been previously reviewed with respect to head, craniomaxillofacial, neck, thoracic, and hand injuries in the literature. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no data regarding musculoskeletal injuries. This article describes the musculoskeletal injuries that had ensued during the war of Troy. The Turkish translation of the original epic poem Iliad was reviewed for musculoskeletal injuries, that is, their descriptions, outcome, the weapons used, and the engaged warriors. Extremity injuries were evaluated as regards the affected bones. The pertinent treatment methods were also recorded. In total, 103 musculoskeletal injuries were detected during 81 combats. The most commonly involved areas were the shoulder (15.5%), the head (14.5%), the cervical vertebrae (14.5%), and the thoracic vertebrae (8.7%). The weapons used were spear (n = 52); sword (n = 9); arrow (n = 9); stone (n = 8); and cane, animal, the hand, Chariot race, and broken yoke (n = 1 for each). Fifty-four combats (66.6%) resulted in death. Therapeutic herbs, compound of milk, and essence of fig were used as treatment alternatives. While providing a historic snapshot on the war of Troy, in this article, the authors have reviewed the musculoskeletal injuries and their management in those ancient times. Despite the long period in between, unfortunately, physicians/surgeons are still faced with war injuries in current medical practice. The authors strongly hope that, at least in the near future, physicians will be left with only natural health problems and without those artificially generated by human beings. PMID:24406735

Kömürcü, Erkam; Tok, Fatih; Sim?ek, Ay?e; Ozçakar, Levent

2014-04-01

9

Body mass index in spinal cord injury – a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective chart review.Objective:To identify the prevalence of overweight and severely overweight (obese) in veterans with spinal cord injury.Setting:Veterans Administration Hospital in Wisconsin.Methods:A retrospective chart review of all the patients registered in the current database with the Spinal Cord Injury Unit in the Veterans Administration Hospital was undertaken Data collected for each patient included age, sex, height, date of assessment

N Gupta; K T White; P R Sandford

2006-01-01

10

Traumatic brain injury in modern war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

2013-05-01

11

Equine-associated maxillofacial injuries: retrospective 5-year analysis.  

PubMed

We explored the relation between the causes of facial injuries in equestrians and the presence or absence of associated injuries. Over a 5-year period we retrospectively reviewed all patients who presented to the John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, with facial injuries that had resulted from activity with horses. We analysed the rates of hard and soft tissue injuries, and of associated injuries by sex and mechanism. A total of 85 patients were included (50 female and 35 male) with an age range of 2-88 years. There was a significant difference in the rate of maxillofacial and associated injuries when groups were analysed for sex and mechanism of injury. Facial injuries caused by falling from a horse were more often associated with other injuries in men than in women (p<0.05), and men were 4 times more likely to present with associated injuries than women (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 14) We also found significant differences in the rates of facial fracture. Women who had been kicked by a horse were more likely to sustain bony injuries than men (p<0.05). Our data confirm the association between kicks and facial fracture, and this may provide an impetus for the development of appropriate protective equipment. Patients who sustain facial injuries when falling from a horse often present with associated injuries and this has practical implications for clinicians involved in their management. PMID:24168759

Islam, Shofiq; Gupta, Benjamin; Taylor, Christopher J; Chow, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Gary R

2014-02-01

12

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries  

PubMed Central

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries.

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-01-01

13

Incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To analyze the incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries in the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and\\u000a civilians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Retrospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  All patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War (July–August, 2006).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrieval of all data relevant to ocular and adnexal injuries sustained during the study period, and differentiation between\\u000a those associated

Adiel Barak; Amir Elhalel; Joseph Pikkel; Eli Krauss; Benjamin Miller

14

Accurate anatomical location of war injuries: analysis of the Lebanon war fatal casualties and the proposition of new principles for the design of military personal armour system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we present a new approach to the design of the military personal armour system (MPAS). This approach is based on a computerized analysis of the exact anatomical location of 405 penetrating war injuries (290 shrapnel and 115 bullet injuries) in 164 soldiers killed in the Lebanon war. All the penetrating injuries (hits) were plotted on a computerized

O. N. Gofrit; N. Kovalski; D. Leibovici; J. Shemer; A. O'Hana; S. C. Shapira

1996-01-01

15

Increases in Retrospective Accounts of War-Zone Exposure Over Time: The Role of PTSD Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective reports of the frequency of war-zone exposure are commonly used as objective indices in studies investigating the mental health consequences of exposure to such stressors. To explore the temporal stability of these types of reports, we obtained frequency estimates of exposure to war-zone stressors at two time points from 460 U.S. soldiers who had served in the peace-keeping mission

Lizabeth Roeraer; Brett T. Litz; Susan M. Orsillo; Peter J. Ehlich; Matthew J. Friedman

1998-01-01

16

Psychosocial Adjustment in Siblings of Children with War-Related Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic symptomatology and emotional and behavioral difficulties in siblings of children who incurred war-related injuries. It was predicted that injury severity, gender and attributional style would account for a significant amount of the variance in post-traumatic stress symptoms and…

Khamis, Vivian

2013-01-01

17

War injuries of the femoral artery and vein: a report on 67 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the war in Croatia (from May 1991 to December 1995), 67 patients with war injuries of the femoral vein and\\/or artery were treated at the Surgical Clinic of Split Clinical Hospital. All the wounded were admitted directly from the battlefield or from front-line hospitals. There were five women and 62 men with a median age of 29 (range 15-54)

1997-01-01

18

Motor vehicle driver injury and socioeconomic status: a cohort study with prospective and retrospective driver injuries  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To investigate the association between motor vehicle driver injury and socioeconomic status. Design: Cohort study with prospective and retrospective outcomes. Setting: New Zealand. Participants: 10 525 adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n=8008; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n=2517). Outcome measure: Motor vehicle driver injury resulting in admission of the driver to hospital or the driver's death, or both, during the period 1988–98; hospitalisation and mortality data were obtained by record linkage to national health databases. Main results: After adjustment for age and sex, driver injury risk was inversely associated with both occupational status (p for linear trend <0.0001) and educational level (p for linear trend =0.007). Participants in the lowest approximate quartile of occupational status were four times as likely (HR 4.17, 95% CI 2.31 to 7.55) to have experienced a driver injury during follow up as participants in the highest approximate quartile. Participants who had been to secondary school for less than two years were twice as likely (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.81) to have experienced a driver injury as those who had been to university or polytechnic. There was little evidence that driver injury risk was associated with neighbourhood income (p for linear trend =0.12) Conclusions: Occupational status and educational level seem to be important determinants of driver injury risk. Driver injury countermeasures should be targeted to people in low status occupations, as well as to people with comparatively little formal education.

Whitlock, G; Norton, R; Clark, T; Pledger, M; Jackson, R; MacMahon, S

2003-01-01

19

Retrospective case evaluation of gender differences in sports injuries in a Japanese sports medicine clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although both gender- and sports-specific injuries exist among athletes, gender differences in the types of injuries caused by sports activities, except for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and anterior knee pain, are not well established.Objective: An observational study with a retrospective case-series design was conducted to investigate gender-specific differences in the types of injuries sustained while engaging in sports

Jun Iwamoto; Tsuyoshi Takeda; Yoshihiro Sato; Hideo Matsumoto

2008-01-01

20

Acute Kidney Injury after Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may result in acute kidney injury (AKI) like other angiographic interventions. Methods: To investigate the incidence, risk factor and outcomes of AKI after TACE, defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, we retrospectively analyzed 442 TACE treatment sessions in 236 HCC patients. Results: The incidence of AKI in the first 48

Hyun Chul Chung; Jong Soo Lee; Byeong Man Lee; Dong Min Kim; Jae Cheol Hwang; Min-Woo Jo; Maengseok Noh; Jung Woo Shin

2008-01-01

21

War injuries of the femoral artery and vein: a report on 67 cases.  

PubMed

During the war in Croatia (from May 1991 to December 1995), 67 patients with war injuries of the femoral vein and/or artery were treated at the Surgical Clinic of Split Clinical Hospital. All the wounded were admitted directly from the battlefield or from front-line hospitals. There were five women and 62 men with a median age of 29 (range 15-54) years. There were 70 arterial (28 isolated) and 49 venous injuries (six isolated). Forty-six arterial injuries were repaired by reverse vein graft. Four proximal profound femoral arteries were reconstructed. Major venous injuries were repaired, 11 by compilation autogenous vein graft. No synthetic grafts were used. Repair of veins with large defects using compilation saphenous vein grafts gave good results. Six profound femoral veins and two superficial femoral veins were ligated. Vein ligation should be avoided unless another life-threatening injury demands priority. Twenty-one patients required open prophylactic fasciotomy. Two patients died (3%) and three ultimately underwent amputation (5%). Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen therapy was given to 18 heavily wounded patients with beneficial effect. The results support an immediate and coordinated approach to femoral vascular trauma with repair of arterial and venous injuries. PMID:9423951

Radoni?, V; Bari?, D; Giunio, L; Bill, B; Kovacevi?, H; Sapunar, D

1997-12-01

22

Access to war weapons and injury prevention activities among children in Croatia.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the exposure of children in Croatia to war weapons, we surveyed random samples of children (n=986) aged 11 to 16 years and of parents (1469) of children aged 7 to 16 years in April 1994 in four war-affected districts in Croatia. The children's survey indicated that 57% of the boys and 36% of the girls had access to weapons at home, at some other place, or at both. Eighteen percent of the boys and 5% of the girls reported playing with weapons. The parents' survey showed that 68% of the households possessed weapons, with 19% of the children having access to weapons at home. Influenced by preliminary findings of these surveys, the Croatian government modified its national campaign (one partially supported by international aid) to prevent war-related injuries among children. This study demonstrates the feasibility of scientific evaluation of humanitarian aid programs.

Kopjar, B; Wiik, J; Wickizer, T M; Bulajic-Kopjar, B; Mujki-Klaric, A

1996-01-01

23

Impairments, disabilities and needs assessment among non-fatal war injuries in South Lebanon, Grapes of Wrath, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo examine the impact of non-fatal war related injuries on physical disability in a group of war wounded civilians and to assess their needs.DESIGNCross sectional study. Home interviews were conducted using a structured interview schedule around one month after the injury, to assess impairments, disabilities, and needs.STUDY POPULATION AND SETTINGWar wounded persons in towns and villages in South Lebanon

Abla Mehio Sibai; Nadine Sameer Shaar; Samar El Yassir

2000-01-01

24

“Secret” Casualties: Images of Injury and Death in the Iraq War Across Media Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined more than 2,500 war images from U.S. television news, newspapers, news magazines, and online news sites during the first five weeks of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 and found that only 10% showed injury or death. The paper analyzes which media platforms were most willing to show casualties and offers insights on when journalists should

B. William Silcock; Carol B. Schwalbe; Susan Keith

2008-01-01

25

Self-reported ill health in male UK Gulf War veterans: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill

Rebecca Simmons; Noreen Maconochie; Pat Doyle

2004-01-01

26

A retrospective case series of skeletal surveys in children with suspected non-accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe skeletal survey is widely used as the principal radiological investigation in suspected physical abuse of infants and young children. However, the evidence on which current guidelines are based is limited, especially for siblings of index cases. We conducted a retrospective study to describe the characteristics of children who underwent skeletal surveys for suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) in the Edinburgh

Fiona Day; Sarah Clegg; Maeve McPhillips; Jacqueline Mok

2006-01-01

27

Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31?years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p?0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition.

Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluis; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, Jose Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

2014-01-01

28

Epidemiology of injury in elite and subelite female gymnasts: a comparison of retrospective and prospective findings  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: An 18 month prospective injury survey was conducted on 64 Australian elite and subelite female gymnasts. The aims were to determine the rate of injury, anatomical location, and types of injury incurred by female competitive gymnasts, and to compare the findings with data collected retrospectively from the same sample of gymnasts. METHODS: The gymnasts recorded (weekly) in an injury record booklet the number of hours trained and information on any injuries suffered over that week. RESULTS: The sample reported 349 injuries, a rate of 5.45 per person (6.29 for the elite and 4.95 for subelite gymnasts) over the 18 month survey. Injuries to the ankle and foot (31.2%) were the most commonly reported, followed by the lower back (14.9%). The most prevalent type of injury were sprains (29.7%), followed by strains (23.2%), and growth plate injuries (12.3%). The elite gymnasts reported that, for each injury, they missed fewer training sessions (p = 0.01), but modified more sessions (p = 0.0001) than their subelite counterparts. Further, the elite gymnasts spent 21.0% of the year training at less than full capacity because of injury. Although a significantly higher number of injuries were recorded in the prospective study (p = 0.0004), no differences were found between the distribution of injury by anatomical location or type between the two methods of data collection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have important implications in terms of training procedures and periodic screening of gymnasts. ???

Kolt, G. S.; Kirkby, R. J.

1999-01-01

29

Nursing care of service members with head injury during the Vietnam war.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the nursing management of head-injured soldiers by military nurses serving in the Vietnam War. This study used traditional historical methods and a military history framework. Primary sources included original military reports, letters, and policies from the Vietnam War period (located in the archives of the Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History in Falls Church, VA); journal articles of the time period; and autobiographical texts. Secondary sources consisted of biographical and historical texts and Web sites of historical societies. Findings supported that advances in medicine, nursing, and technology throughout the 1960s have an overall positive impact on patient care in a combat zone. The Vietnam War was a time when new theories in the management of head injuries led directly to overall improvements in survival. In conclusion, nurses were professionally and emotionally challenged on a near daily basis but were able to directly apply new nursing science in a combat environment to help improve survivability for those who may not have previously survived off the battlefield. PMID:22555353

Yost, Terri L

2012-06-01

30

Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.  

PubMed

In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits. PMID:24851626

Susi?, Mato; Brozovi?, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipovi?; Milenovi?, Aleksandar; Strinovi?, Davor; Brki?, Hrvoje; Panduri?, Dragana Gabri?

2014-03-01

31

Epidemiology of Spinal Cord Injuries and Risk Factors for Complete Injuries in Guangdong, China: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal cord injuries are highly disabling and deadly injuries. Currently, few studies focus on non-traumatic spinal cord injuries, and there is little information regarding the risk factors for complete injuries. This study aims to describe the demographics and the injury characteristics for both traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injuries and to explore the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Methods A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records of 3,832 patients with spinal cord injuries who were first admitted to the sampled hospitals in Guangdong, China. The demographics and injury characteristics of the patients were described and compared between the different groups using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Results The proportion of patients increased from 7.0% to 14.0% from 2003 to 2011. The male-to-female ratio was 3.0?1. The major cause of spinal cord injuries was traffic accidents (21.7%). Many of the injured were workers (36.2%), peasants (22.8%), and unemployed people (13.9%); these occupations accounted for 72.9% of the total sample. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that the OR (95% CI) for male gender compared to female gender was 1.25 (1.07–1.89), the OR (95%CI) for having a spinal fracture was 1.56 (1.35–2.60), the OR (95%CI) for having a thoracic injury was 1.23 (1.10–2.00), and the OR (95%CI) for having complications was 2.47 (1.96–3.13). Conclusion The proportion of males was higher than the proportion of females. Workers, peasants and the unemployed comprised the high-risk occupational categories. Male gender, having a spinal fracture, having a thoracic injury, and having complications were the major risk factors for a complete injury. We recommend that preventive measures should focus on high-risk populations, such as young males.

Wang, Peng; Huang, Lin; Tang, Yong; Wang, Wenhao; Chen, Keng; Ye, Jichao; Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

2014-01-01

32

Retrospective examination of injuries and physical fitness during Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent training  

PubMed Central

Background A retrospective examination was conducted of injuries, physical fitness, and their association among Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent trainees. Methods Injuries and activities associated with injuries were obtained from a review of medical records in the medical clinic that served the new agents. A physical fitness test (PFT) was administered at Weeks 1, 7 and 14 of the 17-week new agent training course. The PFT consisted of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, a 300-meter sprint, and a 1.5-mile run. Injury data were available from 2000 to 2008 and fitness data were available from 2004 to early 2009. Results During the survey period, 37% of men and 44% of women experienced one or more injuries during the new agent training course (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.31). The most common injury diagnoses were musculoskeletal pain (not otherwise specified) (27%), strains (11%), sprains (10%), contusions (9%), and abrasions/lacerations (9%). Activities associated with injury included defensive tactics training (48%), physical fitness training (26%), physical fitness testing (6%), and firearms training (6%). Over a 6-year period, there was little difference in performance of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, or the 300-meter sprint; 1.5-mile run performance was higher in recent years. Among both men and women, higher injury incidence was associated with lower performance on any of the physical fitness measures. Conclusion This investigation documented injury diagnoses, activities associated with injury, and changes in physical fitness, and demonstrated that higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower injury risk.

2011-01-01

33

Early head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the hypothesis that medically attended head injury in young children may be causal in the later development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Health improvement network database (1988-2003), a longitudinal UK general practice dataset.Participants All children registered in the database from birth until their 10th birthday.Main outcome measures Risk of a child with a head

Heather T Keenan; Gillian C Hall; Stephen W Marshall

2008-01-01

34

Prediction of outcome in patients with missile craniocerebral injuries during the Croatian War.  

PubMed

The factors assumed to exert an influence on the outcomes of 176 patients who sustained head injuries through projectiles during the Croatian War were evaluated. The type of projectile, wound age, retained foreign bodies, and patient sex and age had no significant influence on outcome. Patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 to 5 had 7.3 times higher relative risk of poor outcome than those with a score of 6 to 15. Patients with penetrating injuries (47%), with a projectile's path traversing both hemispheres (45.5%), and with intracranial hematomas (49%) had significantly poorer outcomes than patients without such lesions. Infections were more common in patients with retained foreign bodies in wounds that were older than 48 hours (43%) and in patients with cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (50%). In assessing the outcomes of missile head injuries in wartime, the Glasgow Coma Scale score, type of head wound, site of skull penetration, endocranial projectile path, intracranial hematomas, and complications, especially infectious, represent reliable predictors of outcome. PMID:9695616

Tudor, M

1998-07-01

35

[Treatment of war injuries of the trochanter area by external fixation].  

PubMed

In a specific series war injuries in the trochanteric region were characterized; a limited methodological approach magnified the problem. Our experience and the treatment results (debridement, drainage and external fixation) are presented. The methodology, complications and final results are also given for 15 patients. Consolidation was achieved in primary external fixation without additional procedures such as spongioplasty or internal fixation conversion methods. The time to consolidation without complications was 28.6 weeks (24-36) and with complications (deep infections, chronic osteomyelitis) 40.8 weeks (28-68). In total, there was one poor result with angulation, shortening of the extremity and chronic intermittent fistulation. The average follow-up was 22.7 months (1-34 months). Our personal experience and the results speak on behalf of external fixation. Under war conditions, primary fixation ensures the best late anatomical and functional results. Minimal osteosynthesis improves the final outcome if the rules of application and the indications for selection are adhered to strictly. PMID:9132955

Pukljak, D

1997-01-01

36

Fewer injuries but more deaths from road accidents during the Persian Gulf war.  

PubMed

During the period 13 January to 28 February 1991, traffic accidents were the cause of death in 45 persons (31 vehicle and cycle occupants and 14 pedestrians) and of injuries in 2,769 persons (2,309 occupants and 460 pedestrians) in Israel. During the same period 18 persons (13 occupants and 5 pedestrians) died as the result of traffic accidents in the Territories (Judea/Samaria and the Gaza Strip). The decline in the number of injuries among occupants and pedestrians was offset by the increase in the case fatality rate (CFR), particularly among occupants, compared with: a) the previous 6 months, b) the same period of the previous year, a) the ratio of the reduced CFR in January-February in relation to the previous 6 months, and d) the CFR predicted by the declining CFR in January-February of the previous 5 years. Compared with 1990, in 1991 during the Persian Gulf war the roads were less crowded and crash occurrences were less frequent, but travel speeds, crash impacts and kinetic energy delivered to victims (especially occupants on inter-urban roads) were greater. Daytime running lights on two-lane roads; temporary lower speed limits; the use of new roadside monitoring methods for detecting and deterring speeding, tailgating and speedgating; the collection of tachygraph data; and implementation of the requirement for a rear seat belt are measures suggested to have been effective in swiftly reducing the toll of dead and injured, not only during but after the Gulf war as well. PMID:1757236

Richter, E D

1991-01-01

37

E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department--A Retrospective Study from Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Only six patients underwent surgery (S). Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated.

Papoutsi, Sylvana; Martinolli, Luca; Braun, Christian Tasso; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

2014-01-01

38

[The pattern of injuries of the ankle joint in ski boots--a retrospective analysis].  

PubMed

This study is dealing with the analysis of isolated ankle fractures in ski boots which are nowadays very seldom. Modern equipment and excellent prepared skiing facilities reduced this kind of trauma. In the early sixties about 60% of lower extremity injuries were caused by ankle fractures. Now, 25 years later, only 10% of injuries concerning to lower extremity are injuries of medial and lateral ankle or of the talofibular ligaments. At the department of trauma surgery of the university hospital of Innsbruck we use a questionnaire for winter sports injuries. We made a retrospective follow up study of the last three years, in which we found 100 patients with ankle injuries. Pilon tibial- and tibia shaft fractures are not included. The classification was made by the Lauge-Hansen system. Supination-inversion and supination-eversion fractures were found more often than others. Fractures of both medial and lateral ankles were only seen in three cases. One reason for this result could be a lack of movement of the ankle in the ski-boot. Modern plastic boots seem to protect ankle and distal tibia and fibula. Another remarkable result was the fact that we could not find any difference in the types of fractures comparing patients with released and not released bindings. PMID:2623557

Sperner, G; Genelin, A; Golser, K; Resch, H; Beck, E

1989-12-01

39

Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Chest Injury Characteristics and Concurrent Injuries in Patients Admitted to Hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Methods We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. Results The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Conclusions Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries.

Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

2014-01-01

40

[Healed war injuries of the cranium in the osteologic collection from the Broumov Ossuary (13th-18th century)].  

PubMed

Traumatic bone lesions form an important part of the study of human paleopathology. Injuries of the skull are frequent in the history of the human race. 647 adult dry skulls of both sexes from the "Broumov Ossuary" (13th-18th century) were examined for the incidence of cranium injuries. In this paper, an extensive collection (n=122) of healed dry skull injuries is presented. In the neuro- and splanchnocranium of skulls (n=78), linear and depressed fractures, slash and stab wounds have been seen but no gunshot wound. In part of the skulls (n=29), multiple injuries have been observed. Many detected traumatic lesions seem to have been caused by traditional weapons of the last centuries: war swords, axes, or pole-arms with metal spikes. All the skull injuries show clear signs of well-healing with bone remodelling that indicates the survival of victims for a long period after the cranial trauma. PMID:16669485

Pospisilová, Blanka; Procházková, Olga; Hottmar, Petr

2005-01-01

41

Effect of an Injury Awareness Education Program on Risk-Taking Behaviors and Injuries in Juvenile Justice Offenders: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRisk-taking behavior is a leading cause of injury and death amongst young people.Methodology and Principal FindingsThis was a retrospective cohort study on the effectiveness of a 1-day youth injury awareness education program (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth, P.A.R.T.Y.) program in reducing risk taking behaviors and injuries of juvenille justice offenders in Western Australia. Of the 3659 juvenile justice

Kwok M. Ho; Edward Litton; Elizabeth Geelhoed; Monica Gope; Maxine Burrell; Jacqueline Coribel; Angela McDowall; Sudhakar Rao

2012-01-01

42

Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for post-radiation central nervous system injury: a retrospective case series.  

PubMed

Increased use of radiation therapy and increasing life spans following radiation treatment has led to an increase in the finding of post-radiation central nervous system injury in patients who have previously undergone radiation treatments. At this time, information regarding treatment for patients suffering from this serious side effect is limited and not readily available. It is imperative to examine possible treatment options, complications and success rates for these patients. This retrospective review will look at 10 patients who underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy for post-radiation injury to the central nervous system. Review and investigation of the subjective, clinical and radiologic outcomes of these patients was conducted. It was determined that for patients with post-radiation central nervous system injury it is important to distinguish the exact diagnosis for each patient. For those patients with radiation necrosis, conclusion was made that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy does lead to improvement in subjective, clinical and radiologic outcomes. However, the results were not consistent across all patients. For those patients with non-specific delayed radiation injury, findings showed that HBO2 does not lead to any improvement. Therefore, we conclude that for those patients who have been diagnosed with radiation necrosis of the central nervous system, we recommend HBO2 therapy as a potential treatment option for some patients. PMID:24851545

Valadão, Jason; Pearl, Joshua; Verma, Sumit; Helms, Ann; Whelan, Harry

2014-01-01

43

Dog Bite Injuries: Primary and Secondary Emergency Department Presentations--A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Dog bites in humans are a complex problem, embracing both public health and animal welfare. The primary aim of this study is to examine primary and secondary presentations related to dog bite injuries in adults. Methods. We retrospectively assessed all adult patients admitted with a dog bite injury to the Emergency Department of Bern University Hospital. Results. A total of 431 patients were eligible for the study. Forty-nine (11.4%) of all patients were admitted with secondary presentations. Bites to the hands were most common (177, 41.1%). All patients (47, 100%) with secondary presentations were admitted because of signs of infection. The median time since the dog bite was 3.8 days (SD 3.9, range 1–21). Thirty-one patients had already been treated with antibiotic; coamoxicillin was the most common primary antibiotic therapy (27/47 patients, 57.4%). Patients with injuries to the hand were at increased risk of secondary presentations (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.21–3.55, P < 0.006). Conclusion. Dog bite injuries to the hands are a major problem. They often lead to infectious complications. Immediate antibiotic therapy should carefully be evaluated for each patient.

Pfortmueller, Carmen A.; Efeoglou, Anastasios; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

2013-01-01

44

A retrospective survey on injuries in Croatian football/soccer referees  

PubMed Central

Background Injury among soccer referees is rarely studied, especially with regard to differences in the quality level of the refereeing. Additionally, we have found no study that has reported injury occurrence during official physical fitness testing for soccer referees. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, type and consequences of match-related and fitness-testing related injuries among soccer referees of different competitive levels. Methods We studied 342 soccer referees (all males; mean age 32.9?±?5.02?years). The study was retrospective, and a self-administered questionnaire was used. In the first phase of the study, the questionnaire was tested for its reliability and applicability. The questionnaire included morphological/anthropometric data, refereeing variables, and musculoskeletal disorders together with the consequences. Results The sample comprised 157 main referees (MR; mean age 31.4?±?4.9?years) and 185 assistant referees (AR; mean age 34.1?±?5.1?years) divided into: international level (Union of European Football Associations-UEFA) referees (N?=?18; 6 MRs; 12 ARs) ; 1st (N?=?78; 31 MRs; 47 ARs), 2nd (N?=?91; 45 MRs; 46 ARs); or 3rd national level referees (N?=?155; 75 MRs; 80 ARs). In total, 29% (95%CI: 0.23–0.37) of the MRs and 30% (95%CI: 0.22–0.36) of the ARs had experienced an injury during the previous year, while 13% (95%CI: 0.05–0.14) of the MRs, and 19% (95%CI: 0.14–0.25) of the ARs suffered from an injury that occurred during fitness testing. There was an obvious increase in injury severity as the refereeing advanced at the national level, but the UEFA referees were the least injured of all referees. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of injuries to the upper leg (i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings) during physical fitness testing for all but the UEFA referees. During game refereeing, the ankles and lower legs were the most commonly injured regions. The MRs primarily injured their ankles. The ARs experienced lower leg and lower back disorders. However, the overall injury rate was equal for both groups, with 5.29 (95%CI: 2.23–8.30) and 4.58 (95%CI: 2.63–6.54) injuries per 1000?hours of refereeing for MRs and ARs, respectively. Conclusion In addition to the reported risk of injury during soccer games, physical fitness testing should be classified as a risk for injury among soccer referees. Special attention should be given to (I) lower leg injuries during games and (II) upper leg injuries during physical fitness tests. A higher physical fitness level and a qualitative approach to training are recognized as protective factors against injury. Subsequent studies should investigate the specific predictors of injuries among referees.

2013-01-01

45

Multiple injuries after earthquakes: a retrospective analysis on 1,871 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multiple injuries have been highlighted as an important clinical dimension of the injury profile following earthquakes, but studies are scarce. We investigated the pattern and combination of injuries among patients with two injuries following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We also described the general injury profile, causes of injury and socio-demographic characteristics of the injured patients. Methods A retrospective hospital-based analysis of 1,871 earthquake injured patients, totaling 3,177 injuries, admitted between 12 and 31 May 2008 to the People's Hospital of Deyang city (PHDC). An electronic, webserver-based database with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-based classification of earthquake-related injury diagnoses (IDs), anatomical sites and additional background variables of the inpatients was used. We analyzed this dataset for injury profile and number of injuries per patient. We then included all patients (856) with two injuries for more in-depth analysis. Possible spatial anatomical associations were determined a priori. Cross-tabulation and more complex frequency matrices for combination analyses were used to investigate the injury profile. Results Out of the 1,871 injured patients, 810 (43.3%) presented with a single injury. The rest had multiple injuries; 856 (45.8%) had two, 169 (9.0%) patients had three, 32 (1.7%) presented with four injuries, while only 4 (0.2%) were diagnosed with five injuries. The injury diagnoses of patients presenting with two-injuries showed important anatomical intra-site or neighboring clustering, which explained 49.1% of the combinations. For fractures, the result was even more marked as spatial clustering explained 57.9% of the association pattern. The most frequent combination of IDs was a double-fracture, affecting 20.7% of the two-injury patients (n = 177). Another 108 patients (12.6%) presented with fractures associated with crush injury and organ-soft tissue injury. Of the 3,177 injuries, 1,476 (46.5%) were fractures. Most injuries were located in the head (22.9%) and lower extremities (30.8%). Conclusions Multiple injuries are put forward as an important component of the injury profile after this earthquake. A pattern of injury combinations and spatial aggregation of injuries was also found. Clinical diagnosis and treatment should be adapted to care of these patients. More studies are needed to generalize these findings.

2012-01-01

46

Going Back to Civvy Street: A historical account of the impact of the Everest and Jennings wheelchair for Canadian World War II veterans with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 1945, the Canadian government agreed to provide the Everest and Jennings folding, self-propelled wheelchair to all World War II veterans with spinal cord injury. These wheelchairs replaced wooden and wicker invalid wheelchairs that were usually assigned to hospital wards rather than to individuals. Veterans with spinal cord injury were among the first group of Canadians to use these

MARY TREMBLAY

1996-01-01

47

Paediatric hanging and strangulation injuries: A 10-year retrospective description of clinical factors and outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify early clinical factors that are correlated with death or severe disability in paediatric patients who have sustained an injury by hanging or strangulation. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patient records from January 1, 1997, to September 30, 2007, was conducted. Patient records were identified by International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Canada diagnostic codes for asphyxia, strangulation, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hanging, hypoxemia, hypoxia or anoxia. RESULTS: A total of 109 records were identified. Of these, 41 met the inclusion criteria for the study. Of 19 (46%) children who were pulse-less and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 16 died and the survivors were severely disabled. Of the 22 (54%) children who were found with a pulse, 18 made a full recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are pulseless at discovery for hanging injuries are at high risk of death or severe disability. Early clinical and neurophysiological indicators should be applied systematically to best guide clinicians and parents in their decision making.

