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Sample records for war injuries retrospective

  1. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  2. War injuries of the extremities.

    PubMed

    Korzinek, K

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes experience acquired during the war against Croatia under improvised conditions at the Kutina War Hospital in the immediate vicinity of the first front lines. Over a period of almost 6 months a total of 701 soldiers and civilians, 546 of whom had been wounded by firearm missiles, were treated at the Kutina War Hospital, which has a capacity of 30-40 beds. As many as 87% of the injuries were due to mine, bomb or artillery shell shrapnel. The percentage of gunshot wounds was very low, mainly caused by sniper shots. Most patients (419, or 76.7%) were admitted with injuries to the extremities, including 893 severe soft tissue injuries and 182 fractures (32.3%). Soft tissue injuries were treated by routine procedures of war surgery, associated with ample use of Lavasept, an antiseptic solution (Fresenius, Stans, Switzerland), which has proved to be highly efficacious in preventing and decontaminating infection without disturbance of the wound healing process. Long bone fractures were fixed with the aid of external fixators of various designs, including the CMC external fixator of our own construction. External fixators have once again proved indispensable in the treatment of open fractures sustained in war settings. Amputations were performed in 10.4% of cases, including fingers and toes. Only 8 patients died during or immediately after surgery, corresponding to a very low mortality rate of 1.46%. The main prerequisites for successful treatment are a professional relationship to war surgery and its specific requirements, satisfactory technical equipment, and excellent organization of medical and non-medical services. PMID:8327896

  3. Extremity War Injuries VIII: sequelae of combat injuries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Romney C; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Ficke, James R

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Extremity War Injury symposium focused on the sequelae of combat-related injuries, including posttraumatic osteoarthritis, amputations, and infections. Much remains to be learned about posttraumatic arthritis, and there are few circumstances in which a definitive arthroplasty should be performed in an acutely injured and open joint. Although the last decade has seen tremendous advances in the treatment of combat upper extremity injuries, many questions remain unanswered, and continued research focusing on improving reconstruction of large segmental defects remains critical. Discussion of infection centered on the need for novel methods to reduce the bacterial load following the initial débridement procedures. Novel methods of delivering antimicrobial therapy and anti-inflammatory medications directly to the wound were discussed as well as the need for near real-time assessment of bacterial and fungal burden and further means of prevention and treatment of biofilm formation and the importance of animal models to test therapies discussed. Moderators and lecturers of focus groups noted the continuing need for improved prehospital care in the management of junctional injuries, identified optimal strategies for both surgical repair and/or reconstruction of the ligaments in multiligamentous injuries, and noted the need to mitigate bone mineral density loss following amputation and/or limb salvage as well as the necessity of developing better methods of anticipating and managing heterotopic ossification. PMID:24382880

  4. Treatment of Bone Defects in War Wounds: Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Milicevic, Snjezana; Grubor, Milan; Meccariello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Results of the treatment of open fractures primarily depend on the treatment of connected soft tissue injuries. Objective: The aim was to present the experience and methods gained during the treatment of diaphyseal bone defects as a consequence of gunshot fracture soft war trauma. Patients and Methods: The study consisted of 116 patients with the diaphyseal bone defect who were treated with the usage of primary and delayed autotransplantation of bones, transplants of the fibula and Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis. Results: The results of compensation of bone defect less than 4 cm and conducted by an early cortico-spongioplastics were as follows: good in 8 respondents (45%), satisfactory in 6 (34%) and poor in 4 respondents (21%). In cases of delayed cortico-spongioplastics, the above mentioned results were: good in 36 (41%) respondents, satisfactory in 24 (34%) and poor in 16 (25%) respondents. The results of compensation of bone defect greater than 4 cm with the usage of fibular transplant were as follows: good in 3 (38%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (38%) and poor in 2 (24%), and with the usage of using the Ilizarov method, the results were as follows: good in 8 (57%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (21.5%) and poor in 3(21.5%) respondents. Conclusion: The results showed that, in cases of compensation of bone defects less than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the primary spongioplastics over the delayed one. In cases of compensation of bone defects greater than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis when compared to the fibular transplant. PMID:26543315

  5. Frontoethmoidal fractures as a result of war injuries.

    PubMed

    Ivanovi?, A; Jovi?, N; Vukeli?-Markovi?, S

    1996-03-01

    Ninety frontoethmoidal fractures, as a result of war injuries from 1991 to 1994, produced 0.7% of all war injuries (i.e., 9% of head and neck injuries treated in the Military Medical Academy, Belgrade). These injuries were mainly part of complex endocranial, orbital, and zygomaticomaxillary injuries, and were rarely isolated. The central part of these injuries were in the ethmoidal region, which was isolatedly injured in 23.3% of the cases. There was 53.3% injuries with small fragments of explosive devices inside the wound, and 16.7% of through-and-through wounds were caused by sniper bullets. The priority over all definitive operative procedures belonged to osteoplasties whenever possible, because the primary goal was protection of life. About 3.3% of the patients died because of severe hemorrhagic shock and endocranial injury. There was only one case of recurrent meningitis. Most of the patients had multiple injuries and were mutually operated on by two different surgical teams. PMID:8606405

  6. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment. PMID:21981845

  7. Degloving injuries. A retrospective study at the University Hospital Rotterdam.

    PubMed

    Minten, L; Hovius, S E; Gilbert, P M

    1992-01-01

    Degloving injuries are severe and frequently underestimated lesions. In a retrospective study, 65 patients treated between 1985 and 1991 were reviewed. Therapy consisted of surgical exploration as soon after injury as possible, with defatting of the avulsed skin and its replacement on the most functionally important sites. The remaining raw areas were covered with split skin grafts (SSG). This technique reduced morbidity, hospital stay and work incapacity, as compared with patients treated by other methods. PMID:1414140

  8. Extremity War Injuries IX: Reducing Disability Within the Military.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Col Romney C; Schmidt, Andrew H; Fitzgerald, Capt Brian T; Tintle, Lcdr Scott M; Helgeson, Maj Melvin D; Lehman, Ltc Ronald A; Davila, Col Jeffrey N; Potter, Benjamin K; Burns, Maj Travis C; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Ficke, Col James R

    2015-08-01

    Extremity War Injury Symposium IX focused on reducing disability within the military, centering on cartilage defects, amputations, and spinal cord injury. Many areas of upper and lower extremity trauma and disability were discussed, including segmental nerve injuries, upper extremity allotransplantation, and the importance of patient-reported functional outcomes compared with the traditionally reported measures. Strategic planning addressed progression toward clinical solutions by setting clear objectives and goals and outlining pathways to address the "translation gap" that often prevents bridging of basic science to clinical application. PMID:26116849

  9. US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

  10. Musculoskeletal injuries in Homer's Iliad: the War of Troy revisited.

    PubMed

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Tok, Fatih; Sim?ek, Ay?e; Ozçakar, Levent

    2014-04-01

    Homer's Iliad--the most famous and influential epic poem--has been previously reviewed with respect to head, craniomaxillofacial, neck, thoracic, and hand injuries in the literature. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no data regarding musculoskeletal injuries. This article describes the musculoskeletal injuries that had ensued during the war of Troy. The Turkish translation of the original epic poem Iliad was reviewed for musculoskeletal injuries, that is, their descriptions, outcome, the weapons used, and the engaged warriors. Extremity injuries were evaluated as regards the affected bones. The pertinent treatment methods were also recorded. In total, 103 musculoskeletal injuries were detected during 81 combats. The most commonly involved areas were the shoulder (15.5%), the head (14.5%), the cervical vertebrae (14.5%), and the thoracic vertebrae (8.7%). The weapons used were spear (n = 52); sword (n = 9); arrow (n = 9); stone (n = 8); and cane, animal, the hand, Chariot race, and broken yoke (n = 1 for each). Fifty-four combats (66.6%) resulted in death. Therapeutic herbs, compound of milk, and essence of fig were used as treatment alternatives. While providing a historic snapshot on the war of Troy, in this article, the authors have reviewed the musculoskeletal injuries and their management in those ancient times. Despite the long period in between, unfortunately, physicians/surgeons are still faced with war injuries in current medical practice. The authors strongly hope that, at least in the near future, physicians will be left with only natural health problems and without those artificially generated by human beings. PMID:24406735

  11. Cardiovascular and thoracic battle injuries in the Lebanon War. Analysis of 3,000 personal cases.

    PubMed

    Zakharia, A T

    1985-05-01

    This report comprises 3,000 casualties of the Lebanon War whom I operated upon for cardiovascular-thoracic injuries in twelve Lebanese hospitals between January, 1969, and July, 1982. These patients were studied retrospectively through 1978 and prospectively thereafter. The logistics, weapons, wounds, and operative results in this study were unique. The patients' injuries can be categorized as follows: primarily thoracic, 1,251 (42%); peripheral vascular, 1,008 (34%); cardiac, 285 (9%); and thoracic mixed, 456 (15%). The male to female ratio was 3.6:1, the mean age 20 years, and the military to civilian ratio 1.7:1. The mean transport distance was 2 miles in 1,740 patients (58%). In patients with thoracic wounds, the incidence of cardiac involvement (14%) was higher than in World War II and Vietnam. The overall survival rate in casualties with cardiac injuries was 73%--best in pericardial, coronary, and right atrial wounds and dropping to 46% in left ventricular wounds, wherein pump failure was also a factor. A 13% (seven deaths) mortality for patients with injuries to the thoracic great vessels contrasted with the 1.2% (14 deaths) mortality for the rest of the patients with noncardiac thoracic wounds. Open thoracotomy in 818 operations (55%) reflected massive wounds and logistics. Pulmonary resection (310 operations) carried a 1.9% (five deaths) mortality and tube thoracostomy (683 operations) for lesser injuries, 0.7% (four deaths.) Thoracoabdominal injuries were 1.5 times more lethal. Fifty percent (504) of nonthoracic vascular wounds occurred in the femoral-popliteal area as a result of sniper attacks. Subintimal damage averaged 8 cm and mandated saphenous vein grafts in 72%. The mortality for injury to the aorta was 60% (12 deaths), contrasted with 1% (three deaths) for injury to extremity vessels. Hemorrhage and cardiac rupture were the most frequent causes of death. Early, proficient, open surgical control after or concomitant with intensive resuscitation proved successful in this special military conflict. PMID:3990322

  12. The epidemiology of forearm nerve injuries--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rasuli?, Lukas; Puzovi?, Vladimir; Rotim, Krešimir; Jovanovi?, Milan; Samardži?, Miroslav; Živkovi?, Bojana; Savi?, Andrija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and etiologic factors of forearm nerve injuries. This retrospective survey included all patients treated surgically in Clinical Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. All relevant data were collected from medical records. Statistical procedures were done using the PASW 18 statistical package. Our study included 104 patients that underwent surgery after forearm nerve injury. The majority of admitted patients were male (n = 84; 80.8%) and only 20 (19.2%) were female. Ulnar nerve injury predominated with 70 cases, followed by median nerve with 54 (51.9%) cases and radial nerve with only 5 cases. Transection was the dominant mechanism of injury and it occurred in 84.6% of cases. Injury by a sharp object was the most frequent etiologic factor and it occurred in 62 (59.6%) patients, while traffic accident and gunshot injuries were the least common etiologic factor of forearm nerve injury, occurring in 7 (6.7%) and 6 (5.8%) cases, respectively. Associated injuries of muscles and tendons, bones and blood vessels occurred in 20 (19.2%), 16 (15.4%) and 15 (14.4%) patients, respectively. The etiology and mechanism of peripheral nerve injury are of great importance when choosing the right course of treatment in each individual patient because timing and type of treatment are closely related to these factors. PMID:26058238

  13. Facial injuries in Iranian veterans during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-88): differences from recent conflicts.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, M H; Akhavan, A

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to identify the pattern and mechanism of facial injuries in Iranian veterans during the Iraq-Iran war and to assess the effectiveness of current protective equipment by retrospectively evaluating 100 Iranian veterans of that war. We randomly included veterans with injuries to various parts of the face, with or without injuries to other organs. None died. We recorded anatomical distribution, incidence, and mechanism of injury as well as injury scores using common references scales. Data are expressed as mean (SD) or number. Fragmentation injuries were the most common (n=40) followed by blast (n=37), shock wave (n=18), and gunshots (n=5). Thirty-five patients had mandibular fractures with a mean (SD) score of 3.7 (1.4). Fifteen patients had injuries to the upper face and 79 to the midface. Twenty-four patients had facial lacerations more than 10cm long, with a mean facial injury score of 2.4 (2.0). Nineteen had ocular injuries with a mean (SD) ocular trauma score of 64.9 (12.9). Despite recent developments in protective equipment we have seen no significant reduction in the incidence of facial injuries in battle, which could indicate that we need better facial support equipment and more effective education in its use. However, using protective equipment such as goggles and a mandibular protector is highly recommended. PMID:26187368

  14. Traumatic brain injury in modern war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

  15. Nonfatal farm injuries in eastern Ontario: a retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Brison, R J; Pickett, C W

    1991-12-01

    A one-year retrospective survey was conducted to study the incidence of, and potential risk factors for farm-related injuries. One hundred thirteen dairy and beef farms in Eastern Ontario were surveyed using a personal interview. Information was collected on demographic characteristics of the farm owner, workers, and family; characteristics of the farm operation; and information on behaviours potentially affecting injury risk. The crude rate of injury was 9.6 per 100 person years. Significantly higher rates of injury were found for: owner-operators of farms (RR = 2.9; p less than 0.001); male sex (RR = 3.8; p less than 0.001); living/working on a beef as opposed to dairy farm (RR = 2.3; p = 0.01); farm owners in the age groups of less than 30 and greater than 70 years (p = 0.05), full-time as opposed to part-time beef farm owners (RR = 4.2; p = 0.02); and full-time owners of beef as opposed to dairy farms (RR 2.4; p = 0.03). Common patterns of injury included accidental falls (E880-8); lacerations, bruises, and crush injuries from working with cattle (E906) or from agricultural machinery (E919.0); and foreign body injuries to the eye (E914). Few injuries were associated with the use of tractors or power take-offs. 82% of injuries, for which medical treatment was sought, were treated in a hospital-based emergency department. This information would support efforts to establish an emergency-department-based surveillance system for farming injuries in our setting. PMID:1772560

  16. [Eye injuries in 'paintball'; a modern 'war injury'].

    PubMed

    Verburg-van der Marel, E H; ten Napel, J A; de Keizer, R J

    1993-04-17

    Paintball shooting is played with increasing frequency in the Netherlands. A bullet, filled with paint, shot at 60 m/sec can cause serious damage to the eye. All five patients seen in two years showed a hyphaema. Four out of five patients showed damage of the posterior pole, including vitreous haemorrhage, choroidal rupture, retinal detachment, and sub- or intraretinal haemorrhage. Three out of five patients incurred permanent visual loss, varying from 3/60 to 25/100. Adequate instruction of the participants in the game and proper use of the eye protector will be of help in preventing eye injuries. PMID:8487887

  17. [Types of abdominal war injuries in relation to colonic injuries analyzed during 2 war years of treatment at the Clinic for Abdominal Surgery in Sarajevo].

    PubMed

    Tanovi?, Haris

    2003-01-01

    The basic characteristics of war in Sarajevo are occasional shelling, sniper fire, unexpected shelling and a lack of a front line in the classic sense of the word. The extent of the wound is the key factor in deciding how the patient is to be treated. A primary contamination of this kind of wound has all the conditions to turn into a manifest infection. The abdomen wounds, because of their severity and direct threat to life, are among the most dangerous wounds altogether. They make up on average 10% of all war wounds and the mortality of these patients by today's literature is high, about 6%. The aims of this paper are to show which organs in the abdomen are wounded and what is their relationship to the wounding of the colon, and to show what is the relation between multiple and isolated wounding of the abdomen. During the years 1992 and 1993, 1106 patients with war wounds were treated at the clinic for the abdominal surgery. From that number 71 patients were treated with explorative laparotomy. The large intestine was injured in 274 patients while 221 patients had injuries of the small intestine. An injury of the liver was found in 165 cases. The gall bladder was injured in 18 cases. The stomach was injured in 324 patients. The pancreas was damaged in 72 patients. There were 94 cases of injured spleens. The kidneys were wounded in 30 cases. In 40 cases there was bleeding from the retroperitoncum. Treatment of the omentumen was carried out in 753 patients. The number of patients who did not survive is 135 of which 44 had an injury of the large intestine. A retrospective analysis data shows that the number of multiple wounds makes up over 98% of all wounds. Isolated wounds of abdominal organs are found in less than 2% of all cases. The increase mortality in our research can be explained greater energy of the projectiles which amplify the acceleration at asphalt surfaces which product the greater destructions of the tissue and the massiveness of the injuries. PMID:12693343

  18. Foot Strike and Injury Rates in Endurance Runners: A Retrospective Study

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Daniel E.

    Foot Strike and Injury Rates in Endurance Runners: A Retrospective Study ADAM I. DAOUD1 , GARY J. GEISSLER, F. WANG, J. SARETSKY, Y. A. DAOUD, and D. E. LIEBERMAN. Foot Strike and Injury Rates in Endurance, and severe injuries per mile run. Results: Of the 52 runners studied, 36 (69%) primarily used a rearfoot

  19. Tug-of-War Injuries: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Pranit N.; Abdelgawad, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 10-year-old boy presenting with radial nerve palsy due to injury during a tug-of-war game. Patient was managed nonoperatively and regained radial nerve function. Tug-of-war is a globally popular noncontact sport. Injuries during this game are inevitable and may range from simple sprains to life and limb threatening trauma. Combined hip and knee injuries and soft-tissue injuries involving the back are most frequent. Most injuries occur when tug-of-war was played in an informal setting and where the tug-of-war International Federation rules were less likely to be followed. Measures should be taken to increase the awareness about these safety rules and prevention of consequent injuries. Sports physicians, pediatricians, orthopedic surgeons, general physicians, and athletic trainers should be aware of potential injuries resulting from this game while caring for these athletes, so as to be well prepared for apt management of the injuries associated with TOW. PMID:25530897

  20. Blunt Cardiac Injury in the Severely Injured – A Retrospective Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Marc; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Khalil, Philipe N.; Wierer, Matthias; van Griensven, Martijn; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Biberthaler, Peter; Lefering, Rolf; Huber-Wagner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blunt cardiac injury is a rare trauma entity. Here, we sought to evaluate the relevance and prognostic significance of blunt cardiac injury in severely injured patients. Methods In a retrospective multicentre study, using data collected from 47,580 patients enrolled to TraumaRegister DGU (1993-2009), characteristics of trauma, prehospital / hospital trauma management, and outcome analysis were correlated to the severity of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of cardiac injury was assessed according to the abbreviated injury score (AIS score 1-6), the revised injury severity score (RISC) allowed comparison of expected outcome with injury severity-dependent outcome. N = 1.090 had blunt cardiac trauma (AIS 1-6) (2.3% of patients). Results Predictors of blunt cardiac injury could be identified. Sternal fractures indicate a high risk of the presence of blunt cardiac injury (AIS 0 [control]: 3.0%; AIS 1: 19.3%; AIS 2-6: 19.1%). The overall mortality rate was 13.9%, minor cardiac injury (AIS 1) and severe cardiac injury (AIS 2-6) are associated with higher rates. Severe blunt cardiac injury (AIS 4 and AIS 5-6) is associated with a higher mortality (OR 2.79 and 4.89, respectively) as compared to the predicted average mortality (OR 2.49) of the study collective. Conclusion Multiple injured patients with blunt cardiac trauma are at high risk to be underestimated. Careful evaluation of trauma patients is able to predict the presence of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of blunt cardiac injury needs to be stratified according to the AIS score, as the patients’ outcome is dependent on the severity of cardiac injury. PMID:26136126

  1. Combination Therapies for Traumatic Brain Injury: Retrospective Considerations.

    PubMed

    Margulies, Susan; Anderson, Gail; Atif, Fahim; Badaut, Jerome; Clark, Robert; Empey, Philip; Guseva, Maria; Hoane, Michael; Huh, Jimmy; Pauly, Jim; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Scheff, Stephen; Stein, Donald; Tang, Huiling; Hicks, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Patients enrolled in clinical trials for traumatic brain injury (TBI) may present with heterogeneous features over a range of injury severity, such as diffuse axonal injury, ischemia, edema, hemorrhage, oxidative damage, mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and other pathophysiological processes. To determine whether combination therapies might be more effective than monotherapy at attenuating moderate TBI or promoting recovery, the National Institutes of Health funded six preclinical studies in adult and immature male rats to evaluate promising acute treatments alone and in combination. Each of the studies had a solid rationale for its approach based on previous research, but only one reported significant improvements in long-term outcomes across a battery of behavioral tests. Four studies had equivocal results because of a lack of sensitivity of the outcome assessments. One study demonstrated worse results with the combination in comparison with monotherapies. While specific research findings are reported elsewhere, this article provides an overview of the study designs, insights, and recommendations for future research aimed at therapy development for TBI. PMID:25970337

  2. Urethral and penile war injuries: The experience from civil violence in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzawi, Issam S.; Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, mechanism of injury, wounding pattern and surgical management of urethral and penile injuries sustained in civil violence during the Iraq war. Patients and methods In all, 2800 casualties with penetrating trauma to the abdomen and pelvis were received at the Al-Yarmouk Hospital, Baghdad, from January 2004 to June 2008. Of these casualties 504 (18%) had genitourinary trauma, including 45 (8.9%) with urethral and/or penile injuries. Results Of 45 patients, 29 (64%) were civilians and 16 (36%) were Iraqi military personnel. The injury was caused by an improvised explosive device (IED) in 25 (56%) patients and by individual firearms in 20 (44%). Of the patients, 24 had penile injuries, 15 had an injury to the bulbar urethra and six had an injury to the posterior urethra. Anterior urethral injuries were managed by primary repair, while posterior urethral injuries were managed by primary realignment in five patients and by a suprapubic cystostomy alone in one. An associated injury to major blood vessels was the cause of death in eight of nine patients who died soon after surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusion Urethral and penile injuries were caused by IEDs and individual firearms with a similar frequency. Most of the casualties were civilians and a minority were military personnel. Injuries to the anterior urethra can be managed by primary repair, while injuries to the posterior urethra can be managed by primary realignment. An associated trauma to major blood vessels was the leading cause of death in these casualties. PMID:26019940

  3. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31?years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p?0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  4. Famous head injuries of the first aerial war: deaths of the "Knights of the Air".