Davies, Dawn; Lang, Mia; Watts, Rick

2011-01-01

48

A retrospective review of swallow dysfunction in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

In the acute-care setting, it is difficult for clinicians to determine which patients with severe traumatic brain injury will have long-term oropharyngeal dysphagia (>6 weeks) and which patients will begin oral nutrition quickly. Patients frequently remain in the acute-care setting while physicians determine whether to place a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. To improve the acute-care clinician's ability to predict long-term oropharyngeal dysphagia and subsequent need for PEG tube placement in patients with severe traumatic brain injury [Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) ?8), a novel prediction model was created utilizing clinical information and acute-care swallowing evaluation findings. Five years of retrospective data were obtained from trauma patients at a Level 1 trauma hospital. Of the 375 patients who survived their hospitalization with a GCS ?8, a total of 269 patients received Ranchos Los Amigos (RLA) scores. Of those patients who were scored for RLA, 219 patients underwent swallowing evaluation. Ninety-six of the 219 patients were discharged from the hospital with a feeding tube, and 123 patients were discharged without one. Logistic regression models examined the association between clinical and patient characteristics and whether a patient with severe traumatic brain injury exhibited long-term oropharyngeal dysphagia. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that increased age, low RLA score, tracheostomy tube placement, and aphonia observed on the initial swallowing evaluation significantly increased the odds of being discharged from the acute-care hospital with a feeding tube. The resultant model could be used clinically to guide decision making and to counsel patients and families. PMID:24414375

Mandaville, Amy; Ray, Anjea; Robertson, Henry; Foster, Careen; Jesser, Christine

2014-06-01

49

Non-battle injury casualties during the Persian Gulf War and other deployments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review injury occurrence and to evaluate various injury surveillance systems used on recent deployments of U.S. military personnel.Background: Injuries that occur in a deployed military force are more likely to have an immediate and detrimental effect on the military mission than those in garrison or training. These injuries have a direct impact on deployed personnel and unit readiness

James V Writer; Robert F DeFraites; Lisa W Keep

2000-01-01

50

Proposed explanations for excess injury among veterans of the Persian Gulf War and a call for greater attention from policymakers and researchers  

PubMed Central

Introduction—Death rates among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War were lower than rates among non-deployed veterans and the US population at large, with the exception of injury deaths; returning veterans were at significantly greater risk of injury mortality. Similar patterns of excess injury mortality were documented among US and Australian veterans returning from Vietnam. In spite of these consistent findings little has been done to explain these associations and in particular to determine whether or not, and how, war related exposures influence injury risk among veterans returning home after deployments. Hypothesized pathways—Several potential pathways are proposed through which injury might be related to deployment. First, increases in injury mortality may be a consequence of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and symptoms of other psychiatric conditions developed after the war. Second, physical and psychological traumas experienced during the war may result in the postwar adoption of "coping" behaviors that also increase injury risk (for example, heavy drinking). Third, greater injury risk may be the indirect consequence of increased experiences of ill defined diseases and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. Fourth, veterans may experience poorer survivability for a given injury event resulting in greater mortality but not morbidity. Finally, the process that selects certain individuals for deployment may lead to a spurious association between deployment status and injury mortality by preferentially selecting individuals who are risk takers and/or exposed to greater hazards. Conclusions—More research and attention from policymakers is needed to clarify the link between deployment and postwar increased risk of injury.

Bell, N; Amoroso, P; Wegman, D; Senier, L

2001-01-01

51

A retrospective analysis of maxillofacial injuries in patients reporting to a tertiary care hospital in East Delhi  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Maxillofacial trauma is frequently encountered in the Accident and Emergency department of hospitals either as an isolated injury or as a part of multiple injuries to the head, neck, chest, and abdomen. This study aimed to assess retrospectively the profile of maxillofacial injuries in patients reporting to a tertiary care hospital in East Delhi. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Dentistry, UCMS and GTB Hospital, Delhi. Dental case record sheets of 1000 medicolegal cases reporting to the hospital emergency were scrutinized and various demographic and epidemiologic factors, including the patient's age and gender, time and day of reporting, and the etiology and nature of injury were recorded. Results: The peak incidence of maxillofacial injury was observed in the age group of 21–30 years, with males outnumbering females in all age groups. Maximum number of trauma cases reported in late evening hours, especially on weekends. Interpersonal assault was the primary etiological factor followed by road traffic accidents. Soft tissue injuries were very common and maxillofacial fractures, when present, were most frequently observed in the mandible followed by the midface. Conclusion: The changing trend of the etiology of maxillofacial injuries in East Delhi necessitates strict legislation against violence and education in alcohol abuse. Periodic review of driving skills and stricter implementation of traffic rules in this area is a must to minimize the physical, psychological, and emotional distress associated with maxillofacial trauma.

Kapoor, Pranav; Kalra, Namita

2012-01-01

52

Management of the bladder in traumatic injuries of the spinal cord during the First World War and its implications for the current practice of urology.  

PubMed

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Prior to the First World War, traumatic injuries to the spinal cord rapidly led to death from severe infections of the bladder. During the Second World War, Ludwig Guttmann resurrected the use of intermittent catheterisation at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, by meticulous attention to detail and was so successful, that this method was introduced into general urological practice. Historical review of the management of the bladder in patients with spinal injuries. Spinal injury patients--literature review--personal experience at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. Review of the different methods of catheterisation from the 19th century to today. Methods learned from the management of the bladder of spinal injuries patients were adopted into mainstream urology. PMID:21592294

Silver, John R

2011-08-01

53

Returning Veterans on Campus with War Related Injuries and the Long Road Back Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the growing numbers of returning military personnel attending higher education based on emerging national trends, including the new GI Educational Bill, amendments to the ADA, and the rising unemployment rate. The trauma of war and the high survival rate have resulted in a high percentage of veterans returning from the Global…

Church, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

54

Pedicled Thoracoabdominal Flap Coverage About the Elbow in Traumatic War Injuries  

PubMed Central

Current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced a significant number of complex injury patterns. Multiple extremity trauma and wide zones of injury mandate a flexible approach to these problems. We report our experience with periarticular elbow injuries with large soft tissue defects. Acute vascular reconstruction and multiple wound debridements throughout the evacuation chain set the stage for successful rigid fixation. The judicious use of pedicled thoracoabdominal flaps remains a viable solution when microvascular techniques are less appropriate.

Farber, Gerald L.; Smith, Allan C.

2009-01-01

55

Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: A retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Pedestrians contribute to 30-40 per cent of all road traffic injuries in India. However, there is a paucity of literature on pedestrian head injury as compared to two wheeler trauma. The purpose of the present study was to study the pattern of pedestrian injuries and their outcome with a special focus on head injuries. Methods: The study was conducted in two parts in the Trauma Center at National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences, Bangalore. A retrospective study was conducted at the casualty services of the hospital in which 529 consecutive pedestrians who sustained injury in a road traffic accident were studied from June to September 2009. In the second part, records from the hospital mortuary were retrospectively analyzed from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of 326 patients who died as a pedestrian in road accidents during this period was performed. Results: Patients in both paediatric and elderly age groups constituted 47.6 per cent (252/529) of all casualty admissions. Majority of the pedestrian injuries (41.7%, 221/529) occurred between 1600 - 2100 h; 87.1 per cent of all patients received some primary care before admission. The most common offending vehicle was a two wheeler (49.1%, 260/529). At the time of admission, 55.2 per cent (292/529) patients had sustained a moderate or severe head injury (GCS 3-13), and 40.5 per cent (214/529) had an abnormal CT scan. In addition, 90.4 per cent (478/529) patients had also sustained associated injuries. Major thoracoabdominal trauma was seen in 4 per cent and spine injury in 2.3 per cent of the patients. The mortality rate was 6.6 per cent. In the postmortem group, pedestrian deaths constituted 26.2 per cent of all the postmortems conducted. Two wheelers were the offending vehicle in the majority of the fatal crashes (39.9%). Interpretation & conclusions: Pedestrian injuries form a major part of the workload of a neurotrauma emergency. Majority of them sustained moderate to severe head injury. More attention, infrastructure and strict implementation of rules may help reduce this burden.

Pruthi, Nupur; Ashok, M.; Shiva, Kumar V.; Jhavar, Ketaki; Sampath, S.; Devi, B. Indira

2012-01-01

56

Retrospective baseline measurement of self-reported health status and health-related quality of life versus population norms in the evaluation of post-injury losses  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to the difficulty in prospectively measuring pre?injury health status and health?related quality of life (HRQL) in an injured cohort, population norms or retrospective baseline scores are often used as comparators for evaluating post?injury losses. However, there has been little discussion in the literature or research into the soundness of these approaches for this purpose. Objectives To investigate the appropriateness of the retrospectively measured baseline health status and HRQL in an injured population for the purpose of evaluating post?injury losses. Methods A cohort of injured admitted to hospital (n?=?186) was followed up for 12?months after injury. Retrospectively measured pre?injury health status and HRQL scores were compared with those at 12?months after injury for participants who reported complete recovery (n?=?61) and those who did not. Retrospective baseline scores for the whole cohort were also compared with Australian population norms. Results For participants who completely recovered, no significant difference was observed between scores at baseline (measured retrospectively) and those at 12?months after injury (36?item Short Form Questionnaire physical component summary z?=??1.274, p?=?0.203; 36?item Short Form Questionnaire mental component summary z?=??1.634, p?=?0.102; Short Form 6 Dimensions: z?=??1.405, p?=?0.296). A borderline significant difference was observed in HRQL as measured by the Assessment of Quality of Life (z?=??1.970, p?=?0.049). Retrospectively measured pre?injury scores were consistently higher than Australian norms for all measures. Conclusions The injured population may not be representative of the general population. Consequently, retrospective baseline measurement of pre?injury health states may be more appropriate than general population norms for the purpose of evaluating post?injury losses in this population.

Watson, W L; Ozanne-Smith, J; Richardson, J

2007-01-01

57

Acute Kidney Injury after Major Abdominal Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in a cohort of patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Methods. A total of 450 patients were retrospectively studied. AKI was defined by an increase in serum creatinine (SCr) ? 0.3?mg/dl or by an increase in SCr ? 50% and/or by a decrease in urine output to 0.5?ml/kg/hour for 6 hours, in the first 48 hours after surgery. Logistic regression method was used to determine predictors of AKI and in-hospital mortality. A two-tailed P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. One hundred one patients (22.4%) had postoperative AKI. Age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.05), nonrenal Revised Cardiac Risk Index score (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–3.1, P = 0.003), intraoperative erythrocytes transfusions (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.5, P <.0001), and nonrenal Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06, P = 0.0191) were associated with postoperative AKI. AKI was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (20.8% versus 2.3%, P <.0001; unadjusted OR 11.2, 95% CI 4.8–26.2, P <.0001; adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.2–11.7, P = 0.024). Conclusion. AKI was common in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and was associated with in-hospital mortality.

Teixeira, Catarina; Rosa, Rosario; Rodrigues, Natacha; Mendes, Ines; Peixoto, Ligia; Dias, Sofia; Melo, Maria Joao; Bicha Castelo, Henrique; Lopes, Jose Antonio

2014-01-01

58

Identifying future 'unexpected' survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated.

Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

2013-01-01

59

The war-related illness and injury study centers: a resource for deployment-related health concerns.  

PubMed

Combat veterans often return from deployment having experienced a wide range of exposures, symptoms, and medical conditions. The Department of Veterans Affairs established war-related illness and injury study centers to serve combat veterans with unexplained illnesses. We report the exposures, clinical status, and utilization of 53 combat veterans who participated in the National Referral Program (NRP) from January 2002 until March 2004. Participants were primarily male (81%) and served in the Persian Gulf War (79%). Common diagnoses were chronic fatigue syndrome (n = 23, 43%), neurotic depression (n = 21, 40%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 20, 38%). Self-reported exposures related to weaponry, disease prophylaxis, environmental hazards, stress, and poor hygiene. A small increase in mean SF-36V mental component scores (2.8 points, p = 0.009) and use of rehabilitation therapies (1.6 additional visits, p = 0.018) followed the NRP referral. The small gain in mental function suggests that the NRP may benefit combat veterans with long and complex medical histories. PMID:16895119

Lincoln, Andrew E; Helmer, Drew A; Schneiderman, Aaron I; Li, Mian; Copeland, H Liesel; Prisco, Michelle K; Wallin, Mitchell T; Kang, Han K; Natelson, Benjamin H

2006-07-01

60

Vascular injuries in an urban combat setting: experience from the 2006 Lebanon war.  

PubMed

Vascular injuries are manifested by life-threatening hemorrhage or limb loss and their diagnosis and treatment are challenging. Angiography is beyond the capability of available teams during wartime. Thus, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) may become a major triage tool. This study reports on the presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of combat vascular injuries with emphasis on the utility of CTA. Presenting signs and symptoms, means of diagnosis, treatments and results of all combat sustained vascular cases were collected and compiled with follow-up. Of 511 patients, 39 patients (7.6%) with vascular injuries were admitted. Injuries were penetrating and accompanied by soft tissue and bone insult. Diagnosis was made by CTA in 62% and by surgical exploration in 38%. Extremity arteries were injured in 72% of cases. Treatment included surgical and endovascular techniques. Complications: one late amputation, 5% thrombosis, 24% wound infections with no mortalities or early amputations. Although similarities exist between this experience and recent wartime reports, differences are apparent including the effectiveness of CTA. High index of suspicion and liberal use of CTA allows for an early and accurate diagnosis of a vascular injury resulting in high rates of limb salvage and low mortality. CTA should be the first line modality for diagnosis of vascular injuries, reserving angiography for endovascular treatment. PMID:20122353

Nitecki, Samy S; Karram, Tony; Ofer, Amos; Engel, Ahuva; Hoffman, Aaron

2010-01-01

61

Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis.  

PubMed

Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key PointsWhile many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted.A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level.In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

2013-01-01

62

Investigation of characteristics and risk factors of sports injuries in young soccer players: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The participation of children and adolescents in sports has become increasingly frequent, including soccer. This growing involvement gives rise to concerns regarding the risk of sports injuries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the musculoskeletal injuries in young soccer players. Methods 301 male soccer players with a mean age 14.67?±?2.08 years were randomly recruited. The Referred Condition Inquiry was used to collect information on the mechanism of injury and anatomic site affected as well as personal data on the participants. The variables were analyzed based on the degree of association using Goodman’s test for contrasts between multinomial populations, with the p?injury. With regard to height, taller individuals reported more injuries than shorter individuals (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively; p?Injuries were more frequent among players with a training duration greater than five years (69.65%) in comparison to those who trained for a shorter duration (30.35%) (p?injury. Conclusion The young practitioners of soccer analyzed had low rates of injury. The main causal mechanism was the impact. A taller height and longer exposure to training were the main risk factors for injury among young soccer players.

2013-01-01

63

Side-to-side differences in overuse running injury susceptibility: A retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the number of studies examining factors associated with overuse running injury, little is known about why an individual gets injured on a particular side of the body. Abnormal levels of several strength, structural, kinetic, and kinematic factors have been attributed to injury susceptibility. However, while most studies have compared the injured limb of injured runners to an arbitrary limb

Rebecca Avrin Zifchock; Irene Davis; Jill Higginson; Steven McCaw; Todd Royer

2008-01-01

64

Work-related burn injuries in Ontario, Canada: A follow-up 10-year retrospective study.  

PubMed

Work-related burn injuries contribute to a quarter of all burns in the USA. In 2009, the provincial Workplace Safety and Insurance Board reported 64,824 work-related injuries that resulted in time lost, 1188 injuries (2%) were a result of burns. There were two previous studies performed at a regional burn centre (1984-1990 and 1998-2000) that examined incidence and characteristics of work-related burns. There was no significant change between these two groups. The purpose of this study was to identify the recent pattern of work-related burns from 2001 to 2010 and to compare it to the previous studies. During the study period, 1427 patients were admitted for an acute injury to the regional burn centre. Of these, 330 were due to a work-related incident (23%). The mean age of patients was 40.5±11.9 years, 95% were male. The mean total body surface area burn was 11.9±16.2%. The most common mechanism of injury was flame (32.7%) followed by electrical (27%) and scald (19.7%), inhalation injury was present in 4.8% of patients and the mortality was 1.8%. Our study shows a significant decrease in the incidence in work-related burns treated at the regional burn centre (23.1% vs. 28.2% vs. 30.2%, p<0.01), flame burns have now become the leading cause of injury, there was a significant reduction in inhalation injury (4.8% vs. 23% vs. 14.8%, p<0.00001), and mortality over time (1.8% vs. 4% vs. 6.7% p=0.02). These findings strongly suggest a change in the cause of work-related burns, improvement in burn care, and that prevention strategies may have been more effective. PMID:23352030

Clouatre, Elsa; Gomez, Manuel; Banfield, Joanne M; Jeschke, Marc G

2013-09-01

65

Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

2009-01-01

66

The value of technetium 99 scintigraphy in the prognosis of amputation in severe frostbite injuries of the extremities: A retrospective study of 92 severe frostbite injuries.  

PubMed

We report a retrospective study of the prognostic value of 2-phase technetium 99m bone scanning performed in 92 patients who presented to Chamonix Hospital with severe frostbite of the extremities in the past 12 years. The results of this study show that an initial bone scan (as early as day 3) has excellent specificity in evaluating the severity of frostbite injury. There was a direct correlation between the demarcation zone of uptake in the phalanges and the eventual level of amputation (positive predictive value, 0.84). A second scan on approximately day 7 was even more sensitive and informative. A strong correlation existed between positive uptake and eventual healing (negative predictive value, 0.99). This study showed that (99m)Tc bone scanning in the first few days after frostbite injury indicates the level of amputation in severe frostbite in more than 84% of cases. We propose an algorithm based on the results of this study that can be used to evaluate new medical and surgical management of frostbite injury. PMID:11040315

Cauchy, E; Marsigny, B; Allamel, G; Verhellen, R; Chetaille, E

2000-09-01

67

Effect of an Injury Awareness Education Program on Risk-Taking Behaviors and Injuries in Juvenile Justice Offenders: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Risk-taking behavior is a leading cause of injury and death amongst young people. Methodology and Principal Findings This was a retrospective cohort study on the effectiveness of a 1-day youth injury awareness education program (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth, P.A.R.T.Y.) program in reducing risk taking behaviors and injuries of juvenille justice offenders in Western Australia. Of the 3659 juvenile justice offenders convicted by the court magistrates between 2006 and 2010, 225 were referred to the P.A.R.T.Y. education program. In a before and after survey of these 225 participants, a significant proportion of them stated that they were more receptive to modifying their risk-taking behavior (21% before vs. 57% after). Using data from the Western Australia Police and Department of Health, the incidence of subsequent offences and injuries of all juvenile justice offenders was assessed. The incidence of subsequent traffic or violence-related offences was significantly lower for those who had attended the program compared to those who did not (3.6% vs. 26.8%; absolute risk reduction [ARR]?=?23.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.9%–25.8%; number needed to benefit?=?4.3, 95%CI 3.9–5.1; p?=?0.001), as were injuries leading to hospitalization (0% vs. 1.6% including 0.2% fatality; ARR?=?1.6%, 95%CI 1.2%–2.1%) and alcohol or drug-related offences (0% vs. 2.4%; ARR 2.4%, 95%CI 1.9%–2.9%). In the multivariate analysis, only P.A.R.T.Y. education program attendance (odds ratio [OR] 0.10, 95%CI 0.05–0.21) and a higher socioeconomic background (OR 0.97 per decile increment in Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage, 95%CI 0.93–0.99) were associated with a lower risk of subsequent traffic or violence-related offences. Significance Participation in an injury education program involving real-life trauma scenarios was associated with a reduced subsequent risk of committing violence- or traffic-related offences, injuries, and death for juvenille justice offenders.

Ho, Kwok M.; Litton, Edward; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Gope, Monica; Burrell, Maxine; Coribel, Jacqueline; McDowall, Angela; Rao, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

68

Burn Injuries in Enugu, Nigeria - Aetiology and Prevention. A Six-year Retrospective Review (January 2000 - December 2005)  

PubMed Central

Summary Background.Burn injuries frequently occur in our homes and workplaces and during travels. They are a common presentation at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, which is a regional centre for burns care and for plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery, and trauma patients. Most burn injuries are preventable, and campaigns to arouse greater awareness are necessary to reduce the number of occurrences. Objectives.The objectives of this study are to highlight the causes of burn injuries and to characterize age and sex incidences, as also the severity of burn injuries. It is hoped that formidable preventive measures will be suggested to aid public enlightenment campaigns in fighting the scourge of burn injuries. Materials and method. A retrospective review of patient's folders from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2005 showed that 414 cases of burn-injured patients were treated at the emergency unit of the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu. Results. Flame burns accounted for 48.3% of burn injuries followed by scalds with 40.6%; chemical burns accounted for 6.3%, while electrical and friction burns accounted for 4.6% and 1.0% respectively. Males made up 60.4% of the cases and females 39.6% (ratio, 1.5:1). The age group most commonly affected was that of children aged between 0 and 10 yr, accounting for 37.2% of cases, followed by the 21-30 yr age group with 22.7%. Altogether, 95.0% of the patients were aged less than 50 yr. With regard to flame burns, 51.5% were due to petrol flames (premium motor spirit), while 33.0% were due to kerosene. Cooking gas explosions accounted for 7.5% of the cases and diesel (automotive gas oil) 1.0%. Of the scalds, hot water accounted for 89.3% and hot oil 7.7%. As to chemical burns, 84.6% were due to acids, with alkalis, corrosive creams, and others making up the rest. With regard to electrical injury, current passage accounted for 63.2% of cases and flash burns for 36.8%.

Nnabuko, R.E.E.; Ogbonnaya, I.S; Otene, C.I.; Ogbonna, U.; Amanari, O.C.; Opara, K.O.

2009-01-01

69

Burn Injuries in Enugu, Nigeria - Aetiology and Prevention. A Six-year Retrospective Review (January 2000 - December 2005).  

PubMed

Background.Burn injuries frequently occur in our homes and workplaces and during travels. They are a common presentation at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, which is a regional centre for burns care and for plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery, and trauma patients. Most burn injuries are preventable, and campaigns to arouse greater awareness are necessary to reduce the number of occurrences. Objectives.The objectives of this study are to highlight the causes of burn injuries and to characterize age and sex incidences, as also the severity of burn injuries. It is hoped that formidable preventive measures will be suggested to aid public enlightenment campaigns in fighting the scourge of burn injuries. Materials and method. A retrospective review of patient's folders from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2005 showed that 414 cases of burn-injured patients were treated at the emergency unit of the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu. Results. Flame burns accounted for 48.3% of burn injuries followed by scalds with 40.6%; chemical burns accounted for 6.3%, while electrical and friction burns accounted for 4.6% and 1.0% respectively. Males made up 60.4% of the cases and females 39.6% (ratio, 1.5:1). The age group most commonly affected was that of children aged between 0 and 10 yr, accounting for 37.2% of cases, followed by the 21-30 yr age group with 22.7%. Altogether, 95.0% of the patients were aged less than 50 yr. With regard to flame burns, 51.5% were due to petrol flames (premium motor spirit), while 33.0% were due to kerosene. Cooking gas explosions accounted for 7.5% of the cases and diesel (automotive gas oil) 1.0%. Of the scalds, hot water accounted for 89.3% and hot oil 7.7%. As to chemical burns, 84.6% were due to acids, with alkalis, corrosive creams, and others making up the rest. With regard to electrical injury, current passage accounted for 63.2% of cases and flash burns for 36.8%. PMID:21991150

Nnabuko, R E E; Ogbonnaya, I S; Otene, C I; Ogbonna, U; Amanari, O C; Opara, K O

2009-03-31

70

Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis).

2014-01-01

71

THE KOREAN WAR 1950-53: A 50 YEAR RETROSPECTIVE FROM KOJE TO KOSOVO: DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANADIAN NATIONAL COMMAND ELEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Koje Island prison riots were one of the great military cockups of the Korean War, a war which in general provided a rich source of military cockups. The American leadership of United Nations Command (UNC) in Korea sought to turn the stigma of the Koje Island disaster from an American cockup into a United Nations cockup. The involvement of

Aryeh JS Nusbacher

72

Traumatic arteriovenous fistula due to an old gunshot injury: a victim from the Afghanistan War.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old man referred to the outpatient vascular surgery clinic of Taleghani Hospital (Shaheed Beheshti University of Medicine, Tehran, Iran) due to a local nontender mass in his groin. In his history, it was discovered that the mass had appeared a few months after a gunshot injury. He had a history of shortness of breath with a New York Heart Association functional class fluctuating between II and III, but no history of smoking or addiction. In the physical examination, a 5-cm by 5-cm nonpulsatile mass with engorged vessels was found in the anterior portion of the left groin, which was not tender. An elective arterial angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula joining the femoral artery to the femoral vein at the left groin. The cardiac assessments revealed cor pulmonale (with a restrictive pattern and diastolic dysfunction) and pulmonary hypertension due to primary pulmonary dysfunction. The patient was anesthetized with a balanced general anesthesia method, considering all relevant cardiac and respiratory monitoring methods and specially withholding drugs increasing pulmonary vascular bed pressure, suppressing the myocardium, or increasing the regurgitant flow across the mitral and, especially, the tricuspid valve. The moment the fistula was closed, a rapid fall in the patient's heart rate was noted, from approximately 60 beats per minute to above 40 beats per minute; this decreased heart rate continued up to a few hours after the surgery and did not accompany any significant hemodynamic derangement including the patient's blood pressure. The patient received his postoperative care in the ordinary surgical ward and was discharged a few days later. PMID:17985781

Dabbagh, Ali; Mar'ashi, Ali S; Malek, Bahman

2007-10-01

73

Penetrating craniocerebral missile injuries in civilians: a retrospective analysis of 314 cases.  

PubMed

Analysis of 314 cases of penetrating craniocerebral missile injuries in civilians revealed a high rate of early mortality, with 228 victims having died at the scene and a further 38 dead within 3 hours. Surgery was performed in 44 patients who had a preoperative Glasgow Coma Score of at least 4. Out of the 26 survivors, all operated upon, 19 had an adequate recovery (score of 0-3 on the expanded Glasgow Outcome Scale). Vigorous resuscitation and early surgery often resulted in useful survivals and occasionally in spectacular recoveries. However, the high mortality rate on the scene or soon after the injury restricted the possibility of effective management to a minority of cases. PMID:2053059

Siccardi, D; Cavaliere, R; Pau, A; Lubinu, F; Turtas, S; Viale, G L

1991-06-01

74

Effects of chronic mild traumatic brain injury on white matter integrity in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common source of morbidity from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. With no overt lesions on structural MRI, diagnosis of chronic mild TBI in military veterans relies on obtaining an accurate history and assessment of behavioral symptoms that are also associated with frequent comorbid disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Military veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan with mild TBI (n = 30) with comorbid PTSD and depression and non-TBI participants from primary (n = 42) and confirmatory (n = 28) control groups were assessed with high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). White matter-specific registration followed by whole-brain voxelwise analysis of crossing fibers provided separate partial volume fractions reflecting the integrity of primary fibers and secondary (crossing) fibers. Loss of white matter integrity in primary fibers (P < 0.05; corrected) was associated with chronic mild TBI in a widely distributed pattern of major fiber bundles and smaller peripheral tracts including the corpus callosum (genu, body, and splenium), forceps minor, forceps major, superior and posterior corona radiata, internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and others. Distributed loss of white matter integrity correlated with duration of loss of consciousness and most notably with "feeling dazed or confused," but not diagnosis of PTSD or depressive symptoms. This widespread spatial extent of white matter damage has typically been reported in moderate to severe TBI. The diffuse loss of white matter integrity appears consistent with systemic mechanisms of damage shared by blast- and impact-related mild TBI that involves a cascade of inflammatory and neurochemical events. PMID:22706988

Morey, Rajendra A; Haswell, Courtney C; Selgrade, Elizabeth S; Massoglia, Dino; Liu, Chunlei; Weiner, Jonathan; Marx, Christine E; Cernak, Ibolja; McCarthy, Gregory

2013-11-01

75

The Effect of Electrical Passive Cycling on Spasticity in War Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Muscle atrophy, spasticity, and deformity are among long term complication of spinal cord injury (SCI) veterans. There are numerous studies evaluating effect of functional electrical stimulation on muscle properties of SCI people, but less research has focused on the benefits of passive cycling in the management of spasticity and improving ROM of lower limbs in individuals with SCI. Aims: To evaluate the effect of electrical passive cycling on passive range of movement spasticity and electrodiagnostic parameters in SCI veterans. Methods: Sixty-four SCI veterans referred to two clinical and research center in Tehran were recruited in this prospective clinical trial. The subjects were divided into two groups according to electrical passive cycling usage: (1) patients who did not use pedal exercise (control group), (2) patients used Electrical passive cycling up to optimal level (intervention group). Main outcome measures included hip, knee, and ankle range of motion, spasticity scale, and electrodiagnostic parameters including F-Wave Consistency, F-Wave Amplitude, H/M Ratio, F/M Ratio, H-Reflex Onset Latency, and H-Reflex Amplitude. Data were recorded at the time of receiving and 1?year after pedal exercise usage. Results: Sixty-four SCI patients including 95.3% male, 4.7% female with mean age 43?years old were included in this study. All patients except one suffered from complete SCI. The involved spinal levels were cervical (17.2%), upper thoracic (34.4%), lower thoracic (45.3%), and lumbar (3.1%). Spasticity scale decreased significantly after passive cycling in group 2. Also hip, knee, and ankle ROM in group 2 were significantly improved after pedal exercise. There was a significant difference in H max/M max (RT<) and F/M ratio after versus before electric passive cycling system in group 2. Conclusion: These findings suggest that passive rhythmic leg exercise can lead to decrease in spasticity, increase in passive ROM of lower limbs and improvement in electrodiagnostic parameters of spasticity in patients with SCI.

Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Shojaee, Hadi; Sedighipour, Leyla; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Baghbani, Mohammad; Amirani, Omm'ol Banin

2011-01-01

76

GCS as a predictor of mortality in patients with traumatic inferior vena cava injuries: a retrospective review of 16 cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent research has determined Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with traumatic inferior vena cava (IVC) injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of GCS, as well as other factors previously described as determinants of mortality, in a cohort of patients presenting with traumatic IVC lesions. Methods A 7-year retrospective review was undertaken of all trauma patients presenting to a tertiary care trauma center with trauma related IVC lesions. Factors described in the literature as associated with mortality were assessed with univariate analysis. ANOVA analysis of variance was used to compare means for continuous variables; dichotomous variables were assessed with Fischer’s exact test. Logistic regression was performed on significant variables to assess determinants of mortality. Results Sixteen patients with traumatic IVC injuries were identified, from January 2005 to December 2011. Six patients died (mortality, 37.5%); the mechanism of injury was blunt in one case (6.2%) and penetrating in the 15 others (93.7%). Seven patients underwent thoracotomy in the operating room (OR) to obtain vascular control (43.7%). Upon univariate analysis, non-survivors were significantly more likely than survivors to have lower mean arterial pressures (MAP) in the emergency room (ER) (45.6 +/- 8.6 vs. 76.5 +/- 25.4, p?=?0.013), a lower GCS (8.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 14 +/- 2.8, p?=?0.004), more severe injuries (ISS 60.3 +/- 3.5 vs 28.7 +/- 22.9, p?=?0.0006), have undergone thoracotomy (83.3% vs. 16.6%, p?=?0.024), and have a shorter operative time (105 +/- 59.8 min vs 189 +/- 65.3 min, p?=?0.022). Logistic regression analysis revealed GCS as a significant inverse determinant of mortality (OR?=?0.6, 0.46-0.95, p?=?0.026). Other determinants of mortality by logistic regression were thoracotomy (OR?=?20, 1.4-282.4, p?=?0.027), and caval ligation as operative management (OR?=?45, 2.28-885.6, p?=?0.012). Conclusions GCS, the need to undergo thoracotomy, and caval ligation as operative management are significant predictors of mortality in patients with traumatic IVC injuries.

2013-01-01

77

Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries.

Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

2013-01-01

78

Burn injuries resulting from hot water bottle use: a retrospective review of cases presenting to a regional burns unit in the United kingdom.  

PubMed

Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

2013-01-01

79

Civil and war peripheral arterial trauma: review of risk factors associated with limb loss.  

PubMed

We sought to analyze the early results of civil and war peripheral arterial injury treatment and to identify risk factors associated with limb loss. Between 1992 and 2001, data collected retrospectively and prospectively on 413 patients with 448 peripheral arterial injuries were analyzed. Of these, there were 140 patients with war injuries and 273 patients with civil injuries. The mechanism of injury was gunshot in 40%, blunt injury in 24%, explosive trauma in 20.3%, and stabbing in 15.7% of the cases. The most frequently injured vessels were the femoral arteries (37.3%), followed by the popliteal (27.8%), axillary and brachial (23.5%), and crural arteries (6.5%). Associated injuries, which included bone, nerve, and remote injuries affecting the head, chest, or abdomen, were present in 60.8% of the cases. Surgery was carried out on all patients, with a limb salvage rate of 89.1% and a survival rate of 97.3%. In spite of a rising trend in peripheral arterial injuries, our total and delayed amputation rates remained stable. On statistical analysis, significant risk factors for amputation were found to be failed revascularization, associated injuries, secondary operation, explosive injury, war injury (p < .01) and arterial contusion with consecutive thrombosis, popliteal artery injury, and late surgery (p < .05). Peripheral arterial injuries, if inadequately treated, carry a high amputation rate. Explosive injuries are the most likely to lead to amputations, whereas stab injuries are the least likely to do so. The most significant independent risk factor for limb loss was failed revascularization. PMID:15996371

Davidovic, Lazar B; Cinara, Ilijas S; Ille, Tanja; Kostic, Dusan M; Dragas, Marko V; Markovic, Dragan M

2005-01-01

80

Retrospective analysis of neurapraxia and axonotmesis injuries of select peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle and their conservative and surgical treatment (external neurolysis and neurectomy).  

PubMed

There is a paucity of scientific literature that has reviewed the conservative and surgical treatment efficacy for the management of injuries causing neurapraxia and axonotmesis. This retrospective study evaluates the clinical outcomes of certain treatments for these injuries. Twenty-seven patients fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria for the study, and represented both genders and a wide variety of ages, weights, levels of education, and backgrounds. Surgical intervention resulted in a slightly better clinical outcome when compared to conservative therapies. Patients undergoing surgery for a single nerve problem improved more than those who underwent surgery when three or more nerves were involved. Failure was most often associated with: 1) multiple nerve injuries, 2) a previous history of psychopathology, and 3) application of conservative therapy without surgical intervention for single nerve injury. PMID:10384357

Barrett, J P; Downey, M S; Hillstrom, H J

1999-01-01

81

Medicine and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As war predictably leaves injuries and ailments in its wake, medicine has long maintained a presence both on the battlefield and at hospitals where the wounded come home for treatment. This Report's Topic in Depth examines the role of medicine in war, and presents online resources and information regarding combat-related ailments, and services for active military and veterans. From PBS-NOVA, the first selection is a companion website to a program about an American Combat Support Hospital in Iraq. The website contains an article regarding combat medicine ethics, a Teacher's Guide, a visual tour of archival images from the American Civil War through the current Iraq War, and more (1). The second site, created by Civil War buff Jenny Goellnitz, posts a collection of old photos, and offers some interesting information about Civil War medicine, including a feature on amputation surgery (2). The third site, from the Gettysburg National Military Park, contains several photos and brief information for kids about medicine in the Civil War (3). From the Institute of Medicine, the fourth website presents information and reports relating to the health of veterans and deployed military forces. The site has sections for the Gulf War, Vietnam War, Korean War, World War II, and Deployment Health (4). The fifth site presents the Virtual Naval Hospital, which is a digital health sciences library of Naval and Military medicine. The site has separate sections for patients, providers, and administrators (5). From News@Nature.com, the sixth site contains a recent article discussing the debate over Gulf War syndrome (6). The seventh site presents Doctors Without Borders (MSF), an international medical relief organization that courageously enters regions of conflict to provide medical aid (7). The final selection is a companion website to a National Geographic television series reporting on the work of Doctors Without Borders. The site features profiles of MSF projects, episode summaries, and interviews with MSF staff and volunteers (8).

82

Decreased Risk of Stroke in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Receiving Acupuncture Treatment: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) face increased risk of stroke. Whether acupuncture can help to protect TBI patients from stroke has not previously been studied. Methods Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of 7409 TBI patients receiving acupuncture treatment and 29,636 propensity-score-matched TBI patients without acupuncture treatment in 2000–2008 as controls. Both TBI cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and adjusted for immortal time to measure the incidence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of new-onset stroke in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Results TBI patients with acupuncture treatment (4.9 per 1000 person-years) had a lower incidence of stroke compared with those without acupuncture treatment (7.5 per 1000 person-years), with a HR of 0.59 (95% CI?=?0.50–0.69) after adjustment for sociodemographics, coexisting medical conditions and medications. The association between acupuncture treatment and stroke risk was investigated by sex and age group (20–44, 45–64, and ?65 years). The probability curve with log-rank test showed that TBI patients receiving acupuncture treatment had a lower probability of stroke than those without acupuncture treatment during the follow-up period (p<0.0001). Conclusion Patients with TBI receiving acupuncture treatment show decreased risk of stroke compared with those without acupuncture treatment. However, this study was limited by lack of information regarding lifestyles, biochemical profiles, TBI severity, and acupuncture points used in treatments.

Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hsu, Yi-Ting; Wang, Hwang-Huei; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lane, Hsin-Long; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chiu, Wen-Ta

2014-01-01

83

Continuous venovenous hemofiltration versus extended daily hemofiltration in patients with septic acute kidney injury: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) is superior to extended daily hemofiltration (EDHF) for the treatment of septic AKI is unknown. We compared the effect of CVVHF (greater than 72 hours) with EDHF (8 to 12 hours daily) on renal recovery and mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods A retrospective analysis of 145 septic AKI patients who underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT) between July 2009 and May 2013 was performed. These patients were treated by CVVHF or EDHF with the same polyacrylonitrile membrane and bicarbonate-based buffer. The primary outcomes measured were occurrence of renal recovery and all-cause mortality by 60 days. Results Sixty-five and eighty patients were treated with CVVHF and EDHF, respectively. Patients in the CVVHF group had significantly higher recovery of renal function (50.77% of CVVHF group versus 32.50% in the EDHF group, P?=?0.026). Median time to renal recovery was 17.26 days for CVVHF patients and 25.46 days for EDHF patients (P?=?0.039). Sixty-day all-cause mortality was similar between CVVHF and EDHF groups (44.62%, and 46.25%, respectively; P?=?0.844). 55.38% of patients on CVVHF and 28.75% on EDHF developed hypophosphatemia (P?=?0.001). The other adverse events related to RRT did not differ between groups. On multivariate analysis, including physiologically clinical relevant variables, CVVHF therapy was significantly associated with recovery of renal function (HR 3.74; 95% CI 1.82 to 7.68; P?

2014-01-01

84

Incidence and Pattern of Cranio-Maxillofacial Injuries: A 22 year Retrospective Analysis of Cases Operated at Major Trauma Hospitals/Centres in Pune, India.  

PubMed

This study aims to retrospectively analyze the incidence and pattern of cranio-maxillofacial injuries in the developing world in a hope to emphasize on authorities the need of improvising infrastructural facilities, medical and other. Hospital medical records with available radiographs of 6,872 patients treated for cranio-maxillofacial injuries at major trauma centres in Pune, India over a 22 year period (from July 1989 to June 2010) were reviewed. Relevant data pertaining to patients' age, sex, cause of injury, sites of injury, associated injuries, anaesthesia, various treatment modalities and complications were recorded and analyzed statistically. A total of 6,872 patients sustained maxillofacial injuries of which 5,936 (86.4 %) were caused by road traffic accidents (RTA), followed by fall in 608 cases. Distribution pattern of sex revealed male predominance (M:F-2.5:1) and the third decade age group (2,416) sustained maximum cranio-maxillofacial injuries. Of 12,503 cranio-maxillofacial sites involved, mandible (6,456) predominated, while there was middle third involvement in 5,024 cases. Most of the patients (4,856) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation without maxillo-mandibular fixation and complications were noted in 320 patients. In comparison to similar recent studies reported in the literature, our findings show that RTA remains the most common cause of cranio-maxillofacial injuries with male preponderance. Also RTA remains the major preventable etiological factor of cranio-maxillofacial injuries, which should prompt authorities to take "Herculean effort" to implement rules and educate people. PMID:24431873

Gadre, Kiran S; Halli, Rajshekhar; Joshi, Samir; Ramanojam, Shandilya; Gadre, Pushkar K; Kunchur, Ranjit; Bhosale, Gururaj; Kaul, Deepak

2013-12-01

85

Sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of faecal incontinence secondary to a pelvic war injury: a case report.  

PubMed

Faecal incontinence can be physically and socially disabling and the level of unmet need in men appears to be high. We report a case of faecal incontinence in a 29-year-old, heterosexual serviceman who sustained a trans-pelvic gunshot injury (without perineal injury) while on active duty. Despite apparently successful surgical treatment, the patient presented to our colorectal department 7 years after injury with disabling faecal incontinence. Following assessment, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) was initiated with excellent results. We report the successful use of SNS to treat faecal incontinence resulting from a combat gunshot injury. We recommend that surgeons carefully document the anatomical position of retained ballistic fragments after gunshot or blast fragment injury and that attention should be paid to the functional results in a patient's follow-up after intestinal surgery. PMID:24535979

Richardson, Jonathan J R; Bowley, D; Karandikar, S

2014-03-01

86

Children and war.  

PubMed

Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The International Criminal Court has outlawed as a War Crime, the conscription of children under 15 years of age. Nevertheless, there remain more than 300000 child soldiers active and enmeshed in psychopathic violence as part of both civil and international warfare. The typical profile of a child soldier is of a boy between the ages of 8 and 18 years, bonded into a group of armed peers, almost always an orphan, drug or alcohol addicted, amoral, merciless, illiterate and dangerous. Paediatricians have much to do to protect such war-enmeshed children, irrespective of the accident of their place of birth. Only by such vigorous and maintained advocacy can the world's children be better protected from the scourge of future wars. PMID:12654137

Pearn, J

2003-04-01

87

Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Methods Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure) and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley’s range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Results Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p?injury (Pearson’s r?=?0.332, p?injury. Regardless of sport, female athletes had significantly shorter time to injury than males (Hazard Ratio?=?2.2, p?injury (Hazard Ratio?=?4.2, p?injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport.

2012-01-01

88

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.  

PubMed

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections. PMID:23634479

Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

2010-07-01

89

Exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, individually or in combination with other Gulf War agents, impairs synaptic integrity and neuronal differentiation, and is accompanied by subtle microvascular injury in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure.  

PubMed

Gulf War illness (GWI) is a currently untreatable multi-symptom disorder experienced by 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War (GW) veterans. The characteristic hallmarks of GWI include cognitive dysfunction, tremors, migraine, and psychological disturbances such as depression and anxiety. Meta-analyses of epidemiological studies have consistently linked these symptomatic profiles to the combined exposure of GW agents such as organophosphate-based and pyrethroid-based pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos (CPF) and permethrin (PER) respectively) and the prophylactic use of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as a treatment against neurotoxins. Due to the multi-symptomatic presentation of this illness and the lack of available autopsy tissue from GWI patients, very little is currently known about the distinct early pathological profile implicated in GWI (including its influence on synaptic function and aspects of neurogenesis). In this study, we used preclinical models of GW agent exposure to investigate whether 6-month-old mice exposed to CPF alone, or a combined dose of CPF, PB and PER daily for 10 days, demonstrate any notable pathological changes in hippocampal, cortical (motor, piriform) or amygdalar morphometry. We report that at an acute post-exposure time point (after 3 days), both exposures resulted in the impairment of synaptic integrity (reducing synaptophysin levels) in the CA3 hippocampal region and altered neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG), demonstrated by a significant reduction in doublecortin positive cells. Both exposures also significantly increased astrocytic GFAP immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex, motor cortex and the basolateral amygdala and this was accompanied by an increase in (basal) brain acetylcholine (ACh) levels. There was no evidence of microglial activation or structural deterioration of principal neurons in these regions following exposure to CPF alone or in combination with PB and PER. Evidence of subtle microvascular injury was demonstrated by the reduction of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 levels in CPF+PB+PER exposed group compared to control. These data support early (subtle) neurotoxic effects on the brain following exposure to GW agents. PMID:24118348

Ojo, Joseph O; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Reed, Jon Mike; Montague, Hannah; Mullan, Michael J; Crawford, Fiona C

2014-04-01

90

Application of RIFLE criteria in patients with multiple myeloma with acute kidney injury: a 15-year retrospective, single center, cohort study.  

PubMed

Abstract Although there have been numerous studies of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and acute kidney injury (AKI), the results from these studies have varied greatly because of inconsistent definitions of AKI. The RIFLE criteria, which were designed to standardize the staging of AKI, have been extensively validated worldwide, but rarely in patients with MM. We retrospectively analyzed the natural history of 78 patients with MM and AKI between July 1995 and December 2010. RIFLE criteria, solely on the basis of the serum creatinine standard, were applied to stage the severity of AKI as risk, injury or failure. Among patients at the risk, injury and failure stage, the chemotherapy response rates were 54.5%, 63.6% and 39.3% (p = 0.26), and the renal response rates were 72.7%, 90.9% and 30.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). Severity of AKI predicted renal response but not chemotherapy response. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, p = 0.01), hypercalcemia (OR = 2.57, p = 0.01) and reversibility of renal insufficiency (OR = 3.35 for no vs. yes, p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors associated with survival. Severity of AKI staged by RIFLE class (OR = 2.04, failure stage vs. risk and injury stages. p = 0.06) was associated with marginally better long-term outcome. The RIFLE criteria may play a critical role in the early prevention and management of AKI in this population. PMID:23865828

Shi, Hao; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Hong; Pan, Xiaoxia; Chen, Nan

2014-05-01

91

Amish buggy injuries in the 21st century: A retrospective review from a rural level II trauma center.  

PubMed

Horse-drawn buggies are rarely used in modern society except among certain religious groups. Northeastern Indiana has one of the largest populations of one such group: the Amish. Although there are papers written about the incidence of buggy crashes, no paper has specifically addressed the specific types of injuries sustained when buggies collide with motorized vehicles. This paper reviews the types of injuries sustained when such events occur. PMID:15055846

Aaland, Mary O; Hlaing, Thein

2004-03-01

92

The important role of the arthroscopic hip surgery in the athletes with hip injuries. our experience. a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip arthroscopy has gradually evolved over the past two decades.Recently hip arthroscopy has increase its role in diagnosis and treatment for specific intraarticular and extraarticular hip injuries and especially for soft tissue injuries.Material and methodsFebruary 2004–March 2010, 48 athletes, football players, basketball players, weight lifters, gymnasts, three water polo players. Mean age: 32 years. (19–39 year old)Instrumentation and equipment70°, 4.5

G Tsikouris; I Tsolos; Ch Gosis; S Plessas; S Moschonas; D Tsikouris

2011-01-01

93

Cluster Bomb Ocular Injuries  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

Mansour, Ahmad M.; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

2012-01-01

94

Cerebrocerebellar Hypometabolism Associated With Repetitive Blast Exposure Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in 12 Iraq War Veterans With Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Disagreement exists regarding the extent to which persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq combat Veterans with repeated episodes of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blasts represent structural or functional brain damage or an epiphenomenon of comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective assessment of brain function in this population may clarify the issue. To this end, twelve Iraq war Veterans (32.0 ±8.5 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] years of age) reporting one or more blast exposures meeting American College of Rehabilitation Medicine criteria for mTBI and persistent PCS and 12 cognitively normal community volunteers (53.0 ±4.6 years of age) without history of head trauma underwent brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological assessments and completed PCS and psychiatric symptom rating scales. Compared to controls, Veterans with mTBI (with or without PTSD) exhibited decreased cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in the cerebellum, vermis, pons, and medial temporal lobe. They also exhibited subtle impairments in verbal fluency, cognitive processing speed, attention, and working memory, similar to those reported in the literature for patients with cerebellar lesions. These FDG-PET imaging findings suggest that regional brain hypometabolism may constitute a neurobiological substrate for chronic PCS in Iraq combat Veterans with repetitive blast-trauma mTBI. Given the potential public health implications of these findings, further investigation of brain function in these Veterans appears warranted.

Peskind, Elaine R.; Petrie, Eric C.; Cross, Donna J.; Pagulayan, Kathleen; McCraw, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Yu, Chang-En; Raskind, Murray A.; Cook, David G.; Minoshima, Satoshi

2011-01-01

95

Neuropsychiatric diagnosis and management of chronic sequelae of war-related mild to moderate traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Soldiers with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) present with an array of neuropsychiatric symptoms that can be grouped into nosological clusters: (1) cognitive dysfunctions: difficulties in memory, attention, language, visuospatial cognition, sensory-motor integration, affect recognition, and/or executive function typically associated with neocortical damage; (2) neurobehavioral disorders: mood, affect, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and psychosis, as well as agitation, sleep problems, and libido loss, that may have been caused by damage to the cortex, limbic system, and/or brain stem monoaminergic projection systems; (3) somatosensory disruptions: impaired smell, vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste, and somatosensory perception frequently caused by trauma to the sensory organs or their projections through the brain stem to central processing systems; (4) somatic symptoms: headache and chronic pain; and (5) substance dependence. TBI-related cognitive impairment is common in veterans who have served in recent conflicts in the Middle East and is often related to blasts from improvised explosive devices. Although neurobehavioral disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder commonly occur after combat, the presentation of such disorders in those with head injury may pass undetected with use of current diagnostic criteria and neuropsychological instruments. With a multidimensional approach (such as the biopsychosocial model) applied to each symptom cluster, psychological, occupational, and social dysfunction can be delineated and managed. PMID:20104402

Halbauer, Joshua D; Ashford, J Wesson; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Adamson, Maheen M; Lew, Henry L; Yesavage, Jerome A

2009-01-01

96

Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

Dixon, C. Edward

2011-05-01

97

Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in

Jose Ramon Perez-Valdivieso; Pablo Monedero; Marc Vives; Nuria Garcia-Fernandez; Maira Bes-Rastrollo

2009-01-01

98

Playing war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that war video games are transitional spaces that connect players to the ‘war on terror’. It explores the pervasive influence of militarism in video games and how the US Army is enlisting play as an active force in blurring the distinctions between civilian and soldier. The paper begins by theorizing what exactly it means to ‘play’, and

Ian Graham Ronald Shaw

2010-01-01

99

Injuries increase the amputee burden at the prosthesis centre: a 2-year retrospective survey of amputees in a low-income setting.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to survey different types of injuries as the cause for prosthesis fitting in the Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (IPM&R). This retrospective chart review was conducted at the IPM&R at the Dow University of Health Sciences, from the year 2007 till 2009. We selected all amputees who got enrolled in our institute for prosthesis fitting with major amputations, during the above mentioned period of time. Informed verbal consent was taken from each patient before recording their data at the IPM&R. Anonymity has been maintained. Data for this study was collected through a structured questionnaire, variables included: gender, age, town of origin, cause of amputation, level of amputation, limb involvement (unilateral or bilateral), level and causes of amputations. The data entry and analysis were done on SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) version 16.0. Of the amputee burden of our study, 55.9% was due to trauma, which is a preventable cause of disability. This is mostly affecting men in the productive age group. New strategies need to be devised in order to alleviate the burden of amputations resulting from preventable injuries. PMID:22630112

Soomro, Nabila; Jalal, Sabeena

2013-01-01

100

Non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations in Estonia--risk factors and association with the incidence of chronic conditions and quality of life: a retrospective study among the population aged 20-79  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence about the health and quality-of-life outcomes of injuries is obtained mainly from follow-up studies of surviving trauma patients; population-based studies are rarer, in particular for countries in Eastern Europe. This study examines the incidence, prevalence and social variation in non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations and outcomes of injuries in Estonia. Design A retrospective population-based study. Setting Estonia. Participants 7855 respondents of the face-to-face interviews of the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey conducted between 2004 and 2005 based on the nationally representative probability sample (n=11?192) of the resident population of Estonia aged 20–79. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cumulative incidence and prevalence of injuries leading to activity limitations was estimated. Survival models were applied to analyse variations in the injury risk across sociodemographic groups. The association between injuries and the development of chronic conditions and quality of life was examined using survival and logistic regression models. Results 10% (95% CI 9.4 to 10.7) of the population aged 20–79 had experienced injuries leading to activity limitations; the prevalence of activity limitations due to injuries was 4.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 4.9%). Significant differences in injury risk were associated with gender, education, employment, marital status and nativity. Limiting injury was associated with a doubling of the likelihood of having chronic conditions (adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.46). Injury exhibited a statistically significant negative association with most quality-of-life measures. Although reduced, these effects persisted after recovery from activity limitations. Conclusions Substantial variation in injury risk across population groups suggests potential for prevention. Men and workers in manual occupations constitute major target groups for injury prevention in Estonia. The association of injury with the development of chronic conditions and reduced quality of life warrants further investigation.

Puur, Allan; Altmets, Katre; Saava, Astrid; Uuskula, Anneli; Sakkeus, Luule

2013-01-01

101

World War II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Conflict How did the second world war progress in Europe?War in Europe What happened before and after the war in the Pacific?The Pacific Theatre How did World War II change the world?World War, 1939-1945 What did World War II mean to the United States?World War II ...

Croxall, Ms.

2006-11-30

102

Proteinuria and hematuria are associated with acute kidney injury and mortality in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Proteinuria and hematuria are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between these findings and acute kidney injury (AKI) or mortality remains unresolved in critically ill patients. Methods Proteinuria and hematuria were measured by a dipstick test and scored using a scale ranging from a negative result to 3+ in 1883 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. The odds ratios (ORs) for AKI and 3-year mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates according to the degree of proteinuria or hematuria. For evaluating the synergistic effect on mortality among proteinuria, hematuria, and AKI, the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was used. Results Proteinuria and hematuria increased the ORs for AKI: the ORs of proteinuria were 1.66 (+/?), 1.86 (1+), 2.18 (2+), and 4.74 (3+) compared with non-proteinuria; the ORs of hematuria were 1.31 (+/?), 1.58 (1+), 2.63 (2+), and 2.52 (3+) compared with non-hematuria. The correlations between the mortality risk and proteinuria or hematuria were all significant and graded (Ptrend?

2014-01-01

103

War, What is it Good for? Historical Contribution of the Military and War to Occupational Therapy and Hand Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

War has negative connotations; nevertheless, this article aims to highlight some of the positive outcomes that have occurred in the fields of occupational therapy (OT) and hand therapy due to war and war-related injuries. From the military background of one of OT's founders, Thomas Kidner, to the valiant efforts of the reconstruction aides, to the origin of hand therapy during

Sandra Harrison-Weaver; S YAKOBINA

2008-01-01

104

Use of hyperbaric oxygen in traumatic brain injury: retrospective analysis of data of 20 patients treated at a tertiary care centre.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) related impact results in a permanent need for help in performing daily activities. Standard treatment consists of removing the cause, restore perfusion, support metabolic requirement and limit inflammatory and oxidative damage. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is one such newer promising treatment that enhances neurological recovery to some extent. HBOT is intermittent inhalation of 100% oxygen at greater than normal atmospheric pressure and is internationally accepted for its role in well-defined indications. It is hypothesised that HBO has a role in reviving 'idling neurons', also called the ischemic penumbra defined as area of reduced cerebral blood flow, abolished synaptic activity but preserved structural integrity. We carried out a retrospective analysis of medical records of 20 patients of TBI who had been treated with HBOT in addition to standard management. These were placed in Group A (test group) and received at least 30 sessions of HBO along with standard treatment. The patients were assessed along the Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS). Another 20 patients of TBI, matched in age and severity of brain injury, who received standard treatment but not HBOT, were selected as the control group (Group B). Assessment on the DRS showed maximum improvement in patients with scores of 22-24 (vegetative state).The percentage of patients in the test group fell from 45% to 5% whereas only 20% patients in Group B had similar progress. After the treatment, a significantly higher proportion of HBOT treated subjects showed a good response in cognitive functions, as measured by RLA. In group A, 90% patients had a score of ? 3 and in Group B 95% had a similar score, which improved to ? 3 in 60% patients versus 30% patients respectively. In both groups maximum patients are in 1-6 months post-injury category and within the groups this category showed the greatest recovery, with a greater improvement in the test group as compared to control group. PMID:22085249

Sahni, Tarun; Jain, Madhur; Prasad, Rajendra; Sogani, Shanti K; Singh, Varindera P

2012-04-01

105

Civil War Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the following resources as you research the Civil War. Resources Pioneer Library World Book Web Albion Library Online Catalog "Name of Battle" NPS Civil War The American Civil War Homepage American Civil War The Civil War Causes of the Civil War What Caused the American Civil War? Secession North Carolina Majority Against Secession in 1860 (1866 Meeting) Slavery Abolition and Slavery Twenty Reasons for Total Abstinence from Slave-Labour Produce Influence of Prominent Abolitionists The Underground Railroad Battles of the Civil War Civil War Battle Summaries By State 10 Costliest Battles of the Civil War Battle of Gettysburg Virtual Tour Battle of Shiloh Battle of Antietam Important People in the Civil War Civil War Biographies Women of the American Civil War Political Cartoons John Tenniel and the American Civil War Lincoln vs. Douglas America in Caricature 1765-1865 Virtual Museums Civil War @ Smithsonian Gettysburg: Camp Life Selected Civil War Photographs ...

Bates, Albion M.

2009-06-09

106

Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

Achter, Paul

2010-01-01

107

THERMONUCLEAR WAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several criticisms are offered of statements made in the series of ; articles on thermonuclear war. The statement that human bodies would be ; particularly hazardous missiles seems erroneous in that their maximum ; translational velocity 15 miles from ground zero would not be over 24 ft\\/sec. ; Glass fragments at this 15-mile radius could attain, however, a velocity of

Mixter; G. Jr

1962-01-01

108

Emergency department visits for fall-related fractures among older adults in the USA: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program, 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the demographic characteristics and incidence of unintentional fall-related fractures among older adults treated in the US hospital emergency departments (EDs). Design Retrospective observational study. Settings Hospitals’ ED participants in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). Participants The NEISS-AIP was used to generate national estimates of hospital ED visits for unintentional fall-related fracture among adults aged 65?years or older between 2001 and 2008. Census population estimates were used as the denominator to calculate age-specific and age-adjusted fracture rates per 100?000 persons. Main outcome measures Fall-related fracture rates and ED disposition. Results On the basis of 70?199 cases, an estimated 4.05 million older adults were treated in US hospital EDs for fall-related fracture during the 8-year period. Two-thirds of the injuries occurred at home and 69.5% (95% CI 59.7% to 77.8%) of the affected individuals were white. Fall-related fracture rates increased gradually with age and were on average twofold higher among women. Of those hospitalised, women and fractures of the lower trunk represented 75.2% and 65.1% of the admissions, respectively. The estimated number of fall-related fractures treated in EDs increased from 574?500 in 2001 to 714?800 in 2008, a 24.4% increase. By gender, a non-significant upward trend in age-adjusted fall-related fracture rates was predominantly seen among men at an annual rate of 1.9% (95% CI ?0.1% to 4.0%), whereas fracture rates among women remained stable at 0.9% (95% CI ?0.7% to 2.5%) per year. Conclusions The oldest old, women and lower trunk fractures account for the majority of fall-related fractures among persons aged 65?years or older treated in US hospital EDs. Increasing ED visits and hospitalisations for fall-related fracture among older adults deserve further research.

Orces, Carlos H

2013-01-01

109

Is a black eye a useful sign of facial fractures in patients with minor head injuries? A retrospective analysis in a level I trauma centre over 10 years.  

PubMed

Orbital blunt trauma is common, and the diagnosis of a fracture should be made by computed tomographic (CT) scan. However, this will expose patients to ionising radiation. Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of orbital fracture, in particular the presence of a black eye, to minimise unnecessary exposure to radiation. A 10-year retrospective study was made of the medical records of all patients with minor head trauma who presented with one or two black eyes to our emergency department between May 2000 and April 2010. Each of the patients had a CT scan, was over 16 years old, and had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13-15. The primary outcome was whether the black eye was a valuable predictor of a fracture. Accompanying clinical signs were considered as a secondary outcome. A total of 1676 patients (mean (SD) age 51 (22) years) and minor head trauma with either one or two black eyes were included. In 1144 the CT scan showed a fracture of the maxillofacial skeleton, which gave an incidence of 68.3% in whom a black eye was the obvious symptom. Specificity for facial fractures was particularly high for other clinical signs, such as diminished skin sensation (specificity 96.4%), diplopia or occulomotility disorders (89.3%), fracture steps (99.8%), epistaxis (95.5%), subconjunctival haemorrhage (90.4%), and emphysema (99.6%). Sensitivity for the same signs ranged from 10.8% to 22.2%. The most striking fact was that 68.3% of all patients with a black eye had an underlying fracture. We therefore conclude that a CT scan should be recommended for every patient with minor head injury who presents with a black eye. PMID:24793410

Büttner, Michael; Schlittler, Fabian Lukas; Michel, Chantal; Exadaktylos, Aris Konstantinos; Iizuka, Tateyuki

2014-07-01

110

Allies, War Termination, and War Aims.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern-day war termination between two states is rarely easy. It becomes exceedingly complex if the war has been fought with coalitions or allies. Each state enters the war with certain political (war) aims, which are never the same in either desire or in...