    PubMed

    Koul, Prateeka; Mau, Christine; Sabourin, Victor M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    World War I advanced the development of aviation from the concept of flight to the use of aircraft on the battlefield. Fighter planes advanced technologically as the war progressed. Fighter pilot aces Francesco Baracca and Manfred von Richthofen (the Red Baron) were two of the most famous pilots of this time period. These courageous fighter aces skillfully maneuvered their SPAD and Albatros planes, respectively, while battling enemies and scoring aerial victories that contributed to the course of the war. The media thrilled the public with their depictions of the heroic feats of fighter pilots such as Baracca and the Red Baron. Despite their aerial prowess, both pilots would eventually be shot down in combat. Although the accounts of their deaths are debated, it is undeniable that both were victims of traumatic head injury. PMID:26126404

  5. Hospitalized eye injury in a Chinese urban population: a 7-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Ye, Jian

    2010-01-01

    AIM To present the epidemiology, cause of injury, ocular status and final visual acuity after management of severe ocular trauma required hospitalization during 7 years in a representative urban Chinese population. METHODS A retrospective analysis of the hospital admission files of ocular trauma patients admitted to the Daping hospital from January 2000 to December 2006 was carried out. RESULTS A total of 268 patients were open-globe injury and the remaining 294 patients were closed-globe types. The most common causes of ocular injuries were metal (29.4%), explosive (14.6%) and stone (13.9%). And the visual outcomes of most of eye injury patients in this study were poor; half of injured eyes ended with visual acuity worse than 0.1. CONCLUSION Therapeutic methods to ocular trauma make a great progress in recent years, but the visual outcomes are poor. PMID:22553548

  6. Injury-related mortality in South Africa: a retrospective descriptive study of postmortem investigations

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Megan; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Laubscher, Ria; Abrahams, Naeemah; Msemburi, William; Lombard, Carl; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate injury-related mortality in South Africa using a nationally representative sample and compare the results with previous estimates. Methods We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of medico-legal postmortem investigation data from mortuaries using a multistage random sample, stratified by urban and non-urban areas and mortuary size. We calculated age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates for external causes of death. Findings Postmortem reports revealed 52?493 injury-related deaths in 2009 (95% confidence interval, CI: 46?930–58?057). Almost half (25?499) were intentionally inflicted. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 population were as follows: all injuries: 109.0 (95% CI: 97.1–121.0); homicide 38.4 (95% CI: 33.8–43.0; suicide 13.4 (95% CI: 11.6–15.2) and road-traffic injury 36.1 (95% CI: 30.9–41.3). Using postmortem reports, we found more than three times as many deaths from homicide and road-traffic injury than had been recorded by vital registration for this period. The homicide rate was similar to the estimate for South Africa from a global analysis, but road-traffic and suicide rates were almost fourfold higher. Conclusion This is the first nationally representative sample of injury-related mortality in South Africa. It provides more accurate estimates and cause-specific profiles that are not available from other sources. PMID:26229201

  7. Portuguese War Veterans: Moral Injury and Factors Related to Recovery From PTSD.

    PubMed

    Ferrajão, Paulo Correia; Aragão Oliveira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the factors to which a sample of Portuguese war veterans attributed their recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were a sample of veterans (N = 60) with mental sequelae of the Portuguese Colonial War: 30 suffered from chronic PTSD (unrecovered) and 30 veterans with remission from PTSD (recovered). Two semistructured interviews were conducted. Analysis of the interviews was conducted using the Thematic and Categorical Analysis. Results showed that unrecovered participants reported higher postwar betrayal, appraisal of hostile societal homecoming, social stigmatization, lack of personal resources (mental fatigue and restriction of coping strategies), and reduced perceived social support. Recovered participants verbalized some capability for self-awareness of their own mental states and/or awareness of others' mental states (mentalization ability), a wider repertoire of coping strategies, and higher perceived social support. The authors discussed that recovery from PTSD among veterans can be related to the assimilation of moral injury by developing higher mentalization abilities. PMID:25711846

  8. E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department—A Retrospective Study from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Papoutsi, Sylvana; Martinolli, Luca; Braun, Christian Tasso; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Only six patients underwent surgery (S). Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated. PMID:24778880

  9. A retrospective survey on injuries in Croatian football/soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Injury among soccer referees is rarely studied, especially with regard to differences in the quality level of the refereeing. Additionally, we have found no study that has reported injury occurrence during official physical fitness testing for soccer referees. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, type and consequences of match-related and fitness-testing related injuries among soccer referees of different competitive levels. Methods We studied 342 soccer referees (all males; mean age 32.9?±?5.02?years). The study was retrospective, and a self-administered questionnaire was used. In the first phase of the study, the questionnaire was tested for its reliability and applicability. The questionnaire included morphological/anthropometric data, refereeing variables, and musculoskeletal disorders together with the consequences. Results The sample comprised 157 main referees (MR; mean age 31.4?±?4.9?years) and 185 assistant referees (AR; mean age 34.1?±?5.1?years) divided into: international level (Union of European Football Associations-UEFA) referees (N?=?18; 6 MRs; 12 ARs) ; 1st (N?=?78; 31 MRs; 47 ARs), 2nd (N?=?91; 45 MRs; 46 ARs); or 3rd national level referees (N?=?155; 75 MRs; 80 ARs). In total, 29% (95%CI: 0.23–0.37) of the MRs and 30% (95%CI: 0.22–0.36) of the ARs had experienced an injury during the previous year, while 13% (95%CI: 0.05–0.14) of the MRs, and 19% (95%CI: 0.14–0.25) of the ARs suffered from an injury that occurred during fitness testing. There was an obvious increase in injury severity as the refereeing advanced at the national level, but the UEFA referees were the least injured of all referees. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of injuries to the upper leg (i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings) during physical fitness testing for all but the UEFA referees. During game refereeing, the ankles and lower legs were the most commonly injured regions. The MRs primarily injured their ankles. The ARs experienced lower leg and lower back disorders. However, the overall injury rate was equal for both groups, with 5.29 (95%CI: 2.23–8.30) and 4.58 (95%CI: 2.63–6.54) injuries per 1000?hours of refereeing for MRs and ARs, respectively. Conclusion In addition to the reported risk of injury during soccer games, physical fitness testing should be classified as a risk for injury among soccer referees. Special attention should be given to (I) lower leg injuries during games and (II) upper leg injuries during physical fitness tests. A higher physical fitness level and a qualitative approach to training are recognized as protective factors against injury. Subsequent studies should investigate the specific predictors of injuries among referees. PMID:23497316

  10. Injuries and allegations of oral rape: A retrospective review of patients presenting to a London sexual assault referral centre.

    PubMed

    Brew-Graves, Emmeline; Morgan, Louise

    2015-08-01

    A retrospective review was carried out of patients seen at the Haven sexual assault referral centre in South East London between January 2009 and September 2010 to determine the frequency and nature of oral injuries found in people reporting oral rape. Ninety five eligible patients were identified and relevant information was extracted from standardised Haven forms completed during forensic medical examination. The main outcome measures were prevalence, type and location of oral injury. Eighteen (19%) were found to have sustained an oral injury. The most common injury was abrasions, followed by bruising and petechiae. The lips were the most common site of injury followed by the soft palate and the inside of the cheeks. It was concluded that injuries in the mouth were not common after an allegation of oral rape. Injuries were minor and did not require treatment. PMID:26165676

  11. If Hunters End Up in the Emergency Room: A Retrospective Analysis of Hunting Injuries in a Swiss Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bestetti, Valentina; Fisher, Emma E.; Srivastava, David S.; Ricklin, Meret E.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. to characterize the mechanisms, patterns, and outcomes of nonfatal hunting-related injuries in patients presenting to Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, and compare these to reports of hunting injuries worldwide. Methods. patients presenting with hunting-related injuries to the Emergency Department at Bern University hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified by retrospectively searching the department database using the keyword “hunt.” Each case was analyzed in terms of the patient age and gender, the mechanism and pattern of injury, and management and patient follow-up. Results. 19 patients were identified. 16 were male with a mean age of 50 years (range: 16–74). Mechanisms of injury included firearm-related injuries, falls, and knife wounds. The most common patterns of injury were head injuries (7), followed by injuries to the upper (5) or lower limb (5) and trunk (2). Over half of the patients were admitted, and nine required emergency surgery. Conclusion. Nonfatal hunting accidents in Bern, Switzerland, are largely caused by firearms and falls and tend to occur in male hunters with a mean age of 50 years. The most common patterns of injury are orthopedic and head injuries, often requiring surgery. These findings are consistent with international studies of nonfatal hunting accidents. PMID:25834746

  12. Fewer injuries but more deaths from road accidents during the Persian Gulf war.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D

    1991-01-01

    During the period 13 January to 28 February 1991, traffic accidents were the cause of death in 45 persons (31 vehicle and cycle occupants and 14 pedestrians) and of injuries in 2,769 persons (2,309 occupants and 460 pedestrians) in Israel. During the same period 18 persons (13 occupants and 5 pedestrians) died as the result of traffic accidents in the Territories (Judea/Samaria and the Gaza Strip). The decline in the number of injuries among occupants and pedestrians was offset by the increase in the case fatality rate (CFR), particularly among occupants, compared with: a) the previous 6 months, b) the same period of the previous year, a) the ratio of the reduced CFR in January-February in relation to the previous 6 months, and d) the CFR predicted by the declining CFR in January-February of the previous 5 years. Compared with 1990, in 1991 during the Persian Gulf war the roads were less crowded and crash occurrences were less frequent, but travel speeds, crash impacts and kinetic energy delivered to victims (especially occupants on inter-urban roads) were greater. Daytime running lights on two-lane roads; temporary lower speed limits; the use of new roadside monitoring methods for detecting and deterring speeding, tailgating and speedgating; the collection of tachygraph data; and implementation of the requirement for a rear seat belt are measures suggested to have been effective in swiftly reducing the toll of dead and injured, not only during but after the Gulf war as well. PMID:1757236

  13. The War of Independence: a surgical algorithm for the treatment of head injury in the continental army.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Victor M; Shah, Manan; Yick, Frederick; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    The American Revolution was a gruesome warthat resulted in the independence of the United States of America from the British crown and countless casualties to both belligerents. However, from these desperate times, the treatment of traumatic head injury was elucidated, as were the origins of American neurosurgery in the 18th century. During the war, the surgical manual used by military field surgeons was titled Plain Concise Practical Remarks on the Treatment of Wounds and Fractures, by Dr. John Jones. This manual explains the different types of cranial injuries understood at that time as well as the relevant surgical treatment. This article seeks to review the surgical treatment of head injury in the Revolutionary War as outlined by Dr. Jones's manual. PMID:26274994

  14. Alpine skiing injuries in Finland – a two-year retrospective study based on a questionnaire among Ski racers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpine skiing is one of the most popular winter sports in the world. Nevertheless, it has always been associated with a high risk of injury. There are however, only a few studies that have examined the risk of injury of competitive skiers, especially of the junior ski racers. Methods The inclusion criterion was an injury in alpine skiing resulting in a pause in training longer than one week. Athletes of all ages were included. The study period was from the start of the season of 2008–2009 to end of the season of 2009–2010 (two years). Results The average annual number of ski racers in Finland was 661. There were 61 injuries (36 males with a median age of 14 years, 25 females with a median age of 14) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ligamentous knee injury was the most frequent (17) and lower leg fracture the second common (16) injury, respectively. There was a female dominance in the ACL injuries. Only one major abdominal injury and no major head injuries were observed. The overall training pause was 26 weeks after the ACL injury and 17 weeks after the lower leg fracture, respectively. Conclusion The most common and most disabling injuries affect the knee and the lower leg. The high number of lower leg and ACL injuries is alarming. A continuous and careful monitoring of injuries needs to be established to assess this trend. A systematic review of injuries is the appropriate way to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of safety. The present retrospective two-year pilot study forms a base for a continuous alpine ski injury survey in Finland. PMID:24565467

  15. [Healed war injuries of the cranium in the osteologic collection from the Broumov Ossuary (13th-18th century)].

    PubMed

    Pospisilová, Blanka; Procházková, Olga; Hottmar, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic bone lesions form an important part of the study of human paleopathology. Injuries of the skull are frequent in the history of the human race. 647 adult dry skulls of both sexes from the "Broumov Ossuary" (13th-18th century) were examined for the incidence of cranium injuries. In this paper, an extensive collection (n=122) of healed dry skull injuries is presented. In the neuro- and splanchnocranium of skulls (n=78), linear and depressed fractures, slash and stab wounds have been seen but no gunshot wound. In part of the skulls (n=29), multiple injuries have been observed. Many detected traumatic lesions seem to have been caused by traditional weapons of the last centuries: war swords, axes, or pole-arms with metal spikes. All the skull injuries show clear signs of well-healing with bone remodelling that indicates the survival of victims for a long period after the cranial trauma. PMID:16669485

  16. Medical Efforts and Injury Patterns of Military Hospital Patients Following the 2013 Lushan Earthquake in China: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Peng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Zhipeng; Lv, Yipeng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate medical efforts and injury profiles of victims of the Lushan earthquake admitted to three military hospitals. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 266 admitted patients evacuated from the Lushan earthquake area. The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-2005) was used to identify the severity of each injury. Patient demographic data, complaints, diagnoses, injury types, prognosis, means of transportation, and cause of injury were all reviewed individually. The statistical analysis of the study was conducted primarily using descriptive statistics. Of the 266 patients, 213 (80.1%) were admitted in the first two days. A total of 521 injury diagnoses were recorded in 266 patients. Earthquake-related injuries were primarily caused by buildings collapsing (38.4%) and victims being struck by objects (33.8%); the most frequently injured anatomic sites were the lower extremities and pelvis (34.2%) and surface area of the body (17.9%). Fracture (41.5%) was the most frequent injury, followed by soft tissue injury (27.5%), but crush syndrome was relatively low (1.2%) due to the special housing structures in the Lushan area. The most commonly used procedure was suture and dressings (33.7%), followed by open reduction and internal fixation (21.9%).The results of this study help formulate recommendations to improve future disaster relief and emergency planning in remote, isolated, and rural regions of developing countries. PMID:26334286

  17. Medical Efforts and Injury Patterns of Military Hospital Patients Following the 2013 Lushan Earthquake in China: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Peng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Zhipeng; Lv, Yipeng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate medical efforts and injury profiles of victims of the Lushan earthquake admitted to three military hospitals. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 266 admitted patients evacuated from the Lushan earthquake area. The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-2005) was used to identify the severity of each injury. Patient demographic data, complaints, diagnoses, injury types, prognosis, means of transportation, and cause of injury were all reviewed individually. The statistical analysis of the study was conducted primarily using descriptive statistics. Of the 266 patients, 213 (80.1%) were admitted in the first two days. A total of 521 injury diagnoses were recorded in 266 patients. Earthquake-related injuries were primarily caused by buildings collapsing (38.4%) and victims being struck by objects (33.8%); the most frequently injured anatomic sites were the lower extremities and pelvis (34.2%) and surface area of the body (17.9%). Fracture (41.5%) was the most frequent injury, followed by soft tissue injury (27.5%), but crush syndrome was relatively low (1.2%) due to the special housing structures in the Lushan area. The most commonly used procedure was suture and dressings (33.7%), followed by open reduction and internal fixation (21.9%).The results of this study help formulate recommendations to improve future disaster relief and emergency planning in remote, isolated, and rural regions of developing countries. PMID:26334286

  18. Computed tomography of the shoulders in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injuries: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Humphries, Andrea D

    2008-01-01

    Background Scapular hypoplasia, elevation, and rotation (SHEAR) deformity and posterior subluxation of the humeral head are common tertiary sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPI). Interpretations of images from bilateral computed tomography (CT) scans of the upper extremities are critical to the diagnosis and treatment plan for patients with these bony deformities resulting from OBPI. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the accuracy of radiologic reports in the diagnosis of SHEAR or posterior subluxation of the humeral head in OBPI patients. CT studies from 43 consecutive patients over a 33-month period were used in the study. For each patient, we compared the results from the radiologic report to those from a clinical examination given by the attending surgeon and to measurements taken from the CT studies by biomedical researchers. Results A comparison of SHEAR measured from the 3-D CT images to the diagnoses from the radiologists, revealed that only 40% of the radiological reports were accurate. However, there was a direct correlation between the use of the 3-D CT images and an accurate SHEAR diagnosis by the radiologists (p < 0.0001). When posterior subluxation was measured in the affected and contralateral shoulders, 93% of the patients that had greater than a 10% difference between the two shoulders did not have their deformity diagnosed. The radiological reports diagnosed 17% of these patients with a 'normal' shoulder. Only 5% of the reports were complete, accurately diagnosing SHEAR in addition to posterior subluxation. Conclusion Due to the low incidence rate of OBPI, many radiologists may be unfamiliar with the sequelae of these injuries. It is therefore critical that radiologists are made aware of the importance of an accurate measurement and diagnosis of the SHEAR deformity. Due to their lack of completeness, the radiological reports in this study did not significantly contribute to the clinical care of the patients. In order for OBPI patients to receive the highest standard of care, the final diagnosis from their radiological imaging should be deferred to a brachial plexus specialist who is experienced with these types of injuries. PMID:18992150

  19. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  20. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  1. Incidence, Characteristics and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury among Dengue Patients: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Khan, Amer Hayat; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Sarriff, Azmi; Khan, Yusra Habib; Jummaat, Fauziah