J. E. Belinski

1997-01-01

111

Risk factors for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients receiving high intravenous doses of colistin methanesulfonate and/or other nephrotoxic antibiotics: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) was abandoned in the 1970s because of excessive nephrotoxicity, but it has been reintroduced as a last-resort treatment for extensively drug-resistant infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia). We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate risk factors for new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients receiving high intravenous doses of colistin methanesulfonate and/or other nephrotoxic antibiotics. Methods The cohort consisted of 279 adults admitted to two general ICUs in teaching hospitals between 1 April 2009 and 30 June 2011 with 1) no evidence on admission of acute or chronic kidney disease; and 2) treatment for more than seven days with CMS and/or other nephrotoxic antimicrobials (NAs, that is, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with this outcome. Results The 279 cases that met the inclusion criteria included 147 patients treated with CMS, alone (n = 90) or with NAs (n = 57), and 132 treated with NAs alone. The 111 (40%) who developed AKI were significantly older and had significantly higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) scores than those who did not develop AKI, but rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure were similar in the two groups. The final logistic regression model showed that in the 147 patients who received CMS alone or with NAs, onset of AKI during the ICU stay was associated with septic shock and with SAPS II scores ?43. Similar results were obtained in the 222 patients treated with CMS alone or NAs alone. Conclusions In severely ill ICU patients without pre-existing renal disease who receive CMS high-dose for more than seven days, CMS therapy does not appear to be a risk factor for this outcome. Instead, the development of AKI was strongly correlated with the presence of septic shock and with the severity of the patients as reflected by the SAPS II score.

2013-01-01

112

???????Using temperature of pressure-related intact discolored areas of skin to detect deep tissue injury: an observational, retrospective, correlational study.  

PubMed

Pressure-related intact discolored areas of skin (PRIDAS) are generally described as an area of nonblanching erythema (Stage I pressure ulcer) or deep tissue injury (DTI), but the validity of these definitions has not been tested. Preclinical studies and forensic observations have shown that skin temperature may help identify nonviable tissue. To investigate the effect of temperature difference between a PRIDAS and its adjacent intact skin and the subsequent development of skin necrosis, an observational, retrospective, correlational study was conducted. Data from all acute care hospital patients with an observed PRIDAS who received a skin integrity consult, including a skin temperature measurement of a PRIDAS site, were abstracted to ascertain if PRIDAS temperature correlated with the development of skin necrosis after 7 to 14 days and to examine the effect of additional patient variables on the progression or resolution of a PRIDAS. Skin temperatures were measured using a commercial, hand-held, infrared thermography camera, and the presence or absence of capillary refill was documented. Among the 85 patients studied, the difference between PRIDAS temperature and adjacent skin ranged from -3.2 ? C. to +3.0 ?C. Of the 55 PRIDAS with a lower temperature at baseline than adjacent skin ("cool", average -1.2 ? C), 29 progressed to necrosis, compared to one of 30 PRIDAS with a higher temperature than adjacent skin ("warm", average + 1.2 ? C) (P <0.001). After adjusting for patient age, skin color, and PRIDAS site, the cool PRIDAS were 31.8 times more likely to progress to necrosis than the warm PRIDAS. Combining the presence/absence of capillary refill and PRIDAS temperature, 0% of 26 patients with signs of blanching and a warm PRIDAS versus 65% of 26 patients with a nonblanching and cool PRIDAS developed skin necrosis (P <0.001, Fisher exact test for the difference between the two combined values). Research examining the delayed appearance of DTI and large, multicenter, prospective validation studies are warranted. The current National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel definition of a Stage I pressure ulcer needs to be amended to reflect the strong relationship to DTI development. PMID:22879313

Farid, Karen J; Winkelman, Chris; Rizkala, Adel; Jones, Katherine

2012-08-01

113

Injuries from antipersonnel mines: the experience of the International Committee of the Red Cross.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To describe and quantify patterns of injury from antipersonnel mines in terms of distribution of injury, drain on surgical resources, and residual disability. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis. SETTING--Two hospitals for patients injured in war. SUBJECTS--757 patients with injuries from antipersonnel mines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Distribution and number of injuries; number of blood transfusions; number of operations; disability. RESULTS--Pattern 1 injury results from standing on a buried mine. These patients usually sustain traumatic amputation of the foot or leg; they use most surgical time and blood and invariably require surgical amputation of one or both lower limbs. Pattern 2 injury is a more random collection of penetrating injuries caused by multiple fragments from a mine triggered near the victim. The lower limb is injured but there is less chance of traumatic amputation or subsequent surgical amputation. Injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen are common. Pattern 3 injury results from handling a mine: the victim sustains severe upper limb injuries with associated face injuries. Eye injuries are common in all groups. CONCLUSIONS--Patients who survive standing on a buried mine have greatest disability. Non-combatants are at risk from these weapons; in developing countries their social and economic prospects after recovery from amputation are poor. Images FIG 1 FIG 2-(a) FIG 2-(b) FIG 3

Coupland, R M; Korver, A

1991-01-01

114

Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future.

2012-01-01

115

Gender differences in sport injury risk and types of injuries: a retrospective twelve-month study on cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05), and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%,

Leena Ristolainen; Ari Heinonen; Benjamin Waller; Urho M. Kujala; Jyrki A. Kettunen

116

Acute kidney injury is an independent risk factor for pediatric intensive care unit mortality, longer length of stay and prolonged mechanical ventilation in critically ill children: a two-center retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In adults, small (< 50%) serum creatinine (SCr) increases predict mortality. It is unclear whether different baseline serum\\u000a creatinine (bSCr) estimation methods affect findings of acute kidney injury (AKI)-outcome associations. We characterized pediatric\\u000a AKI, evaluated the effect of bSCr estimation approaches on AKI-outcome associations and evaluated the use of small SCr increases\\u000a to predict AKI development.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a retrospective

Omar Alkandari; K Allen Eddington; Ayaz Hyder; France Gauvin; Thierry Ducruet; Ronald Gottesman; Véronique Phan; Michael Zappitelli

2011-01-01

117

Radiation combined injury: overview of NIAID research.  

PubMed

The term "radiation combined injury" (RCI) is used to describe conditions where radiation injury is coupled with other insults such as burns, wounds, infection, or blunt trauma. A retrospective account of injuries sustained following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima estimates that RCI comprised approximately 65% of all injuries observed. Much of the research that has been performed on RCI was carried out during the Cold War and our understanding of the clinical problem RCI presents does not reflect the latest advances in medicine or science. Because concerns have increased that terrorists might employ radiological or nuclear weapons, and because of the likelihood that victims of such terrorism would experience RCI, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting in 2007 to explore the state of the research in this area, identify programmatic gaps, and establish priorities for future research. As a follow-up to that meeting, in 2008 NIAID sponsored an initiative on RCI, leading to the award of several exploratory/developmental grants, the goals of which are to better understand biological synergy involved in RCI-induced damage, develop improved animal models for various type of RCI, and advance identification and testing of potential countermeasures to treat injuries that would be expected following a radiological or nuclear event. This program has already yielded new insight into the nature of combined injuries and has identified a number of novel and existing compounds that may be effective treatments for this condition. PMID:20445395

DiCarlo, Andrea L; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Hatchett, Richard J

2010-06-01

118

War Rape's Challenge to Just War Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

War rape comes in many forms, is perpetrated for many reasons, has multiple victims and multiple culpable perpetrators. This chapter examines war rape, asks whether Just War Theory (JWT) can tackle the specific challenges posed by the reality of sexual violence during wartime, and suggests that it might actually have an important conceptual framework to offer to philosophical analyses of

SALLY J. SCHOLZ

119

Cerebrocerebellar hypometabolism associated with repetitive blast exposure mild traumatic brain injury in 12 Iraq war Veterans with persistent post-concussive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disagreement exists regarding the extent to which persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq combat Veterans with repeated episodes of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blasts represent structural or functional brain damage or an epiphenomenon of comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective assessment of brain function in this population may clarify the issue. To this end,

Elaine R. Peskind; Eric C. Petrie; Donna J. Cross; Kathleen Pagulayan; Kathleen McCraw; David Hoff; Kim Hart; Chang-En Yu; Murray A. Raskind; David G. Cook; Satoshi Minoshima

2011-01-01

120

Vietnam: Historians at War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

Moyar, Mark

2008-01-01

121

Vietnam: Historians at War  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1990s, when I began studying the Vietnam War, the American public had largely lost interest in the history of that conflict. The Civil War and World War II were the wars that historians were advised to cover if they wanted to reach the public. Among government officials, military officers, and political scientists, Vietnam was considered irrelevant, because

Mark Moyar

2008-01-01

122

Retrospective evaluation of canine and feline maxillomandibular trauma cases. A comparison of signalment with non-maxillomandibular traumatic injuries (2003-2012).  

PubMed

Objectives: To determine differences in signalment between maxillomandibular (MM) and non-maxillomandibular (non-MM) trauma patients to help predict the type of injury sustained. Methods: A medical records database was searched from December 2003 to September 2012 to identify all MM trauma patients. A random sample of non-MM trauma patients was generated for comparison. Patient species, age, sex, weight, and injury aetiology were recorded for both populations. Results: Sixty-seven MM trauma patients and 129 non-MM trauma patients were identified. Feline patients were almost twice as likely to be presented for MM trauma compared with non-MM trauma. The median weight of canine patients suffering MM injury was significantly less than that of non-MM patients (p = 0.025). A significant association existed between the causes of injuries associated with MM and non-MM trauma populations (p = 0.000023). The MM trauma patients were more likely to sustain injury as a result of an animal altercation (Bonferroni p = 0.001) while non-MM injuries were more likely to result from motor vehicle accidents (Bonferroni p = 0.001). Overall, animals that were less than one year of age with traumatic injuries were overrepresented (65/196) in comparison to the entire patient population. Clinical significance: The results of this study may help guide clinicians in the evaluation and screening of trauma patients that are presented as an emergency. Cats, small dogs and animals suffering from animal altercations should all be closely evaluated for MM injury. PMID:24569903

Mulherin, B L; Snyder, C J; Soukup, J W; Hetzel, S

2014-05-19

123

National Debt and Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will: determine if an exponential function adequately describes the changes in the National Debt from its inception; use technology (such as a spreadsheet program) to sketch graphs of functions and bar graphs of percent changes in the National Debt around war times; choose an appropriate scale and compare percent changes in the Debt around three major wars (the Civil War, World War I, and World War II).

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-02-12

124

Pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery after shrapnel injury in World War II: demonstration by CT angiography with 3D MIP reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A case of pseudoaneurysm of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) after shrapnel injury is demonstrated by intra-arterial\\u000a digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) with subtraction technique. Although the pseudoaneurysm\\u000a was well demonstrated by intra-arterial DSA, CTA was the only modality to demonstrate the three-dimensional shape of the perfused\\u000a part of pseudoaneurysm and the aneurysmal neck,

R. W. Prokesch; H. G. Goerzer; M. Killer; R. Dorffner; W. Schima; E. G. Schindler

1999-01-01

125

Postresectional lung injury in thoracic surgery pre and intraoperative risk factors: a retrospective clinical study of a hundred forty-three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome (ARDS), defined as acute hypoxemia accompanied by radiographic pulmonary infiltrates without a clearly identifiable cause, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after pulmonary resection. The aim of the study was to determine the pre and intraoperative factors associated with ARDS after pulmonary resection retrospectively. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection at Adnan Menderes

Serdar ?en; Selda ?en; Ekrem ?entürk; Nilgün Kanl?o?lu Kuman

2010-01-01

126

Global War on Terrorism Open Tibia Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that there have been several hundred tibia fractures that have occurred in the global war on terror. Little is known about the long- term consequences of these injuries and their treatment. Objective: Our main objective is to determine sig...

R. Andersen

2011-01-01

127

Global War on Terrorism Open Tibia Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that there have been several hundred tibia fractures that have occurred in the global war on terror. Little is known about the long- term consequences of these injuries and their treatment. Objective: Our main objective is to determine sig...

R. Andersen

2009-01-01

128

Global War on Terrorism Open Tibia Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that there have been several hundred tibia fractures that have occurred in the global war on terror. Little is known about the long- term consequences of these injuries and their treatment. Objective: Our main objective is to determine sig...

E. J. MacKenzie J. Ficke J. Keeling R. Andersen

2010-01-01

129

Paranoid Disorders following War Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roughly 3,000 war veterans with moderate or severe brain injury have suffered from a psychiatric disturbance. Psychotic disorders are found in approximately 750 cases. The material of this preliminary report consists of the first 100 veterans with paranoid disorders. Delusional psychosis is the most common main diagnosis (28% of veterans), followed by major depression (21 %), delirium (18 %) and

Kalle Achté; Leo Jarho; Timo Kyykkä; Eija Vesterinen

1991-01-01

130

Delivering best care in war and peace.  

PubMed

Col Alan Finnegan, the fi rst Ministry of Defence professor of nursing, is driving forward research into preparing nurses for deployment and ensuring they deliver the best care possible in war and peace. Research topics range from the role of autonomous practitioners to the effects on soldiers of injuries to their genitalia. PMID:24938961

Moore, Alison

2014-06-24

131

Military ophthalmology in the Vietnam War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview of the practice of military ophthalmology by US army ophthalmologists during the Vietnam War focuses on administrative\\u000a management of eye and adnexal injuries, care of the wounded military and of Vietnamese civilians, and research activities.\\u000a It concludes with improvements that have been subsequently adopted.

Francis G. La Piana; Albert Hornblass

1997-01-01

132

Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

Cassel, C.; Jameton, A.

1982-09-01

133

Nature of War Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today s advances in evolutionary biology are unifying competing theories of natural selection and serve as a timely call for a similar unification of competing theories of war. This paper explores the relationship between war and natural selection by firs...

P. B. Olsen

2011-01-01

134

Teaching About War and War Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book provides a conceptual framework along with classroom suggestions for secondary social studies teachers dealing with the complex war/peace subjects. The book aims at studying wars as a social phenomenon in a new course, or in combination with interdisciplinary courses. It is divided into four major parts. Part I, Developing an…

Nesbitt, William A.

135

Science and War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a wide-ranging survey of relations between war, science, and technology from the days of the American colonies to the Vietnam War, indicating that the overall impact of science and technology on war has been overstated by historians in many fields. Includes military histories that science/technology historians have not used. (JN)

Roland, Alex

1985-01-01

136

Australian War Memorial: Of Love and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian War Memorial's online version of their exhibit Of Love and War illustrates how war impacts the availability of potential partners (especially from other countries), courtship, the sense of romantic urgency that war creates, and marriage. A reader's comment on the blog "Wedding Dresses, Part 3" sums up well what this exhibition is about in his comment regarding the display of wedding gowns in the exhibit: "Not the sort of item you usually associate with war, but on reflection at that time many sweethearts got married before the men went off to war and it helps paint a balanced picture of the times." Visitors should explore the themes the exhibit, which are divided up into: "First Glance", "Separation" and "The Future". Each theme has a multitude of sub-themes, including "Romance and Recruitment", "Loneliness" "Farewell and Fears" and "We Regret to Inform You". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Letters" sub-theme under "Separation", as there are several delicately embroidered silk greeting cards that were made in France in World War I.

137

The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe  

PubMed Central

We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages.

Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

2013-01-01

138

Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War.  

PubMed

The authors conducted an extensive search for published works concerning healthcare utilization and mortality among Gulf War veterans of the Coalition forces who served during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Reports concerning the health experience of US, UK, Canadian, Saudi and Australian veterans were reviewed. This report summarizes 15 years of observations and research in four categories: Gulf War veteran healthcare registry studies, hospitalization studies, outpatient studies and mortality studies. A total of 149728 (19.8%) of 756373 US, UK, Canadian and Australian Gulf War veterans received health registry evaluations revealing a vast number of symptoms and clinical conditions but no suggestion that a new unique illness was associated with service during the Gulf War. Additionally, no Gulf War exposure was uniquely implicated as a cause for post-war morbidity. Numerous large, controlled studies of US Gulf War veterans' hospitalizations, often involving more than a million veterans, have been conducted. They revealed an increased post-war risk for mental health diagnoses, multi-symptom conditions and musculoskeletal disorders. Again, these data failed to demonstrate that Gulf War veterans suffered from a unique Gulf War-related illness. The sparsely available ambulatory care reports documented that respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints were quite common during deployment. Using perhaps the most reliable data, controlled mortality studies have revealed that Gulf War veterans were at increased risk of injuries, especially those due to vehicular accidents. In general, healthcare utilization data are now exhausted. These findings have now been incorporated into preventive measures in support of current military forces. With a few diagnostic exceptions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mental disorders and cancer, it now seems time to cease examining Gulf War veteran morbidity and to direct future research efforts to preventing illness among current and future military personnel. PMID:16687261

Gray, Gregory C; Kang, Han K

2006-04-29

139

Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War  

PubMed Central

The authors conducted an extensive search for published works concerning healthcare utilization and mortality among Gulf War veterans of the Coalition forces who served during the1990–1991 Gulf War. Reports concerning the health experience of US, UK, Canadian, Saudi and Australian veterans were reviewed. This report summarizes 15 years of observations and research in four categories: Gulf War veteran healthcare registry studies, hospitalization studies, outpatient studies and mortality studies. A total of 149?728 (19.8%) of 756?373 US, UK, Canadian and Australian Gulf War veterans received health registry evaluations revealing a vast number of symptoms and clinical conditions but no suggestion that a new unique illness was associated with service during the Gulf War. Additionally, no Gulf War exposure was uniquely implicated as a cause for post-war morbidity. Numerous large, controlled studies of US Gulf War veterans' hospitalizations, often involving more than a million veterans, have been conducted. They revealed an increased post-war risk for mental health diagnoses, multi-symptom conditions and musculoskeletal disorders. Again, these data failed to demonstrate that Gulf War veterans suffered from a unique Gulf War-related illness. The sparsely available ambulatory care reports documented that respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints were quite common during deployment. Using perhaps the most reliable data, controlled mortality studies have revealed that Gulf War veterans were at increased risk of injuries, especially those due to vehicular accidents. In general, healthcare utilization data are now exhausted. These findings have now been incorporated into preventive measures in support of current military forces. With a few diagnostic exceptions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mental disorders and cancer, it now seems time to cease examining Gulf War veteran morbidity and to direct future research efforts to preventing illness among current and future military personnel.

Gray, Gregory C; Kang, Han K

2006-01-01

140

Bony destructive injuries of the calcaneus: long-term results of a minimally invasive procedure followed by early functional exercise: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Bony destructive injury of the calcaneus (BDIC) represents one of the most severe comminuted fractures of the calcaneus in which soft tissue coverage remains intact. The features of this injury include a collapsed articular surface, significant widening, severe loss of height and an unrecognisable outline of the calcaneus. This study aims to present the long-term outcomes of BDIC treated in a minimally invasive fashion followed by supervised early exercise. Methods Twelve patients with unilateral BDICs were treated at our institution. The main surgical procedures included percutaneous traction and leverage reduction and internal compression fixation with anatomic plates and compression bolts. Early functional exercise was encouraged to mould the subtalar joint. The height, length and width of the calcaneus; Böhler’s and Gissane’s angles; reduction of the articular surfaces; and functional recovery of the affected feet were assessed. Results The height, length and width of the calcaneus were substantially restored. The mean Böhler’s and Gissane’s angles of the affected calcaneus were 24.5 and 122.8 degrees, respectively. Five patients regained anatomical or nearly anatomical reduction of their posterior facets. Residual articular displacement of more than 3 mm was noted in three patients. Patients were followed for a mean of 93.9 months. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 83.8. Nine patients showed excellent or good results. Radiographic evidence of post-traumatic subtalar arthritis was observed in four cases. However, no subtalar arthrodesis was required. Conclusions BDICs can be treated effectively with percutaneous reduction and internal compression fixation followed by early active exercise. This protocol resulted in satisfactory radiological and functional outcomes.

2014-01-01

141

Mechanical Tissue Resuscitation Treatment Reduces Brain Tissue Volume and Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Increases Blood Perfusion in a Traumatic Brain Injury Model in Swine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each major war tends to have a 'signature injury' with traumatic brain injury (TBI) associated with the Iraq war (Operation Iraqi Freedom II and Operation Enduring Freedom) due to the high incidence of personnel injured by IED (improvised explosive device...

A. Bryant L. Argenta M. Morykwas Z. Zheng

2010-01-01

142

The Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this site you will be able to find all the necessary information about the background of the Civil War. You will find out when it happened, why it happenend, and most importantly of all, what happened. Use the following resource to gain a good overall of the important dates, names, and events of the Civil War: A Nation Divided: The U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 One of the most important battles of the Civil War was the Battle of Gettysburg. President Abraham Lincoln gave one of the most famous speeches in American History after ...

Alex

2006-02-08

143

US Civil War Generals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created using a number of print sources, this index by Kerry Webb is a fine resource for military historians and Civil War buffs. The index lists generals for each army alphabetically. Information provided includes date of birth and death, pre-war profession, war service, post-war career, and notes. Some entries also include suggestions for further reading and links to related sites. The main page of the site offers print references, a few links, and notes on the index entries. This site is a classic example of a "labor of love" resource that should prove useful and interesting to like-minded users.

144

Detection of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blast-related traumatic brain injuries have been common in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, but fundamental questions about the nature of these injuries remain unanswered. Methods We tested the hypothesis that blast-related traumatic brain injury causes tra...

A. M. Johnson C. L. Mac Donald D. Cooper E. C. Nelson N. J. Werner

2011-01-01

145

When Kids Lose Parents in Our War in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As of July, more than 1,200 children had lost parents in the war in Iraq, and thousands more had parents with serious injuries, according to the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress at the Uniform Services University in Bethesda, Maryland. The war, which began three and a half years ago, has resulted in the deaths of more than 2,600 U.S.…

Hardy, Lawrence

2006-01-01

146

American Approach to Limited War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Limited war has been a prominent feature in United States military history. Past applications of limited military power in war have dramatically furthered U.S. national interests. But despite encouraging experiences with limited war from independence to t...

B. Warrington

1994-01-01

147

Head Injuries Tied to Higher Migraine Risk for Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... June 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Migraine Traumatic Brain Injury Veterans and Military Health THURSDAY, June 19, 2014 ( ... of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars who suffered brain injuries are at a much higher risk for headaches, ...

148

War Literature. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

Soderquist, Alisa

149

Children and War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

War is a stressful social condition that can be considered a form of child abuse. The holocaust experience, Vietnam, and World War II have all had significant effects on children's emotions and behavior. Problems that arise from these traumatic events are explored. (DF)

Engel, Mary

1984-01-01

150

Chapter 23 Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil wars are intricate social, political and psychological phenomena. However, economics can offer analytical insights which are useful alongside the more conventional approach of case-studies. Indeed, the policy conclusions drawn from economic analysis sometimes cast doubt on conventional advice. The use of economic theory and statistical evidence help to guard against excessive generalization from individual civil wars that inevitably suffer

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2007-01-01

151

World War II Homefront.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

Garcia, Rachel

2002-01-01

152

Maslow, Needs, and War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In our current thinking on war, we rely on political leaders to define the character of war and to provide military-achievable goals. In many cases, not understanding the background to these goals can lead to tragedy. Understanding where these goals come ...

J. P. Baker

2012-01-01

153

Economics of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

Solman, Paul

2008-01-01

154

Nurses at war.  

PubMed

The first world war opened up nursing to a wider range of women and earned new status for the profession. Nursing service records from the conflict, available online for the first time at www.national archives.gov.uk, provide a detailed insight into the lives of nurses who were the first to handle war casualties on an industrial scale. PMID:22720366

Dean, Erin

155

Abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans.  

PubMed

Any kind of stress has a negative effect on the mood of people and stress resulting from war is no exception. Stress from war has not only has effects on war veterans but also on the families. Children of these families have been more susceptible to abnormal oral habits. In this observational, analytical and historical research, attempts have been made to determine the prevalence of abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans (martyrs, freed prisoners of war and war cripples) and compare them with a control group. In this study of 520 children aged between 7 and 11 years were (238 in the study group and 282 in the control group), information was gathered via a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the students. Analysis of the received information showed that the prevalence of para functional and abnormal oral habits was more in the study group (P = 0.005). The prevalence rate was highest in children, whose family members had been both crippled and freed prisoners of war, while the rate was lowest in children whose parents had been only prisoners of war without any lasting physical injury. Most of these children had acquired these habits at the age of seven and these abnormal habits were most prevalent in children aged eight and nine. PMID:15926432

Yassaei, S; Rafieian, M; Ghafari, R

2005-01-01

156

Civil War Traveler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tag line of this website is "Everything you Need to Plan your Civil War Trips." With the 150th anniversary of the Civil War being commemorated this year, this website offers everything for the mildly interested to the downright enthusiastic. Visitors can find every kind of map here, including "Civil War Trails Maps," almost two dozen "Podcast Tour Maps," "Interactive Maps," "National Park Service Maps," and relevant "State Highway Maps." The "Multimedia" link on the site gives visitors access to 26 podcasts of tours of Civil War sites. The podcasts are narrated by noted national park service historians and accompanied by period music. Also in the Multimedia area are the "Richmond Walking Tours" in Richmond, VA, which was the capitol of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. These include five tours, maps for each, and an hour-long podcast to accompany each tour. Visitors interested in going to some Civil War lectures, reenactments, tours, or demonstrations should definitely check out the "Events" link to see a list of all the Civil War events for the 150th anniversary, month by month. The month of April alone has over 100 on the calendar throughout the South.

157

Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

158

Americans as Warriors: "Doughboys" in Battle during the First World War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)

Keene, Jennifer D.

2002-01-01

159

Acute kidney injury is an independent risk factor for pediatric intensive care unit mortality, longer length of stay and prolonged mechanical ventilation in critically ill children: a two-center retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In adults, small (< 50%) serum creatinine (SCr) increases predict mortality. It is unclear whether different baseline serum creatinine (bSCr) estimation methods affect findings of acute kidney injury (AKI)-outcome associations. We characterized pediatric AKI, evaluated the effect of bSCr estimation approaches on AKI-outcome associations and evaluated the use of small SCr increases to predict AKI development. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort database study of children (excluding postoperative cardiac or renal transplant patients) admitted to two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) for at least one night in Montreal, QC, Canada. The AKI definition was based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network staging system, excluding the requirement of SCr increase within 48 hours, which was impossible to evaluate on the basis of our data set. We estimated bSCr two ways: (1) the lowest SCr level in the three months before admission or the average age- and gender-based norms (the standard method) or (2) by using average norms in all patients. Outcomes were PICU mortality and length of stay as well as required mechanical ventilation. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate AKI risk factors and the association between AKI and mortality. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the effect of AKI on other outcomes. We calculated diagnostic characteristics for early SCr increase (< 50%) to predict AKI development. Results Of 2,106 admissions (mean age ± SD = 5.0 ± 5.5 years; 47% female), 377 patients (17.9%) developed AKI (using the standard bSCr method) during PICU admission. Higher Pediatric Risk of Mortality score, required mechanical ventilation, documented infection and having a bSCr measurement were independent predictors of AKI development. AKI was associated with increased mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 2.1 to 6.4, using the standard bSCr method; OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.6 to 7.9, using normative bSCr values in all patients). AKI was independently associated with longer PICU stay and required mechanical ventilation. In children with no admission AKI, the initial percentage SCr increase predicted AKI development (area under the curve = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.74). Conclusions AKI is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in critically ill children, regardless of the bSCr used. Paying attention to small early SCr increases may contribute to early AKI diagnosis in conjunction with other new AKI biomarkers.

2011-01-01

160

Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given.?METHODS—It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase.?RESULTS—It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less.?CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.??

Muzaffar, W.; Khan, M. D.; Akbar, M; Khan, M. D.; Malik, A. M.; Durrani, O.

2000-01-01

161

War and Peace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses sibling relationships and the problem of trying to make peace among warring sisters. Parents are, in fact, more likely to minimize sibling rivalry by dealing with its underlying causes. Primary audience: parents of young children and prospective...

1994-01-01

162

PRIV-WAR: Regulating Privatisation of War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it mean to have private military companies involved in the conduct of war? This is a subject of interest to the European University Institute, and a host of other partners, including the University of Sheffield and the Riga Graduate School of Law. The purpose of the PRIV-WAR project is to "assess the impact of the increasing use of private military companies and security companies in situations of armed conflict." The project was started in 2008, and on their website interested parties can learn about their activities and click on to the "Publications" area. The working papers are quite worthy of special attention, and they include "Passing the Buck: State Responsibility for Private Military Companies" and "A History of Private Warfare".

163

The Great War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As many historians know, the Great War was meant to be the "war to end all wars", but this was regrettably not the case. During this period, many artists and members of the literati offered their impassioned feelings about the conflict and its aftermath in the form of poetry. Created by the scholar Harry Rusche, this site was designed as a resource for courses in World War I poetry. The site contains sections such as "Poetry", "Postcards", and "Links". Visitors will want to begin their journey through the site by clicking on the "Poetry" area, where they will find digitized versions of rare poetry volumes that address various aspects of this world conflict. Specifically, they might do well to look over the "Flower of Youth: Poems in War Time" volume, which contains the poems "A Girl's Song" and "To One in Grief". The "Postcards" section offers a number of postcards created during World War I that deal with different aspects of nationalism, the military, and life on the homefront.

164

[The war victim].  

PubMed

Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship. PMID:7895110

Hugeux, P; Barouti, H

1994-10-01

165

War wounds in the Sibenik area during the 1991-1992 war against Croatia.  

PubMed

This report presents the analysis of war casualties treated at the Department of Surgery of Sibenik Medical Center during a 5.5-month period, i.e., from the beginning of the aggression in August 1991 to the international recognition of the Republic of Croatia on January 15, 1992. A total of 321 war casualties were treated, 157 of whom were out-patients and 164 in-patients with severe multiple injuries, 39.25% of the wounded were civilians, 10 of whom were children. Fragment wounds from mortar shells, anti-personnel mines, and infantry weapons were the most frequent type of injuries. The most common were injuries of the limbs. Gunshot injuries to the brain had the worst prognosis. Early management of the wounds was of special importance. Stabilization of the fracture using external fixators was indicated in patients with severe, complicated fractures associated with extreme defects of the tissue. Comatose patients with possible intra-abdominal injury presented a specific diagnostic problem, which was best treated by exploratory laparotomy. The overall mortality rate was 2.49%. PMID:7783934

Batinica, J; Batinica, S

1995-03-01

166

77 FR 8114 - Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the preliminary plan and urged the Commission...Commission's investigations more effective...action between an investigation's enumerated...decided to adopt the Plan for Retrospective...in Import Injury Investigations,'' and the...III. Scope of Plan This plan...