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue induced acute kidney injury (AKI) imposes heavy burden of illness in terms of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate incidence, characteristics, risk factors and clinical outcomes of AKI among dengue patients. Methodology A total 667 dengue patients (2008–2013) were retrospectively evaluated and were stratified into AKI and non-AKI groups by using AKIN criteria. Two groups were compared by using appropriate statistical methods. Results There were 95 patients (14.2%) who had AKI, with AKIN-I, AKIN-II and AKIN-III in 76.8%, 16.8% and 6.4% patients, respectively. Significant differences (P<0.05) in demographics and clinico-laboratory characteristics were observed between patients with and without AKI. Presence of dengue hemorrhagic fever [OR (95% CI): 8.0 (3.64–17.59), P<0.001], rhabdomyolysis [OR (95% CI): 7.9 (3.04–20.49)], multiple organ dysfunction [OR (95% CI): 34.6 (14.14–84.73), P<0.001], diabetes mellitus [OR (95% CI): 4.7 (1.12–19.86), P = 0.034], late hospitalization [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.12–19.86), P = 0.033] and use of nephrotoxic drugs [OR (95% CI): 2.9 (1.12–19.86), P = 0.006] were associated with AKI. Longer hospital stay (>3 days) was also observed among AKI patients (OR = 1.3, P = 0.044). Additionally, 48.4% AKI patients had renal insufficiencies at discharge that were signicantly associated with severe dengue, secondary infection and diabetes mellitus. Overall mortality was 1.2% and all fatal cases had AKI. Conclusions The incidence of AKI is high at 14.2% among dengue patients, and those with AKI portended significant morbidity, mortality, longer hospital stay and poor renal outcomes. Our findings suggest that AKI in dengue is likely to increase healthcare burden that underscores the need of clinicians’ alertness to this highly morbid and potentially fatal complication for optimal prevention and management. PMID:26421839

  2. Identifying future ‘unexpected’ survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

  3. Differences in Injury Pattern and Prevalence of Cartilage Lesions in Knee and Ankle Joints: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Aurich, Matthias; Hofmann, Gunther O.; Rolauffs, Bernd; Gras, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically) and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically) of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients) was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints. PMID:25568732

  4. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented. PMID:18214089

  5. Injury survey in scuba divers of British Sub-Aqua Club: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Jee, Yong-Seok; Park, Jung-Min; Cho, Nam-Heung; Cha, Jun-Youl

    2015-01-01

    Scuba diving itself is generally known as a safe sports. However, various injury accidents can happen, and the incidences vary depending on divers’ education grade levels about the risks. Therefore, the study set out to identify and analyze the causes and patterns of injuries depending on the divers’ safety education grade levels through a questionnaire survey targeting ocean divers (n=12), sports divers (n=16), and dive leaders (n=15), all of whom belong to the British Sub-Aqua Club. After conducting a frequency analysis on the collected questionnaires, the conclusions are made as follows. First, in terms of diving depth, the most frequent diving depth was 15–20 m among ocean divers, 20–25 m among sports divers, and 15–20 m in case of dive leaders. Second, with regard to the causes of injuries, the most frequently answered causes are ‘overtension’ and ‘low skill’ among ocean divers; ‘low skill’ among sports divers; ‘overaction’ among dive leaders. Third, in terms of injury patterns, the most frequently answered injury patterns are ‘ear’ injuries among ocean divers; ‘ankle’ injuries among sports divers; ‘ankle’ and ‘calf’ injuries among dive leaders. Fourth, with regard to who performed first-aid when an injury accident happened, the most frequent answers are ‘instructor’ among ocean divers; ‘instructor’ and ‘self’ among sports divers; ‘self’ among dive leaders. We might suggest that more efforts need to be made to improve divers’ low dependence on specialists for treatment and consultation so that we can prevent an injury from leading to the second injury accident.

  6. Injury survey in scuba divers of British Sub-Aqua Club: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Jee, Yong-Seok; Park, Jung-Min; Cho, Nam-Heung; Cha, Jun-Youl

    2015-12-01

    Scuba diving itself is generally known as a safe sports. However, various injury accidents can happen, and the incidences vary depending on divers' education grade levels about the risks. Therefore, the study set out to identify and analyze the causes and patterns of injuries depending on the divers' safety education grade levels through a questionnaire survey targeting ocean divers (n=12), sports divers (n=16), and dive leaders (n=15), all of whom belong to the British Sub-Aqua Club. After conducting a frequency analysis on the collected questionnaires, the conclusions are made as follows. First, in terms of diving depth, the most frequent diving depth was 15-20 m among ocean divers, 20-25 m among sports divers, and 15-20 m in case of dive leaders. Second, with regard to the causes of injuries, the most frequently answered causes are 'overtension' and 'low skill' among ocean divers; 'low skill' among sports divers; 'overaction' among dive leaders. Third, in terms of injury patterns, the most frequently answered injury patterns are 'ear' injuries among ocean divers; 'ankle' injuries among sports divers; 'ankle' and 'calf' injuries among dive leaders. Fourth, with regard to who performed first-aid when an injury accident happened, the most frequent answers are 'instructor' among ocean divers; 'instructor' and 'self' among sports divers; 'self' among dive leaders. We might suggest that more efforts need to be made to improve divers' low dependence on specialists for treatment and consultation so that we can prevent an injury from leading to the second injury accident. PMID:26730384

  7. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Associated with Mandibular Fractures at Risk: A Two-Center Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K.; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury in mandibular fractures. This study is based on two databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two departments—Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy. Demographic, anatomic, and etiology variables were considered for each patient and statistically assessed in relation to the neurosensory IAN impairment. Statistically significant associations were found between IAN injury and fracture displacement (p?=?0.03), isolated mandibular fractures (p?=?0.01), and angle fractures (p?=?0.004). A statistically significant association was also found between IAN injury and assaults (p?=?0.03). Displaced isolated mandibular angle fractures could be considered at risk for increased incidence of IAN injury. Assaults seem to be the most important etiological factor that is responsible for IAN lesions. PMID:25383147

  8. [An interesting paleopathologic finding of healed multiple war injuries of a skull].

    PubMed

    Pospísilová, B; Procházková, O; Zadrobílek, K; Hottmar, P; Slízová, D; Krs, O; Bavor, J; P?kný, P

    2001-01-01

    The presentation describes an interesting finding of healed multiple war cutting wounds in adult male skull. The examined dry skull belong to the extensive osteologic collection which comes from the abolished "Broumov Ossuary". The set encompasses skeletal remains of the population from the 13th to 18th centuries. PMID:12012713

  9. Returning Veterans on Campus with War Related Injuries and the Long Road Back Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the growing numbers of returning military personnel attending higher education based on emerging national trends, including the new GI Educational Bill, amendments to the ADA, and the rising unemployment rate. The trauma of war and the high survival rate have resulted in a high percentage of veterans returning from the Global…

  10. Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis). PMID:24460844

  11. Fatal firearm injuries in autopsy cases at central Bangkok, Thailand: a 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Myint, Sithu; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba; Peonim, Vichan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2014-11-01

    Even though there have been previously published reports on firearm injuries in various countries, the incidence and pattern of death from firearm injuries in Thailand have not been studied before. In present study, 149 fatal firearm injuries from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. At total of 7126 autopsies, fatal firearm injuries comprised of 2.09% (n = 149) of total autopsies cases. Among those victims, 136 were male (91.3%), 13 (8.7%) were female. The youngest age of victim was 10 years and the oldest was 79 years. Mean age of the victims was 33.79 years and median age was 30 years. Outdoor incident was the most common scene of crime. Night time incident (18:00 PM-05:59 AM) was higher than day time one. Most of the cases occurred in week ends (n = 52). Homicide (77.2%) was the most frequent manner of death. Head/face and chest were the most common sites of entrance. The autopsy report also study on entrance wound, range and types of projectiles. Blood alcohol concentration was examined in 122 cases and 38 victims showed positive results, 11 cases revealed using of illegal substances in blood and urine analysis. This study also included the association between manner of death and other factors. Age group, time of incidence, place of incidence, number of entrance wound and range showed statistically significant association with manner of death. PMID:25440139

  12. Risk factors for acute kidney injury in overweight patients with acute type A aortic dissection: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Honglei; Pan, Xudong; Gong, Zhizhong; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yongmin; Zhu, Junming

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in overweight patients who underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD). Methods A retrospective study including 108 consecutive overweight patients [body mass index (BMI) ?24] between December 2009 and April 2013 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital has been performed. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, which is based on serum creatinine (sCr) or urine output. Results The mean age of the patients was 43.69±9.66 years. Seventy-two patients (66.7%) developed AKI during the postoperative period. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify two independent risk factors for AKI: elevated preoperative sCr level and 72-h drainage volume. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 15 patients (13.9%). The overall postoperative mortality rate was 7.4%, 8.3% in AKI group and 5.6% in non-AKI group. There is no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.32). Conclusions A higher incidence of AKI (66.7%) in overweight patients with acute TAAD was confirmed. The logistic regression model identified elevated preoperative sCr level and 72-h drainage volume as independent risk factors for AKI in overweight patients. We should pay more attention to prevent AKI in overweight patients with TAAD. PMID:26380764

  13. Risk factors for traumatic blunt cerebrovascular injury diagnosed by computed tomography angiography in the pediatric population: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Sivakumar, Walavan; Metzger, Ryan R; Bollo, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is frequently used to examine patients for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) after cranial trauma, but the pediatric population at risk for BCVI is poorly defined. Although CTA is effective for BCVI screening in adults, the increased lifetime risk for malignant tumors associated with this screening modality warrants efforts to reduce its use in children. The authors' objective was to evaluate the incidence of BCVI diagnosed by CTA in a pediatric patient cohort and to create a prediction model to identify children at high risk for BCVI. METHODS Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data were collected retrospectively for pediatric patients who underwent CTA during examination for traumatic cranial injury from 2003 through 2013. The primary outcome was injury to the carotid or vertebral artery diagnosed by CTA. RESULTS The authors identified 234 patients (mean age 8.3 years, range 0.04-17 years, 150 [64%] boys) who underwent CTA screening for BCVI. Of these, 24 (10.3%) had a focal neurological deficit, and 153 (65.4%) had intracranial hemorrhage on a head CTA. Thirty-seven BCVIs were observed in 36 patients (15.4%), and 16 patients (6.8%) died. Multivariate regression analysis identified fracture through the carotid canal, petrous temporal bone fracture, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of < 8, focal neurological deficit, and stroke on initial CT scan as independent risk factors for BCVI. A prediction model for identifying children at high risk for BCVI was created. A score of ? 2 yielded a 7.9% probability of BCVI and a score of ? 3 a risk of 39.3% for BCVI. CONCLUSIONS For cranial trauma in children, fracture of the petrous temporal bone or through the carotid canal, focal neurological deficit, stroke, and a GCS score of < 8 are independent risk factors for BCVI. PMID:25745952

  14. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    PubMed

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. PMID:26165650

  15. Impact of war on central nervous system tumors incidence--a 15-year retrospective study in Istria County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Telarovi?, Srdana; Telarovi?, Sinisa; Relja, Maja; Franinovi?-Markovi?, Julijana

    2006-03-01

    The aim of study was to analyze epidemiological features of central nervous system (CNS) tumors diagnosed in Istria County, Croatia, with a particular emphasis on incidence dynamics during the wartime (1991-1995). The data were extracted from the medical records of patients with CNS tumors admitted to the Department of Neurology of Pula General Hospital in the period from the 1st January 1986 to the 31st December 2000, N = 364. For calculation of rates, we used data from the 2001 Croatian consensus http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/Census/census2001.htm. Data are presented as counts and incidence rates (IRs) per 100,000 persons-years in the case of annual rates. Annual incidence rates are shown as "raw" incidence rates and smoothed 5-year rolling average rates. The examined patient-related variables were: sex, age, occupation, premorbidity and comorbidity, with a particular emphasis on psychosomatic disorders and negative habits. The analyzed tumor-related variables included clinical manifestation, localization, and applied diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Primary tumors were separated from the metastatic, and the latter were analysed with respect to their site of origin. The lowest incidence of CNS tumors (10 patients) was reported in 1990, and the highest (42 patients) in 1993. The incidence dynamics of CNS tumors showed a rapidly progressive increase over the 1991-1995 period, followed by the return to average values. The access to a better and more readily available diagnostics may only partially explain this phenomenon. Therefore, we analyzed other factors that may have contributed towards the rapid increase in the number of CNS tumors, such as its coincidence with the war or psychotrauma. The results confirm the observational clinical hypothesis of an extreme increase in the number of CNS tumors during the period under consideration. PMID:16617590

  16. Metals detected by ICP/MS in wound tissue of war injuries without fragments in Gaza

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amount and identity of metals incorporated into "weapons without fragments" remain undisclosed to health personnel. This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management. We assessed if there was evidence that metals are embedded in "wounds without fragments" of victims of the Israeli military operations in Gaza in 2006 and 2009. Methods Biopsies of "wounds without fragments" from clinically classified injuries, amputation (A), charred (C), burns (B), multiple piercing wounds by White Phosphorus (WP) (M), were analyzed by ICP/MS for content in 32 metals. Results Toxic and carcinogenic metals were detected in folds over control tissues in wound tissues from all injuries: in A and C wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co, Hg, V, Cs and Sn), in M wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co and Hg) and in B wounds (Co, Hg, Cs, and Sn); Pb and U in wounds of all classes; B, As, Mn, Rb, Cd, Cr, Zn in wounds of all classes, but M; Ni was in wounds of class A. Kind and amounts of metals correlate with clinical classification of injuries, exposing a specific metal signature, similar for 2006 and 2009 samples. Conclusions The presence of toxic and carcinogenic metals in wound tissue is indicative of the presence in weapon inducing the injury. Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination. We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys. PMID:20579349

  17. Autologous Internal Iliac Artery Graft in a Popliteal Artery Injury Defect in War Surgery.

    PubMed

    Noorzai, M Yaqub; Carpp, Nicole; Ertl, Christian W

    2015-12-01

    A 23-year-old Afghan National Policeman sustained a right popliteal artery injury secondary to a ground-based blast. Initial treatment was an application of a tourniquet, and after triage at a local civilian hospital a shunt was placed, 3 hours after the initial injury, and then was transferred to Kabul for definitive care, 24 hours after injury. Extensive trauma to both legs precluded use of greater saphenous vein as a graft. To avoid an above-the-knee amputation, a branch of the internal iliac artery was harvested for grafting. Postoperative computed tomography angiography indicated the presence of excellent flow, and he was discharged fully ambulatory on postoperative day 17. Autologous arterial grafting has only been used infrequently, and in this case represents innovation in a low-resource environment. Surgical training in Afghanistan has seen great strides at the National Hospital. If this patient were treated at any other facility, he likely would have had a high amputation. Without advising or direction of coalition surgeons, the Afghan Trauma Team independently made the decision to harvest the artery and salvage the limb, and this is one example of how coalition support has bolstered the confidence of Afghan surgeons to develop unconventional solutions to conventional problems. PMID:26633676

  18. Clinical Risk Scoring Models for Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury after Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Seong-Ho; Kim, Chung Su; Gwak, Mi Sook; Kim, Gaab Soo

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of liver transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. We identified the incidence and modifiable risk factors for AKI after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and constructed risk scoring models for AKI prediction. We retrospectively reviewed 538 cases of LDLT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for the prediction of AKI as defined by the RIFLE criteria (RIFLE = risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage). Three risk scoring models were developed in the retrospective cohort by including all variables that were significant in univariate analysis, or variables that were significant in multivariate analysis by backward or forward stepwise variable selection. The risk models were validated by way of cross-validation. The incidence of AKI was 27.3% (147/538) and 6.3% (34/538) required postoperative renal replacement therapy. Independent risk factors for AKI by multivariate analysis of forward stepwise variable selection included: body-mass index >27.5 kg/m2 [odds ratio (OR) 2.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–4.55], serum albumin <3.5 mg/dl (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.05–2.94), MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) score >20 (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.17–3.44), operation time >600 min (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.07–3.06), warm ischemic time >40 min (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.55–4.38), postreperfusion syndrome (OR 2.96, 95%CI 1.55–4.38), mean blood glucose during the day of surgery >150 mg/dl (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.01–2.70), cryoprecipitate > 6 units (OR 4.96, 95%CI 2.84–8.64), blood loss/body weight >60 ml/kg (OR 4.05, 95%CI 2.28–7.21), and calcineurin inhibitor use without combined mycophenolate mofetil (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.14–3.06). Our risk models performed better than did a previously reported score by Utsumi et al. in our study cohort. Doses of calcineurin inhibitor should be reduced by combined use of mycophenolate mofetil to decrease postoperative AKI. Prospective randomized trials are required to address whether artificial modification of hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia and postreperfusion syndrome would decrease postoperative AKI in LDLT. PMID:26302370

  19. Acute gastrointestinal injury in the intensive care unit: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, HuaiSheng; Zhang, HuaDong; Li, Wei; Wu, ShengNan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) is a common problem in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study is a review of the gastrointestinal function of patients in critical care, with the aim to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of grading criteria developed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) Working Group on Abdominal Problems (WGAP). Methods Data of patients who were admitted to the ICU of Shenzhen People’s Hospital, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China, from January 2010 to December 2011 were reviewed. A total of 874 patients were included into the current study. Their sex, age, ICU admissive causes, complication of diabetes, AGI grade, primary or secondary AGI, mechanical ventilation (MV), and length of ICU stay (days) were recorded as risk factors of death. These risk factors were studied by unconditioned logistic regression analysis. Results All the risk factors affected mortality rate. Unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the mortality rate of secondary AGI was 71 times higher than primary AGI (odds ratio [OR] 4.335, 95% CI [1.652, 11.375]). When the age increased by one year, the mortality probability would increase fourfold. Mortality in patients with MV was 63-fold higher than for patients with non-MV. Mortality rate increased 0.978 times with each additional day of ICU stay. Conclusion Secondary AGI caused by severe systemic conditions can result in worsened clinical outcomes. The 2012 ESICM WGAP AGI recommendations were to some extent feasible and effective in guiding clinical practices, but the grading system lacked the support of objective laboratory outcomes. PMID:26491339

  20. The role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with soft tissue injuries: experience from the second Israel-Lebanon war, 2006.

    PubMed

    Sharony, Zach; Eldor, Liron; Klein, Yuval; Ramon, Yitzchak; Rissin, Yaron; Berger, Yosef; Lerner, Alexander; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    During the 2006 war between Israel and Lebanon, 282 Israeli soldiers were evacuated to Rambam Health Care Campus. Of these, 210 were admitted for observation or treatment, and 15 of these were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Thirty-five other soldiers, hospitalized in other departments, required the care of Plastic Surgeons, either for conservative or surgical treatment. The injury profile observed was consistent with data from previous low-intensity warfare, which demonstrated that over 80% of injuries were produced by fragmentation weapons, such as artillery, mortarshells, rockets, and missiles. It differs, however, from our experience in previous wars and our expectations regarding burn wounds, both in incidence and severity, which were significantly lower as compared with the past. This article presents our management of extensive soft tissue injuries, and details 3 representative cases. It highlights the role of the Plastic Surgeon as part of the whole treatment in this type of injury and helps to predict the needs of the medical system in preparation for the future. PMID:19131724

  1. Effects of chronic mild traumatic brain injury on white matter integrity in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.

    PubMed

    Morey, Rajendra A; Haswell, Courtney C; Selgrade, Elizabeth S; Massoglia, Dino; Liu, Chunlei; Weiner, Jonathan; Marx, Christine E; Cernak, Ibolja; McCarthy, Gregory

    2013-11-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common source of morbidity from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. With no overt lesions on structural MRI, diagnosis of chronic mild TBI in military veterans relies on obtaining an accurate history and assessment of behavioral symptoms that are also associated with frequent comorbid disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Military veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan with mild TBI (n = 30) with comorbid PTSD and depression and non-TBI participants from primary (n = 42) and confirmatory (n = 28) control groups were assessed with high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). White matter-specific registration followed by whole-brain voxelwise analysis of crossing fibers provided separate partial volume fractions reflecting the integrity of primary fibers and secondary (crossing) fibers. Loss of white matter integrity in primary fibers (P < 0.05; corrected) was associated with chronic mild TBI in a widely distributed pattern of major fiber bundles and smaller peripheral tracts including the corpus callosum (genu, body, and splenium), forceps minor, forceps major, superior and posterior corona radiata, internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and others. Distributed loss of white matter integrity correlated with duration of loss of consciousness and most notably with "feeling dazed or confused," but not diagnosis of PTSD or depressive symptoms. This widespread spatial extent of white matter damage has typically been reported in moderate to severe TBI. The diffuse loss of white matter integrity appears consistent with systemic mechanisms of damage shared by blast- and impact-related mild TBI that involves a cascade of inflammatory and neurochemical events. PMID:22706988

  2. Does Traumatic Brain Injury Lead to Criminality? A Whole-Population Retrospective Cohort Study Using Linked Data

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Peter W.; Malacova, Eva; Preen, David B.; D’Este, Catherine; Tate, Robyn; Reekie, Joanne; Wand, Handan; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a risk factor for criminal behaviour however multiple factors potentially confound the association. Methods Record linkage and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the association between hospital-recorded TBI (n = 7,694) and subsequent first criminal conviction in a retrospective cohort matched 1:3 with 22,905 unaffected community controls and full-sibling controls (n = 2,397). Aboriginality, substance abuse, social disadvantage, and mental illness were included in analyses as potential confounders Results In multivariable models, relative to general population controls, TBI was associated with any conviction (males: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1·58 (95% CI 1·46 to 1·72); females: HR = 1·52 (95% CI 1·28 to 1·81)); and similar Hazard Ratios were obtained for the sibling analyses in males (HR = 1.68 (95% CI 1.31-2.18)) and females (HR 1.27 (95% CI 0.71-2.29)). TBI was also associated with violent convictions relative to the general population, (males: HR = 1.65 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.92); females HR = 1.73 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.47)), and in analyses with sibling controls in men (HR = 1.89 (95% CI 1.20-3.00)), but not in women (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.29-1.81)). Conclusion The results support a modest causal link between TBI and criminality after comprehensive adjustment for confounding. Reducing the rate of TBI, a major public health imperative, might have benefits in terms of crime reduction. PMID:26172545

  3. Child road traffic crash injuries at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa in 1992, 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Kihurani N; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2015-12-01

    Road traffic crashes are a significant cause of the disease burden among children, with the highest mortality in low- and middle-income countries. This observational study explores such injuries in Cape Town, South Africa through an analysis of data for cases in 1992, 2002 and 2012 at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, a referral paediatric hospital for children younger than 13 years. Descriptive and time trend analysis of demographic data as well as of the causes, severity and place of injury was conducted. Logistic regression and generalised linear models described factors influencing hospital admission. In the years 1992, 2002 and 2012, a total of 4690 patients presented with injuries sustained as a result of a road traffic crash. Nearly 50% (n = 2201) of them were between five and nine years of age, with 1.7 males for every female. Three-quarters of those who got injured were pedestrians while the second most commonly injured ones were unrestrained passengers. The majority had minor injuries (58%), but with notably higher proportions with moderate to severe injuries in the years 2002 and 2012. Forty per cent were admitted for inpatient treatment, with the highest proportion (50%) in 2002. Admission was related to mechanism and severity. The epidemiological factors assessed remain largely unchanged over the assessment points calling into question the impact of local safety strategies. PMID:24897376

  4. Anti-epileptic prophylaxis in traumatic brain injury: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing craniotomy versus decompressive craniectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Dahlin, Robert; Hariri, Omid; Quadri, Syed A.; Farr, Saman; Miulli, Dan; Siddiqi, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Seizures account for significant morbidity and mortality early in the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there is sufficient literature suggesting short-term benefits of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in post-TBI patients, there has been no study to suggest a time frame for continuing AEDs in patients who have undergone a decompressive craniectomy for more severe TBI. We examined trends in a level-II trauma center in southern California that may provide guidelines for AED treatment in craniectomy patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy and those who underwent a standard craniotomy from 2008 to 2012. Results: Out of the 153 patients reviewed, 85 were included in the study with 52 (61%) craniotomy and 33 (39%) craniectomy patients. A total of 78.8% of the craniotomy group used phenytoin (Dilantin), 9.6% used levetiracetam (Keppra), 5.8% used a combination of both, and 3.8% used topiramate (Topamax). The craniectomy group used phenytoin 84.8% and levetiracetam 15.2% of the time without any significant difference between the procedural groups. Craniotomy patients had a 30-day seizure rate of 13.5% compared with 21.2% in craniectomy patients (P = 0.35). Seizure onset averaged on postoperative day 5.86 for the craniotomy group and 8.14 for the craniectomy group. There was no significant difference in the average day of seizure onset between the groups P = 0.642. Conclusion: Our study shows a trend toward increased seizure incidence in craniectomy group, which does not reach significance, but suggests they are at higher risk. Whether this higher risk translates into a benefit on being on AEDs for a longer duration than the current standard of 7 days cannot be concluded as there is no significant difference or trend on the onset date for seizures in either group. Moreover, a prospective study will be necessary to more profoundly evaluate the duration of AED prophylaxis for each one of the stated groups. PMID:25657861

  5. Risk of Injury Associated With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults Enrolled in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montejano, Leslie; Sasané, Rahul; Huse, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to an increased risk of injury in children. This retrospective analysis evaluated the risk and type of injury associated with ADHD in adults. Method: Data were taken from the MarketScan databases, which provide details of health care claims and productivity data for individuals and their dependents with access to employer-sponsored health plans. Adults (aged 18–64 years) with ? 2 ADHD-related diagnostic claims (using ICD-9-CM codes) between 2002 and 2007 and evidence of ADHD treatment in 2006 (n = 31,752) were matched to controls without ADHD (1:3; n = 95,256) or individuals with a depression diagnosis (using ICD-9-CM codes; 1:1; n = 29,965). Injury claims were compared between cohorts, and multivariate analyses controlled for differences that remained after matching. Results: Injury claims were more common in individuals with ADHD than in non-ADHD controls (21.5% vs 15.7%; P < .0001) or individuals with depression (21.4% vs 20.5%; P = .008). Multivariate analyses indicated that the relative risk of injury claims was higher in individuals with ADHD than in the non-ADHD control (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27–1.37; P < .01) and depression (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07–1.18; P < .01) groups. Injury claims increased total direct health care expenditure; total expenditures for ADHD patients with injuries were $6,482 compared with $3,722 for ADHD patients without injuries (P < .0001). Comparison of injury-related costs were similar between ADHD patients and non-ADHD controls ($1,109 vs $1,041, respectively), but higher for depression patients than for ADHD patients ($1,792 vs $1,084; P < .01). Injury claim was also associated with increased short-term disability expenditures, as ADHD patients with injury incurred higher mean cost than those without injury ($1,303 vs $620; P = .0001), but lower than those with injury in the depression cohort (vs $2,152; P = .0099) Conclusions: Adults with ADHD were more likely to incur injury claims than non-ADHD controls or adults with depression in this sample selected on the basis of claims data rather than clinical referrals. Most injuries were relatively minor; however, individuals with injuries incurred higher total direct health care costs than those without injuries. Furthermore, the ratio of indirect costs due to workplace absence to direct health care costs was higher for adults with ADHD than for adults with depression, demonstrating not only the impact of ADHD in the workplace, but also the importance of accounting for productivity data in calculating the true economic burden of ADHD in adults. PMID:21977357

  6. Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Methods Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure) and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley’s range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Results Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p?injury (Pearson’s r?=?0.332, p?injury. Regardless of sport, female athletes had significantly shorter time to injury than males (Hazard Ratio?=?2.2, p?injury (Hazard Ratio?=?4.2, p?injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport. PMID:22824555

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of NSAID-Induced Small Intestinal Injury Assessed by Capsule Endoscopy in Korea: A Nationwide Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ki-Nam; Song, Eun Mi; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Kim, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Seong Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Song, Hyun Joo; Lim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Jin Soo; Ye, Byong Duk; Park, Cheol Hee; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cheon, Jae Hee; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Ji Hyun; Jang, Byung Ik; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chun, Hoon Jae; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the long-term outcome and clinical course of patients of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury by performing capsule endoscopy (CE). Methods A multicenter retrospective study was conducted using data collected from the CE nationwide database registry, which has been established since 2002. Results A total of 140 patients (87 males; mean age, 60.6±14.8 years) from the CE nationwide database registry (n=2,885) were diagnosed with NSAID-induced small intestinal injury and enrolled in our study. Forty-nine patients (35.0%) presented with a history of aspirin use and an additional 49 (35.0%) were taking NSAIDs without aspirin. The most prominent findings after performing CE were multiple ulcerations (n=82, 58.6%) and erosions or aphthae (n=32, 22.9%). During the follow-up period (mean, 15.9±19.0 months; range, 0 to 106 months), NSAID-induced small intestinal injury only recurred in six patients (4.3%). Older age and hypertension were positive predictive factors for recurrence. Conclusions These results suggest that the recurrence of NSAID-induced small bowel injury was not frequent in the presence of conservative treatment. Therefore, the initial diagnosis using CE and the medication history are important. PMID:25473079

  8. Injuries suffered by dogs from riding in the back of open pickup trucks: a retrospective review of seventy cases.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, D M; Fries, C L; Alcorn, M J; Thomas, S S

    1995-01-01

    Case records of 70 dogs injured while riding in the back of open pickup trucks during the period January 1, 1982, to May 1, 1993, were reviewed. Most dogs were young (mean age 2.4 y) and of medium to large size (average weight 22.6 kg). Sixty-five dogs (93%) were injured during the months of April through October. Forty-nine dogs (70%) had single injuries and 21 dogs (30%) sustained multiple injuries. Fractures were the most frequent injury incurred, with fractures of the femur the most common. Surgical repair was recommended in all but 2 cases. PMID:7585438

  9. Acute paediatric bite injuries treated on inpatient basis: a 10-year retrospective study and criteria for hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Shipkov, Hristo; Stefanova, Penka; Sirakov, Vladimir; Stefanov, Rumen; Dachev, Dimitar; Simeonov, Martin; Ivanov, Biser; Nenov, Momchil

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute bite wounds in children treated on an inpatient basis over a 10-year period and the criteria for inpatient treatment. This study comprised all acute mammalian bite injuries in relation to all paediatric bite injuries seen at the Emergency Surgical Department (ESD). Inclusion criteria were: aged between 0-18 years; acute human or animal bite injuries (presenting for the first time); and inpatient treatment. Exclusion criteria were: bite wounds treated elsewhere and referred for complications; bites treated on an outpatient basis referred for complications; and all insect bites. Over 10 years, 12,948 children were seen at the ESD. There were 167 children (0.77%) with mammalian bite wounds. Twelve of them responded to the inclusion criteria. They presented 7.18% of all mammalian bite injuries and 0.09% of all paediatric emergency visits at the ESD. The average age was 3.82 ± 1.63 years (from 1.3-7 years). The time elapsed between the accident to the wound debridement was 118.64 ± 101.39 minutes. There were 10 dogs, one horse, and one rabbit bite. Surgical treatment comprised debridement, saline irrigation, and primary closure or reconstruction. All patients received antibiotics in the postoperative period. The average hospital stay was 5.92 ± 2.39 days. In one case a partial distal flap necrosis occurred. Animal bite injuries treated on an inpatient basis are predominantly dog bites in young children under 10 years of age, with deep, extended, and commonly multiple injuries. Only 7% of paediatric bite injuries require inpatient treatment. PMID:23586322

  10. Epilepsy following non-missile head injury among African people in Dar es Salaam: a retrospective clinical analysis study.

    PubMed

    Matuja, W B

    1990-06-01

    Over a period of 2 years, 26 subjects with epilepsy following non-missile head injury were referred to the neurology clinic at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam. The mean age was 28.5 yr. Twenty of these subjects were males. Sixteen (62%) were victims of road traffic accidents, six (23%) had direct blows of the head and four (15%) had fallen from heights. The first late seizure occurred 2 weeks after injury in all subjects. Fifty-eight per cent had the first late seizure between the third and seventh month after injury. Only 8% had the first seizure after 1 year of injury. Posttraumatic amnesia of over 24 h was the commonest recorded complication and occurred in 58% of subjects. Other complications were: depressed fracture (31%), acute intracranial haematoma (27%) and early seizures (12%). Twenty per cent of subjects had no complications. The role of the head injury complications as a factor in increasing the risk of late epilepsy as well as individual susceptibility to seizures is discussed. PMID:2115733

  11. Management of jaw injuries in the american civil war: the diuturnity of bean in the South, gunning in the north.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    James Baxter Bean published a series of articles in the Southern Dental Examiner in 1862 describing his work with "plaster and its manipulations." This early experience included a new way of managing jaw fractures, with customized splints uniquely based on pretraumatic occlusion. Bean's oral splints and their method of construction, using an articulator, became the standard of care in the Atlanta region during the American Civil War and, by 1864, throughout The Confederacy. In short course, Bean's approach also swept The Union, following in large part the efforts of a colleague in the North, T.B. Gunning. Thus, what began in the early 1860s in a dental laboratory in the southeast swept the continental United States and revolutionized management of jaw-fractures during, and immediately after, the American Civil War. PMID:22655119

  12. Management of Jaw Injuries in the American Civil War: The Diuturnity of Bean in the South, Gunning in the North

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    James Baxter Bean published a series of articles in the Southern Dental Examiner in 1862 describing his work with “plaster and its manipulations.” This early experience included a new way of managing jaw fractures, with customized splints uniquely based on pretraumatic occlusion. Bean's oral splints and their method of construction, using an articulator, became the standard of care in the Atlanta region during the American Civil War and, by 1864, throughout The Confederacy. In short course, Bean's approach also swept The Union, following in large part the efforts of a colleague in the North, T.B. Gunning. Thus, what began in the early 1860s in a dental laboratory in the southeast swept the continental United States and revolutionized management of jaw-fractures during, and immediately after, the American Civil War. PMID:22655119

  13. Exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, individually or in combination with other Gulf War agents, impairs synaptic integrity and neuronal differentiation, and is accompanied by subtle microvascular injury in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Joseph O; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Reed, Jon Mike; Montague, Hannah; Mullan, Michael J; Crawford, Fiona C

    2014-04-01

    Gulf War illness (GWI) is a currently untreatable multi-symptom disorder experienced by 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War (GW) veterans. The characteristic hallmarks of GWI include cognitive dysfunction, tremors, migraine, and psychological disturbances such as depression and anxiety. Meta-analyses of epidemiological studies have consistently linked these symptomatic profiles to the combined exposure of GW agents such as organophosphate-based and pyrethroid-based pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos (CPF) and permethrin (PER) respectively) and the prophylactic use of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as a treatment against neurotoxins. Due to the multi-symptomatic presentation of this illness and the lack of available autopsy tissue from GWI patients, very little is currently known about the distinct early pathological profile implicated in GWI (including its influence on synaptic function and aspects of neurogenesis). In this study, we used preclinical models of GW agent exposure to investigate whether 6-month-old mice exposed to CPF alone, or a combined dose of CPF, PB and PER daily for 10 days, demonstrate any notable pathological changes in hippocampal, cortical (motor, piriform) or amygdalar morphometry. We report that at an acute post-exposure time point (after 3 days), both exposures resulted in the impairment of synaptic integrity (reducing synaptophysin levels) in the CA3 hippocampal region and altered neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG), demonstrated by a significant reduction in doublecortin positive cells. Both exposures also significantly increased astrocytic GFAP immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex, motor cortex and the basolateral amygdala and this was accompanied by an increase in (basal) brain acetylcholine (ACh) levels. There was no evidence of microglial activation or structural deterioration of principal neurons in these regions following exposure to CPF alone or in combination with PB and PER. Evidence of subtle microvascular injury was demonstrated by the reduction of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 levels in CPF+PB+PER exposed group compared to control. These data support early (subtle) neurotoxic effects on the brain following exposure to GW agents. PMID:24118348

  14. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI.We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of APAP intoxication diagnosis from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. We analyzed the risks of AKI for patients with APAP intoxication by using Cox proportional hazards regression models.In this study, 2914 patients with APAP intoxication and 11,656 controls were included. The overall risks of developing AKI were 2.41-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication compared with the comparison cohort. After we excluded APAP intoxication patients with coexisting AKI and hepatic failure/hepatitis, the overall risks of developing AKI were still 2.22-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication. There were 2 patients who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following APAP intoxication-related AKI. Limitations include retrospective review, selection bias, and absence of data on detail medications used, laboratory investigations and dosage of APAP intoxication.Our long-term cohort study results showed that AKI is a possible adverse effect among patients with APAP intoxication, regardless of whether patients have presented with hepatic toxicity. However, additional studies are necessary to clarify whether such patients can progress to ESRD. PMID:26579812

  15. Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, C. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of injuries to the head and orofacial region in physically abused children and adolescents--a retrospective study in a city of the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of injuries to the head and orofacial region in physically abused children and adolescents from a city of the Northeast of Brazil, based on the review of forensic medical reports. This retrospective study was undertaken by the analysis of expert medical reports derived from medical forensic exams performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine of the city of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, between January 2003 and December 2006. From a universe of 11 624 reports issued in this time span, the study sample consisted of 1070 reports referring to children and adolescents aged 0-17 years that were confirmedly victims of physical abuse. Male children (52.8%) in the 13- to 17-year-old range (72.4%) were the most frequent victims, with an association between gender and age group (P = 0.039). Most children (58.2%) presented a single type of injury, with a statistically significant association between number of injuries and gender (P = 0.040), but no significant association between number of injuries and age (P = 0.163). The percentage of victims injured in the head and face corresponded to 56.3%, with a statistically significant association between the presence of injury in the head and face and gender (P = 0.046). As much as 12.4% of the children and adolescents presented intraoral injuries, with no significant difference between genders (P = 0.543). However, a statistically significant association was observed between the number of existing injuries and the presence of oral injuries (P = 0.005). The maxilla was predominantly affected (55.6%), most injuries (94.8%) being soft-tissue lacerations located mainly in the upper lip (46.4%). The findings of this survey revealed a high prevalence of injuries to the head and orofacial region of physically abused children and adolescents. PMID:20070347

  17. Risk Factors for the Failure of Spinal Burst Fractures Treated Conservatively According to the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS): A Retrospective Cohort Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jieliang; Xu, Linfei; Zhang, Baolong; Hu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of thoracolumbar (TL) burst fractures is still controversial. The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) algorithm is now widely used to guide clinical decision making, however, in clinical practice, we come to realize that TLICS also has its limitations for treating patients with total scores less than 4, for which conservative treatment may not be optimal in all cases. Purpose The aim of this study is to identify several risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment of TL burst fractures according to TLICS algorithm. Methods From June 2008 to December 2013, a cohort of 129 patients with T10-l2 TL burst fractures with a TLISC score ?3 treated non-operatively were identified and included into this retrospective study. Age, sex, pain intensity, interpedicular distance (IPD), canal compromise, loss of vertebral body height and kyphotic angle (KA) were selected as potential risk factors and compared between the non-operative success group and the non-operative failure group. Results One hundred and four patients successfully completed non-operative treatment, the other 25 patients were converted to surgical treatment because of persistent local back pain or progressive neurological deficits during follow-up. Our results showed that age, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and IPD, KA were significantly different between the two groups. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that VAS score and IPD could be considered as significant predictors for the failure of conservative treatment. Conclusion The recommendation of non-operative treatment for TLICS score ?3 has limitations in some patients, and VAS score and IPD could be considered as risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment. Thus, conservative treatment should be decided with caution in patients with greater VAS scores or IPD. If non-operative management is decided, a close follow-up is necessary. PMID:26284373