2012-02-14

167

War Experiences Inventory: Initial Psychometric and Structural Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the structural and psychometric properties of the War Experiences Inventory (WEI) with data from 255 post deployed service members (224 men and 31 women). Results from principal components analyses yielded a five-factor solution assessing sexual trauma, combat exposure, interpersonal distress, circumstances of deployment, and personal injury. Psychometric analyses revealed scale scores were internally consistent; validity evidence showed WEI

Lori S. Katz; Geta Cojucar; Cory Davenport; Satish Clarke; John C. Williams

2012-01-01

168

Australian Army War Diaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian War Memorial site has worked diligently over the past several years to add to their rather nice online collections, and this particular addition is quite a find. It consists of excerpts from diaries from those who served Australia during the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, and in the South East Asian conflicts. The homepage for these diaries includes a brief introduction to the collection and a description of the general contents of these different digitized documents. Visitors can browse through selections from the diaries at their leisure and they can also print them out for detailed consideration. Finally, the site also provides a link to the Memorial's Research Centre in case visitors would like to send along questions or comments.

2007-01-01

169

People on War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in August 1999 to mark the 50th anniversary of the modern Geneva Conventions, the People on War Project has conducted interviews and surveys with over 20,000 people in seventeen countries on their perceptions of what is right and wrong in wartime. At present, users can read the full text of the resulting final comparative report and six country reports in HTML and .pdf formats. In addition, users can read a selection of "Best of People on War stories," view several excellent collections of annotated photographs, and (after free registration) enter CrossFire, an "interactive documentary" on the "dilemmas soldiers, civilians, and others face in war." Additional resources at the site include discussion forums, a questionnaire, and several reference sources, among them the full searchable text of the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

170

United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

1983-01-01

171

Diamond Wars? Conflict Diamonds and Geographies of Resource Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1990s, natural resources such as oil, diamonds, and timber came under increased scrutiny by conflict analysts and media outlets for their purported role in many contemporary wars. This article discusses some of the limitations of conventional arguments linking wars and resources. Dominated by econometric approaches and rational choice theory interpretations, arguments pertaining to “resource wars” often oversimplify

Philippe Le Billon

2008-01-01

172

Encyclopedia of the Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War – a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the Cold War discusses how this state of perpetual

Dijk van R

2008-01-01

173

Nuclear War and Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

Hobson, Art

1983-01-01

174

The Technological Culture of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

Pretorius, Joelien

2008-01-01

175

War and the American Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides brief introductions to four questions: (1) to what extent did economic forces cause America's wars, (2) after going to war, how has the United States managed the reallocation of resources, (3) how has the United States financed the reallocation of resources, and (4) what have been the economic legacies of war.

Hugh Rockoff

2005-01-01

176

The Great War: Online Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

Duncanson, Bruce

2002-01-01

177

War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

2004-01-01

178

No New Wars Needed!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls for an end to a "prevention war" mentality that breeds youth programs that are high profile, short term, and in competition with programs already in place. Instead, this article advocates for comprehensive, sustained efforts that promote the personal and social development of young people and address problems at their psychosocial roots. (BF)

Elias, Michael J.; Lantieri, Linda; Patti, Janet; Shriver, Timothy P.; Walberg, Herbert J.; Weissberg, Roger P.; Zins, Joseph E.

2001-01-01

179

Gulf War Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War have developed unexplained somatic and psychological symptoms and are more likely to suffer chronic ill health than matched control samples. The association between these symptoms and possible causal environmental exposures has been extremely controversial and remains unresolved. Controversy surrounding aetiology has rehearsed the ‘mind–body’ debate arising from Cartesian dualism and has demonstrated how

Martin Deahl

2006-01-01

180

End the Math Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

2011-01-01

181

Children and war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an interim report, since the studies mentioned are limited in obtaining long-time effects or in obtaining information on children in belligerent areas of Europe and Asia. Sections of the article include: children's information, concepts, attitudes, and emotional reactions to the idea of war; evacuation; refugee children; various dislocations in family life and in everyday activities; responses to alarms,

A. T. Jersild; M. F. Meigs

1943-01-01

182

Education and War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

2009-01-01

183

The War Against Pests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

Smith, Ray F.

1973-01-01

184

Cold War Propaganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

Bennett, Paul W.

1988-01-01

185

Children and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 2000, and based in Bergen, Norway, the Children and War group is "dedicated to improve children's lives after wars and disasters." Their homepage has the latest news and results of the group's efforts, and visitors who have relationships with children will find advice on what to tell them about the tsunami and earthquake in Japan. The "Stories" link on the far left-hand side of any page allows visitors to put faces and names to some of the children of war and disaster. There is Luay, a 14-year-old boy from Iraq who was traumatized by helping bring dead bodies out of the ruins of his city after it was bombed. Miriam, an 11-year-old from Somalia, tells of seeing her pregnant mother being stabbed and killed by opposing clan members. Visitors interested in how children are assessed to determine the "effects of war, disaster and trauma" on them will find the "Measures" link helpful. Here they will find information on CRIES, a widely used assessment for post traumatic stress, a depression self-rating scale, and a "Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory". Additionally, many of the tests are available in multiple languages.

186

Stabilizing Star Wars  

SciTech Connect

An orderly replacement of offensive with defensive nuclear weapons is part of the defense-protected build-down (DPB) strategy described by Weinberg and Barkenbus. Differing from the administration's Star Wars approach by relying on interceptor missiles rather than costly and unproven lasers and particle beams, the plan also calls for a simultaneous freeze on offensive weapons. (DCK)

Weinberg, A.M.; Barkenbus, J.N.

1984-01-01

187

Ramadan War 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Naturally, as in any combat, the two participants view the events differently, both because of their objective and interests and because of the facts known uniquely to them. Since the Arab participants in these wars have published little, and their side o...

T. A. Awad

1986-01-01

188

Traumatic War Stressors and Psychiatric Symptoms Among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans’ age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking

Alan Fontana; Robert Rosenheck

1994-01-01

189

Short-Term Physical and Mental Health Outcomes for Combat Amputee and Nonamputee Extremity Injury Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent combat amputees injured in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars have unique injuries and challenges during rehabilitation. This study evaluated amputee outcomes with those of nonamputee polytrauma and minor injury patients. Method: Combat amputees and non...

G. J. Walker M. Galarneau P. Konoske T. Melcer V. F. Sechriest

2012-01-01

190

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: An important medical concern of the Iraq war is the potential long-term effect of mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, particularly from blast explosions. However, the epidemiology of combat-related mild traumatic brain injury is poorly...

A. L. Cox C. C. Engel C. W. Hoge D. McGurk J. L. Thomas

2008-01-01

191

Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Although there have been significant advances in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. This paper analyses the contribution of chest injuries to the outcome of head injuries in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and the Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery (MHN) in Enugu, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the medical records, operative notes, and radiological findings of all patients admitted for head injury who had associated significant chest injuries in the MHN from 2002 to 2009 and the UNTH between 2007 and 2010. Patients with only head injury and other extracranial injury not affecting the chest were excluded. Patients who were inadequately investigated were also excluded. Results: Nineteen patients from the MHN and 11 patients from the UNTH were analyzed. Ages ranged from 9 to 65 years and the male:female ratio was 3:1. Injuries were most common between 30 and 50 years and road traffic accident accounted for 60%. Barotrauma from ventilation was documented in 2 patients. The commonest types of intrathoracic injuries are pneumothorax and hemothorax. Chest wall injuries are more common but carry less morbidity and mortality. Only 20% of patients presented within 48 hours of injury. Management of the associated chest trauma commenced in the referring hospitals only in 26.4% of the patients. All patients with hemo-pneumothorax had tube thoracostomy as did 96% of patients with pneumothorax. 10% of patients with haemothorax needed thoracotomy. Mortality is 43%, which is higher than for patients with only TBI with comparable Glasgow coma scale. Outcome is influenced by the time to admission and the GCS on admission. Conclusion: Associated chest injuries result in higher mortality from head injuries. This association is more likely in the young and more productive. All patients presenting with head and spinal cord injury should be specifically and carefully evaluated for associated chest injuries. Computerized tomographic has not replaced the need for good quality chest radiograph in the emergency management of Head Injury associated chest trauma.

Mezue, Wilfred Chukwuemeka; Ndubuisi, Chika A; Erechukwu, Uwadiegwu A; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2012-01-01

192

Water and wars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

Gleick, Peter H.

193

Civil War Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress (LOC) American Memory collection has recently expanded yet again with this new exhibit. This exhibit, from the LOC's Geography and Map Division, features a selection from the approximately 2,240 Civil War maps and charts and 76 atlases and sketchbooks held by the Division. The majority of the maps were made during the Civil War, although some were produced afterwards to illustrate certain events or battles. Of special interest are maps produced by Confederate Major Jedediah Hotchkiss, a topographical engineer responsible for battle maps that were used by Generals Lee and Jackson. Users can search the collection by keyword or browse by subject, creator, title, or geographic location. Maps are offered as thumbnail images with several size and zoom options. Updates will be made to the collection on a monthly basis.

194

Civil War Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was Washington, D.C. like during the Civil War? It's an arresting and interesting question, and the people at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Center for Digital Research in the Humanities have created this digital archive to look into it. As their introductory statement notes, this collection "examines the U.S. national capital from multiple perspectives as a case study of social, political, cultural, and medical/scientific/transitions provoked or accelerated by the Civil War." On the homepage, visitors will find six sections, including Maps, Texts, Visual Works, and Data. For those with a spatial bent, the Maps area is a real find. Visitors can use the interactive GIS-enabled map to look at the layers of history throughout the city with a grain of detail that is remarkable. Moving along, the Interpretations area includes scholarly essays, such as "Washington, the Strategic Capital."

2012-08-24

195

WAR & Military Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future.

Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

2007-01-01

196

Frontline: Drug Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the companion to the outstanding PBS Frontline program which aired in 2000. Simply put, the two-part Frontline film was probably the most balanced and detailed examination of America's war on drugs ever aired on television. In addition, it contained numerous interviews with figures on both sides of the drug war, including people who had never before made themselves available to American journalists. Whether or not you watched the program, the companion site offers some excellent and engaging content. This includes video excerpts, charts and graphs, excerpts and unused portions from interviews featured on the program, as well as numerous features unique to the site, one of the deepest companion sites PBS has ever produced.

2000-01-01

197

The Math Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the “reform” stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented, “standards-based” curricula are superficial and undermine classical mathematical values; reformers

Alan H. Schoenfeld

2004-01-01

198

Crimes of War Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by American University, this project is a collaborative effort of journalists, lawyers, and scholars "that seeks to raise awareness of the laws of war." Resources at the site include an online magazine, featured essays, analysis, a discussion forum, information on future seminars, and related resources. The essays are concise, cover a range of international topics, and link to related items on the site. This unique project is well worth a visit.

1999-01-01

199

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

200

Shared Experience: Art & War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of artistic expression to convey the experience of war and the battlefield has been around since antiquity, and has given rise to glorious poetry, epic stories, and more recently, paintings. This online exhibit created by the people at the Australian War Memorial presents the experiences of Australians, Britons, and Canadians in the Second World War through paintings created during this turbulent period. As the homepage suggests, "The men and women that feature in these works are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating". First-time visitors will want to start by reading the introductory essay by Roger Tolson titled "A Shared Experience". After doing so, they should feel free to browse around the paintings offered here, all of which are grouped into thematic categories that include "Casualties", "Work", and "Battle". There are a number of rather haunting and evocative paintings scattered across these categories, but visitors should be sure to take a look at the work "Battlefield burial of three NCOs" by Ivor Hele and "Airmen In A Village Pub Yorkshire" by Miller Brittain. The site is rounded by brief biographies for each of the artists whose work is included on the site.

2006-01-01

201

Otologic injuries caused by airbag deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airbags are clearly successful at mitigating injury severity during motor vehicle accidents. Deployment unfortunately has introduced new injury-causing mechanisms. A retrospective review of 20 patients who sustained otologic injuries resulting from airbag inflation was conducted. The most common symptoms were hearing loss in 17 (85%) and tinnitus in 17 (85%). Objective hearing loss was documented in 21 of 24 (88%)

WILLIAM J. MCFEELY; DENNIS I. BOJRAB; KENT G. DAVIS; DOUGLAS F. HEGYI

1999-01-01

202

Slow-pitch softball injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective investigation of slow-pitch softball inju ries incurred in Hawaii was undertaken to study the nature of these injuries and analyze their causes. The injured players were involved in league softball with referees. There were 83 athletes and 93 injuries. A retrospective review of all Army softball-related admis sions was also done.Thirty-five athletes or 42% were injuried while sliding,

Bruce R. Wheeler

1984-01-01

203

The Effect of War on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…

Goldson, Edward

1996-01-01

204

Head Injury in Early Adulthood and the Lifetime Risk of Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depressive symptoms are common and can be debilitating in the months after head injury. Head injury can also have long-term cognitive effects, but little is known about the long-term risk of depression associ- ated with head injury. We investigated the lifetime rates of depressive illness 50 years after closed head injury. Methods: Participants were male World War II veter-

Tracey Holsinger; David C. Steffens; Caroline Phillips; Michael J. Helms; Richard J. Havlik; John C. S. Breitner; Jack M. Guralnik; Brenda L. Plassman

2002-01-01

205

US Army War College  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Strategic Studies Institute is the primary research faculty of the U.S. Army War College, and includes both civilian scholars and uniformed military officers with extensive experience in national security and military affairs. The most common products of the Institute are SSI Studies which deal with topics having strategic implications for the Army, the Department of Defense, and the larger National Security community. Additional information is available on the mission, history, and organization of SSI, plus a link to the U.S. Army Military History Institute. http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usassi/

206

Civil War Leaders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will overview the material provided and be prepared to discuss the material in class. Students: 1. Read the background material provided about the four leaders to have a general understanding of who they were. Biography of Abe Background Lee s Background Grant in the war 2. Read over Lincoln's campaign backgound Abe s Political Background 3. Look at how the South viewed Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation and at the "Lost Cause" piece. The South s View Of Lincoln Lee s Lost Cause 4. Answer in a paragraph form: Describe the leaders backgrounds ...

Hud, Coach

2011-04-20

207

Prophet of War: Josiah Francis and the Creek War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chronicles the life of Josiah Francis, renowned Creek Prophet and leader. Describes his rise to power in the War of 1812 and his subsequent history as ardent advocate of war against the White man. Characterizes him as a charismatic and intelligent, if sometimes foolish, leader. (JHZ)

Owsley, Frank L., Jr.

1985-01-01

208

Injuries Among World-Class Professional Beach Volleyball PlayersThe Fédération Internationale de Volleyball Beach Volleyball Injury Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Very little is known about the injury characteristics of beach volleyball.Purpose: To describe the incidence and pattern of injuries among professional male and female beach volleyball players.Study Design: Cohort study—retrospective injury recall and prospective registration.Methods: Injuries occurring over a 7.5-week interval of the summer season were retrospectively registered by interviewing 178 of the 188 participating players (95%) in the

Roald Bahr; Jonathan C. Reeser

2003-01-01

209

Injuries among male and female World Cup alpine skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Limited knowledge exists on injuries among professional alpine skiers. Objective: To describe the risk of injury and the injury pattern among competitive World Cup alpine skiers during the competitive season. Methods: Retrospective interviews were performed with all World Cup athletes from 10 nations at the end of the 2006-7 and 2007-8 winter seasons, and all acute injuries occurring during

T Bere; L Nordsletten; S Heir; R Bahr

2010-01-01

210

Spanish Civil War Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress' collection of 120 Spanish Civil War posters dating from 1936-1939 are a good-looking group of items that portray both the Republican and Nationalist causes of Spain during the Spanish Civil War. In order to start searching or browsing all the images of this collection, click on "Search This Collection" in the middle of the page. To browse the images, click on "View All". If you would rather search, you have many modes to do so, including subjects and formats, creators and other associated names, and titles. As most of the text on the posters is in Spanish, visitors may wish to look over the English translations. Unfortunately, many of the posters can only be viewed as thumbnails, unless they are being viewed in person at the Library of Congress. Although many of the posters are in bold reds, blues and yellows, their undertones are dark. Some of the black and white prints look much like newsprint, and are more pedestrian in form.

211

Suicide among War Veterans  

PubMed Central

Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

2012-01-01

212

Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

Powers, Janet M.

2007-01-01

213

War, Journalism, and Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

Rice, Gary

2000-01-01

214

CIVIL WAR EXPOSURE AND VIOLENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years scholars have begun to focus on the consequences of individuals' exposure to civil war, including its severe health and psychological consequences. Our innovation is to move beyond the survey methodology that is widespread in this literature to analyze the actual behavior of individuals with varying degrees of exposure to civil war in a common institutional setting. We

EDWARD MIGUEL; SHANKER SATYANATH

2011-01-01

215

World War II And Convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proxies that measure the effect of World War II on a country's capital stock are used as instruments for estimating standard cross-country growth regressions. The war's destruction should offer a natural experiment that allows us to consistently estimate the speed at which productivity growth converges to its long-run path. This paper presents evidence that convergence rates are approximately 4% to

David Cook

2002-01-01

216

Revising the War Powers Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues that prompted the passing of the War Powers Act will continue to bedevil us again if Congress does not prepare to meet the future with seriously asserted procedures to regularize its relationship to the executive branch regarding a recourse to arms.There were unintended ambiguities and unforeseen exigencies in the original war powers legislation that have confounded systematic application

James A. Nathan

1991-01-01

217

Spanish Civil War: An Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Spanish Civil War (1936-39) lends itself to analysis using the theories of Clausewitz and Sun Tzu. It featured intense passion, military deception, and served as a chessboard for European politics immediately prior to World War II. The character of th...

A. Namm

2003-01-01

218

How evidence based is the management of two common sports injuries in a sports injury clinic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the diagnosis and management of adults attending a sports injury clinic, to establish to what extent the management of the two most common injuries treated at this clinic is evidence based, and to explore factors that affect management.Methods: A retrospective examination of 100 random case notes extracted age, sex, sport, type and site of injury, treatment, and

I R Murray; S A Murray; K MacKenzie; S Coleman

2005-01-01

219

Racquet sports--patterns of injury presenting to a sports injury clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in

M D Chard; S M Lachmann

1987-01-01

220

Injuries and injury prevention among indigenous children and young people.  

PubMed

Throughout the world, injuries and violence are a leading cause of mortality and suffering among Indigenous communities. Among American Indian and Alaska Native children aged 1 to 19 years, 71% of deaths are from injuries. Motor-vehicle accidents, attempted suicide, and interpersonal violence are the most common causes of injuries in highly industrialized countries. For Indigenous populations in middle- and low-income countries, trauma caused by motor-vehicle accidents, agricultural injuries, interpersonal violence, child labor, and the ravages of war are priorities for intervention. To be effective, injury-prevention efforts should be based on scientific evidence, be developmentally and culturally appropriate, and draw on the inherent strengths of Indigenous communities. PMID:19962034

Berger, Lawrence R; Wallace, L J David; Bill, Nancy M

2009-12-01

221

Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining mortality estimates and to establish guidelines for policy-makers, the media and the public on how to interpret these estimates.

Tapp, Christine; Burkle, Frederick M; Wilson, Kumanan; Takaro, Tim; Guyatt, Gordon H; Amad, Hani; Mills, Edward J

2008-01-01

222

Empirically derived injury prevention rules.  

PubMed Central

This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced.

Peterson, L; Schick, B

1993-01-01

223

The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1940s were a turning point in married women's labor-force participation, leading many to credit World War II with spurring economic and social change. This paper uses two retrospective surveys from 1944 and 1951 to show that half of all married women employed in 1950 were working in 1940, and more than half of the decade's new entrants joined after

Claudia D Goldin

1991-01-01

224

Kepler's "War on Mars"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

2011-01-01

225

Children and war.  

PubMed

Millions of children are not merely bystanders but targets of war. Many are killed by bombs, bullets and landmines, many more are severely traumatized, though there is disagreement among carers as to how far the resulting symptoms should be managed as conventional psychiatric illness. Although a clear breach of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, large numbers of boys become active combatants, particularly in conflicts in Africa. The background factors to this and the rehabilitation of the boy soldiers at the end of the conflicts are discussed. A recent report to the United Nations proposes that the age limit of 15 for child soldiers under the Convention should be raised to 18. Governments should set up official machinery for implementing and monitoring the Convention. PMID:10605381

Barnett, L

1999-01-01

226

Women and War  

PubMed Central

Most of today's 1.7 million women veterans obtain all or most of their medical care outside the VA health care system, where their veteran status is rarely recognized or acknowledged. Several aspects of women's military service have been associated with adverse psychologic and physical outcomes, and failure to assess women's veteran status, their deployment status, and military trauma history could delay identifying or treating such conditions. Yet few clinicians know of women's military history—or of military service's impact on women's subsequent health and well being. Because an individual's military service may be best understood within the historical context in which it occurred, we provide a focused historical overview of women's military contributions and their steady integration into the Armed Forces since the War for Independence. We then describe some of the medical and psychiatric conditions associated with military service.

Murdoch, Maureen; Bradley, Arlene; Mather, Susan H; Klein, Robert E; Turner, Carole L; Yano, Elizabeth M

2006-01-01

227

Give War a Chance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, an online complement to a PBS Frontline program aired earlier this week, explores how US diplomats and the military differ on the use of forceful interventions in the post-Vietnam era. The difference is explored through the experiences of US Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, UN Ambassador-nominee, and Admiral Leighton "Snuffy" Smith (ret.), a Vietnam war hero who commanded NATO forces in Bosnia. The site features biographies and interviews with Holbrooke and Smith, and also includes a report on American use of military might, an analysis of US foreign policy in regard to the nations of the former Yugoslavia, an interview with Major H.R. McMaster about the lessons learned from Vietnam, and a chronology of US military interventions in the last 30 years.

228

World War II Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted by the History department at the University of San Diego, this site makes available over 100 strategic maps from World War II. All the major theaters of conflict are represented here from Asia and the South Pacific to Northern Africa, Europe, and the Battle for the Atlantic. Thumbnail versions of the maps are listed in chronological order beginning with a 1939 map of Gibraltar and ending with cartography from the battle for the Philippines in late 1944. The entries also state the source of each map with the majority coming from the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library, the Illustrated London News, the Library of Congress, and the National Archives. Users can click on the thumbnail image to get a full-screen version of the map for further study.

2000-01-01

229

The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War  

Microsoft Academic Search

During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War

Lee E Ohanian

1997-01-01

230

Prevention of Infection and Antibiotic Use in the Management of Armed Conflict Injuries to the Extremities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite the development of improved protective personal equipment, orthopedic injury patterns remained unchanged from World\\u000a War I. Orthopedic trauma comprises the vast majority of war injuries, as 70% of casualties involve the musculoskeletal system\\u000a and extremity injuries represent the most common type. Factors influencing the development of wound infections in a combat\\u000a theater include wound type and severity, the presence

Renato Finkelstein

231

Parental involvement in the war in Croatia 1991-1995 and suicidality in Croatian male adolescents  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the association between parental war involvement and different indicators of psychosocial distress in a community sample of early adolescents ten years after the war in Croatia 1991-1995. Methods A total of 695 adolescents were screened with a self-report questionnaire assessing parental war involvement, sociodemographic characteristics, and alcohol and drug consumption. Personality traits were assessed with the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; depressive symptoms with the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI); and unintentional injuries, physical fighting, and bullying with the World Health Organization survey Health Behavior in School-aged Children. Suicidal ideation was assessed with three dichotomous items. Suicidal attempts were assessed with one dichotomous item. Results Out of 348 boys and 347 girls who were included in the analysis, 57.7% had at least one veteran parent. Male children of war veterans had higher rates of unintentional injuries (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 2.63) and more frequent affirmative responses across the full suicidal spectrum (thoughts about death – OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.3; thoughts about suicide – OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.72 to 14.66; suicide attempts – OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.03 to 12.67). In boys, thoughts about suicide and unintentional injuries were associated with parental war involvement even after logistic regression. However, girls were less likely to be affected by parental war involvement, and only exhibited signs of psychopathology on the CDI total score. Conclusion Parental war involvement was associated with negative psychosocial sequels for male children. This relationship is possibly mediated by some kind of identification or secondary traumatization. Suicidality and unintentional injuries are nonspecific markers for a broad range of psychosocial distresses, which is why the suggested target group for preventive interventions should be veteran parents as vectors of this distress.

Franic, Tomislav; Kardum, Goran; Marin Prizmic, Iris; Pavletic, Nevia; Marcinko, Darko

2012-01-01

232

[Injuries in field hockey].  

PubMed

Frequency and mechanisms of injuries in field hockey are evaluated in a retrospective study of 322 players. Each athlete sustains 0.6 (female) respectively 1.0 (male) injuries per season on the average, mostly minor lesions. Severe injuries are mostly due to the playing surface; especially astroturf seems to be dangerous. The risk during match exceeds the risk during practice by a factor of 10.36% are typical field hockey injuries as they are caused by ball or stick. 62% of the lesions are related to the lower limb, 19% to the upper limb (mainly hand and fingers), and 19% to head and trunk. The data allow to draw conclusions concerning preventive measures. PMID:8066540

Eggers-Ströder, G; Hermann, B

1994-06-01

233

Back Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... tissues extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the ... lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

234

Unprincipled War: Looking at the War on Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Drug War is real. President Bush declared the effects of the Narcotrafficking enterprises as a threat to the vital national interests. With a budget of over $1 billion annually, not including economic and security assistance programs, we are attemptin...

J. L. Ahart

1993-01-01

235

Imperial War Museum Online Exhibitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Imperial War Museum in London, one of this Scout's favorite museums, features a number of online exhibits. These include an illustrated diary from war artist Edward Ardizzone, an overview of the Battle of Britain, an exploration of the industrial front in World War II, and several collections of audio recordings by veterans of WWI, WWII, and Korea. The main site offers a gallery guide, information on new exhibits, a description of the collections and information for researchers, events at the museum, and some notes for visitors (highly recommended if you are in the area).

236

Spanish Civil War Memory Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California, San Diego in collaboration with several Spanish civic associations, including the Federacion Estatal de Foros por La Memoria and others, have put together this remarkable digital archive of the Spanish Civil War and the Francoist Dictatorship. Since 2007, several teams of graduate students have been recording audiovisual testimonies of militants, witnesses, and victims of the Spanish Civil War and Francoist repression. On this site, visitors can listen to dozens of recorded testimonies in English and Spanish and also read about the interview protocol and methods. The Video Catalog area contains some helpful resources, including information about each participant and their specific involvement in the war.

237

War Termination: Setting Conditions for Peace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wars need to have clear political ends with complementary war termination strategies defined at the beginning of hostilities that can be refined over the continuum of war. War termination, from the victor's point of view, has been defined as the last stag...

L. Legier-Topp

2009-01-01

238

Cyber War Will Not Take Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost two decades, experts and defense establishments the world over have been predicting that cyber war is coming. But is it? This article argues in three steps that cyber war has never happened in the past, that cyber war does not take place in the present, and that it is unlikely that cyber war will occur in the future.

Thomas Rid

2012-01-01

239

Cyber War Will Not Take Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost two decades, experts and defense establishments the world over have been predicting that cyber war is coming. But is it? This article argues in three steps that cyber war has never happened in the past, that cyber war does not take place in the present, and that it is unlikely that cyber war will occur in the future.

Thomas Rid

2011-01-01

240

Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

2013-01-01

241

American Women and the Great War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

Dumenil, Lynn

2002-01-01

242

Lessons on the Cold War. Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that the end of the Cold War requires teachers to change their teaching methods and content. Presents six lessons, most with three individual student activities, that trace the Cold War from the pre-World War I era through the end of the Vietnam War. (CFR)

Cunningham, Susan J.

1994-01-01

243

Profile of spinal injuries in Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective study.Objective:To describe the pattern and outcome of spinal cord injuries in Lagos, Nigeria.Setting:Nigeria, Lagos.Methods:This retrospective review of cases was conducted at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, between January 1992 and December 2006.Results:A total of 468 cases of spinal cord injury over the 15-year period were studied. Three hundred and twelve of them (66.2%) were aged 40 years

D C Obalum; S O Giwa; T O Adekoya-Cole; G O Enweluzo

2009-01-01

244

Application of 3D computer-assisted techniques to sinonasal pathology[mdash ]Case report: War wounds of paranasal sinuses caused by metallic foreign bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign bodies in paranasal sinuses are found quite infrequently. They are usually detected after various types of head trauma and most commonly occur as a consequence of improper handling of firearms or explosives. In countries at war, eg, during the war in Croatia, adults and children were almost equally exposed to these injuries. The diagnosis should be based on results

Ivica Klapan; Vlado Sruk; Ranko Mladina

2002-01-01

245

Strategy and the Vietnam War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although ten years have passed since conflict in South Vietnam ended, Americans are still debating the significance of what Professor George Herring has labeled 'America's longest war.' Much of the discussion centers on American strategy in Southeast Asia...

J. Clarke

1986-01-01

246

Women, Gender, and the War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the representation of women in Vietnam War literature and films within a context of changing gender relationships in American society. Argues that critical attention needs to be given to the structure of masculinity and its relationship to warfare. (MS)

Jeffords, Susan

1989-01-01

247

Environmental consequences of nuclear war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

2014-05-01

248

Reconciliation in Civil War Movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the theme of reconcilation in six Civil War movies: Shenandoah (1965), The Colt (2005), The Littlest Rebel (1935), The Little Colonel (1935), Johnny Shiloh (1965), and Mosby's Marauders (1967).

Brenda A Ayres

2009-01-01

249

Tectorial membrane injury: frequently overlooked in pediatric traumatic head injury.  

PubMed

REHs and tectorial membrane injuries are rare complications of pediatric head and neck injuries. We aim to describe the neuroimaging findings in pediatric REHs, to summarize the mechanism of injury, and to correlate the imaging findings with the clinical presentation. We retrospectively evaluated CT and/or MR imaging studies of 10 children with traumatic REH. Most patients were involved in MVAs. The tectorial membrane was injured in 70% of patients, and REHs were medium to large in 80%. None of the patients had a focal spinal cord or brain stem injury, craniocervical junction dislocation, or vertebral fractures. Tectorial membrane disruption was diagnosed in most patients without craniocervical junction-related symptoms. Tectorial membrane lesions and REHs were seen in young children who sustained high-speed head and neck injuries. Clinical symptoms may be minimal or misleading. The radiologist should be aware of these injuries in children. MR imaging appears to be more sensitive than CT. PMID:21852371

Meoded, A; Singhi, S; Poretti, A; Eran, A; Tekes, A; Huisman, T A G M

2011-01-01

250

Asia in a global war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the role of Asia in a future large?scale war between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet military buildup in the Far East and Asia's growing economic importance have led some observers to suggest that Asia rather than Europe may become the locus for a future U.S.?Soviet war. In spite of these changes, however, a

Francis Fukuyama

1987-01-01

251

Psychological aspects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

Thompson, J.

1985-01-01

252

Prevention of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

Lifton, R.J.

1980-10-01

253

Hecamede: Homeric nurse of the battle-wounded in the Trojan War.  

PubMed

The Homeric epics present the 10-year lasting Trojan War, offering the description of battle wounds and medical care of injuries. Hecamede is referred by the Homer as a battlefield nurse who had knowledge of the treatment of bleeding battle wounds. PMID:24585844

Balanika, Alexia P; Baltas, Christos S

2014-02-01

254

Neuroinflammatory Pathobiology in Gulf War Illness: Characterization with an Animal Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multi-symptom syndrome with features of an inflammatory response due to infection or injury, findings suggestive of a chronic neuroimmune/neuroinflammatory disorder. Our overarching hypothesis is that exposure to GWI-relevant c...