  18. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

  19. Risk factors for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients receiving high intravenous doses of colistin methanesulfonate and/or other nephrotoxic antibiotics: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Use of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) was abandoned in the 1970s because of excessive nephrotoxicity, but it has been reintroduced as a last-resort treatment for extensively drug-resistant infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia). We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate risk factors for new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients receiving high intravenous doses of colistin methanesulfonate and/or other nephrotoxic antibiotics. Methods The cohort consisted of 279 adults admitted to two general ICUs in teaching hospitals between 1 April 2009 and 30 June 2011 with 1) no evidence on admission of acute or chronic kidney disease; and 2) treatment for more than seven days with CMS and/or other nephrotoxic antimicrobials (NAs, that is, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with this outcome. Results The 279 cases that met the inclusion criteria included 147 patients treated with CMS, alone (n = 90) or with NAs (n = 57), and 132 treated with NAs alone. The 111 (40%) who developed AKI were significantly older and had significantly higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) scores than those who did not develop AKI, but rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure were similar in the two groups. The final logistic regression model showed that in the 147 patients who received CMS alone or with NAs, onset of AKI during the ICU stay was associated with septic shock and with SAPS II scores ?43. Similar results were obtained in the 222 patients treated with CMS alone or NAs alone. Conclusions In severely ill ICU patients without pre-existing renal disease who receive CMS high-dose for more than seven days, CMS therapy does not appear to be a risk factor for this outcome. Instead, the development of AKI was strongly correlated with the presence of septic shock and with the severity of the patients as reflected by the SAPS II score. PMID:23945197

  20. Injuries from antipersonnel mines: the experience of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, R M; Korver, A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe and quantify patterns of injury from antipersonnel mines in terms of distribution of injury, drain on surgical resources, and residual disability. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis. SETTING--Two hospitals for patients injured in war. SUBJECTS--757 patients with injuries from antipersonnel mines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Distribution and number of injuries; number of blood transfusions; number of operations; disability. RESULTS--Pattern 1 injury results from standing on a buried mine. These patients usually sustain traumatic amputation of the foot or leg; they use most surgical time and blood and invariably require surgical amputation of one or both lower limbs. Pattern 2 injury is a more random collection of penetrating injuries caused by multiple fragments from a mine triggered near the victim. The lower limb is injured but there is less chance of traumatic amputation or subsequent surgical amputation. Injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen are common. Pattern 3 injury results from handling a mine: the victim sustains severe upper limb injuries with associated face injuries. Eye injuries are common in all groups. CONCLUSIONS--Patients who survive standing on a buried mine have greatest disability. Non-combatants are at risk from these weapons; in developing countries their social and economic prospects after recovery from amputation are poor. Images FIG 1 FIG 2-(a) FIG 2-(b) FIG 3 PMID:1838290

  1. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine and Feline Maxillomandibular Trauma Cases; Comparison of Lunar Cycle and Seasonality with Non-maxillomandibular Traumatic Injuries (2003-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Soukup, Jason W.; Hetzel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine relationships between seasonality and lunar cycle and the frequency of maxillomandibular (MM) and non-maxillomandibular (non-MM) injury in canine and feline trauma patients. Methods A medical records database was searched to identify all MM trauma patients (67) and a random sample of non-MM trauma patients (129) according to search criteria. Season of injury, moon phase and moon luminosity were calculated for the date of injury. Results MM injury occurred predominately in the spring and decreased through winter while non-MM injury occurred more frequently in the summer and fall. The difference in the frequency of MM and non-MM injuries during different seasons was not significant (p=0.071). When comparing injuries occurring in the quarters following the full moon and leading up to the full moon, a difference (p=0.007) was noted with an increased percentage of moon was illuminated at the time injuries occurred following a full moon as compared to leading up to the full moon. Clinical Significance These results may guide clinicians to closely evaluate trauma patients that are presented on emergency during a particular season or lunar phase. Based on the season at the time of injury, close evaluation for MM versus non-MM trauma may be appropriate. PMID:24569925

  2. Gender Differences in Sport Injury Risk and Types of Inju-Ries: A Retrospective Twelve-Month Study on Cross-Country Skiers, Swimmers, Long-Distance Runners and Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Ristolainen, Leena; Heinonen, Ari; Waller, Benjamin; Kujala, Urho M.; Kettunen, Jyrki A.

    2009-01-01

    This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05), and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%, p < 0.05). When the incidence of acute and overuse injuries both separately and combined was calculated per 1000 training hours, per 1000 competition hours and all exposure hours combined we found no gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 26.4, p < 0.05) while females were at increased risk for overuse injuries in the ankle compared to males (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p < 0.05). After adjustment for exposure time (injuries/1000 exposure hours) significance of the difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p < 0.05). Six athletes had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, of whom four were female soccer players. After combining all reported acute and overuse ankle and knee injuries, the proportion of athletes with such injury was higher in the female compared to male soccer players (75% and 54% respectively; p < 0.05), but no difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training. Key points Only a few sport injury studies have compared in-jury rates between the sexes Overall gender-related risk for acute and overuse injuries in top-level athletes between the sexes was small Some gender differences in the specific anatomical locations of injuries as well as in specific injuries in sports were found Some of these differences seem to be explained by the differences in the amount of training PMID:24150009

  3. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine and Feline Maxillomandibular Trauma Cases; A Comparison of Signalment with Non-Maxillomandibular Traumatic Injuries (2003-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Soukup, Jason W.; Hetzel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine differences in signalment between maxillomandibular (MM) and non maxillomandibular (non-MM) trauma patients to help predict the type of injury sustained. Methods A medical records database was searched from December 2003-September 2012 to identify all MM trauma patients, and also a random sample of non-MM trauma patients was generated. Patient species, age, sex, weight, and injury aetiology were recorded for both populations. Results Sixty-seven MM trauma patients and 129 non-MM trauma patients were identified. Feline patients were almost twice as likely to be presented for MM trauma compared with non-MM trauma. The median weight of canine patients suffering MM injury was significantly less than that of non-MM patients (p=0.025). A significant association existed between the causes of injuries associated with MM and non-MM trauma populations (p=0.000023). The MM trauma patients were more likely to sustain injury as a result of an animal altercation (Bonferroni p=0.001) while non-MM injuries were more likely to result from motor vehicle accidents (Bonferroni p=0.001). Overall animals <1yr of age with traumatic injuries were overrepresented (65/196) in comparison to entire patient population. Clinical Significance The results of this study may help guide clinicians in the evaluation and screening of trauma patients that are presented as an emergency. Cats, small dogs and animals suffering from animal altercations should all be closely evaluated for maxillomandibular injury. PMID:24569903

  4. The following guidelines and best practices have been found helpful when working with veterans of war. Not all veterans found in college/university classrooms will suffer from traumatic brain injury or post-traumatic stress disorder, however many do. It i

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    The following guidelines and best practices have been found helpful when working with veterans of war. Not all veterans found in college/university classrooms will suffer from traumatic brain injury instructors and faculty members understand that homecoming for a veteran involves recreating oneself

  5. Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

  6. Increasing paintball related eye trauma reported to a state eye injury registry

    PubMed Central

    Kitchens, J.; Danis, R.

    1999-01-01

    Methods—A retrospective review of cases reported to the database is reported, with representative case histories. Results—No injuries from paintball were reported during the period June 1992 to June 1996. Over the next two years 11 injuries were reported, representing 4% of all ocular trauma reports over this period. Visual outcome is poor in many of these eyes and more than one half present with posterior segment ocular injury. Conclusions—Severe ocular trauma results from impacts from paintball pellets, and the occurrence of injuries appears to be increasing due to growth in popularity of this war game. Diligent use of eye protection by all participants is necessary to prevent a continuing rise in ocular trauma prevalence from this activity. PMID:10628923

  7. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations. PMID:26035580

  8. War & Peace & War: Peter Turchin Mehran Salehi

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    War & Peace & War: Peter Turchin Mehran Salehi Life Cycles of Imperial Nations Ch. 10-12 10. The Matthew Principle 11. Wheels Within Wheels 12. War and Peace and Particles #12;"Why the rich get richer poor, middle class is slightly effected War #12;Ch. 11: Wheels within wheels - The Many Declines

  9. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  10. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore »and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury as a predictor of active and passive suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Morissette, Sandra B; Meyer, Eric C; DeBeer, Bryann B; Silvia, Paul J; Calhoun, Patrick C; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-06-30

    The present study examined the association between lifetime non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and current suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. NSSI was positively associated with passive, active, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation at the bivariate level. NSSI remained a predictor of active, OR=5.15, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation, OR=7.01, when other risk factors were considered. These findings suggest that NSSI may be a particularly useful marker of active suicidal ideation among veterans. PMID:25858799

  12. A Philosophy of War 

    E-print Network

    Moseley, Darran A

    This thesis examines in four parts a collection of philosophical arguments dealing with war. The conclusions drawn are that war is a definable and applicable concept, that above the level of biological reactions war is ...

  13. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  14. 48 CFR 628.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. 628.305 Section 628.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. (b)(1) Acquisitions for services, including construction but excluding... employees and their beneficiaries for war-hazard injury, death, capture, or detention as prescribed by...

  15. 48 CFR 628.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. 628.305 Section 628.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. (b)(1) Acquisitions for services, including construction but excluding... employees and their beneficiaries for war-hazard injury, death, capture, or detention as prescribed by...

  16. 48 CFR 628.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. 628.305 Section 628.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. (b)(1) Acquisitions for services, including construction but excluding... employees and their beneficiaries for war-hazard injury, death, capture, or detention as prescribed by...

  17. 48 CFR 628.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. 628.305 Section 628.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. (b)(1) Acquisitions for services, including construction but excluding... employees and their beneficiaries for war-hazard injury, death, capture, or detention as prescribed by...

  18. 48 CFR 628.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. 628.305 Section 628.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...' compensation and war-hazard insurance. (b)(1) Acquisitions for services, including construction but excluding... employees and their beneficiaries for war-hazard injury, death, capture, or detention as prescribed by...

  19. Delivering best care in war and peace.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2014-06-24

    Col Alan Finnegan, the fi rst Ministry of Defence professor of nursing, is driving forward research into preparing nurses for deployment and ensuring they deliver the best care possible in war and peace. Research topics range from the role of autonomous practitioners to the effects on soldiers of injuries to their genitalia. PMID:24938961

  20. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  1. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  2. Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, W.; Khan, M. D.; Akbar, M; Khan, M. D.; Malik, A. M.; Durrani, O.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given.?METHODS—It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase.?RESULTS—It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less.?CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.?? PMID:10837390

  3. Revealing latent value of clinically acquired CTs of traumatic brain injury through multi-atlas segmentation in a retrospective study of 1,003 with external cross-validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold crossvalidation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  4. Revealing Latent Value of Clinically Acquired CTs of Traumatic Brain Injury Through Multi-Atlas Segmentation in a Retrospective Study of 1,003 with External Cross-Validation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a “big data” paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold cross-validation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients. PMID:25914504

  5. The unfought chemical war

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, K. )

    1991-12-01

    In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

  6. Eye injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Drolsum, L

    1999-02-01

    In a retrospective study from 1988 to 1998, eye injuries were found in 553 patients. Seventy-six (13.7%) of these injuries were associated with sport. The mechanism of trauma was for the most part a ball (71.1%) or a club (13.2%). Most eye injuries occurred in soccer (35.5%), which is, by far, the most widespread sport in this region of Norway. A disproportionately high number of the injuries occurred in floorball (17.1%), bandy (13.2%), and squash (10.5%). The rules in these sports may, in theory, be strict enough to prevent eye injuries in most cases. However, these rules are often neglected in informal activities. Strategies for educating the general public about the potentially serious effect of eye injuries in sports exposed to such risk are of great importance. PMID:9974198

  7. War zone paediatrics in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1996-08-01

    Children are particularly vulnerable to injury and death in two types of 20th century conflicts; terrorist attack and civil war. This account describes some first-hand experiences of the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War of 1994. Events leading to the conflict are described, eye witness accounts of child trauma during the war are recorded and the medical problems (currently ongoing) affecting children are described. Over a period of 3 months from April to June 1994, between half and one million Rwandese, a significant proportion of them women and children, were murdered in brutal hand-to-hand killing, dying from close-quarter gunshot and machete slaughter. Nearly half of the population became refugees in neighbouring countries or displaced persons in their own land. UNAMIR II, the United Nations Emergency Humanitarian Response, grew to some 7000 persons by May 1995. Medical aid was provided by emergency medical contingents from the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, the latter through its Australian Medical Support Force, providing the definitive emergency medical infrastructure from August 1994. In the consequent post-war civil and social disruption, children suffered from burns, cholera and from motor vehicle trauma. Ongoing landmine blasts continue to affect children and adolescents especially. A new International humanitarian code to build a time-expiry device into landmines and other similar ordinance is urgently required as the post-conflict ongoing disasters in Rwanda, Afghanistan and Cambodia illustrate. Current problems affecting children include an increasing risk of HIV infection, trauma and the special humanitarian needs of thousands of orphans. PMID:8844531

  8. Costs of war: excess health care burdens during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (relative to the health care experience pre-war).

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    This report estimates the health care burden related to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan by calculating the difference between the total health care delivered to U.S. military members during wartime (October 2001 to June 2012) and that which would have been delivered if pre-war (January 1998 to August 2001) rates of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and hospital bed days of active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces had persisted during the war. Overall, there were estimated excesses of 17,023,491 ambulatory visits, 66,768 hospitalizations, and 634,720 hospital bed days during the war period relative to that expected based on pre-war experience. Army and Marine Corps members and service members older than 30 accounted for the majority of excess medical care during the war period. The illness/injury-specific category of mental disorders was the single largest contributor to the total estimated excesses of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and bed days. The total health care burdens associated with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are undoubtedly greater than those enumerated in this report because this analysis did not address care delivered in deployment locations or at sea, care rendered by civilian providers to reserve component members in their home communities, care of veterans by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, preventive care for the sake of force health protection, and future health care associated with wartime injuries and illnesses. PMID:23231050

  9. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  10. When Kids Lose Parents in Our War in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    As of July, more than 1,200 children had lost parents in the war in Iraq, and thousands more had parents with serious injuries, according to the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress at the Uniform Services University in Bethesda, Maryland. The war, which began three and a half years ago, has resulted in the deaths of more than 2,600 U.S.…

  11. To Win a Nuclear War: The Pentagon's secret war plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    Kaku and Axelrod trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star Wars. To Win a Nuclear War takes readers beyond the details of the costs of nuclear attack into the attitudes of war planners and Presidents from Eisenhower to Reagan.

  12. American Revolution American Civil War

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    University Archives & Ø American Revolution Ø American Civil War Ø English Civil War Ø Florida History Ø Literature Ø Music Ø Philosophy Ø Religion Ø Science Ø World War I Ø World War II Research War letters from the Clarke Family Papers and Cross Collection; WWII documents, letters

  13. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Asia: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Li, Yu-Lin; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Study design A systematic review. Background The number of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) reports grows annually, especially in China and Korea. The epidemiological characteristics of TSCI in Asia differ from those in other countries. Thus, we compiled epidemiological factors from Asia to compare with those from other countries. Method We searched articles published in any language between January 1980 to December 2011 using the terms “spinal cord injury”, “traumatic spinal cord injury”, “epidemiology”, and “Asia”. The articles were reviewed for information regarding TSCI incidence, total cases, case criteria, case source, causes of injury, male/female ratio, mean age, prospective or retrospective, neurological level of injury, extent of injury, and America Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS)/grade. Results Epidemiological data were extracted from 39 reports in the published literature that met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies reported prevalence rates. Incidence rates ranged from 12.06 to 61.6 per million. The average age ranged from 26.8 to 56.6 years old. Men were at higher risk than women. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and falls were the main causes of TSCI. However, several countries reported war wounds as the major cause. The neurological level and extent of injury were mixed, and most patients were categorized as AIS/Frankel grade A. Conclusion TSCI is an important public health problem and a major cause of paralysis. We must understand the epidemiology to implement appropriate preventative measures. Asian epidemiology is different from that in other regions, so intervention measures must be established according to population-specific characteristics. PMID:22925749

  14. At War with Zola

    E-print Network

    White, Nicholas

    2015-04-13

    , in which Maurice’s twin sister, Henriette Weiss, is widowed, is best explained by the novel’s own version of fraternité and its analogy between the sexual and the political, an analogy which speaks back to Lynn Hunt’s ground-breaking study of what she... manoeuvres which imitate war, indeed provide fictions of war, we might say, but are in the end not a preparation for the messy realities of war, least of all the First World War which still clung, as we see in this postcard reproduction, to the patriotic...

  15. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members

    MedlinePLUS

    ... witnessed the death or injury of friends, other military personnel, civilians, or enemy combatants. Your loved one may ... Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Military Personnel ( PDF) ”. It contains useful resources for service members ...

  16. Fighting the Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan Lundine); "Patience and…

  17. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  18. Americans as Warriors: "Doughboys" in Battle during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Jennifer D.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)

  19. Gastrointestinal problems in modern wars: clinical features and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Feng; Guo, Xiao-Xu; Yang, Yun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal problems are common during wars, and they have exerted significant adverse effects on the health of service members involved in warfare. The spectrum of digestive diseases has varied during wars of different eras. At the end of the 20th century, new frontiers of military medical research emerged due to the occurrence of high-tech wars such as the Gulf War and the Kosovo War, in which ground combat was no longer the primary method of field operations. The risk to the military personnel who face trauma has been greatly reduced, but disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) such as neuropsychological disorders and digestive diseases seemed to be increased. Data revealed that gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and noncardiac chest pain are common among military personnel during modern wars. In addition, a large number of deployed soldiers and veterans who participated in recent wars presented with chronic gastrointestinal complaints, which fulfilled with the Rome III criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). It was also noted that many veterans who returned from the Gulf War suffered not only from chronic digestive symptoms but also from neuropsychological dysfunction; however, they also showed symptoms of other systems. Presently, this broad range of unexplained symptoms is known as "Gulf War syndrome". The mechanism that underlies Gulf War syndrome remains unclear, but many factors have been associated with this syndrome such as war trauma, stress, infections, immune dysfunction, radiological factors, anthrax vaccination and so on. Some have questioned if the diagnosis of FGIDs can be reached given the complexity of the military situation. As a result, further studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease among military personnel. PMID:26301101

  20. The Geometry Of War The Geometry Of War

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    The Geometry Of War 1 #12;The Geometry Of War GEM1518K Mathematics in Arts &Architecture Presenting : The Geometry Of War Prepared by: 1) Linda Tjoe Matriculation number: U017984E 2) Lince Salim Matriculation017997 2 #12;The Geometry Of War Contents Page(s) Introduction 1 1.1 Early Canon 2 1.2 The Triumph

  1. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  2. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  3. Hemipelvectomy images of loss caused by war.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Tal; Kassis, Shokrey; Lerner, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    As we treat our 230th patient from the Syrian conflict, the pathology we see is more debilitating and the humanitarian needs of the wounded have become even more obvious. This case presents some graphic images of the realities of war. Care in the most advanced units cannot restore broken limbs, let alone broken lives. We present a case of a young war-injured man, who suffered severe crush injury to the pelvis and lower limb, arriving at our medical facility after a delay of hours. The lower limb was shattered from the pelvis down (essentially a traumatic hemipelvectomy). His life had been saved in Syria by ligation of the femoral vessels in an unknown facility by an unknown medical team. On arrival in a centre in Israel for definitive care of an unsalvageable leg, formal hemipelvectomy was performed. PMID:25008336

  4. U.S. War Costs: Two Parts Temporary, One Part Permanent

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Military spending, fatalities, and the destruction of capital, all of which are immediately felt and are often large, are the most overt costs of war. They are also relatively short-lived. But the costs of war borne by combatants and their caretakers, which includes families, communities, and the modern welfare state, tend instead to be lifelong. In this paper I show that a significant component of the budgetary costs associated with U.S. wars is long-lived. One third to one half of the total present value of historical war costs are benefits distributed over the remaining life spans of veterans and their dependents. Even thirty years after the end of hostilities, typically half of all benefits remain to be paid. Estimates of the costs of injuries and deaths suggest that the private burden of war borne by survivors, namely the uncompensated costs of service-related injuries, are also large and long-lived. PMID:25221367

  5. Injuries in Competitive Dragon Boating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. Purpose: To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. Results: A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Conclusion: Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport. PMID:26535280

  6. Pathology of blast-related brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Jeffery D; Tessler, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Blasts are responsible for about two-thirds of the combat injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, which include at least 1,200 traumatic brain injuries. Blasts inflict damage to the brain directly and by causing injuries to other organs, resulting in air emboli, hypoxia, and shock. Direct injuries to the brain result from rapid shifts in air pressure (primary blast injury), from impacts with munitions fragments and other objects propelled by the explosion (secondary blast injury), and from collisions with objects and rapid acceleration of individuals propelled by the explosion (tertiary blast injury). Tertiary injury can occur from a building or other structure collapsing and from an individual being thrown by the blast wind. The pathological consequences of secondary and tertiary blast injuries are very likely to be similar to those of other types of mechanical trauma seen in civilian life. The damage attributable to the specific effects of a blast, however, has received little study, although it has been assumed to include the focal and diffuse lesions characteristic of closed head injuries. Available clinical studies of blast injuries show focal damage similar to that found in other types of closed head injuries but have not determined whether diffuse axonal injury also occurs. In this article, we will try to reach a better understanding of the specific pathology of blast-related brain injury by reviewing the available experimental studies and the autopsy reports of victims of terrorist attacks and military casualties dating back to World War I. PMID:20104396

  7. Indirect Catastrophic Injuries in Olympic Styles of Wrestling in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data on indirect catastrophic injuries in wrestling are scarce. Objectives: To develop a profile of indirect catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling and to describe possible risk factors. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Indirect catastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The injuries included 9 indirect catastrophic injuries. The injury rate was 0.62 injuries per 100 000 wrestlers per year. The majority of indirect injuries were cardiovascular events in veteran groups of wrestlers. Conclusions: Indirect catastrophic wrestling injuries are rare and present most commonly in older athletes. Coronary artery disease was the main cause. PMID:23015988

  8. Rationalist causes of war : mechanisms, experiments, and East Asian wars

    E-print Network

    Quek, Ch-yuan Kaiy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation specifies and tests rationalist mechanisms of war. Why would rational states fight each other despite their incentives for peaceful bargains that would avoid the costs of war? In the rationalist theory ...

  9. 20 CFR 61.400 - Custody of records relating to claims under the War Hazards Compensation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...relating to claims under the War Hazards Compensation Act. 61.400 Section 61.400 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH,...

  10. 20 CFR 61.400 - Custody of records relating to claims under the War Hazards Compensation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...relating to claims under the War Hazards Compensation Act. 61.400 Section 61.400 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH,...

  11. Life without war.

    PubMed

    Fry, Douglas P

    2012-05-18

    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war. PMID:22605769

  12. Crush injury

    MedlinePLUS

    A crush injury occurs when force or pressure is put on a body part. This type of injury most ... squeezed between two heavy objects. Damage related to crush injuries include: Bleeding Bruising Compartment syndrome (increased pressure ...

  13. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... competition for the athlete. Lateral View of the Ankle Common Types of Sports Injuries Muscle sprains and ... Acute Injuries Acute injuries, such as a sprained ankle, strained back, or fractured hand, occur suddenly during ...

  14. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  15. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  16. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  17. War Damage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.

  18. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  19. [Sanitary and chemical protection during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Imangulov, R G; Grebeniuk, A N; Rybalko, V M; Nosov, A V

    2011-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a real danger of use by German armies of the chemical weapon against staff of Red Army. However German command didn't risked to go on conducting large-scale chemical war against the USSR that rescued from painful death millions person. A principal cause of this decision was well organized and technically provided system of antigas protection in Red Army, including precisely organized actions of sanitary-chemical protection, qualitative preparation of military doctors on these questions and presence at them effective antidotes and other means of treatment of injuries by fighting poison gases. PMID:21874887

  20. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  1. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  2. In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of débridement.

    PubMed Central

    Helling, T S; Daon, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The care of traumatic wounds has evolved over hundreds of years, largely as a result of armed conflicts. The lessons learned during World War I in the treatment of extensive soft-tissue injuries proved invaluable in reducing infection and preventing loss of limb and life. Foremost among these was the use of debridement. This report reviews the development of debridement as standard treatment of war wounds and highlights the surgeon largely responsible for its resurgence during one of this century's saddest chapters. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Before World War I, the care of wounds consisted of minimal exploration and liberal use of then-new antiseptics. For limited injuries, this approach appeared adequate. World War I saw the introduction of devastating weapons that produced injuries that caused extensive devitalization of tissue. Standard treatment of these patients proved woefully inadequate to prevent life-threatening infections. METHODS: This is a historical review of the conditions that occurred during World War I that prompted a change in wound management. One of those responsible for this change was the Belgian surgeon Antoine Depage. His life and contributions to the care of war wounds are profiled. Depage reintroduced the discarded French practice of wound incision and exploration (debridement) and combined it with excision of devitalized tissue. RESULTS: Through the use of debridement, excision, and delayed wound closure based on bacteriologic survey, Depage was able to reduce the incidence of infectious complications of soft-tissue injuries, particularly those involving fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Through his experiences in the Great War, Antoine Depage was able to formulate a treatment plan for wounds of war. All such injuries were assumed to be contaminated and, as such, they required early and careful debridement. Depage thought that wound closure should often be delayed and based his decision to close on the bacteriologic status of the wound. To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9712561

  3. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  4. The Technological Culture of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  5. Iowa and World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of these posters.…

  6. Cold War Entanglements of Social ANDY BYFORD

    E-print Network

    Solovey, Mark

    REVIEW Cold War Entanglements of Social Science ANDY BYFORD MLAC, Durham University, UK Cold War.00. The Cold War era the three decades between the end of the Second World War and the end of the Vietnam War of `America' s Cold War' (Farish, 2010). More speci cally, it focuses on the multiple ambiguous `entanglements

  7. War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

  8. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  9. Stabilizing Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Barkenbus, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    An orderly replacement of offensive with defensive nuclear weapons is part of the defense-protected build-down (DPB) strategy described by Weinberg and Barkenbus. Differing from the administration's Star Wars approach by relying on interceptor missiles rather than costly and unproven lasers and particle beams, the plan also calls for a simultaneous freeze on offensive weapons. (DCK)

  10. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

  11. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  12. Education and War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

  13. End the Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

  14. American prisoner of war policy and practice from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror 

    E-print Network

    Springer, Paul Joseph

    2006-08-16

    American prisoner of war (POW) policy consists of repeated improvisational efforts during wartime followed by few efforts to incorporate lessons learned. As such, in every war, the United States has improvised its system of POW maintenance...

  15. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Capdarest-Arest, Nicole; Bertoch, Spencer T.; Bakken, Erik C.; Hoover, Susan E.; Zou, Jiyao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s) and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection. PMID:25210653

  16. Retrospective Conversion: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Scott, Jutta

    1985-01-01

    This review of the process of retrospective conversion (recon)--conversion of existing bibliographic records into machine-readable form--notes options and services (bibliographic utilities, commercial vendors); new technologies (microcomputer and optical-disc-based systems); collaboration and a coordinated recon strategy; cooperative efforts; and…

  17. Homicidal firearm injuries: a study from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, P A S; Kitulwatte, I G D

    2010-06-01

    Stabbing, mechanical asphyxia, blunt head injury and shooting are the most common methods of homicides, with firearm homicides on the increase throughout the world. This study was a retrospective study carried out by the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka over a 1 year period on firearm homicides examined at two principal forensic institutions in the western province (Office of the Judicial Medical Officer Colombo and Ragama) of Sri Lanka. During the period of the study (June 2005 to July 2006) 3100 medicolegal autopsies were carried out at these two institutions with 265 representing alleged homicides. Eighty-three cases (31%) were identified as homicides due to fatal firearm injuries. The majority of the victims (N = 76) were young adult males (aged 18-40 years). Almost half of the firearm homicides (47%; N = 39) were associated with previous enmity, while 33% (N = 27) were due to ethnic rebel killings in the North and East. Daylight hours (6.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m.) were preferred by rebels, while there was no relation to the time of day in the other firearm deaths. The weapon of choice was a rifled firearm (98%). While 70% of war-related deaths had one or two fatal shots, either to the head or chest, homicides motivated by personal enmity had multiple wounds, with an average of 5.7 fatal shots per victim. This study demonstrates that firearm homicides in Sri Lanka mainly involve young men, and that when related to armed conflict the fatal injury usually consists of a single shot to the head or chest. PMID:20169474

  18. Student injuries in the dissecting room.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Davies, Tilman M; Lees, David

    2013-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is the first opportunity for many students to practice handling human tissue and is their first exposure to the occupational hazards involved with this task. Few studies examine dissection room injuries to ascertain the dangers associated with dissecting. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of dissection room injuries from four student cohorts over an eleven-year period (2001-2011), including second-year medical students, third-year medical students, second-year dental students, and third-year science students. Injury data included activity causing injury, object responsible, and injury site. A total of 163 injuries during 70,039 hours of dissection were recorded, with 66 in third-year medical students, 42 in second-year medical students, 36 in third-year science students, and 16 in second-year dental students. The overall rate was 2.87 injuries per 1,000 dissection hours, with second-year medical students most frequently injured (5.5 injuries per 1,000 hours); third-year medical students were least frequently injured (1.3 injuries per 1,000 hours). A significant difference in injury rates between student groups indicated a higher than expected injury rate to second-year medical students and lower than expected rates to third-year medical students. Injury rates increased for most groups between 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. Most injuries (79%) were from scalpel cuts to the finger or thumb. This study provides injury rates for dissection room injuries to students, indicating differences in injury frequency between cohorts and an increase in injury rate over time. As scalpel cuts were the most likely injury mechanism, targeting scalpel handling with preventative strategies may reduce future injury risk. PMID:23536433

  19. Lessons from history: morbidity of cold injury in the Royal Marines during the Falklands Conflict of 1982

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental conditions in the Falklands Conflict of 1982 favoured the genesis of cold injuries. Immediately, post-war, cold injury morbidity and its contributory factors were assessed, in the personnel of UK 3 Commando Brigade (3 Cdo Bde). Methods A questionnaire survey of the 3,006 members of 3 Cdo Bde who landed on the islands was conducted within 6–10 weeks of the end of hostilities. Questions included those relating to features of cold injury, body morphology, age, symptoms experienced, past medical history and other possible contributory causes. Additionally, the unit medical team conducted a cursory examination. Data were sent to the Royal Navy Institute of Naval Medicine (INM), where the degree of likely cold injury was broadly classified (‘asymptomatic’ ‘mild’, ‘moderate’ or ‘severe’). A sample (total 109) was then selected at random from each category and subsequently examined and tested at the INM (nerve conduction, photoplethysmography and thermography testing). Forty-seven non-cold exposed sailors acted as a control group. These contemporaneous records have now been identified and interrogated. Results Some 2,354 (78%) completed questionnaires were returned, revealing that 1,505 (64%) had experienced symptoms of non-freezing cold injury. The morbidity in the infantry units was significantly greater than that in the support troops (1,051 (76%) vs 454 (46%), p?injury. Whilst there was no significant relationship between past history and cold injury morbidity in the brigade as a whole, or within the infantry units alone, an association was identified in the collective infantry units (73%) and the support/headquarter units (59%) (p?retrospective interrogation of historical documents hard, the available data do appear to offer valuable historical and clinical insights. Cold injury affected the majority of those fighting in the cold temperate climate of the Falklands. The overwhelming environmental conditions meant that, for most, a past history of cold injury did not appear to represent a risk factor for subsequent injury, as is the case for less severe conditions. Importantly, even asymptomatic individuals when tested often showed physiological evidence of cold injury—perhaps predisposing them to subsequent elevation in risk. PMID:24070118

  20. Orthopedic injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Lin, David L; Kirk, Kevin L; Murphy, Kevin P; McHale, Kathleen A; Doukas, William C

    2004-10-01

    Orthopedic injuries comprise a majority of combat injuries seen in recent U.S. military conflicts. Interventions in the forward deployed area have played an important role in improving mortality rates of soldiers as well as outcome at a medical center level. A retrospective review was conducted on orthopedic injuries from Operation Enduring Freedom evaluated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC). Patients were grouped into one of five injury categories (open fracture, amputation, arterial injuries, neurological injuries, and soft tissue injury) with evacuation time (days from time of injury to arrival at WRAMC) and procedures performed before arrival at WRAMC evaluated. The average evacuation time for all orthopedic casualties was 7.9 days. There was an average of 2.6 procedures performed per patient before arrival at WRAMC. There was no difference in evacuation time among the injury groups. Those with only soft tissue injuries underwent fewer procedures than the other injury groups; however, there was no difference among the injury groups in terms of procedures performed. The number of procedures performed did not affect the evacuation time. Fifty-six percent of casualties required operative intervention after arrival at WRAMC. With the unavoidable evacuation time that all casualties must endure regardless of severity of the injury, early operative intervention in forward deployed medical assets, such as the forward surgical team and combat support hospital, remains a necessity for rehabilitative and reconstructive efforts of the soldiers at the medical center level. PMID:15532345

  1. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  2. [Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management].

    PubMed

    Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy. PMID:24343140

  3. War on fear

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

  4. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys. PMID:15520121

  5. Injury and violence: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Rockett, I R

    1998-12-01

    This report examined injury and violence from a public health perspective. The discussion focuses on the magnitude of the problem, age and regional patterns, war mortality, motor vehicle accidents, natural disasters, US injury and violence mortality and morbidity trends by age, the history of injury, the relationship between energy and injury, similarities between disease and injuries, injury and violence prevention, risk factors, and medical care. The US has two Centers for Disease Control surveillance systems for monitoring behavior that increases the risk of injury or disease. A youth surveillance system surveys high school students about high risk behavior, such as use of weapons and nonuse of seat belts. The surveillance system misses the homeless and people without telephones and undersamples minorities, low income people, and males. Youth surveillance misses groups with high dropout rates, such as Blacks and Hispanics. Lower income people have higher disease and injury rates. US Black males are particularly vulnerable. Health professionals that aim to reduce injury risks must address underlying conditions that perpetuate poverty, such as residential segregation, racial discrimination, unemployment, and inferior educational opportunities. Survival of the injured is dependent on the speed with which Emergency Medical Teams can treat the injury. Treatment within the first hour is a critical determining factor. Specialized trauma centers and emerging technologies, such as geographic information systems, improve survival. The global diffusion of beliefs, values, and practices can promote or inhibit injury and violence. PMID:12321948

  6. Pediatric Genital Injury: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603

  7. Association between absolute volumes of lung spared from low-dose irradiation and radiation-induced lung injury after intensity-modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinmei; Hong, Jinsheng; Zou, Xi; Lv, Wenlong; Guo, Feibao; Hong, Hualan; Zhang, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between absolute volumes of lung spared from low-dose irradiation and radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for lung cancer. The normal lung relative volumes receiving greater than 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy (V5–30) mean lung dose (MLD), and absolute volumes spared from greater than 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy (AVS5–30) for the bilateral and ipsilateral lungs of 83 patients were recorded. Any association of clinical factors and dose–volume parameters with Grade ?2 RILI was analyzed. The median follow-up was 12.3 months; 18 (21.7%) cases of Grade 2 RILI, seven (8.4%) of Grade 3 and two (2.4%) of Grade 4 were observed. Univariate analysis revealed the located lobe of the primary tumor. V5, V10, V20, MLD of the ipsilateral lung, V5, V10, V20, V30 and MLD of the bilateral lung, and AVS5 and AVS10 of the ipsilateral lung were associated with Grade ?2 RILI (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung was prognostic for Grade ?2 RILI (P = 0.010, OR = 0.272, 95% CI: 0.102–0.729). Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated Grade ?2 RILI could be predicted using AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung (area under curve, 0.668; cutoff value, 564.9 cm3; sensitivity, 60.7%; specificity, 70.4%). The incidence of Grade ?2 RILI was significantly lower with AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung ?564.9 cm3 than with AVS5 < 564.9 cm3 (P = 0.008). Low-dose irradiation relative volumes and MLD of the bilateral or ipsilateral lung were associated with Grade ?2 RILI, and AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung was prognostic for Grade ?2 RILI for lung cancer after IMRT. PMID:26454068

  8. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of hemoperitoneum in war casualties.

    PubMed

    Mileti?, D; Fuckar, Z; Mraovi?, B; Dimec, D; Mozetic, V

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the detection of hemoperitoneum among war casualties, and to compare the results of this method in a specific war situation and civil conditions. Ninety-four wounded individuals with suspected blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma were treated at a level I war hospital (group W), and 242 civilians with multiple injuries with suspected blunt abdominal trauma were evaluated at the emergency center of a university hospital (group C). All examinations were performed in less than 5 minutes with a portable ultrasonographic scanner, and typical points were scanned (Morison's pouch, Douglas and perisplenic spaces, paracolic gutter). In group W, hemoperitoneum was identified correctly in 19 patients, with three false-negative and no false-positive findings, whereas group C presented 98 true-positive results, 13 false-negative results, and again no false-positive results. We observed that ultrasonography in specific war conditions showed sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 100%, accuracy as high as 97%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 96%, whereas in civil conditions the corresponding values were 88%, 100%, 95%, 100%, and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of hemoperitoneum are approximately equal in war and civil conditions. PMID:10459274

  9. Injury Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for scientific studies. Amusement Rides March 09, 2015 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with Inflatable Amusements, 2003–2013 July 10, 2009 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with ...

  10. Hipparcos: a Retrospective

    E-print Network

    Perryman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Hipparcos satellite was launched in 1989. It was the first, and remains to date the only, attempt at performing large-scale astrometric measurements from space. Hipparcos marked a fundamentally new approach to the field of astrometry, revolutionising our knowledge of the positions, distances, and space motions of the stars in the solar neighbourhood. In this retrospective, I look back at the processes which led to the mission's acceptance, provide a short summary of the underlying measurement principles and the experiment's scientific achievements, and a conclude with a brief summary of its principal legacy - the Gaia mission.

  11. Prophet of War: Josiah Francis and the Creek War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Frank L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Chronicles the life of Josiah Francis, renowned Creek Prophet and leader. Describes his rise to power in the War of 1812 and his subsequent history as ardent advocate of war against the White man. Characterizes him as a charismatic and intelligent, if sometimes foolish, leader. (JHZ)

  12. Labor Day and the war on workers.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

    1999-01-01

    We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546

  13. Telling Absence: War Widows, Loss and Memory 

    E-print Network

    Loipponen, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns feminist sociological analysis of war loss and its consequences as experienced and told by Finnish Karelian war widows of World War 2. They lost their partners and had to leave their homes by force, ...

  14. A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. Our focus is on the interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of ...

  15. A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2010-12-31

    We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. The interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of limited commitment ...

  16. Parental involvement in the war in Croatia 1991-1995 and suicidality in Croatian male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Frani?, Tomislav; Kardum, Goran; Marin Prižmi?, Iris; Pavleti?, Nevia; Mar?inko, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between parental war involvement and different indicators of psychosocial distress in a community sample of early adolescents ten years after the war in Croatia 1991-1995. Methods A total of 695 adolescents were screened with a self-report questionnaire assessing parental war involvement, sociodemographic characteristics, and alcohol and drug consumption. Personality traits were assessed with the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; depressive symptoms with the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI); and unintentional injuries, physical fighting, and bullying with the World Health Organization survey Health Behavior in School-aged Children. Suicidal ideation was assessed with three dichotomous items. Suicidal attempts were assessed with one dichotomous item. Results Out of 348 boys and 347 girls who were included in the analysis, 57.7% had at least one veteran parent. Male children of war veterans had higher rates of unintentional injuries (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 2.63) and more frequent affirmative responses across the full suicidal spectrum (thoughts about death – OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.3; thoughts about suicide – OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.72 to 14.66; suicide attempts – OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.03 to 12.67). In boys, thoughts about suicide and unintentional injuries were associated with parental war involvement even after logistic regression. However, girls were less likely to be affected by parental war involvement, and only exhibited signs of psychopathology on the CDI total score. Conclusion Parental war involvement was associated with negative psychosocial sequels for male children. This relationship is possibly mediated by some kind of identification or secondary traumatization. Suicidality and unintentional injuries are nonspecific markers for a broad range of psychosocial distresses, which is why the suggested target group for preventive interventions should be veteran parents as vectors of this distress. PMID:22661138

  17. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  18. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  19. War, Peace, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie, Ed.