D. B. Miller J. P. O'Callaghan S. M. Lasley

2013-01-01

255

Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.  

PubMed

Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

2013-01-01

256

Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers  

PubMed Central

Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals.

Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Soderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

2007-01-01

257

Ski Injury Statistics, 1982 to 1993, Jackson Hole Ski Resort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis was conducted on injury statistics compiled over 12 seasons, from 1982 to 1993 (2.55 million skier-days), at a Wyoming ski resort. The population at risk was determined by ticket sales per year. A total of 9749 skiing injuries was indexed by anatomic region and se verity according to diagnosis on initial evaluation. Injury rates were then analyzed

Winston J. Warme; John A. Feagin; Paul King; Kenneth L. Lambert; R. Raymond Cunningham

1995-01-01

258

Sports related injuries in Scottish adolescents aged 11-15  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To measure the age and sex distribution of self reported sports and leisure injuries in a 12 month retrospective recall period among a representative national sample of Scottish adolescents, and to examine the characteristics (gender, age, handedness, and level of sports participation) of sports related injuries in relation to injuries sustained during other activities. DESIGN\\/SETTING: Self completion questionnaire survey

J. M. Williams; P. Wright; C. E. Currie; T. F. Beattie

1998-01-01

259

Cervical Spinal Cord Injury and the Need for Cardiovascular Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: The level of cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) can be used to predict the need for a cardiovas- cular intervention. Design: Retrospective review. Data included level of spi- nal cord injury, Injury Severity Score, lowest heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in the first 24 hours and in- tensive care unit course. The level of CSCI was divided into

John F. Bilello; James W. Davis; Mark A. Cunningham; Tammi F. Groom; Debbie Lemaster; Lawrence P. Sue

260

The epidemiology of skiing injuries in Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of all skiing injuries experienced by members of the British Antarctic Survey between 1989 and 1995 was undertaken to test the hypothesis that skiing was responsible for a disproportionate number and severity of injuries compared with other activities. Fifty-nine new consultations for skiing injuries were recorded. This represented 3.2% of all consultations (annual range 1.3–6.7%), or 9.7%

Trevor J. Cattermole

1999-01-01

261

Bladder cancer in spinal cord injury patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective review.Objective:Spinal cord injury is a known risk factor for bladder cancer. The risk of bladder cancer has been reported at 16–28 times higher than the general population. Earlier studies have identified indwelling catheters as risk factors. We examined the characteristics of bladder cancers in a spinal cord injury (SCI) population.Setting:Long Beach VA Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Unit, Long

J F Kalisvaart; H K Katsumi; L D Ronningen; R M Hovey

2010-01-01

262

War rape, natality and genocide.  

PubMed

Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. PMID:21941691

Schott, Robin May

2011-01-01

263

BBC: WW2 People's War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the passing of another Veteran's Day here in the United States, many persons may be interested to learn about the everyday experiences of persons around the world during various military conflicts. The BBC has created this website in an attempt to allow people to share their reminisces of World War II, and quite a few stories and tales have been contributed thus far. Visitors to the site can browse stories by date, location, or type; additionally, stories are organized into thematic categories such as Childhood and Evacuation, Family Life, The Blitz, and Home Front. For each story, visitors have the option of commenting on each narrative, or offering their own remembrances as well. The site also offers some links to other online features offered by the BBC, such as QuickTime movies dealing with various facets of World War II and another quirky site that details how the war affected British children.

264

Nuclear War. The moral dimension  

SciTech Connect

U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

Child, J.W.

1985-01-01

265

Wisconsin in the Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There's lots of talk about the Civil War these days, and a myriad of organizations have started releasing digital collections, mobile applications, and so on. The Wisconsin Historical society has created this digital collection of over 20,000 original documents containing a wealth of diaries, regimental histories and hundreds of newspaper articles and maps. The materials are divided into sections that include Stories, People, Places, Regiments, and Battles. Visitors are encouraged to get started by clicking on the This Day in Civil War History to get a flavor for the events from each day during the four-year conflict. Also, the Brief Excerpts from the Collection allow visitors to dip into the offering here with ease. The Places area is quite excellent, as visitors can read narratives from those soldiers and other people who set forth into the war from towns small and large around the Badger State.

2011-01-01

266

Small watercraft injuries in children.  

PubMed

The speed and use of small watercraft have increased dramatically in recent years. We report our experience with pediatric trauma resulting from small watercraft accidents. We conducted a retrospective chart review including all children admitted with injuries sustained in small watercraft accidents. Sixteen children were included; nine were injured in jet ski accidents and seven in accidents involving other craft. Jet ski accidents tended to result in more serious injuries (closed-head injuries, hollow and solid viscus injuries, chest trauma, spinal injuries leading to paralysis, and death) than those sustained in accidents with small boats. Skin and soft-tissue injuries and long-bone fractures were the most frequent injuries following accidents with other small boats. Six of eight children (75%) injured on jet skis required operative interventions. Only three of seven (43%) children in other watercraft accidents required surgery (P < 0.05 jet ski vs other watercraft). When compared with children injured in accidents involving small boats those involved in jet ski accidents tended to have more serious injuries and require operative intervention more frequently. A high index of suspicion for serious injuries must be maintained when evaluating children with this mechanism of injury. PMID:12079135

Beierle, Elizabeth A; Chen, Mike K; Langham, Max R; Kays, David W; Talbert, James L

2002-06-01

267

Slow-pitch softball injuries.  

PubMed

A prospective investigation of slow-pitch softball injuries incurred in Hawaii was undertaken to study the nature of these injuries and analyze their causes. The injured players were involved in league softball with referees. There were 83 athletes and 93 injuries. A retrospective review of all Army softball-related admissions was also done. Thirty-five athletes or 42% were injured while sliding, 29 "foot first" and the remainder "hand first". Twenty-five of 27 ankle injuries caused by sliding included 20 fractures, 3 sprains, and 2 complete closed posterior dislocations. Analysis of these injuries suggests that the injury occurs when the individual uses the base to rapidly decelerate and avoid overrunning the base. Eighty-four percent of the athletes were injured from three mechanisms; 42% from sliding, 25% from "jamming" injuries, and 17% from falls. The only preventable group of injuries appears to be the sliding injuries. Recessing the bases, using "quick release" rather than anchored bases, teaching safer sliding techniques, or eliminating the slide are suggested as means of preventing these injuries. PMID:6742309

Wheeler, B R

1984-01-01

268

Injury Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

269

Pediatric Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pediatric Injury: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is pediatric injury? Pediatric injuries (or traumas) are quite diverse ...

270

Clinical accuracy of RIFLE and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria for acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure) classification for acute kidney injury (AKI) was recently modified by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). The two definition systems differ in several aspects, and it is not clearly determined which has the better clinical accuracy. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study we investigated 4,836 consecutive

Lars Englberger; Rakesh M Suri; Zhuo Li; Edward T Casey; Richard C Daly; Joseph A Dearani; Hartzell V Schaff

2011-01-01

271

75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department...Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF...1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The Gulf War Veterans'...

2010-04-01

272

78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department...VA) established the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF...addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The third Gulf War...

2013-05-14

273

PKC activator therapeutic for mild traumatic brain injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent consequence of vehicle, sport and war related injuries. More than 90% of TBI patients suffer mild injury (mTBI). However, the pathologies underlying the disease are poorly understood and treatment modalities are limited. We report here that in mice, the potent PKC activator bryostatin1 protects against mTBI induced learning and memory deficits and reduction

Ofer Zohar; Rotem Lavy; Xiaomei Zi; Thomas J. Nelson; Jarin Hongpaisan; Chaim G. Pick; D. L. Alkon

2011-01-01

274

Nation at War: Reconciling Ends and Means.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings contain the following presentations: Opening Remarks by Dr. Richmond M. Lloyd, William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics, Naval War College, and Rear Admiral Jacob L. Shuford, USN, President, Naval War College; 'Global Challe...

R. M. Lloyd

2005-01-01

275

Talking to Children about Terrorism and War  

MedlinePLUS

... possible preoccupation with violent movies or war theme video/computer games. Children who seem preoccupied or very stressed about war, fighting, or terrorism should be evaluated by a qualified mental health professional. Other signs that a child may need ...

276

The War Powers Resolutions - Will It Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question is whether or not the War Powers Resolution (WPR) will restore balance in the division of Executive and Congressional War Powers responsibilities - in particular, gain congressional participation in those future decision(s) for committi...

C. A. Fulp

1976-01-01

277

Afghan Sources of the Tajikistan Civil War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates Afghanistan influences in the Tajikistan civil war. Ongoing conflict in Afghanistan overlaps the Tajikistan conflict developing after the USSR's 1991 breakup. The Tajikistan civil war includes elements of ethnic, religious and poli...

S. W. Tousley

1995-01-01

278

Gulf War Logistics: Theory Into Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Air Command and Staff College Gulf War Logistics research project comprises two parts. First is a computerized toolbook that visually depicts operational-level logistics operations in the Gulf War. Second is a paper that analyzes how logisticians, le...

B. D. Lafferty R. Huhn G. M. Al-Shaibani T. E. Behne M. M. Curran

1995-01-01

279

Primary Voters as Retrospective Voters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although retrospective evaluations of the economy and other issues have been hypothesized as major determinants of vote choice in national and congressional elections, there has been little systematic analysis of retrospective voting in presidential primary elections. Using the 1980 Democratic primary, the author examines the influence of perceptions of the economy and other retrospective issues in selecting a party's nominee

Fred M. Monardi

1994-01-01

280

Factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in war-survivors displaced in Croatia  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine the role of perceived stressfulness of trauma exposure and economic, social, occupational, educational, and familial adaptation after trauma in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in displaced war survivors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2000 and July 2002 with a sample of 173 internally displaced persons or refugees and 167 matched controls in Croatia. Clinical measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Results Displaced war survivors reported the exposure to a mean?±?standard deviation of 13.1?±?8.3 war stressors, including combat, torture, serious injury, death of close persons, and loss of property. Compared to controls, they reported higher rates of marked to severe impact of war on family (16.2% vs 51.6%), social (7.2% vs 43.5%), economic (12.6% vs 55.4%), occupational (1.8% vs 15.9%), and educational (2.4% vs 8.8%) adaptation. In two logistic regression analyses, the strongest predictor of PTSD and depression was high level of perceived distress during trauma exposure. PTSD but not depression was associated with economic, social, occupational, educational, and familial adaptation after trauma. Conclusion Displaced survivors who experienced multiple war events perceived greater negative impact of war on their life domains compared to individuals who lived in a war setting but had no trauma exposure. The most important determinant of psychological outcomes was perceived stressfulness of war stressors. Although post-trauma adaptation in different life spheres had an impact, its effect was not robust and consistent across disorders. These findings suggest that it would be effective to use a trauma-focused approach in rehabilitation of war survivors.

Letica-Crepulja, Marina; Salcioglu, Ebru; Franciskovic, Tanja; Basoglu, Metin

2011-01-01

281

War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition  

SciTech Connect

We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

Ziegler, D.W. (Western Washington Univ. (US))

1987-01-01

282

United States Historians, Cold War Rhetoric, and The Finnish Winter War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. attitude toward Finland during the Cold War years reveals much about U.S. society and politics. In particular, the war between Finland and the Soviet Union during 1939 and 1940 (Finnish Winter War) and the way in which the United States reacted to it at the time and in the years following World War II has relevance for better…

Olson, Keith W.

283

The Kosovan War, 1998-99: Transformations of State, War and Genocide in the Global Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an analysis of the Kosovan war of 1998-99 in the light of historical-sociological perspectives on the contemporary state and on war and genocide. It argues that Kosova poses new challenges which threaten to relegitimate war as a means of politics, after the earlier implication of total war with genocide, unless alternative forms of international intervention are developed.

Martin Shaw

1999-01-01

284

Low Paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War Veterans Self-Reporting Gulf War Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to organophosphate (OP's) insecticides and nerve gases during the Persian Gulf War has been implicated in the development of Gulf War Syndrome. Paraoxonase (PON1) present in human serum detoxifies OP's. We determined the levels of PON1 in the serum of Gulf War Veterans and compared these to those found in a control population. One hundred fifty-two Gulf War Veterans

Bharti Mackness; Paul N. Durrington; Michael I. Mackness

2000-01-01

285

Children Exposed to War\\/Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related

Jon A. Shaw

2003-01-01

286

The Civil War in Literature: English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Civil War in Literature is a course in which investigation is made into the legacy that this war left to humanity. Through the reading and discussion of literary works written during or about the Civil War, including "Jubilee,""Gone with the Wind,""Red Badge of Courage," poetry by Walt Whitman, and the essays of Frederick Douglass, students…

Boone, Dave

287

The American jeremiad in Civil War literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores and analyzes the religious rhetoric and Biblical allusions in literature written surrounding the American Civil War: Herman Melville's Battle Pieces: Aspects of the War ; Walt Whitman's Memoranda During the War ; selected poetry of John Greenleaf Whittier published in William Lloyd Garrison's abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator ; and, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Dred. Each chapter explores how

Jacob Hadley Stratman

2007-01-01

288

American Women in a World at War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on women during World War II stating that the events of the war changed the lives of women. Addresses the role of women during wartime by sharing excerpts and information gleaned from letters written by women during World War II. (CMK)

Litoff, Judy Barrett; Smith, David C.

2002-01-01

289

World War II Homefront: A Historiography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

Winkler, Allan M.

2002-01-01

290

Why War: A Mathematical Systems Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The search for causes of war has been the major concern of international relations scholars for centuries. One suspects that wars are caused by all manner of things. The interest here is in why wars come about. It might be that ideological differences mak...

P. A. Anderson P. L. Miller

1974-01-01

291

Suicide Prevention in the Pacific War (WWII).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During war against Japan, there were two facets of U.S. program to prevent suicide among the Japanese: research component in Foreign Morale Analysis Division of Office of War Information and a suicide prevention program itself put into effect toward the end of the war in battles of Saipan and Okinawa and undertaken by U.S. GIs. (Author/NB)

Suzuki, Peter T.

1991-01-01

292

Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Those in Algeria who speak out for social justice often fall prey to the political violence that has accounted for over 28,000 deaths in the last two years. Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the mil...

T. Robling

1995-01-01

293

Reflections on Gulf War illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of Britain's recent wars, the Falklands campaign of 1982 was anomalous in many respects, fought to defend a colony with a small but a loyal population, 8000 miles away, but it was also relatively straightforward. It involved high-level diplomacy and consultations at the United Nations, but it was decided on the battlefield in a series of short, but intense engagements

Simon Wessely; Lawrence Freedman

2006-01-01

294

Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

Vogeler, Ingolf

1995-01-01

295

Gulf War Toolbook (User's Guide).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document appears to be the user's guide to a larger document available in a multi-media-based format. Much of what has been written on the specific order of battle during the Gulf War is narrowly focused; that is, no single source adequately reflects...

M. Caffrey C. Diggs A. S. E. Eyadah S. Herring T. S. Jung

1995-01-01

296

War in the Information Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are beginning to realize the emergence of a new age--the information age. The full dimensions of this new age are unknown. The authors argue that enough is known to conclude that the conduct of war in the future will be profoundly different. Paradoxica...

G. R. Sullivan J. M. Dubik

1994-01-01

297

``Camouflage'' of Ships in War  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN his speech at the Royal Academy banquet the Prince of Wales referred to one of the factors of modern warfare which is of special scientific interest-the art of ``camouflage.'' In the highly successful ``camouflage'' of ships as it was carried out during the closing phases of the war the principle made use of was that, familiar to biologists, of

J. Graham Kerr

1919-01-01

298

Past as Prologue: Sadat's War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Six Day War of 5-10 June 1967 resulted in a decisive military victory by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) over the forces of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. It was a short engagement, based on maneuver warfare, and was concluded with a minimum number of casu...

M. Pankove R. Louie

2005-01-01

299

The Politics of Star Wars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

Wilkins, Lee

300

International War Veterans' Poetry Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by and for war veterans, this website contains poetry and short stories that are not only written about war veterans, but they are also written by them. The submissions can be from veterans of any nation, but must pertain to war, veterans, or the consequences of war. The website also includes resources for veterans who want to connect with other veterans and for those saddled with the unique challenges associated with being a veteran. "The Index of Authors" section at the top of the page will lead visitors to author pages and their writings. Some have photos, and others have extensive biographical essays. Visitors can find everything new added to the site, by month and year, going all the way back to 2001, by clicking on "Recent Additions" at the top of the page. The "Writing Resources" link at the top of the page has some great links to general writing sources, and to specific veteran writing resources, such as "Voice of the Vet: Veterans Writing Project", which takes place weekly at the National Vietnam Veterans Art Museum in Chicago. "Recommended Links", found at the top of the page, offers a slew of sites that honor veterans, help veterans, inform veterans, remember veterans, and tell the stories of veterans.

301

Women in War: Operational Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Armed Forces is an all volunteer force comprised of male and female troops with women accounting for 20% of force strength. Military personnel face unique challenges such as war, deployment and field training and two issues that affect m...

L. A. Christopher

2004-01-01

302

The Revolutionary War. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's novel "My Brother Sam Is Dead," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that one way to learn about the past is to read historical novels; and that some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict, and some find themselves caught in the…

Buchberg, Wendy

303

War, peace and private portfolios  

Microsoft Academic Search

During civil wars trading is profitable as markets fragment. Profits may be saved in liquid form, because investment is too risky. In a successful economic transition to peace these liquid assets are switched into investment. Continuing fears of insecurity, however, may keep portfolios liquid. We consider three policy consequences. The unpredictable return of confidence causes erratic changes in the demand

Jan Willem Gunning

1995-01-01

304

Ramadan War: End of Illusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This strategy research paper focuses the Ramadan War, October 1973, as a turning point in the Middle East with profound strategic consequences for Egypt and the region and worthy of study by all military professionals. The strategic importance of the oper...

H. A. El-Rewany

2001-01-01

305

Gunshot and Explosion Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7.8% in the GSW group compared with 5.3% in the explosion group. A larger proportion of gunshot victims died during the first day (97% versus 58%). Conclusions: GSW and injuries from explosions differ in the body region of injury, distribution of severity, LOS, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and time of inpatient death. These findings have implications for treatment and for preparedness of hospital resources to treat patients after a terrorist attack in any region of the world. Tailored protocol for patient evaluation and initial treatment should differ between GSW and explosion victims. Hospital organization toward treating and admitting these patients should take into account the different arrival and injury patterns.

Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

2004-01-01

306

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Incidence Among Male and Female Professional Alpine Skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review of anterior cruciate ligament injuries among professional alpine skiers was performed to compare sex-related differences in injury incidence. We screened 7155 ski patrollers or instructors (4537 men and 2618 women) for knee injuries before each ski season between 1991 and 1997. Screening involved a ski history questionnaire, a knee injury history questionnaire, and a knee physical examination.

Randall W. Viola; J. Richard Steadman; Scott D. Mair; Karen K. Briggs; William I. Sterett

1999-01-01

307

Student injuries in the dissecting room.  

PubMed

Cadaver dissection is the first opportunity for many students to practice handling human tissue and is their first exposure to the occupational hazards involved with this task. Few studies examine dissection room injuries to ascertain the dangers associated with dissecting. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of dissection room injuries from four student cohorts over an eleven-year period (2001-2011), including second-year medical students, third-year medical students, second-year dental students, and third-year science students. Injury data included activity causing injury, object responsible, and injury site. A total of 163 injuries during 70,039 hours of dissection were recorded, with 66 in third-year medical students, 42 in second-year medical students, 36 in third-year science students, and 16 in second-year dental students. The overall rate was 2.87 injuries per 1,000 dissection hours, with second-year medical students most frequently injured (5.5 injuries per 1,000 hours); third-year medical students were least frequently injured (1.3 injuries per 1,000 hours). A significant difference in injury rates between student groups indicated a higher than expected injury rate to second-year medical students and lower than expected rates to third-year medical students. Injury rates increased for most groups between 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. Most injuries (79%) were from scalpel cuts to the finger or thumb. This study provides injury rates for dissection room injuries to students, indicating differences in injury frequency between cohorts and an increase in injury rate over time. As scalpel cuts were the most likely injury mechanism, targeting scalpel handling with preventative strategies may reduce future injury risk. PMID:23536433

Cornwall, Jon; Davies, Tilman M; Lees, David

2013-01-01

308

Hamstring injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecture 17Muscle injuries are among the most common, most misunderstood, and inadequately treated conditions in sports. According to some studies, muscle injuries account for 10–30% of all injuries in sport.1 Hamstring injuries are the commonest muscle injury in all sports.Hamstrings function is complex. Depending on leg positioning and relationship to the ground it can serve as a hip extensor, knee

N G Malliaropoulos

2011-01-01

309

Battlefield euthanasia - courageous compassion or war crime?  

PubMed

Issues relating to voluntary euthanasia that are currently being debated by Australian society are distinctly different from those encountered by battlefield doctors. Doctors in war undertake to treat those affected by conflict; their participation in euthanasia challenges the profession's definition of "duty of care". Euthanasia must be distinguished from "triage" and medical withdrawal of care (which are decided within a medical facility where, although resources may be limited, comfort care can be provided in the face of treatment futility). Battlefield euthanasia is a decision made, often immediately after hostile action, in the face of apparently overwhelming injuries; there is often limited availability of pain relief, support systems or palliation that would be available in a civilian environment. The battlefield situation is further complicated by issues of personal danger, the immediacy of decision making and difficulties with distinguishing civilians from combatants. Regardless of the circumstances on a battlefield, doctors, whether they are civilians or members of a defence force, are subject to the laws of armed conflict, the special provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the ethical codes of the medical profession. PMID:21426286

Neuhaus, Susan J

2011-03-21

310

World War I & World War II Propaganda Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The horrors of war are many and the fighting often extends to the homefront via various forms of propaganda. This magnificent collection from Brandeis University brings together 87 propaganda posters from World Wars I & II in glorious color and equally glorious black and white. The posters deal with a number of themes, including the work of the Red Cross, the subscription of Liberty, and Victory loans. Many notable artists contributed work to this effort, including James Montgommery Flagg, Adolph Treidler, and Haskell Coffin. Visitors can browse the posters by title, author, or date. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the rather dramatic "All together!" poster or the demanding "Are you 100% American" work created to promote the purchasing of U.S. government bonds. [KMG

311

World War I and II Poster Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

War posters from World War I and II encouraged the people of the nations at war to buy war bonds, plant gardens, ration, enlist, or work extra hard for the sake of the war effort. A collection of these posters can be found in abundance on the library website of the University of North Texas. The library has over 600 war posters, and fortunately, 493 of them are digitized. Some are quaint by today's standards, but some, like the fifth record on the homepage, entitled "Deliver Us From Evil: Buy War Bonds," has an eerie haunting quality to it. In the search box underneath the introduction to the poster collection, type in Geisel to see a poster by a familiar artist and author, encouraging Americans to "Starve the Squander Bug." Visitors should click on the thumbnail to see those "squander bugs" in full detail.

312

Motorcycle racing injuries on track and road circuits in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was carried out on all motorcycle injuries occurring at Mondelo Park racetrack for the 1983 and 1984 seasons. In this sport there were a total of 57 injuries for the two year period, 27 occurring in 1983 and 30 in 1984. Soft tissue injuries accounted for 66.7%, fractures 22.8% and head injuries 10.5% of the total. In

C H Horner; A A OBrien

1986-01-01

313

Ophthalmic injuries in British Armed Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimBritish military ophthalmologists have not been deployed in support of operations since 2003. Eye injuries in British forces receive definitive treatment on return to the United Kingdom. We report the injury patterns, management strategies, and outcomes for eye injuries in British Armed Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan.MethodsRetrospective consecutive case series of eye injuries in British Armed Forces in Iraq or

R J Blanch; M S Bindra; A S Jacks; R A H Scott

2011-01-01

314

Injuries among male and female World Cup alpine skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Limited knowledge exists on injuries among professional alpine skiers.Objective:To describe the risk of injury and the injury pattern among competitive World Cup alpine skiers during the competitive season.Methods:Retrospective interviews were performed with all World Cup athletes from 10 nations at the end of the 2006–7 and 2007–8 winter seasons, and all acute injuries occurring during the 4.5-month competitive season were

T W Flørenes; T Bere; L Nordsletten; S Heir; R Bahr

2009-01-01

315

Neurologic injury in snowmobiling  

PubMed Central

Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling.

Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

316

Are Gulf War veterans suffering war-related illnesses? Federal and civilian hospitalizations examined, June 1991 to December 1994.  

PubMed

A previous epidemiologic study demonstrated no unexplained increase in risk for postwar hospitalization among Gulf War veterans who had remained on active duty. The authors sought to expand this study to include Reserve and separated military personnel. They examined hospitalization data from the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital systems for the years 1991-1994. Since denominator data were not available, the authors compared the proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) of hospitalization discharge diagnoses (both large categories and specific diagnoses) between Gulf War veterans and other veterans of the same era. There were no indications that Gulf War veterans were suffering increased PMRs for infectious diseases; neoplasms; endocrine diseases; blood diseases; skin conditions; or diseases of the nervous system, circulatory system, or musculoskeletal system. However, these veterans did experience proportionally more hospitalizations for various specific diagnoses, namely, fractures and bone and soft-tissue injuries (Department of Defense and California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development), various diseases of the respiratory (including asthma) and digestive systems (VA), and diverse symptom diagnoses (VA). While these findings may be influenced by chance or by a number of potential confounders, including health registry participation, they merit further examination using other study designs. PMID:10625175

Gray, G C; Smith, T C; Kang, H K; Knoke, J D

2000-01-01

317

Survey of injuries among West End performers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To obtain more information about injuries of West End performers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 269 performers appearing in 20 West End productions (12 dramas and eight musicals). RESULTS: In current productions, 46% of all performers sustained at least one injury for an average of 0.87 injuries per performer. Lower extremity injuries were the most common for dancers (52.2% of injuries) and actors (43.2%) with neck and back injuries the second most common. Sprains and strains were the most common diagnoses. 61% of performers thought that their injuries were preventable. Most performers consulted nonphysician healthcare providers. Factors significantly influencing the risk of injuries for performers include female sex, a history of previous injuries, missed performances due to previous injuries, more physically demanding roles, and performing on raked (angled) stages. CONCLUSION: West End performers commonly sustain injuries. Although primary prevention of most theatrical injuries is not possible, modification of raked stages may reduce the incidence. This study may be helpful to the growing number of healthcare providers who practice performing arts medicine and may stimulate additional concern and research in the medical and theatrical communities about the performance injuries of professionals, amateurs, and theatrical students worldwide.  

Evans, R. W.; Evans, R. I.; Carvajal, S.

1998-01-01

318

[Peripheral nerve injuries during carotid endarterectomy].  

PubMed

Our experience with patients undergoing carotid endoarteriectomy over a 10 year period has been retrospectively reviewed. Nerve injuries were detected by reviewing postoperative progress and clinical notes. One hundred thirty-four procedures were performed on 120 patients, to 15 of whom (9%) occurred major nerve injuries. These included seven vagal nerve injuries causing ipsilateral vocal cord paralysis and hoarseness, five injuries of the marginal mandibular nerve and three injuries of the hypoglossal nerve. None of the patients with nerve injury had a stroke as a result of carotid operation. Vocal cord paralysis was documented by laryngoscopy. The incidence of cranial nerve injury during carotid endoarteriectomy appears to be higher than expected, particularly if asymptomatic patients are controlled. PMID:2234452

Pegoraro, M; Barile, C; Nessi, F; Bertoldo, U

1990-05-01

319

Hawaii War Records Depository Photos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hawaii War Records Depository was established in 1943, and it contains over 880 photographs taken by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Navy during the Second World War. The Depository also holds around 1000 newspaper photographs from the Honolulu Star Bulletin and 330 photographs identified as being from the Honolulu Advertiser. These unique items depict various Army and Navy activities throughout Hawaii during this period. The University of Hawaii was able to digitize these items via a grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and they are now available for perusal by the web-browsing public. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, and they can do so by photo number, agency, category, or date. Browsing by category is a good way to start, and some of the headings include "Boy Scouts", "Civic Events", and "Religion". Additionally, visitors can use the "Search" section to explore the collection via keywords.

320

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

Romanyukha, Alex [Naval Dosimetry Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD, 20889 (United States); Trompier, Francois [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France 92262 (France)

2011-05-05

321

Managing the health effects of the explosive remnants of war.  

PubMed

Many civilian deaths and injuries across the globe are a consequence of 'explosive remnants of war' (ERW). These ERW include mines, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and cluster bombs. The numbers of deaths, injuries and resulting disabilities from ERW are expected to increase as armed conflicts proliferate. This will have a substantial effect on all aspects of health. This article first describes the mechanisms of these ERW and the nature of the injuries they can cause. It then briefly outlines the immediate medical management such injuries require; the long-term outcomes and sequelae, and what can be done to manage them. It highlights how research and medical interventions must take into account cultural, social and economic factors in addition to utilising safe and appropriate techniques and practices. The article concludes by noting that medical personnel are well placed not only to intervene and manage the direct health effects of ERW, but also indirectly by advocating on behalf of those affected by adding their voices to campaigns against their proliferation. PMID:15602994

Kett, Maria E; Mannion, Steve J

2004-11-01

322

Syndesmosis injuries.  

PubMed

Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, implants, techniques, and postoperative protocols. Use of the novel suture button device has increased in recent years and shows some promise in clinical and cadaveric studies. This article contains a review of syndesmosis injuries, including anatomy and biomechanics, diagnosis, classification, and treatment options. PMID:23949902

Hunt, Kenneth J

2013-12-01

323

The effect of pre-injury physical fitness on the initial severity and recovery from whiplash injury, at six-month follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of pre-injury physical fitness on the initial severity and recovery of motor vehicle-induced neck injury (whiplash injury).Design: A quantitative experimental design using both retrospective and prospective data.Setting: Metropolitan Police physiotherapy and rehabilitation department in the UK.Subjects: One-hundred and two patients with neck pain following whiplash injury.Interventions: Patients were divided into three groups based on pre-injury

Mark Geldman; Ann Moore; Liz Cheek

2008-01-01

324

Injury Severity Scores and Nutritional Status in the Trauma Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study used a retrospective descriptive design using the Roy adaptation model to examine the relationship between trauma patients' Injury Severity Scores (ISS) and nutritional needs. Nutritional needs were defined as protein requirement to achieve a p...