    Written for editors, reporters, and researchers, this publication contains background information on war and peace. Included are newspaper articles, essays, and excerpts from radio commentaries. The information is intended to help journalists provide more accurate coverage of war-and-peace issues, in particular more accurate coverage of the Soviet…

  20. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  1. SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    . 4 PAGE TURNING CEREMONY, WAR MEMORIAL GYMNASIUM. Photograph. 8 MEMORIAL POEM, WORLD WAR II Memorial Gymnasium. The manuscript, consisting of fifty-six vellumfolio pages, was hand in a specially constructed glass and steel case in the lobby of the Memorial Gymnasium. Ever since its

  2. Characteristics of Fingertip Injuries in Children in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Satku, Mala; Puhaindran, Mark Edward; Chong, Alphonsus Khin Sze

    2015-10-01

    Fingertip injuries are common in children, with varying degrees of severity. However, there is limited epidemiological information in the literature. An understanding of the characteristics of these injuries can be used as a basis to prevent such injuries. Epidemiological data was gathered through a retrospective review of all fingertip injuries affecting children, that presented to our department. There were 202 children with 234 injured fingertips in a period of 36 months. Most children were boys and most children injured their left hand. The mode age affected was 2 years. Accidental crush injuries in doors was the most common cause of fingertip injuries in children. An unexpectedly high number of children have fingertip injuries, with many requiring surgical treatment. Safety awareness and prevention of door crush injuries could reduce a large number of fingertip injuries in young children. PMID:26388002

  3. The Impact of War on Vaccine Preventable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Obradovic, Zarema; Balta, Snjezana; Obradovic, Amina; Mesic, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which lasted from 1992-1995, the functioning of all sectors was disturbed, including the health sector. The priority of the heath sector was treatment and less attention was paid to prevention, and this applies also to the Program of implementation of obligatory immunization, as one of the most important prevention measures. This program was conducted with difficulty and sometimes was completely interrupted because of the lack of necessary vaccines and the inability of adequate maintenance of the cold chain. It was difficult and sometimes completely impossible to bring children to vaccination. Because of these problems, a great number of children stayed unvaccinated so they suffered from vaccine-preventable diseases several years after the war. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological study. We analyzed data from January 1994 to July 2014 in Canton Sarajevo, and data about measles outbreak in 2014. Results: In the period from January 1994 to July 2014, 3897 vaccine-preventable diseases were registered in Canton Sarajevo. Among them measles, rubella and mumps were the most frequent. In March 2014, measles outbreak was registered. Almost all cases are unvaccinated (99%) and 43% of all cases are connected with failure of vaccination during the war. Conclusion: During the war, routine immunization program was disrupted in Bosnia and Herzegovina (also in Canton Sarajevo). The consequences are presented as vaccine preventable diseases cases. PMID:25685082

  4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  5. Retrospective Evaluations of Sequences.

    PubMed

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Poirier, Marie; Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Retrospective evaluation (RE) of event sequences is known to be biased in various ways. The present paper presents a series of studies that examined the suggestion that the moments that are the most accessible in memory at the point of RE contribute to these biases. As predicted by this memory-based analysis, Experiment 1 showed that pleasantness ratings of word lists were biased by the presentation position of a negative item and by how easy the negative information was to retrieve. Experiment 2 ruled out the hypothesis that these findings were due to the dual nature of the task called upon. Experiment 3 further manipulated the memorability of the negative items - and corresponding changes in RE were as predicted. Finally, Experiment 4 extended the findings to more complex stimuli involving event narratives. Overall, the results suggest that assessments were adjusted based on the retrieval of the most readily available information. PMID:26592532

  6. Risk of Early Childhood Injuries in Twins and Singletons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudsari, Bahman S.; Utter, Garth H.; Kernic, Mary A.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of twin births in the United States (US) has increased more than 65 per cent since 1980. However, the risk of injury to multiple-birth children is unknown. We sought to compare the risk of injury-related hospitalization and death between multiples and singletons. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked birth…

  7. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  8. War: Origins and Effects

    E-print Network

    Piepers, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 - 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a cr...

  9. Men, machines, and war

    SciTech Connect

    Haycock, R.; Neilson, K.

    1987-01-01

    Using examples from the last two centuries, this collection of essays discusses the close links between technology and war. In the opening essay, historian William H. McNeill demonstrates the extent to which military technology has often led to differentiations among people, both within and between societies. The other studies examine various aspects of weapons technology, drawing on the histories of the armed forces of Britian, Prussia, and Australia, among others. The concluding chapter by Dr. G. R. Lindsey, the Chief of the Operational Research and Analysis Establishment at the Department of National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa, makes the case that, with nuclear weapons added to the scene, the impact of technology on international security has never been as great as at present, and that the competition of nations seeking the technological edge in weaponry threatens to destabilize the precarious balance that has existed since 1945.

  10. Firecracker eye injuries during Deepavali festival: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravi; Puttanna, Manohar; Sriprakash, K S; Sujatha Rathod, B L; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C

    2010-01-01

    We report a large series of ocular injuries caused by fire-crackers. This study was a hospital-based, singlecenter, retrospective case series in which the records of 51 patients with ocular injuries were analyzed. Injuries were classified according to Birmingham eye trauma terminology system (BETTS). Visual outcomes before and after the intervention were recorded. Ten patients were admitted for further management. As ocular firecracker injuries result in significant morbidity, public education regarding proper use of firecrackers may help in reducing the incidence of ocular injuries. PMID:20195044

  11. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    PubMed

    H?isan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoe?u, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient. PMID:26204649

  12. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  13. Hecamede: Homeric nurse of the battle-wounded in the Trojan War.

    PubMed

    Balanika, Alexia P; Baltas, Christos S

    2014-02-01

    The Homeric epics present the 10-year lasting Trojan War, offering the description of battle wounds and medical care of injuries. Hecamede is referred by the Homer as a battlefield nurse who had knowledge of the treatment of bleeding battle wounds. PMID:24585844

  14. QUICK REFERENCE INJURY CODING GUIDE INJURY TYPE NATURE OF INJURY

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    Environment If RSI or Overuse Injury use Repetitive movement, low muscle loading If due to keyboard or PC use, use Office & Electronic equipment Joint or muscle sprains or strains or injuries resulting from a tripQUICK REFERENCE INJURY CODING GUIDE INJURY TYPE NATURE OF INJURY BODILY LOCATION OF INJURY

  15. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'. PMID:25273498

  16. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  17. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  18. Nation-Building through War Nicholas Sambanis

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Kent

    of international wars, patterns of so- cial identi...cation and domestic conict, and the nation's future warNation-Building through War Nicholas Sambanis Department of Political Science Yale University of Government Dartmouth College December 12, 2014 Abstract How do the outcomes of international wars a

  19. War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Arleen; And Others

    War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

  20. [Nursing figures in the Great War].

    PubMed

    Marc, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    The three Red Cross associations worked hard in France before the First World War to prepare nurses to serve during a war. When war broke out, these nurses stepped up to the plate. They supported every phase of the war and demonstrated their high levels of creativity to overcome the difficult conditions related to the fighting. PMID:25069362

  1. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

  2. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  3. Shetland and the Great War 

    E-print Network

    Riddell, Linda Katherine

    2012-11-30

    The Great War was an enormous global cataclysm affecting the lives of all inhabitants of the combatant countries and many others. The effects were not uniform, however, and, by assessing the experience of the people of ...

  4. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  5. Psychological aspects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

  6. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  7. Volleyball injuries.

    PubMed

    Eerkes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the numbers of people playing indoor and beach volleyball since the early 1980s and, consequently, an increase in injuries. Most injuries are related to repetitive jumping and hitting the ball overhead. The ankle is the most commonly injured joint, but the knee, shoulder, low back, and fingers also are vulnerable. The shoulder in particular is subject to extreme torque when hitting and jump serving the ball. Some injuries have a predilection for those playing on sand versus those playing in an indoor court. The clinician caring for volleyball players should be aware of the types of injuries these players sustain and how to help them return to play promptly and appropriately. This article reviews the specific injuries that are most common as a result of participating in the sport of volleyball. PMID:22965348

  8. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  9. Star Wars software debate

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.

    1986-02-01

    David L. Parnas, Landsdowne Professor of Computer Science at the University of Victoria resigned from the SDI Organization's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management on June 28, 1985. Parnas, with 20 years of research on software engineering plus 8 years of work on military aircraft real-time software, says the software portion of SDI cannot be built error-free and he doesn't expect the next 20 years of research to change that fact. Since Parnas resigned, there have been several public debates on Star Wars software questions. In November 1985 the SDIO panel from which Parnas resigned released a draft of its report, reflecting its effort to critics of the project. While one might think that errors could be entirely eliminated with enough care and checking, most software professionals believe there will always be some residue of errors in a system of this size and complexity. The general line of the critics' argument is that the larger the amount of software in a single, unified system, the higher the percentage of errors it will contain. Proponents counter that the one very large system can be divided into a number of smaller, relatively independent pieces, thus reducing the proportionate number of errors in each separate piece. This approach is in turn countered by those who point to the intricate relations between these pieces, which themselves contribute to error.

  10. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals. PMID:17696308

  11. An historical context of modern principles in the management of intracranial injury from projectiles.

    PubMed

    Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Dunn, Gavin P; Laws, Edward R

    2010-05-01

    The contemporary management of projectile head injuries owes much to the lessons neurosurgeons have distilled from their experiences in war. Through early investigation and an increasingly detailed account of wartime clinical experience, neurosurgeons--including the field's early giants--began to gain a greater understanding not only of intracranial missile pathophysiology but also of appropriate management. In this paper, the authors trace the development of the principles of managing intracranial projectile injury from the Crimean War in the 19th century through the Vietnam War to provide a context that frames a summary of today's core management principles. PMID:20568940

  12. The hazard of sharp force injuries: Factors influencing outcome.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Stine; Normann, Stig-André; Morild, Inge; Lilleng, Peer Kåre; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying from sharp force injury is difficult to ascertain. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been performed in Norway regarding mortality due to sharp force injury or factors that impact survival. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate and assess mortality in subjects with sharp force injury. This retrospective study comprises data on 136 subjects (34 female, 102 male) with suspected severe sharp force injury (self-inflicted or inflicted by others) admitted to Haukeland University Hospital between 2001 and 2010. The majority of subjects were intoxicated, and the injury was most often inflicted by a knife. The incidence of sharp force injury in Western Norway is similar to the incidence in other European countries. Almost half of the subjects with self-inflicted injury died. In cases with injury inflicted by another individual, one in five died. Mortality rates were higher in those with penetrating chest injuries than those with penetrating abdominal injuries and higher in cases with cardiac injury compared to pleural or lung injury. Sharp force injury can be fatal, but the overall mortality rate in this study was 29%. Factors influencing mortality rate were the number of injuries, the topographic regions of the body injured, the anatomical organs/structures inflicted, and emergency measures performed. PMID:26599374

  13. Patterns in Blast Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Buntic, Rudolf F.; Brooks, Darrell

    2008-01-01

    Blast injuries to the hand are not just a wartime phenomenon but also quite common in rural communities throughout northern California. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with blast injuries in the community and review the most common patterns in an attempt to identify the pathomechanics of the hand injury and the reconstructive procedures that are required. This is a retrospective study of blast injuries to the hand treated between 1978 and 2006. Medical records, X-rays, and photos were reviewed to compile standard patient demographics and characterize the injury pattern. Explosives were classified based on their rate of decomposition. Reconstructive solutions were reviewed and characterized based on whether damaged tissues were repaired or replaced. Sixty-two patients were identified with blast injuries to their hand. Patients were predominantly male (92%) with an average age of 27 years. Firecrackers were the most commonly encountered explosives. Thirty-seven patients were identified as holding a low explosive in their dominant hand and were used for characterization of the injury pattern. The apparent pattern of injury was hyperextension and hyperabduction of the hand and digits. Common injuries were metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint hyperextension with associated soft tissue avulsion, hyperabduction at the web spaces with associated palmar soft tissue tears, and finger disarticulation amputations worse at radial digits. Given the mechanisms of injury with tissue loss, surgical intervention generally involved tissue replacement rather than tissue repair. Blast injuries to the hand represent a broad spectrum of injuries that are associated with the magnitude of explosion and probably, the proximity to the hand. We were able to identify a repetitive pattern of injury and demonstrate the predominant use for delayed tissue replacement rather than microsurgical repair at the acute setting. PMID:18780004

  14. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. PMID:24961713

  15. When Service Members with Traumatic Brain Injury Become Students: Methods to Advance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Kimberly Turner; Libertz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain which evidence-based interventions in study strategies have been successful in helping soldiers and veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) return to the classroom. Military leaders have specifically identified TBI as one of the signature injuries of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with over a quarter of…

  16. 78 FR 76196 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its adjudication regulations concerning service connection. This final rule acts upon a report of the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM), Gulf War and Health, Volume 7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury, regarding the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and five diagnosable illnesses. This......

  17. Birth Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cesarean delivery may be done in certain circumstances. Did You Know... Serious birth injuries are now quite ... not needed. Resources In This Article Table 1 Did You Know... Table 2 Common Birthmarks and Minor ...

  18. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... devastating types of trauma resulting from exposure to fire and smoke. PREVENT you and your loved ones! ... people die annually in the United States from fire injuries. • Over half of these deaths result from ...

  19. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Training & Events Research Current DVBIC Studies DVBIC Publications Concussion Literature Information Papers Study Manuals DVBIC Locations Service ... who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion recover completely with little or no intervention. After ...

  20. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as a computerized tomography (CT) or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, are needed to find out more ... injuries don't cause permanent damage. What about memory loss? It's common for someone who's had a ...

  1. Corneal injury

    MedlinePLUS

    You will need to have a complete eye test. The health care provider may use eye drops called fluorescein dye to help look for injuries. Tests may include: Standard ophthalmic exam Slit lamp examination

  2. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  3. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  4. Trauma in the Afghan guerrilla war: effects of lack of access to care.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, M K; Smith, G S

    1989-06-01

    Little or no acute medical care or evacuation capability was available to resistance forces in the Afghanistan War. We examined the effects of these constraints through a review of 1373 patients admitted to a Pakistani border hospital from 1985 to 1987. Most wounds were to the extremities (92%). Serious complications from injuries were found in 41% of cases, of which the leading causes were soft-tissue infections (36%), chronic osteomyelitis (25%), and marked restriction of joint movement (18%). For 201 patients with known cause of injury, the distribution of responsible weapons was similar to the wars in Korea, Vietnam, and the Falkland Islands. The ratio of critical-area wounds (trunk, head and neck)/extremity wounds was low (0.07) compared with most other wars (about 0.50), indicating that the most seriously injured patients died before treatment was obtained. These early deaths and the many complications from injuries reflect the lack of appropriate surgical attention and evacuation facilities in the field. It is proposed that the ratio of wounds in critical areas to wounds in the extremities might be useful in monitoring the efficiency of evacuation in similar conflicts. Early surgical management and evacuation of battle casualties could have greatly reduced mortality from the war and subsequent disabilities. PMID:2727898

  5. Epidemiology of injuries in adventure racing athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fordham, S; Garbutt, G; Lopes, P

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the demographics and training characteristics of adventure racing athletes in the United Kingdom, the prevalence and anatomical distribution of hazardous encounter, and overuse injury in this population, and the effects these injuries have on training. Methods: A retrospective training and injury questionnaire for the previous 18 months was distributed to 300 adventure racing athletes at two national race meetings. The definition of an injury was "any musculoskeletal problem causing a stop in training for at least one day, reduction in training mileage, taking of medicine, or seeking of medical aid." Results: The data were derived from the responses of 223 athletes. Advanced level athletes did 11 (4) sessions and 17 (8) hours of training a week (mean (SD)). An injury was reported in the previous 18 months by 73% of the respondents. The most common site of acute injury was the ankle (23%) and of chronic/overuse injury, the knee (30%), followed by the lower back, shin, and Achilles tendon (12% each). There were significant correlations (p<0.01) between the hours spent cycling per week and number of acute injuries, and between the number of days off per week and number of chronic/overuse injuries. Injuries resulted in an average of 23 days training cessation or reduction. Conclusions: Acute injuries were sustained mainly as a result of the nature of the terrain over which athletes train and compete. In overuse injuries lack of adequate rest days was a significant contributing factor. Only a small proportion of training time was spent developing flexibility and core stability. PMID:15155432

  6. Occupational Injury Patterns of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aim Each year, a significant number of people die or become handicapped due to preventable occupational accidents or occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic features, mechanism, causes, injury area, and sectoral features of occupational accidents in patients presented to our department. Materials and methods The study was carried out retrospectively after local ethics committee approval. Age and sex of the patients, mechanism of injury, type and exact location of injuries were all evaluated. The groups were compared using Chi-Square test, Student’s T test and Kruskall-Wallis test. p value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results Totally 654 patients were included in the study. 93.4% of patients were male, and mean age was 32.96?±?5.97 (18–73) years. Sectoral distribution of accidents was statistically significant and mostly occurred in industrial and construction workers (p?injuries (36.4%), the least was due to multiple traumas (0.5%). Distribution of occupational accidents according to injury type was statistically significant (p?Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 9.79?±?8.1. The mean cost of occupational injury was $1729.57?±?8178.3. There was statistically significant difference between the sectors with respect to cost. Seventy-one patients (10.9%) recovered with permanent sequel and two (0.3%) died in hospital. Conclusion Occupational accidents are most commonly seen in young males, especially in primary school graduated workers, and during daytime period. PMID:24373156

  7. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  8. Rethinking the war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanahan, Douglas

    2014-02-01

    Some 40 years ago a metaphor was posed that cancer was such an insidious adversary that a declaration of war on the disease was justified. Although this statement was a useful inspiration for enlistment of resources, despite extraordinary progress in our understanding of disease pathogenesis, in most cases and for most forms of cancer this war has not been won. A second metaphor was about magic bullets--targeted therapies based on knowledge of mechanisms that were envisaged to strike with devastating consequences for the disease. The reality, however, is that targeted therapies are generally not curative or even enduringly effective, because of the adaptive and evasive resistance strategies developed by cancers under attack. In this Series paper, I suggest that, much like in modern warfare, the war on cancer needs to have a battlespace vision. PMID:24351321

  9. Self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head during the war and post-war period.

    PubMed

    Vrankovi?, D; Splavski, B; He?imovi?, I; Glavina, K; Mursi?, B; Blagus, G; Dmitrovi?, B

    1998-06-01

    Thirty-five patients with self-inflicted gunshot brain injury were admitted to our hospital during 1991-96. War conditions and availability of firearms influenced the increase in these injuries, nearly six times greater than in the previous 6-year peace time period (1985-90). Our management protocol consisted of radical debridement of the missile track and evacuation of haematomata. For in-driven bone fragments we followed a less radical approach, but, if a post-operative computed tomogram (CT) showed a cluster of retained bone fragments, we operated on this. Attention was paid to the development of intracranial infection performing in such cases a contrast enhanced brain computed tomography. Ten patients died early and 29 were managed operatively. Twelve survived, and were followed-up for up to 60 months. No case of suicide recidivism was noted. We conclude that patients with a Glasgow Coma score of 3 should not be considered for operation. Per-operatively ultrasonography was very helpful in localizing and extracting in-driven bone fragments. Post-operatively, a CT scan is needed to demonstrate retained bone fragments. PMID:9813681

  10. War and the demographic trap.

    PubMed

    Last, J M

    1993-08-28

    Advice is offered on alleviating environmental damage and the suffering of women and children from the effects of war. It is postured that the demographic trap, which was described by King and Elliott, is responsible for environmental stress and many wars. The surface cause may be identified as ideology, politics, or ethnicity, but as in the case of Bosnia, the "ethnic cleansing" makes farmland available to sustain expanding Serbian or Croatian populations. If the land is environmentally damaged by war, then there is little hope of sustainable development. Conflicts in many countries have driven people to urban areas or periurban slums because of displacement and the failure of subsistence economics. Mortality from wars has reached more than a 100 million since the early 1990s. A comparable number have died indirectly from famine and disease associated with the disruption of agriculture and infrastructure from wars. Since 1945, 66-75% of mortality victims have been civilians, of whom 15 million have been women and children. In 1993, there were at least 30 conflicts ongoing throughout the world. Not all of these conflicts are as "ferocious" as the Bosnian conflict, but these "so called low intensity wars" nonetheless disrupt and kill. The manifestations of the demographic trap can be alleviated through interventions that focus on multisectoral aid and conflict resolution. There must be a cooperative effort on the part of health workers, agricultural scientists, mediators, and development personnel. Unfortunately, the amount of development assistance from Europe and America has been reduced in recent years. The recession has affected the provision of international aid. African nations, in particular, have been affected, yet these countries remain the neediest in the world. It would appear that aid agencies have given up hope that the demographic trap can be closed. Population growth must be limited, as the only hope for relieving environmental stress, ecological collapse, and demographic entrapment. The challenge of reducing population must be recognized, and has been recognized by the Union of Concerned Scientists. PMID:8102662

  11. Burden of injury from explosive remnants of conflict in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Durham, Jo; Hoy, Damian

    2013-03-01

    In postconflict settings, a substantial number of injuries and related disabilities are caused by land mines and explosive remnants of war. This article reviews the literature on the prevalence of these injuries and subsequent disabilities in Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three major electronic databases were systematically for publications on the prevalence of these injuries. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Five of these were in Cambodia and 1 in Lao PDR. None of these studies could estimate national prevalence rates of these injuries; only 2 considered the broader impact of related disabilities. The different methodological approaches and limitations of the studies prevented statistical synthesis. The studies reviewed suggested accurate estimates of the prevalence of war injuries and consequent disabilities are missing. There is a need for a comprehensive epidemiological research to quantify the burden that results from such injuries. PMID:23460585

  12. 45 CFR 506.11 - “Prisoner of war” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.11 “Prisoner of war” defined. Prisoner of war means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted...