J. D. Milhollen

1990-01-01

325

Eritrea-Ethiopia Border War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News takes a look at the renewed fighting in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eleven resources discussed provide news, analysis, and commentary. Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea were a single nation until May 1993, when Eritrea achieved sovereignty and seceded from Ethiopia after a protracted war of independence that lasted nearly thirty years. Eritrea, a nation of 3.6 million located on the Red Sea, was a former Italian colony (1890-1941) that was put under British administration during World War II, federated as an autonomous unit by Ethiopia in 1952, and then finally absorbed by the Ethiopian empire in 1962. Since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 1993, the two nations have disputed the demarcation of their 620-mile shared boundary, which was ostensibly delimited earlier this century in a series of treaties between the Imperial Government of Ethiopia and the Italian colonial government in Eritrea. Despite recent bilateral attempts to delineate the former colonial divide, a joint border commission has failed to settle the dispute. This on-going border conflict, compounded by severe economic tensions between the two states, erupted into war when Ethiopian and Eritrean forces clashed on May 6, 1998, in the Ethiopian-administered region of Badme. The skirmish resulted in about five weeks of fierce battle that ended last June with an unofficial peace plan brokered by the US and Rwanda. However, on February 6, the tenuous seven month stalemate snapped as heavy fighting re-ignited at several flashpoints along the contested border where both countries had amassed troops. Last weekend amid continued fighting, a delegation from the European Union failed to reach a cease-fire agreement between Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki and Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin. The unsuccessful proposal, based on a framework drafted by the Organization of African Unity, called for Eritrea to concede its current positions and return to the territory it held before the border conflict last May. As military involvement between the two countries escalates, the EU, the OAU, and the United Nations Security Council promise to re-initiate the mediation process as soon as possible before the Horn War further destabilizes east Africa.

Osmond, Andrew.

326

Retrospective CMORPH Reprocessing Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH) uses motion vectors derived from half-hourly interval geostationary satellite IR imagery to propagate the relatively high quality precipitation estimates derived from passive microwave (PMW) data to define high-resolution precipitation estimates over the globe (Joyce et al. 2004). Precipitation estimates from all available PMW sensors are merged for each 30-minute period, and calibrated to the TRMM TMI 2A12 rainfall estimates before propagation. Currently PMW precipitation estimates from nine instruments are used (TRMM TMI, AQUA AMSR-E, two DMSP SSM/I, four NOAA AMSU, and METOP-A MHS). Infrared (IR) data from five geostationary meteorological satellites are used to infer the movement of precipitation features that have been identified by the PMW information by performing spatial lag correlations on IR imagery that are 30 minutes apart in time. Essentially, the IR data are used to determine cloud motion, and that motion is applied to the PMW-derived rainfall. The shape and intensity of the PMW derived rainfall patterns are modified by "morphing". This is accomplished by doing a linear interpolation (in time) between rainfall features propagated forward in time, i.e. from the previous PMW overpass to the most current scan, and rainfall propagated backward in time, i.e. from the most current overpass to the previous scan. Currently the CMORPH archive is slightly longer than five years initiating in December 2002, corresponding to the methodology conception date. A project is underway at NOAA/CPC to extend the CMORPH satellite estimates back to 2000. PMW rainfall estimates from the NOAA-17 AMSU and AQUA AMSR-E are available from mid-2002, NOAA-16 AMSU from late 2000, NOAA-15 AMSU from early 2000, DMSP-15 SSMI since late 1999, TRMM TMI since December 1997, DMSP-14 since mid-1997, and DMSP-13 since mid-1995. Thus while PMW sampling previous to the December 2002 CMORPH inception is sparse relative to the current PMW constellation, there is enough to retrospectively reprocess CMORPH well beyond the current archive start. Also IR based PMW calibrated rainfall estimates will be calculated as part of the retrospective reprocessing. These estimates will be blended for times and locations that the PMW information is too old for relative accuracy. This blended method (CMORPH-IR) combines the CMORPH and IR based estimates via an error model developed by running test CMORPH processing, albeit withholding random high quality PMW estimates, and determining the error/skill of the CMORPH relative to the IR-based rainfall as a function of season, surface type, region, and age of PMW information in half hourly increments from PMW scan time. The retrospective processing will be performed for Year 2002 and proceed backward. Detailed results will be reported at the meeting.

Yarosh, Y.; Joyce, R.; Xie, P.

2008-05-01

327

Blast Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Shopping cart Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Main menu Service Members & Veterans Family & Friends ... majority of people who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion recover completely with little or no ...

328

Lawnmower injuries.  

PubMed

Six cases of lawnmower injury are reported. The management of these injuries is discussed. The incidence of morbidity and mortality are emphasized in an appeal for education in the safe handling of these common domestic appliances. PMID:732661

Ryan, M; Hume, K

1978-12-16

329

Inhalation Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

330

Injury risk evaluation in sport climbing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify and rate acute sport climbing injuries. Acute sport climbing injuries occurring from 2002 to 2006 were retrospectively assessed with a standardized web based questionnaire. A total number of 1962 climbers reported 699 injuries, which is equivalent to 0.2 injuries per 1?000?h of sport participation. Most (74.4%) of the injuries were of minor severity rated NACA I or NACA II. Injury distribution between the upper (42.6%) and lower extremities (41.3%) was similar, with ligament injuries, contusions and fractures being the most common injury types. Years of climbing experience (p<0.01), difficulty level (p<0.01), climbing time per week during summer (p<0.01) and winter (p<0.01) months were correlated with the injury rate. Age (p<0.05 (p=0.034)), years of climbing experience (p<0.01) and average climbing level (p<0.01) were correlated to the injury severity rated through NACA scores. The risk of acute injuries per 1?000?h of sport participation in sport climbing was lower than in previous studies on general rock climbing and higher than in studies on indoor climbing. In order to perform inter-study comparisons of future studies on climbing injuries, the use of a systematic and standardized scoring system (UIAA score) is essential. PMID:21913158

Neuhof, A; Hennig, F F; Schöffl, I; Schöffl, V

2011-10-01

331

Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

1988-01-01

332

Retrospective Conversion. SPEC Kit 65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) kit on retrospective conversion, which replaces a 1975 kit on reclassification, is based on interviews with and documents from Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members participating in retrospective conversion (recon). (Reclassification is almost always conducted as a sub-project of…

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

333

Waterbike injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury

R S Jeffery; S Caiach

1991-01-01

334

Sustaining the Peace: Determinants of Civil War Recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over half of all civil wars that began and ended between 1944 and 1997 were followed by at least one if not more episodes of civil war. We present a model to explain which characteristics of a civil war and the post-war environment make civil war more or less likely to recur. We test this model with data on civil

Jason Michael Quinn; T. David Mason; Mehmet Gurses

2007-01-01

335

Civilians and war: A review and historical overview of the involvement of non?combatant populations in conflict situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of light weapons are now regularly seen on television and are becoming an international issue, particularly regarding their impact on civilians. It is claimed that 80% or more of deaths and injuries in today's wars are civilian; there is no objective evidence for this as little accurate information is available. Recent surveys suggest, however, a proportion of between

David R. Meddings

2001-01-01

336

Civil War and the Social Contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contract-theoretic modelthe government promises a transfer to itspotential opponent in return for notengaging in a civil war. Two causes ofcivil war are identified: (i) imperfectcredibility increases the cost of therequired transfer, and may make itunfeasible; (ii) asymmetric informationfaces the government with the classicefficiency\\/rent-extraction trade off, andcivil war is used as a screening device.This problem can be solved by

Jean-Paul Azam; Andalice Mesnard

2003-01-01

337

Proportionality, Just War Theory and Weapons Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding\\u000a ‘interpretation problem’: what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a ‘measurement problem’:\\u000a how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about

John Forge

2009-01-01

338

Rethinking ‘Rape as a Weapon of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant shifts in current thinking on war and gender is the recognition that rape in wartime is not a\\u000a simple by-product of war, but often a planned and targeted policy. For many feminists ‘rape as a weapon of war’ provides a\\u000a way to articulate the systematic, pervasive, and orchestrated nature of wartime sexual violence that marks

Doris E. Buss

2009-01-01

339

Breaking the war?economy link  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence that the causal link from world production to war severity (as documented by Goldstein) begins to break down by the time of the Franco?Prussian War. To explain this finding we develop a simple choice?theoretic model based on the assumption of a long?term decline in the (average) net economic benefits of war, as perceived by policymakers. We derive

John T. Williams; Michael D. McGinnis; John C. Thomas

1994-01-01

340

The long-term consequences of war: The experience of World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven hundred and thirty-one World War II and Korean War veterans completed a questionnaire about their experiences and their current psychological reactions to the war. Nineteen percent scored above the cut-off points for both the General Health Questionnaire and the (war-related) Impact of Event Scale, demonstrating that, even over 50 years after the event, many veterans still experience problems relating

N. Hunt; I. Robbins

2001-01-01

341

The United Kingdom's last hot war of the Cold War: Oman, 1963–75  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1963 and 1975, the United Kingdom fought its last ‘hot war’ that can be classified as part of the Cold War. Attracting little media attention at the time, the war the United Kingdom waged in Oman's Dhofar province halted the spread of communism in the Persian Gulf at a period of acute vulnerability. Contrary to existing studies, which treat

Marc DeVore

2011-01-01

342

War exposure and post-traumatic stress as predictors of Portuguese colonial war veterans' physical health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between war exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been largely investigated but the impact of the combat experience on physical health has only recently merited attention. The authors investigated the relationship between war exposure and psychological and physical health among 350 Portuguese colonial war veterans. The role of current PTSD symptoms as a mediator of these relationships

Ângela Maia; Teresa McIntyre; M. Graça Pereira; Eugénia Ribeiro

2011-01-01

343

From just war to just peace: Re-visioning just war theory from a feminist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the history of just war theory and critiques it from various feminist perspectives. Using a definition of war as inseparable from the system within which it is embedded, the paper contends that just war theory has been incorporated into the realist paradigm that predominates current political thought, making it susceptible to manipulation. Most importantly, this usurpation has

Naomi Malone

2004-01-01

344

War Zone Stress, Personal Resources, and PTSD in Persian Gulf War Returnees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur subsequent to war stress, but not all troops are negatively affected. A discriminant function model was used to study associations between personal and environmental resources and psychological outcomes subsequent to war zone stress. Among 775 Persian Gulf War exposed troops, 2 subsets were identified: 97 with PTSD diagnoses and 484 who had no psychological

Patricia B. Sutker; J. Mark Davis; Madeline Uddo; Shelly R. Ditta

1995-01-01

345

Media, War, and Propaganda: Strategies of Information Management During the 2003 Iraq War  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely acknowledged that the Bush administration used faulty and false information to justify the 2003 war on Iraq, and that the mainstream media, by not adequately investigating the case for war, assisted with the project. In this paper, I outline the particular strategies employed by the media–military industrial complex to ensure a dominance of pro-war arguments in

Deepa Kumar

2006-01-01

346

Waterbike injuries.  

PubMed Central

Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

1991-01-01

347

Waterbike injuries.  

PubMed

Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. PMID:1810620

Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

1991-12-01

348

Democracy at War: Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until quite recently, many organizations (such as libraries and newspapers) kept extensive clipping files, thematically organized, and ready at a minute's notice for use by a columnist, researcher, or those who were just plain curious. One such organization was the Hamilton Spectator, a Canadian newspaper which kept a collection of 144,000 newspaper articles (culled from various Canadian newspapers) during the Second World War. With the cooperation and assistance of the Canadian War Museum, this rather amazing collection of articles is now available online, and is fully searchable as well. For those who may be overwhelmed by this material, the Museum has also created fifty-five short historical articles on some of the primary subjects covered here, such as the Battle of the Atlantic, the Royal Canadian Navy, and Axis Prisoners in Canada. Just perusing the various articles and examining their interpretations of events both in Canada and overseas is quite engaging, and visitors will also want to look at the brief article that tells how the digitization project unfolded.

349

Perilunate Injuries, Not Dislocated (PLIND).  

PubMed

Purpose?We reviewed a series of equivalents of perilunate dislocations and fracture-dislocations (PLDs-PLFDs) in which there was no dislocation of the capitate from the lunate on the initial radiographs. We propose to include these injuries as a variant of perilunate dislocations that we have termed a perilunate injury, not dislocated (PLIND) lesion in a modified classification of perilunate injuries. Methods?A review of the records of all acute perilunate injuries and displaced carpal fractures was done in a single-center university hospital wrist surgery unit over a 5-year period. All cases presenting at the acute stage with displaced fractures of scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, or capitate along with scapholunate and/or lunotriquetral dissociation but no dislocation of the capitate from the lunate in the sagittal or coronal plane were reviewed and considered as PLIND lesions. Results?We identified 11 patients with PLIND lesions. Three cases with clinical and radiological follow-up are presented. Discussion?Equivalents of PLDs-PLFDs presenting without dislocation of the capitate from the lunate do exist. These injuries may be overlooked despite their severity. They require both osseous and ligamentous repair. Including them into an existing perilunate injuries classification highlights their recognition and enables a better understanding and treatment of both acute and chronic nondislocated perilunate injuries. Level of Evidence?Level IV, retrospective case series. PMID:24436839

Herzberg, Guillaume

2013-11-01

350

The neurological manifestations of trauma: lessons from World War I.  

PubMed

Changes in the clinical presentation of functional disorders and the influence of social and cultural factors can be investigated through the historical case notes from mental hospitals. World War I (WWI) was a potent trigger of functional disorders with neurological or psychiatric symptoms. We analysed 100 randomly selected case files of German servicemen admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of the Charité Medical School of Berlin University during WWI and classified them according to contemporaneous and retrospective modern diagnoses. We compared the clinical presentations with accounts in the German and British medical literature of the time. Most patients obtained the contemporaneous diagnosis of 'psychopathic constitution' or hysteria reflecting the general view of German psychiatrists that not the war but an individual predisposition was the basis for the development of symptoms. The clinical picture was dominated by pseudoneurological motor or sensory symptoms as well as pseudoseizures. Some soldiers relived combat experiences in dream-like dissociative states that partly resemble modern-day post-traumatic stress disorder. Most servicemen were classified as unfit for military service but very few of them were granted compensation. Severe functional disorders of a neurological character could develop even without traumatic exposure in combat, which is of interest for the current debate on triggers of stress disorders. The high incidence of pseudoseizures accords with the psychiatric literature of the time and contrasts with accounts of war-related disorders in Britain. The tendency of German psychiatrists not to send traumatised servicemen back to active duty also distinguished between German and British practice. Our data contribute to the debate on the changing patterns of human responses to traumatic experience and their historical and social context. PMID:22065177

Linden, Stefanie C; Hess, Volker; Jones, Edgar

2012-04-01

351

Racquet sports--patterns of injury presenting to a sports injury clinic.  

PubMed Central

In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in persons over 25 years (59%) i.e. the reverse for sport in general. Acute traumatic injuries were seen especially in squash players, a majority affecting the knee, lumbar region, muscles and ankle. Tennis injuries differed most with lateral epicondylitis, patello-femoral pain and lumbar disc prolapse being relatively common. The badminton injury pattern overlapped the others. Lower limb injuries predominated in all three. Detailed assessment of 106 cases showed many to be new, infrequent, social players. Poor warm-up was a common factor in new and established players. The importance of these findings is discussed.

Chard, M D; Lachmann, S M

1987-01-01

352

A three-phase analysis of the prevention of recreational softball injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreational sports injuries are expensive to society. Prevention of such injuries must be a major public health goal.In a previous retrospective study, base sliding was found to be responsible for 71 % of recreational softball injuries. Because most injuries occurred during rapid deceleration against stationary bases, quick-release (break-away) bases were evaluated as a means to modify this mechanism of injury.

David H. Janda; Edward M. Wojtys; Fred M. Hankin; Milbry E. Benedict; Robert N. Hensinger

1990-01-01

353

Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war  

SciTech Connect

The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

Brzoska, M.

1987-06-01

354

76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department...VA) established the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF...addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The second Gulf...

2011-10-20

355

From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

Johannessen, Larry R.

1995-01-01

356

CT diagnosis of cardiac and pericardial injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the CT findings diagnostic of cardiac and pericardial injury, including\\u000a signs of pericardial tamponade, in patients suffering from blunt and penetrating trauma. A search of the CT radiology database\\u000a at a level I trauma center was performed to identify cases in which injury to the heart or pericardium was diagnosed, as

Karen L. Killeen; Pierre A. Poletti; K. Shanmuganathan; Stuart E. Mirvis

1999-01-01

357

When Service Members with Traumatic Brain Injury Become Students: Methods to Advance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explain which evidence-based interventions in study strategies have been successful in helping soldiers and veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) return to the classroom. Military leaders have specifically identified TBI as one of the signature injuries of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with over a quarter of…

Helms, Kimberly Turner; Libertz, Daniel

2014-01-01

358

Spinal injuries.  

PubMed

The pre-hospital care of patients with suspected spinal injuries involves early immobilisation of the whole spine and the institution of measures to prevent secondary injury from hypoxia, hypoperfusion or further mechanical disruption. Early ventilation and differentiation of haemorrhagic from neurogenic shock are the key elements of pre-hospital resuscitation specific to spinal injuries. Falls from a significant height, high-impact speed road accidents, blast injuries, direct blunt or penetrating injuries near the spine and other high energy injuries should all be regarded as high risk for spinal injury but clinical examination should determine whether the patient requires full, limited or no spinal immobilisation. Although there is little conclusive evidence in the literature that supports pre-hospital clinical clearance of the spine, the similarities between pre-hospital immobilisation decisions and in-hospital radiography decisions are such that it is likely that clinical clearance will be effective for selected patients. This decision can be made at the scene provided the patient has no evidence of: Altered level of consciousness or mental status Intoxication Neurological symptoms or signs A distracting painful injury (e.g. chest injuries, long bone fracture) Midline spinal pain or tenderness. Where there is evidence to support spinal immobilisation, then the full range of devices and techniques should be considered. In the remote or operational environment where pre-hospital times are prolonged, full immobilisation, analgesia and re-assessment may allow localisation of the injury and a reduction in the degree of immobilisation. Common reasons for missing significant spinal injuries include failing to consider the possibility of spinal injuries in patients who are either unconscious, intoxicated or uncooperative (54,55). The application of the decision rule discussed here will ensure that no clinically significant spinal injuries are missed in pre-hospital care. PMID:12174560

Mackenzie, R

2002-06-01

359

Autonomic Dysfunction in Gulf War Veterans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is one of many post-war syndromes with different ostensible origins. Several investigators have pointed out that GWI symptoms are similar to the symptoms of such disorders as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), post-traumatic stress dis...

A. Sastre

2001-01-01

360

Impaired immune function in Gulf War Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) remains a serious health consequence for at least 11,000 veterans of the first Gulf War in the early 1990s. Our understanding of the health consequences that resulted remains inadequate, and this is of great concern with another deployment to the same theater of operations occurring now. Chronic immune cell dysfunction and activation have been demonstrated

Toni Whistler; Mary Ann Fletcher; William Lonergan; Xiao-R Zeng; Jin-Mann Lin; Arthur LaPerriere; Suzanne D Vernon; Nancy G Klimas

2009-01-01

361

Presidents choice: Star Wars or arms control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central problem with the President's Star Wars program, while built upon an understandable and common hope for a perfect defense shield, is that it is not technologically achievable. The power of nuclear weapons is such that any explosions will be too many. Political support for Star Wars will last only as long as the public believes it can make

M. Bundy; G. F. Kennan; R. S. McNamara; G. Smith

2009-01-01

362

Social and economic effects of nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis of this paper is that the effects of nuclear war on a complex, technical\\/industrial society are not evaluated adequately in the development of strategic policies. If the full range of economic, social, and political effect, as well as casualty projections, of fighting various types of proposed nuclear war were to be examined realistically, our strategic goals and weapons

A. M. Katz; S. R. Osdoby

1982-01-01

363

International Environmental Law and Naval War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HISTORICAL EVIDENCE OF GENUINE CONCERN about the impact of war on the human environment can be found since the earliest civilisations. Yet, the history of war is replete with examples of serious devastation of the enemy's land and property. The relationsh...

S. A. Boelaert-Suominen

2000-01-01

364

Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

Moyi, Peter

2012-01-01

365

World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

Hagar, Suzy

1990-01-01

366

The consequences of the great war  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate consequence of the end of the First World War was the defeat of a militaristic and expansionist Germany, a cause in which the majority of those taking part actually believed. But beyond that, the end of the war had farther reaching effects, not least of which was the demise of Tsarist Russia and break?up of the Austro?Hungarian Empire,

Correlli Barnett

1998-01-01

367

War for the Ho Chi Minh Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper studies the lines of communications (the Ho Chi Minh Trail) which went from North to South Vietnam, through Laos, during the Second Indochina War. The purpose of this paper is to study the proposal that the US, during the Vietnam War should hav...

G. T. Banner

1993-01-01

368

Initial Period of War: A Soviet View.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Formation and Development of Views on the Initial Period of War From the Nineteenth Century Until the 1940s: Entry Into War in the Nineteenth Century and at the Start of the Twentieth Century; The Organizational Development of the Armed Forc...

S. P. Ivanov

1974-01-01

369

Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

2009-01-01

370

Analytic Framework for the War of Ideas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the objectives listed in the 2003 'National Strategy for Combating Terrorism' is to win the 'War of Ideas.' This thesis seeks to place an analytic framework around this war. The goal is to create a methodology for considering alternatives and some ...

H. C. Schramm

2006-01-01

371

Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

2010-01-01

372

Madonnas, Whores, and the Persian Gulf War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses reactions and attitudes of students in a women's studies course during the Gulf War. Contends that the imagery of war as a sexual, phallic event was a major topic of class discussion. Presents excerpts from teacher and student conversations. (CFR)

Bruno, Maria F.

1992-01-01

373

The Life of a Civil War Soldier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

Sanders, Barbara J.

2002-01-01

374

Lessons Learned: The Iran-Iraq War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Iran-Iraq War was the prelude to America's involvement in the tragic troubles afflicting Kuwait and the Persian Gulf. Conditions born of the war produced the dangerous impasse leading Iraq to invade its neighbor. Now that American military men are con...

S. C. Pelletiere D. V. Johnson

1991-01-01

375

Teaching Anti-militarism during War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article discusses various issues of a situated pedagogical practice by examining one teacher's experiences teaching during the U.S.-Iraq war. His course highlighted ways that cultural constructions of oppressive discourses enabled a plunge into war, looking at how and why context-specific interventions against oppression were considered and…

Freedman, David

1996-01-01

376

The Origins of the Cold War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews conventional reasoning about the start of the Cold War. Describes contemporary revisionist views of the Cold War and the reasons they arose. Maintains that American leaders exaggerated the Soviet ideological and military threat, spurring an American arms build-up which ultimately led to the present-day arms race. (JDH)

Paterson, Thomas G.

1986-01-01

377

Perceptions of nuclear war. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual deterrence has been the keystone of U.S. nuclear strategic policy with respect to the Soviet Union. But for mutual deterrence to be viable, the perceptions of nuclear weapons and nuclear war must be shared by both nations. There are currently many misconceptions in the West about Soviet views of nuclear war. These misconceptions have been reinforced over the years

Alexandrow

1987-01-01

378

Social psychologists in national war agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social psychology is one of the fields of psychology which have found new and valuable applications in critical areas of the war effort. The analysis of group attitudes is apparently following the pattern of development and exploitation which intelligence testing followed in World War I. The present report is a review of the agencies and persons involved in social psychological

D. G. Marquis

1944-01-01

379

Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard

1997-01-01

380

World War Two and the Holocaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

Boas, Jacob

381

War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

382

POW: Study of Former Prisoners of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to recommend actions necessary to assure that former prisoners of war receive compensation and health care benefits for all disabilities which may reasonably be attributed to their internment. Former prisoners of war who were r...

1980-01-01

383

Preserving Alaska's early Cold War legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Air Force owns and operates numerous facilities that were constructed during the Cold War era. The end of the Cold War prompted many changes in the operation of these properties: missions changed, facilities were modified, and entire bases were closed or realigned. The widespread downsizing of the US military stimulated concern over the potential loss of properties that

J. Hoffecker; M. Whorton

1999-01-01

384

The Vietnam Conflict: "America's Best Documented War?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems with military documentation during the Vietnam War. Reports poor record keeping practices, destruction of permanent files, and mislabeled and missing records. Describes the National Archives' Vietnam project that organized and preserved the remaining military records. Concludes that the Vietnam War was better documented than the…

Shaughnessy, C. A.

1991-01-01

385

Greed and grievance in civil wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the causes of civil war, using a new data set of wars during 1960-99. We test a `greed’ theory focusing on the ability to finance rebellion, against a `grievance’ theory focusing on ethnic and religious divisions, political repression and inequality. We find that greed considerably outperforms grievance. Consistent with the greed theory, both dependence upon primary commodity exports

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2002-01-01

386

Tet Offensive and the Principles of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although not a decisive operational success, the Tet Offensive is the acknowledged turning point of the Vietnam War. Using the Principles of War as a framework, we can gain insight into the cultural, operational and situational factors that affected the N...

N. V. Kneipp

1996-01-01

387

Advancing the scientific study of war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much research has been done, the scientific study of war has not progressed as rapidly as it could have due to a lack of integrative cumulation. To rectify this situation the war puzzle must be broken down into a series of interrelated research questions that fit within a process model of militarized interstate conflict. This will promote progress in

Stuart A. Bremer

1993-01-01

388

Britain and the American Civil War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Civil War, both the Confederacy and the Union tried to curry favor with Britain in order to support their respective causes. This online exhibition explores these relationships through original period maps, photographs, diplomatic documents, and much more. The Highlights area is a great place to start, as it showcases great finds from the collection including Civil War songs, silk cords from Abraham Lincoln's cortege, and Confederate banknotes. The Anglo-American Relations area provides a brief summary of the relationship and mentions various activities that took places between the United States and Britain during this conflict. Mapping the Civil War is another great feature on the site. Selected by curator, Matthew Shaw, the collection illustrates the terrain, history, and progress of the war. These items include a "Bird's-eye view of the Seat of War" and a fascinating composite portrait of Union Army generals titled, "The Field of Battle.âÂÂ

389

Adult supervision and pediatric injuries in the agricultural worksite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate supervision is recommended as a strategy to prevent pediatric farm injuries, yet virtually nothing is known about the quality of adult supervision on farms. We therefore explored the nature of adult supervision among pediatric farm injury cases using three theoretically relevant dimensions of supervision: (1) attention, (2) proximity, and (3) continuity. We examined a retrospective case series of 334

Barbara A. Morrongiello; William Pickett; Richard L. Berg; James G. Linneman; Robert J. Brison; Barbara Marlenga

2008-01-01

390

The epidemiology of knee and ankle injuries on Macquarie Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macquarie Island is a small, rugged sub-Antarctic island with a scientific research station and a considerable reputation for knee and ankle injuries amongst the Australian Antarctic Division expeditioner population. In order to examine the accuracy of this reputation, a 10-year retrospective analysis of all knee and ankle injuries recorded by the Macquarie Island Medical Officer in the medical logs was

Ingrid McGaughey; Peter Sullivan

2003-01-01

391

Traumatic Pediatric Retinal Detachment following Open Globe Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: It was the aim of this study to describe the clinical features and surgical outcomes of retinal detachment following open globe injuries in a pediatric population. Methods: The study was a retrospective chart review of 33 children who had undergone surgery for retinal detachment after open globe injury. Results: The mean age was 11 years (range 4–18) and the

Nan-Kai Wang; Yen-Po Chen; Ling Yeung; Kuan-Jen Chen; An-Ning Chao; Ya-Hui Kuo; Jiahn-Shing Lee; Chi-Chun Lai

2007-01-01

392

Risk of Early Childhood Injuries in Twins and Singletons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of twin births in the United States (US) has increased more than 65 per cent since 1980. However, the risk of injury to multiple-birth children is unknown. We sought to compare the risk of injury-related hospitalization and death between multiples and singletons. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked birth…

Roudsari, Bahman S.; Utter, Garth H.; Kernic, Mary A.; Mueller, Beth A.

2006-01-01

393

Skiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended.

Bartlett, L. H.

1975-01-01

394

Carnosine treatment for gulf war illness: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (B-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

Baraniuk, James Nicholas; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib; Timbol, Christian

2013-05-01

395

Hand injury patterns in softball players using a 16 inch ball  

Microsoft Academic Search

Softball is a popular recreational and competitive sport among both men and women. The injury rate in softball players is as high as that in baseball and basketball players. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 119 hand injuries in 108 patients treated at the University of Chicago hand clinic. All of the injuries were caused by the impact of a

Henry Degroot; Daniel P. Mass

1988-01-01

396

Predictive factors for acute renal failure in crush injuries in the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe Sichuan earthquake caused a large number of crush injuries and many of them developed acute renal failure (ARF). A retrospective study was performed on victims with crush injuries of West China Hospital to investigate the predictive factors for acute renal failure (ARF) in crush injuries.

Zhangxue Hu; Xiaoxi Zeng; Ping Fu; Zhijuan Luo; Yuanmao Tu; Jingyuan Liang; Ye Tao; Wei Qin

397

Cost-appropriateness of whole body vs limited bone imaging for suspected focal sports injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone imaging has been recognized as a useful diagnostic tool in detecting the presence of focal musculoskeletal injury when radiographs are normal. A retrospective review of bone images in a small number of amateur athletes indicates that secondary injuries were commonly detected at sites different from the site of musculoskeletal pain being evaluated for injury. While a larger study will

CONRAD E. NAGLE

1986-01-01

398

World War II Poster Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Government Publications Department of the Northwestern University Library provides this browsable and searchable image base of over 200 posters related to World War II. Several powerful search options are available (especially in the advanced search mode, which supports numerous Boolean, truncation, and proximity operators, as well as field searching on ten separate fields). In addition, posters can be browsed by date, title, or topic (unfortunately, topics are not separately delineated at this time). Each retrieved poster is accompanied by a full cataloged record that includes artist, title, publisher, date, format, and a short caption, among other items. Clicking on the thumbnail image enlarges the image. The Library intends to make all of its over 300 posters available at this site.

1998-01-01

399

Newfoundland and the Great War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Project, this site is a good example of how to use the Web to showcase primary source materials that document the participation of a region or group in a major historical event, in this case, Newfoundland's participation in World War I. The site has four major sections based on material type, so that users can read articles, look at pictures or videos, or listen to audio clips. Some highlights are a virtual scrapbook of images, marches and ballads played by the Royal Newfoundland Regiment Band, and video clips from the film "For the Folks Back Home" featuring archival footage from the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador.

400

Crisis stability and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

Not Available

1987-01-01

401

World War I Sheet Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Digital Initiatives at Brown University has created a number of fine collections since its inception in 2001, and this latest offering is no exception to that trend. The site is focused on providing access to hundreds of instances of sheet music that addresses various aspects of World War I. In this area, it is a definite success as the material is perfect for historians, musicians, or others who may be studying material and visual culture in the early 20th century. Users may browse through the sheet music by title, publisher, subject, and creator. Additionally, a historical essay and general introduction should be forthcoming on the site in the near future. Visitors would do well to check out such fine titles as "America He's for You", "Salvation Sal", and of course, "The Girl Behind the Man Behind the Gun," with lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse.

402

Ocular manifestations of crush head injury in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo review the ocular manifestations of crush head injuries in children.MethodsRetrospective clinical and pathological reviews. Group 1: A total of 16 children admitted with crush head injuries from television tip over. Group 2: Nine autopsy findings in crush head injury.ResultsGroup 1: A total of 11 children had fundus examination: three by neurosurgeons, eight by ophthalmologists. Scattered posterior pole preretinal and

L Gnanaraj; M G F Gilliland; R R Yahya; J T Rutka; J Drake; P Dirks; A V Levin

2007-01-01

403

Drug-induced liver injury following positive drug rechallenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug rechallenge (or reinitiation), following an event of drug-induced liver injury, can lead to serious or fatal liver injury. A retrospective review of a large pharmaceutical safety database was conducted to assess clinical outcomes of positive drug rechallenge following possible drug-induced liver injury.Positive rechallenge with suspect drug was reported in 770 of 36,795 hepatic adverse events. A total of 88

Julie I. Papay; Dawn Clines; Rezvan Rafi; Nancy Yuen; Susan D. Britt; John S. Walsh; Christine M. Hunt

2009-01-01

404

Child pedestrian injuries at tram and bus stops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyse these injuries and to create guidelines for prevention, injuries at bus or tram stops were analysed retrospectively. Medical records were analysed and questionnaires were sent to the parents in order to obtain detailed information about the mode and physical sequelae or post-traumatic behavioural disturbances of the injury.Thirty children of a median age of 9.5 years (2.7–15.3

R Unger; C Eder; J. M Mayr; J Wernig

2002-01-01

405

Long-term sequelae of electrical injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event.

Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

2013-01-01

406

Changing patterns in iatrogenic ureteral injuries.  

PubMed

Advances in laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery over the past 25 years have changed the preferred methods for performing many operations. We previously reported an increase in the number of patients treated for ureteral injury at our institution that paralleled the introduction of minimally invasive techniques. Since that report, more advanced endoscopic procedures have been introduced. We sought to determine whether the latter influenced the number of ureteral injuries managed at our institution. Reported here are the results of our retrospective study, which sought to determine if the rate of treatment of major iatrogenic ureteral injuries has changed. PMID:22232566

Romero, Victoriano; Akpinar, Haluk; Smith, John J; Assimos, Dean G

2011-01-01

407

Management of extraperitoneal rectal injuries.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-eight consecutive extraperitoneal rectal injuries for a period of 34 months ending in May 1990 were reviewed retrospectively. All injuries were due to penetrating gunshot wounds. The rectal exam was positive in 75% of patients versus 80.8% with proctosigmoidoscopy. All 28 patients had diversion of the fecal stream. Diverting colostomies were performed in 17 patients, Hartmann's colostomies in 7 patients, and proximal loop colostomies in 4 patients. Presacral drainage was used in 25 patients (89.3%). Distal irrigation was performed in 13 patients (46.4%) and primary repair in 9 patients (32.1%). There was one infectious complication (3.6%) and no deaths (0%). Fecal diversion and presacral drainage are the mainstay of therapy for civilian rectal injuries. The importance of distal irrigation of the rectum has not been established. Primary repair of the rectum has no effect on morbidity and mortality.

Bostick, P. J.; Johnson, D. A.; Heard, J. F.; Islas, J. T.; Sims, E. H.; Fleming, A. W.; Sterling-Scott, R. P.

1993-01-01

408

Epidemiology of injuries in Hong Kong elite badminton athletes.  

PubMed

This study retrospectively reviewed the injury epidemiology on 44 Hong Kong elite badminton players in 2003. Team training records were reviewed to retrieve the training and competition hours, while the medical records from the physiotherapy department were reviewed to obtain information regarding injuries. A total of 253 injuries (128 recurrent and 125 new injuries) were recorded, which accounted for an overall incidence rate of 5.04 per 1,000 player hours. Elite senior athletes had a higher incidence rate of recurrent injuries, while elite junior and potential athletes had a higher incidence rate of new injuries. A total of 1,219 visits (4.82 per athlete) to the physiotherapy department were recorded, which cost HK$487,600 (HK$1,928 per injury). Most new injuries were strain (80 injuries), and the most frequently injured body sites were the back (17 injuries), the shoulder (15 injuries), the thigh (15 injuries), and the knee (15 injuries). One-sided exact test showed that a previous injury experience significantly associated with the occurrence of new injury. PMID:17578753

Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Romy Hing-Kwan; Wong, Fiona Chui-Yan; Cheuk, Phoebe Wai-Ling; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui

2007-01-01

409

Gulf War illness: a view from Australia.  

PubMed

Australia sent a small, mostly naval, deployment to the 1991 Gulf War. When papers and media concerns arose about unexplained Gulf War illnesses in Gulf War troops from other countries, Australia decided to undertake its own study of Australian veterans. Undertaking a later study, more than 10 years after the Gulf War, allowed us to incorporate some methodological improvements on previous research, such as the inclusion of a face-to-face health assessment where more objective health data could be collected in addition to using a postal questionnaire. Despite the different Gulf War experience for the mostly naval Australian group, there were remarkable consistencies in the patterns of multiple symptom reporting found in overseas studies, including the fact that no unique symptom clusters were identified. In general, this excess symptom reporting was not found to occur with excesses in more objective measures of physical health. These objective physical measures included a wide range of haematological, biochemical and serological markers, a physical examination, spirometry and a step test of fatigability. In contrast, several psychological disorders, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse, were found to occur in excess in the Australian Gulf War group and were associated with Gulf War psychological stressors. These findings have helped raise awareness in Australia of psychological health problems in deployed military personnel. PMID:16687266

Sim, Malcolm; Kelsall, Helen

2006-04-29

410

Gulf War illness: a view from Australia  

PubMed Central

Australia sent a small, mostly naval, deployment to the 1991 Gulf War. When papers and media concerns arose about unexplained Gulf War illnesses in Gulf War troops from other countries, Australia decided to undertake its own study of Australian veterans. Undertaking a later study, more than 10 years after the Gulf War, allowed us to incorporate some methodological improvements on previous research, such as the inclusion of a face-to-face health assessment where more objective health data could be collected in addition to using a postal questionnaire. Despite the different Gulf War experience for the mostly naval Australian group, there were remarkable consistencies in the patterns of multiple symptom reporting found in overseas studies, including the fact that no unique symptom clusters were identified. In general, this excess symptom reporting was not found to occur with excesses in more objective measures of physical health. These objective physical measures included a wide range of haematological, biochemical and serological markers, a physical examination, spirometry and a step test of fatigability. In contrast, several psychological disorders, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse, were found to occur in excess in the Australian Gulf War group and were associated with Gulf War psychological stressors. These findings have helped raise awareness in Australia of psychological health problems in deployed military personnel.

Sim, Malcolm; Kelsall, Helen

2006-01-01

411

Growth monitoring following traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypopituitarism is an important consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Growth monitoring can be used as an indicator of pituitary function in children. A retrospective audit of case notes of 123 children who required intensive care unit admission with TBI found that only 71 (33%) of 212 attendances in 38 of 85 children followed up had documented height and weight

R J Moon; P Wilson; F J Kirkham; J H Davies

2009-01-01

412

Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Helmets Save Lives, Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Small, Shiny and Dangerous: ACEP Puts the Spotlight on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries Synthetic Drug Use is on a Dramatic Rise, Including Bath ...

413

Soccer Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This chapter reviews the existing epidemiological studies on pediatric soccer injuries and discusses possibilities for future research. Data Sources: A comprehensive, web-based search of existing soccer injury literature was performed with an emphasis on the pediatric population. The search encompassed all available studies, including European journals and texts, and initial investigations from the 1970s which serve as a basis

E. Giza; L. Micheli

2005-01-01

414

Social and economic effects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this paper is that the effects of nuclear war on a complex, technical/industrial society are not evaluated adequately in the development of strategic policies. If the full range of economic, social, and political effect, as well as casualty projections, of fighting various types of proposed nuclear war were to be examined realistically, our strategic goals and weapons requirements would change. The true damage of nuclear war to society has been greatly understated, and it is time to rethink the purposes of our nuclear strategy and their implications. 26 references.

Katz, A.M.; Osdoby, S.R.

1982-01-01

415

Skiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

This report, based on a study of 471 consecutive skiing accidents, is concerned with the contributory causes, mechanisms, treatment and prevention of the more common skiing injuries. Over 80% of injuries occur in skiers under the age of 30 years. Most injuries involve the lower extremities, and are ligamentous. One-third of all injuries are fractures. This distribution is the common experience in most ski centres which have organized facilities for treatment of such injuries. This study shows that rapid handling and early treatment of casualties ensures minimal suffering, accurate diagnosis, prevention of complications and earlier rehabilitation of injured skiers. Many of the causes of skiing accidents can be prevented by control of skiing conditions, and proper instruction of younger skiers.

McIntyre, J. M.

1963-01-01

416

Beyond greed and grievance: feasibility and civil war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil war is the most prevalent form of large-scale violence and is massively destructive to life, society, and the economy. The prevention of civil war is therefore a key priority for international attention. We present an empirical analysis of what makes countries prone to civil war. Using a global panel data set we examine different determinants of civil war for

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler; Dominic Rohner

2009-01-01

417

Rebuilding Societies After Civil War. Critical Roles for International Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end of the Cold War, vigorous international mediation, growing war fatigue among the suffering people, and the realization on the part of warring parties that their objectives cannot be achieved through war have led to the cessation of intrastate conf...

K. Kumar

2009-01-01

418

Teaching a Course on World War III: An Introductory Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a description of an upper division college course on nuclear war. The course, which used an interdisciplinary approach and many resource speakers, was divided into three components: the consequences of World War III, the causes of World War III, and the prevention of World War III. Includes a detailed course outline along with required…

Sussman, Glenn

1987-01-01

419

The World War II Era and Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war

Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

2012-01-01

420

Studying America's Struggle against War: An Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American history surveys and monographs have been dominated by discourses on war. The vocabulary itself--the inter-war period, postwar planning, the prewar economy, the revolutionary war generation, the irrepressible conflict--strongly suggests that the United States has been in a virtual state of war throughout its history. Ironically, this…

Howlett, Charles F.

2003-01-01

421

The evacuation of British children during World War II: A preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former

D. Foster; S. Davies; H. Steele

2003-01-01

422

[War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].  

PubMed

Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms. PMID:23695004

Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

2014-03-01

423

Canada and the First World War: A Canadian War Museum Internet Exhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada and the First World War is the largest internet resource ever developed by the Canadian War Museum. The goal of this site is to provide visitors across the country and around the world with the most comprehensive and authoritative site for the history of Canada and Canadians in the First World War.\\u000aLike our permanent galleries, the site’s goal

Tim Cook; Kathryn Lyons

2012-01-01

424

Air bags and ocular injuries.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8

Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

1999-01-01

425

The Great War: 80 Years On: BBC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

November 11 marks the 80th anniversary of the armistice that ended "the war to end all wars," a conflict which took as many as ten million lives, wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, and helped to spark a revolution in Russia. This new site from the BBC commemorates the war and offers users a number of interesting resources. Multimedia offerings include a ten-minute video collage of photos and newsreel footage produced by the Imperial War Museum and a selection of fascinating and poignant audio interviews of veterans, including one man who was just fourteen when he left to fight in France. The site also contains a selection of soldiers' letters home, overviews of four major battles (Gallipoli, Verdun, the Somme, and Passchendaele), and a number of topical articles.

426

Gas Warfare in World War I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

Flintham, A. J.

1978-01-01

427

Persian Gulf War Chronology and Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An index to newspaper articles from New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal and miscellaneous other sources about the Persian Gulf War. Covers the time period August 1990 through March 1991.

G. Nicula A. Lowe C. Orr E. Trueblood

1992-01-01

428

Explosive Remnants of War in Stability Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) are a global problem significantly contributing to instability throughout the undeveloped and developing-world. ERW also become a primary component used in Improvised Explosive Device (IED) fabrication across the globe, whi...

D. L. Cummings

2012-01-01

429

Iran-Iraq War: Exceeding Means.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1980, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran, which initiated one of the longest and bloodiest wars in contemporary Middle Eastern history. Saddam most likely chose to use military force because of threats to his regime from Iranian-sponsored subversion...

K. Torrez V. Difronzo

2000-01-01

430

Mass Media. The Tenth Principle of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information has become a viable weapon of war that can be used to strategic, operational and tactical advantage by both enemy and friendly forces. Mass media is the agent by which military information is collected, interpreted and transmitted to worldwide...

L. Squire

1995-01-01

431

Burlington Connections to the War of 1812  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an account of one local historian's investigation into a Canadian town's involvement in the War of 1812, with recourse to archival records and local history collections in libraries and other repositories.

Daphne Smith

2012-01-01

432

Security Assistance in Peace and War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This special report considers the utility of security assistance in peace and war. History has amply demonstrated the requirement for and the effectiveness of security assistance to friendly nations during wartime. Functions of wartime aid include regiona...

W. P. Halstead M. D. Muger R. G. Darius A. H. King

1983-01-01

433

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

434

War and Peace (Open-Captioned).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses sibling relationships and the problem of trying to make peace among warring sisters. Parents are, in fact, more likely to minimize sibling rivalry by dealing with its underlying causes. Primary audience: parents of young children and prospective...

1994-01-01

435

Clausewitzian Victory: The 1973 Ramadan War,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph analyzes the 1973 Yom Kippur War in light of the interrelationship between successful military actions and the attainment of political objectives. The major proposition that evolves from this analysis is instructive in the study of the stra...

A. Washington

1988-01-01

436

Badminton injuries.  

PubMed Central

In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made.

Kr?ner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; M?ller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

1990-01-01

437

Remembering the future: Rhetorical echoes of World War II and Vietnam in George bush's public speech on the Gulf War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay provides an exegesis of George Bush's Gulf War rhetoric in terms of the World War II and Vietnam Wars and the presidential rhetoric in which they were embedded. The essay argues that Bush's rhetoric embraced and supported the orientational metaphor of the World War II paradigm, while simultaneously rejecting the Vietnam paradigm, through his use of specific language

Mary E. Stuckey

1992-01-01

438

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342...on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2009-04-01

439

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342...on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2010-04-01

440

Reporting Dissent in WartimeBritish Press, the Anti-War Movement and the 2003 Iraq War  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T ? The 2003 Iraq War was highly controversial in the UK, generating domestic opposition and a widely supported anti-war movement, the Stop the War Coalition. This article assesses the extent to which anti-war protesters were successful at securing positive coverage in the British press immediately before and during the invasion of Iraq.

Craig Murray; Katy Parry; Piers Robinson; Peter Goddard

2008-01-01

441

20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

2013-04-01

442

20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404...Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits....

2013-04-01

443

Lawnmower injuries in children: a 10-year experience.  

PubMed

Approximately 77,800 annual lawnmower-related injuries are treated in the USA, with 9,300 involving children. This work reviews the literature and reports our 10-year experience with lawnmower injuries. We retrospectively reviewed patients with lawnmower injuries admitted to the Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo from 1995 to 2005 and reviewed the literature. Sixteen patients with mower-related injuries were admitted to our institution, with three due to walk-behind mowers and 13 due to riding mowers. The mean age was 7.5 years. Riding mower injuries had a higher average injury severity score (14.3 vs. 9) and a longer average length of hospital stay (15 vs. 2 days). All of the walk-behind mower injuries were extremity injuries, with two requiring amputations. Eleven of the riding mower injuries had extremity injuries alone, one had isolated torso injuries, and one had both extremity and torso injuries. Three required amputations, and the two patients with torso injuries required extensive surgical reconstructions. Pediatric lawnmower injuries, particularly due to riding mowers, are a highly preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Increased public safety awareness and further manufacturer safety modifications should be strongly encouraged in order to limit this cause of pediatric trauma. PMID:16421702

Lau, Stanley T; Lee, Yi-Horng; Hess, Donavon J; Brisseau, Guy F; Keleher, Graidi E; Caty, Michael G

2006-03-01

444

Sexual Violence during War and Forced Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rape in the context of war has been described since earliest historical times (Brownmiller, 1975). The vast literature on\\u000a this topic has dealt with issues of military command and discipline, male violence, evolution of legal norms, and documentation\\u000a of egregious instances of mass rape. In the conventional nation-state wars of the 20th century, such documentation often lagged\\u000a long after the

Jennifer Leaning; Susan Bartels; Hani Mowafi

445

The Civil War (1861-1865)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objectives: Students will use weblinks to examine the major battles of the Civil War. Students will use the provided links to answer questions on a history \\"scavenger hunt\\" on the Civil War. 1861 Battle of Fort Sumter Battle of Bull Run (nps) 1862 Battle of Shiloh (nps) Battle of Antietam 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville Battle of Gettysburg Battle of Vicksburg 1864 Battle of Atlanta (nps) 1865 Battle of Petersburg Appomattox (nps) Scavenger Hunt ...

Harward, Jennifer

2007-11-01

446

The Pulse of War: Writing a Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and a series of articles and poetry concerning the war on terror being imposed by the U.S., and more.\\u000aWrites Kevin Bowen:\\u000aOne year into the war in Iraq, the ugliness of the undertaking has become more and more inescapable. If anything, the experience has reaffirmed a few simple facts that deserve reiteration. There is no such thing as

Kevin Bowen; Tony Aiello; Chris Agee; Almira El-Zein; Fred Marchant; Carolyn Forché; Fanny Howe

2005-01-01

447

Bosnia's Civil War Origins and Violence Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

he civil war in Bosnia has received heavy coverage in the popular press and in scholarly writings.The fact that the war took place in Europe,the extent of ethnic cleansing and killing, the investigations of the ICTY (the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia),the deployment of sev- eral large United Nations (UN) peace operations, and the use of an assortment

STATHIS N. KALYVAS; NICHOLAS SAMBANIS

448

Women in war: The red army's experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Z. M. Smirnova?Medvedeva, On the Road to Stalingrad: Memoirs of a Woman Machine Gunner. Edited and translated by Kazimiera J. Cottam. Nepean, Canada: New Military Publishing, 1997. Pp.129, translator's introduction, notes, 2 illus., no index. $14.95 (Canadian); $11.95 (US). ISBN 0–9682702–0?4.Kazimiera J. Cottam (ed. and trans.) Women in Air War: The Eastern Front of World War II. Nepean, Canada: New

David M. Glantz

1999-01-01

449

War, gender and culture: Mozambican women refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the psychological sequelae of war-related violence for women tend to rely on the concepts developed in research on male combatants. Post-traumatic stress disorder or varying combinations of its symptoms are identified as the principal outcomes of war-related events for women. By and large, the dominant literature does not examine possible outcomes which could be specified by gender. This

Tina Sideris

2003-01-01

450

Design and Rationale of a Comparative Effectiveness Study to Evaluate Two Acupuncture Methods for the Treatment of Headaches Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure to deployment and battle can induce a constellation of physical, cognitive, psychological and behavioral symptoms, also referred to as war-related Trauma Spectrum Response (wrTSR). One prevalent cause of this response is traumatic brain injury (T...

A. Duncan A. York C. Lee D. Wallerstedt M. Hollifield

2011-01-01

451

Patterns in Blast Injuries to the Hand  

PubMed Central

Blast injuries to the hand are not just a wartime phenomenon but also quite common in rural communities throughout northern California. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with blast injuries in the community and review the most common patterns in an attempt to identify the pathomechanics of the hand injury and the reconstructive procedures that are required. This is a retrospective study of blast injuries to the hand treated between 1978 and 2006. Medical records, X-rays, and photos were reviewed to compile standard patient demographics and characterize the injury pattern. Explosives were classified based on their rate of decomposition. Reconstructive solutions were reviewed and characterized based on whether damaged tissues were repaired or replaced. Sixty-two patients were identified with blast injuries to their hand. Patients were predominantly male (92%) with an average age of 27 years. Firecrackers were the most commonly encountered explosives. Thirty-seven patients were identified as holding a low explosive in their dominant hand and were used for characterization of the injury pattern. The apparent pattern of injury was hyperextension and hyperabduction of the hand and digits. Common injuries were metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint hyperextension with associated soft tissue avulsion, hyperabduction at the web spaces with associated palmar soft tissue tears, and finger disarticulation amputations worse at radial digits. Given the mechanisms of injury with tissue loss, surgical intervention generally involved tissue replacement rather than tissue repair. Blast injuries to the hand represent a broad spectrum of injuries that are associated with the magnitude of explosion and probably, the proximity to the hand. We were able to identify a repetitive pattern of injury and demonstrate the predominant use for delayed tissue replacement rather than microsurgical repair at the acute setting.

Buntic, Rudolf F.; Brooks, Darrell

2008-01-01

452

[Electrical injuries].  

PubMed

Electrical injuries can have serious multisystemic consequences and have to be evaluated regardless of the extent of skin injuries. Emergency department treatment is complex with simultaneous use of ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) and ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) algorithms, and with particular attention given to fluid resuscitation and musculoskeletal damage management. Beyond the recognized intensive care admission criteria like polytrauma or severe bums, documented arrhythmia or abnormal ECG on initial evaluation, loss of consciousness and high voltage electrical injuries (> 1000 V) each prompt a minimum of 24 hours cardiac monitoring. In addition, severely burned patients should be promptly transferred to specialized facilities. PMID:21922721

Grosgurin, O; Marti, C; Niquille, M

2011-08-24

453

Victims of the Palestinian Uprising (Intifada): A Retrospective Review of 220 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to review the cases of the victims of the Palestinian uprising (Intifada) and to describe the clinical presentations, the types of weapons used, and the different sites of injuries. This is a retrospective chart review study of the patients who were injured during the Palestinian uprising in the period April 1993–April 1994 and treated

Hay Emile; Derazon Hashmonai

1998-01-01

454

Dorgan's lateral cross-wiring of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children: A retrospective review  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe currently accepted treatment for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children is closed reduction and fixation with percutaneous Kirschner wires. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review a novel cross-wiring technique where the cross-wire configuration is achieved solely from the lateral side, thereby reducing the risk of ulnar nerve injury.

Joseph M. Queally; Natasha Paramanathan; James C. Walsh; Cathal J. Moran; Fintan J. Shannon; Lester G. D'Souza

2010-01-01

455

Cranial nerve injuries during carotid endarterectomy.  

PubMed

Our experience with patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy over a 10 year period has been retrospectively reviewed. Nerve injuries were detected by reviewing postoperative progress and clinic notes. One hundred twenty-nine procedures were performed on 112 patients, 12 of whom (9.3 percent) sustained major nerve injuries. These included five vagal nerve injuries causing ipsilateral vocal cord paralysis and hoarseness, four injuries of the marginal mandibular nerve, and three injuries of the hypoglossal nerve. Evidence of nerve dysfunction was not present preoperatively. None of the patients with nerve injury sustained a stroke as a result of carotid operation. Vocal cord paralysis was documented by indirect laryngoscopy. The incidence of cranial nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy appears to be higher than expected, particularly if asymptomatic patients are investigated; however, most injuries are transient and result not from transection but from trauma during dissection, retraction, and clamping of the vessels. The pertinent anatomy and techniques for preventing these injuries have been reviewed. PMID:3674303

Knight, F W; Yeager, R M; Morris, D M

1987-11-01

456

The Vietnam War Declassification Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the fall of Phnom Penh and Saigon, this month the Ford Presidential Library released nearly 30,000 pages of newly declassified material concerning the Vietnam War. Most of the documents "are from the White House offices of national security advisers Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft or from the files of National Security Council staff. Included are President Ford's 'Country Files' for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; a 'Backchannel' collection of especially sensitive messages; and 'Memcons,' transcript-like memoranda of high level conversations." At the site, users can view a list of topics covered by the recently opened documents and the Library's core holdings on Vietnam, read a press release, and of course, view the full text of a number of selected documents as well as some photos. The majority of documents are offered as page images, and include Henry Kissinger's cable informing Saigon of President Ford's decision to evacuate, Helicopter pilot radio transmissions during the evacuation, Cabinet meeting minutes, National Security Council meeting minutes, General Fred C. Weyand's Vietnam Assessment Report of April 4, 1975, and materials related to the Mayaguez Incident, among others. While this release will certainly grab the attention of scholars and researchers, almost anyone interested in the waning days of American involvement in Vietnam will find multiple items of interest.

457

Electrical injury  

MedlinePLUS

... of electric arcs from high-voltage power lines Lightning Machinery or occupational-related exposures Young children biting ... chap 199. Price TG, Cooper MA. Electrical and lightning injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

458

Corneal injury  

MedlinePLUS

... into the eye (such as sand or dust) Sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

459

Visceral Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case of high-voltage electrical injury with massive retroperitoneal muscle necrosis, focal hepatic coagulation necrosis, acute pancreatitis, and an acute coagulopathy with factor V, factor X, and platelet deficits occurred. Visceral involvement by elect...

K. Eurenius P. W. Curreri T. W. Newsome

1972-01-01

460

The reported thoracic injuries in Homer's Iliad  

PubMed Central

Homer's Iliad is considered to be a prominent and representative work of the tradition of the ancient Greek epic poetry. In this poem Homer presents the battles which took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War between Achaeans and Trojans. We wanted to examine the chest wounds, especially those which are described in detail, according to their localization, severity and mortality. Finally, there are reported 54 consecutive thoracic injuries in the Iliad. The mostly used weapons were the spear (63%), the stones (7.4%), the arrow (5.5%) and the sword (5.5%). We divided the injuries according to their severity in mild (those which did not cause serious injury to the victim), medium (those which cause the victim to abandon the battlefield), and severe (those which cause death of the victim). According to this classification, the reported injuries were mild in 11.11%, medium in 18.52%, and severe in the last 70.37% of the reported cases. In other words, 89% of the injuries belong to the medium or severe category of thoracic injury. As far as the mortality of the injuries is concerned, 38 out of 54 thoracic injuries include death, which makes the mortality percentage reach 70.37%. Concerning the "allocation of the roles", the Achaean were in 68% perpetrators and the Trojans in only 32%. In terms of gravity, out of 38 mortal injuries 30 involve a Trojan (78.95%) and the remaining 8 an Achaean (21.05%). The excellent and detailed description of the injuries by Homer, as well as of the symptoms, may reveal a man with knowledge of anatomy and medicine who cared for the injured warriors in the battlefield.

2010-01-01

461

Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We performed both a laboratory and field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, Pb-210, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha emission of a Pb-210 decay product, Po-210. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks cm{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) is proportional to the surface alpha activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha activity should be proportional to the accumulated Po-210 and hence, the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to: (1) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, (2) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass implanted polonium activities, and (3) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted Po-210 activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type.

Field, R W.; Steck, D J.; Parkhurst, Maryann (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mahaffey, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Alavanja, M C. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD)

1998-11-01

462

Triage and Management of the Injured in World War I: The Diuturnity of Antoine De Page and a Belgian Colleague  

PubMed Central

A system of orderly triage of the injured in World War I and a protocol for early wound management of war injuries were introduced by Antoine De Page in 1914 at the beginning of World War I. The five steps of the De Page protocol (coined by the author as Ordre de Triage) were to be followed in detail by the French and Belgian armies. A younger Belgian colleague, Robert Danis, was recruited to aid in the management of the ambulance corps to transport the injured from dressing (“clearing”) stations to centers of more advanced care, away from the Franco-Belgian front. Danis, also from Brussels, introduced the principles of osteosynthesis of bone a little over a decade later. De Page and Danis, both surgeons, tendered immense carry-forwards for future generations.

Pollock, Richard A.

2008-01-01

463

Spinal cord and related injuries after attempted suicide: psychiatric diagnosis and long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design:Retrospective analysis of acute spinal cord injuries (ASCI).Objectives:Determine incidence of ASCI due to suicide attempt from 1970 to 2000. Describe demographics, injuries, mental illness, functional outcomes and nature of subsequent deaths.Setting:State spinal cord injury services, New South Wales, Australia.Methods:Retrospective record review and follow-up interview.Results:Of 2752 ASCI admissions, 56 were because of attempted suicide (55 falls, one gun-shot wound). Thirty-six

R E Stanford; R Soden; R Bartrop; M Mikk; T K F Taylor

2007-01-01

464

Student attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war: Friends as influential reference persons  

SciTech Connect

A renewed interest in research into the psychology of the threat of nuclear war occurred in the past decade as national attention focused increasingly on the arms race between the US and the USSR. Some of this research began the task of exploring the social influences upon attitudes and responses to the nuclear threat. Research on friends as potential influences upon nuclear attitudes was minimal. The present study investigated the role of college friends as potential reference persons in the formation of nuclear attitudes. A battery of questionnaires addressing various nuclear war and non-nuclear war attitudes was completed by 200 student-friend dyads from introductory psychology and sociology courses at the University of North Dakota. Three hypotheses were presented in this study. One hypothesis was that students would perceive their friends as having similar attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war. A second hypothesis was that the actual attitudes between pairs of students and friends would be similar. The third hypothesis was that the attitudes would have become more similar over the course of the development of the friendship (as measured retrospectively). The first hypothesis was borne out by the data. The second and third hypotheses were not supported. There are several implications of the findings. One implication is that the nuclear issue may not be as salient to college students as other, more immediate, issues. Another implication is that a relative lack of communication between college students on political issues precludes more effective mutual influence upon the development and change of such attitudes. A false consensus bias appeared to be operative when the students perceived that their attitudes were similar. Further discussion is presented in regard to past and future psychological research upon nuclear war attitudes.

Marasch, M.J.

1992-01-01

465

Homo Economicus Goes to War: Methodological Individualism, Rational Choice and the Political Economy of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoclassical economic theories of violent conflict have proliferated in recent years and, with their application to contemporary wars, have influenced donors and policy makers. This paper reviews the intellectual foundations and empirical substance of such theories and offers a critique drawing on a political economy perspective. There are strong grounds for arguing that orthodox economic theories of war are reductionist,

C. Cramer

2002-01-01

466

Markets work in war: World War II reflected in the Zurich and Stockholm bond markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how trading on two geographically separate financial markets reflected political events before and during World War II. Specifically, we compare sovereign debt prices on the Zurich and Stockholm stock exchanges and find considerable (but not complete) symmetry in the price responses across the two markets in relation to turning points in the war, which suggests that markets

BRUNO S. FREY; DANIEL WALDENSTR M

2004-01-01

467

After the Trials: Class B and C Japanese War Criminals and the Post-War World  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Lesser’ Japanese war criminals, or those in Classes ‘B’ and ‘C’, were prosecuted by the various Allied powers in courtrooms around Asia after the Second World War. They were then executed or imprisoned in the places in which they had been tried. By the end of 1953, however, all surviving prisoners had been repatriated to Japan to serve out the

Sandra Wilson

2011-01-01

468

Picturing the Iraq WarConstructing the Image of War in the British and US Press  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the findings of a visual content analysis of 1305 Iraq War-related photographs appearing in the US press, represented by The New York Times, and the British press, represented by The Guardian . Overall, the two newspapers visually portrayed the Iraq War differently. Further, the more spontaneous or direct coverage of actually ongoing events were rare at best,

Shahira Fahmy; Daekyung Kim

2008-01-01

469

A U.S. Holy War? The Effects of Religion on Iraq War Policy Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of the Iraq War, the Bush Administration has consistently framed its war policy in religious language. Therefore, we investigate the extent to which public religiosity predicts neoconservative foreign policy attitudes. Copyright (c) 2009 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Paul Froese; F. Carson Mencken

2009-01-01

470