  13. 45 CFR 506.11 - “Prisoner of war” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.11 “Prisoner of war” defined. Prisoner of war means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted...

  14. 45 CFR 506.11 - “Prisoner of war” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.11 “Prisoner of war” defined. Prisoner of war means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted...

  15. 45 CFR 506.11 - “Prisoner of war” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.11 “Prisoner of war” defined. Prisoner of war means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted...

  16. 45 CFR 506.11 - “Prisoner of war” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.11 “Prisoner of war” defined. Prisoner of war means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted...

  17. War--Student Unit. War--Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto. Dept. of Educational Administration.

    The guide contains six episodes, suitable for the secondary level, designed to focus attention on the moral issues involved in war. It is presented in two sections. Section I discusses four objectives of values education and how the suggested activities contribute to their attainment. These objectives are: (1) differentiating value judgments,…

  18. Moral Injury, Soul Repair, and Creating a Place for Grace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Chris J.; Winings, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Our returning veterans face many challenges from loss of limb and physical disabilities to posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance abuse, homelessness, family problems, and unemployment. The greater challenge, though, for returning veterans is the injury to their soul due to the war and violence they have experienced. Our challenge is…

  19. 17.582 Civil War, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Petersen, Roger

    This course surveys the social science literature on civil war. It studies the origins of civil war, discusses variables affecting duration, and examines termination of conflict. This subject is highly interdisciplinary ...

  20. The MMPI Profile of Prisoners of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonoff, Harry; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examines the profiles of Canadian prisoners of war who were interned in Japanese and German camps during World War II in order to determine whether the MMPI yielded a profile characteristic of internees. (Author)

  1. STS.436 Cold War Science, Spring 2004

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, David

    This course examines the history and legacy of the Cold War on science, looking predominantly at examples in the United States. It begins by exploring scientists’ new political roles after World War II, ranging from elite ...

  2. Eye injuries in Canadian amateur hockey.

    PubMed

    Pashby, T J

    1979-01-01

    Two studies, one retrospective (1972 to 1973) and one prospective (1974 to 1975), CONcerning eye injuries incurred by hockey players were conducted by the Canadian Ophthalmological Society with questionnaires to its members. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed by age, type of injury, cause (i.e., hockey stick, puck, or other means), and results to visual acuity. The results were also designated by organized or unorganized participation. Almost 300 eye injuries were reported in each study. In the first study, 13.7% of the injured players became legally blind as a result of the injury; in the second study, 16% became legally blind. Organized hockey produced more injuries than unorganized hockey. The majority of the injuries were caused by the hockey stick. The injuries were both intraocular and extraocular. The group of 11- to 15-year olds received the highest number of injuries, and the older age group had the higher incidence of blindness. Studies have led to setting more rigid standards, altering rules of the game, and selecting face protectors for hockey players. Older players who care for their equipment prefer the plastic shield face protectors, and the younger players (who complain of fogging and scratching of the plastic) prefer mesh protectors through which neither the stick nor the puck can penetrate. New high sticking (above the shoulder level) rules were included in the 1976 official rule book for Canadian amateur hockey. PMID:474867

  3. Factory floor injury in a Lagos sawmill.

    PubMed

    Bode, C O; Giwa, S O; Oke, D A

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed injuries sustained in 36 consecutive accidents in a wood-processing factory and managed at a private hospital over a 2-year period in Lagos. The commonest injuries were lacerations by revolving saws, followed by crush injuries from entrapment by machines and from falling logs and planks. The upper limbs were involved in 24 (66%) of these accidents cases. Of 137 workers on the factory floor, the highest injury rate (64%) occurred among machine operators. While 80.6% of these injuries were simple ones treated by suturing and dressing, 7 (19.4%) were life-threatening enough to warrant hospitalisation and major surgery, with 6 sustaining a mean permanent disability of 7.1 +/- 6%. Although factory-floor injuries constituted only 6.5% of 553 hospital attendance recorded within the period from the company, they were responsible for 44.2% of total medical expenditure by the company within the same period. Non-use of protective gears and disregard for safety procedures were noted in most of the accidents. The in-house first-aid program was adjudged as life-saving in the few major cases managed. We concluded that while many factory-floor injuries in wood-processing factories may be minor hand injuries, provision and strict observance of safety protocols as well as an active first-aid program are invaluable to minimise morbidity, cost and loss of productive man-hours in wood processing factories. PMID:11885883

  4. Moderators of the Safety Climate-Injury Relationship: A Meta-Analytic Examination 

    E-print Network

    Beus, Jeremy M.

    2010-07-14

    and group levels of analysis. Hypotheses were posited regarding the effects of six moderators: study design (i.e., retrospective or prospective), the time frame for gathering injury data, the degree of content contamination and deficiency in safety climate...

  5. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood vessels in the feet, is observed in shipwreck survivors or in soldiers whose feet have been wet, but not freezing, for long periods. Patients with frostbite frequently present with multisystem injuries (e.g., systemic hypothermia, blunt trauma, substance abuse). The freezing of the corneas has been reported to occur in individuals who keep their eyes open in high wind-chill situations without protective goggles (e.g., snowmobilers, cross-country skiers). PMID:15715518

  6. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...NPS-WASO-NRNHL-10699; 2200-3210-665] Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service...Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme...

  7. Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail S.

    Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

  8. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  9. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  10. Second World War on the Semantic Web: The WarSampo Project and Semantic Portal

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Second World War on the Semantic Web: The WarSampo Project and Semantic Portal Eero Hyv¨onen, Jouni.lastname@aalto.fi Abstract. This paper initiates and fosters work on publishing Linked Open Data about the Second World War. It is argued that the heterogeneous, distributed data about the international world war history makes

  11. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  12. Martinkus docos show reality of Afghanistan war

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    Martinkus docos show reality of Afghanistan war By ShAron Webb Journalist John Martinkus reels off the date he was kidnapped in the Iraq war as if it's perma- nently scratched on his brain. "It happened. It was terrible. I thought: Here we go." It's experiences like this that gave credibility to the television war

  13. Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood

    E-print Network

    Osgood, Brad

    Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood Stanford University #12;Tehran meeting November 28th -- December 1st 1943 "In war-time, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard. David Kahn, The Codebreakers #12;The early events · Britain's first offensive action of the war

  14. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June 1940";…

  15. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  16. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  17. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  18. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... key points to know about common sports injuries. Head and Neck Injuries Serious head and neck injuries happen most ... of the head, or a blow to the head. Neck injuries include strains, sprains, fractures, burners , and whiplash, ...

  19. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  20. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Repetitive Stress ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Spinal Cord Injury Information Page Condensed from Spinal Cord Injury: ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Spinal Cord Injury? A spinal cord injury usually begins with ...

  2. Matricides in South Australia - a 20-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2008-04-01

    A 20-year retrospective review of files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia was undertaken for cases of matricide occurring between the years 1985 and 2004. A total of 11 cases were identified: 10 males and 1 female. The victims were aged between 42 and 83 years (mean=61 years) and the perpetrators were aged between 15 and 53 years (mean=28.7 years). In all 11 cases weapons such as blunt objects (N=5), knives (N=5), firearms (N=3), or ligatures (N=1) were involved in the assaults, with injuries inflicted by the weapons causing death in 10 cases. In five cases trauma was caused by more than one injurious agent/action; e.g. there was evidence of immersion and burning in two cases. In four cases there were multiple (>10) significant injuries inflicted by perpetrators suffering from schizophrenia (N=2), 'mental impairment' (N=1) and a 'combination of psychiatric disorders' (N=1). One perpetrator committed suicide after killing his mother. Six of the ten surviving perpetrators were found not guilty of murder on the grounds of mental illness or impairment, and one perpetrator had the charge reduced from murder to manslaughter due to underlying mental conditions that included previous brain injury. Matricides are uncommon forms of homicide that have similar features in most communities studied. Intra-familial tensions with underlying psychiatric illness in the perpetrator are common findings. PMID:18313012

  3. Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan

    E-print Network

    Cherniack, Mitch

    Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan± , Magdalena Balazinska± , Don Carney§ , Uur �etintemel the key lessons we learned throughout the design and implementation of the Aurora stream processing engine. For the past two years, we have built five stream-based applications using Aurora. We first describe in detail

  4. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

  5. Gender in PER: A Retrospective

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Gender in PER: A Retrospective Laura McCullough University of Wisconsin-Stout Physics Department 1Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Outline Gender in PER AAPT meetings TPT articles AJP articles PRST-PER articles Conceptual tests Author info Semantics 2Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Gender in PER How does

  6. Retrospective Conversion of Bibliographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    Explores methods and costs of the retrospective conversion process, i.e., converting card catalog records into machine readable form to create an automated catalog. Data conversion standards, methods, search strategy, databases, verification and editing, costs, and products of conversion are noted. Thirty-two references are cited. (EJS)

  7. Pelvic ring injuries in the military environment.

    PubMed

    Adams, S A

    2009-12-01

    Haemodynamically unstable patients with mechanically unstable pelvic ring injuries continue to present a challenge to all personnel involved. Road traffic accidents remain a significant cause of soldier morbidity and mortality in peacetime and in war. These pelvic ring disruptions are markers of high-energy transfer injuries and are associated with fatal exsanguinating haemorrhage. Identifying the ring injury and the source of bleeding remains a complex challenge. Early control of instability, both haemodynamic and mechanical is likely to produce the best results. Dealing with these issues in the military environment adds additional stress to this volatile situation. Multidisciplinary practice guidelines have been shown to reduce mortality and should be adopted by all establishments treating these causalities. A well-rehearsed ABC approach with a proactive approach to dot protection and promotion is ideal. PMID:20397605

  8. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pain along the shin bone Rotator cuff injuries Fractures Dislocations If you get hurt, stop playing. Continuing to play or exercise can cause more harm. Treatment often begins with the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) method to relieve pain, reduce swelling, ...

  9. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being. PMID:24128314

  10. Pediatric hand injuries due to home exercycles.

    PubMed

    Benson, L S; Waters, P M; Meier, S W; Visotsky, J L; Williams, C S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical presentation and management of 19 children who sustained injuries by stationary exercise bicycles were reviewed retrospectively. These injuries represented 32 traumatized digits with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The index and long fingers were most commonly involved. Wheel-spoke injuries typically produced repairable nerve and tendon lacerations, and full functional recovery in these cases was common. The chain/sprocket injury involved a crushing mechanism and frequently produced severe injury including amputations that were not salvageable. Stationary exercise bicycles represented a predictable source of severe hand injury in children between the ages of 18 months and 5 years. Adult supervision was not reliable in preventing contact between an operating exercycle and a child's hand. We recommend that children not be allowed access to any stationary exercycle machinery, whether it is in use or not. Safety design considerations should focus on not only shielding the wheel spokes, but also (and perhaps even more important) on enclosing the entire chain axis and gear interface. In addition to these design considerations, public education will be critical in reducing the incidence of injury. PMID:10641685

  11. Traumatic injury rates in meatpacking plant workers.

    PubMed

    Culp, Kennith; Brooks, Mary; Rupe, Kerri; Zwerling, Craig

    2008-01-01

    This was a 3-year retrospective cohort study of traumatic injuries in a midwestern pork meatpacking plant. Based on n = 5410 workers, this was a diverse workforce: Caucasian (56.6%), Hispanic (38.9%), African American (2.7%), Asian (1.1%) and Native American (0.8%). There were n = 1655 employees with traumatic injuries during this period. At 6 months of employment, the probability of injury was 33% in the harvest workers who were responsible for slaughter operations. The overall incidence injury rate was 22.76 per 100 full-time employees per year. Women experienced a higher incidence for injury than men. The risk ratio (RR) for traumatic injury was significantly lower in Hispanic workers compared to Caucasians (RR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.49-0.60) and nonsignificantly higher in African American and Native American workers after adjusting for age, gender, work section assignment, and experience (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21-1.47). These findings suggest that either Hispanics are very safe employees or they underreport injuries. We make the case for the latter in the discussion. PMID:19042688

  12. Effects of injury level and severity on direct costs of care for acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Mohan; Makriyianni, Ioli; Marcoux, Judith; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    New treatments are being investigated for spinal cord injury (SCI), and any improvement may result in incremental cost savings. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of care 2 years after an SCI, stratifying for completeness and level of injury. A retrospective database analysis was carried out using data from the Quebec Trauma Registry, the Quebec Medical Insurance Board, and the Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation between 1997 and 2007. Excluding individuals sustaining moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries, 481 individuals who sustained an SCI from motor vehicle accidents were identified. Individuals were classified as complete and incomplete in the following categories: C1-C7, C8-T6, T7-L1, L2-S5. Using data from governmental public healthcare organizations makes this study comprehensive. For C1-C7 complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries, the first-year cost was $157?718 and $56?505, respectively (2009 Canadian dollars calculated per patient). Similar differences between complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries were seen for the other groups. Furthermore, for complete injuries, costs were higher for higher levels of injury during both the first and the second year after injury. For incomplete lesions, costs did not differ significantly between groups during the first or the second year. Incomplete spinal cord injuries result in lower healthcare costs compared with complete injuries across all groups during the first 2 years after injury. As less severe levels of injury result in measurably lower costs, the funds spent to reduce the severity or level of SCI could at least partially be recouped through healthcare savings. PMID:25192008

  13. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J; Jordan, J; Falvey, E

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men's Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports. PMID:22132594

  14. Alpine skiing injuries. A nine-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, T M; Laliotis, A T

    1996-01-01

    Injury patterns in alpine skiing have changed over time as ski, boot, binding, and slope-grooming technologies have evolved. We retrospectively examined injury patterns in alpine skiers over a 9-year period at the Mammoth and June mountains (California) ski area. A total of 24,340 injuries were reported for the 9 seasons studied, and total lift tickets sold numbered 9,201,486. The overall injury rate was 2.6 injuries per 1,000 skier days and increased slowly over the period studied. The knee was the most frequently injured area at 35% of all injuries. Increasing trends (P < .05) were noted for the rates of lower extremity injuries (37%) and knee injuries (45%). A decreasing trend was noted for the rate of lacerations (31% decrease). Slight increases were noted in upper extremity and axial injury rates. Skiing injuries continue to be a worrisome recreational problem despite improvements in ski equipment and slope-grooming techniques. The increasing trend in lower extremity, particularly knee, injury rates highlights the need for continued skier education and equipment innovation. PMID:8732730

  15. The evolving war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Haber, Daniel A; Gray, Nathanael S; Baselga, Jose

    2011-04-01

    Building on years of basic scientific discovery, recent advances in the fields of cancer genetics and medicinal chemistry are now converging to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. Starting with serendipitous observations in rare subsets of cancer, a paradigm shift in clinical research is poised to ensure that new molecular insights are rapidly applied to shape emerging cancer therapies. Could this mark a turning point in the "War on Cancer"? PMID:21458664

  16. The profile of head injuries and traumatic brain injury deaths in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Yattoo, GH; Tabish, Amin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted on patients of head injury admitted through Accident & Emergency Department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences during the year 2004 to determine the number of head injury patients, nature of head injuries, condition at presentation, treatment given in hospital and the outcome of intervention. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) deaths were also studied retrospectively for a period of eight years (1996 to 2003). The traumatic brain injury deaths showed a steady increase in number from year 1996 to 2003 except for 1999 that showed decline in TBI deaths. TBI deaths were highest in age group of 21–30 years (18.8%), followed by 11–20 years age group (17.8%) and 31–40 years (14.3%). The TBI death was more common in males. Maximum number of traumatic brain injury deaths was from rural areas as compared to urban areas. To minimize the morbidity and mortality resulting from head injury there is a need for better maintenance of roads, improvement of road visibility and lighting, proper mechanical maintenance of automobile and other vehicles, rigid enforcement of traffic rules, compulsory wearing of crash helmets by motor cyclist and scooterists and shoulder belt in cars and imparting compulsory road safety education to school children from primary education level. Moreover, appropriate medical care facilities (including trauma centres) need to be established at district level, sub-divisional and block levels to provide prompt and quality care to head injury patients PMID:18570674

  17. Neurologic running injuries.

    PubMed

    McKean, Kelly A

    2009-02-01

    Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:19084775

  18. Extravasation injuries.

    PubMed

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended. PMID:8461914

  19. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited. PMID:22371032

  20. Prisoners of War-Cold War Allies: The Anglo-American Relationship with Wehrmacht Generals 

    E-print Network

    Mallett, Derek Ray

    2012-02-14

    This study examines the relationship between British and American officials and the fifty-five Wehrmacht general officers who were held as prisoners of war in the United States during World War II. This relationship ...

  1. To win a nuclear war: The Pentagon's secret strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a survey of U.S. plans concerning nuclear war from 1945 through the present. The authors explain U.S. nuclear war plans and contingencies. They also trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star wars.

  2. A 15 year retrospective review of homicide in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Falzon, A L; Davis, G G

    1998-03-01

    With constant improvements in socioeconomic conditions, the people of most industrialized nations are living longer. Most elderly individuals lead productive lives within the community. Unfortunately, when elderly individuals suffer from a debilitating disease or injury, society seems ill-equipped to care for them. The frailty and social isolation that comes with illness or advanced age renders the elderly more vulnerable to crime. This study examines the circumstances that surround homicides of those 65 years of age or older which occurred in Jefferson County, Alabama over a 15 year span. We conducted a retrospective study of all decedents brought to the Jefferson County Coroner/Medical Examiner Office during the 15 years from 1981-1995. A computer search identified 150 homicide victims who were 65 years or older. In these 150 cases the causes of death were as follows: gunshot wound 50%, blunt force injuries 19%, knife wounds 14%, and asphyxiation 10%. Younger homicide victims were much less likely to be killed as the result of a direct physical assault; blunt force injuries and asphyxiation combined caused death in only 7% of the younger population. Robbery was the most common motive for death in the elderly population, which accounted for 37% of cases. The most common location for homicides in the elderly population was in their own residence, which accounted for 71% of cases. Four elderly homicide victims were shot by the police. Three elderly decedents died as a result of abuse. PMID:9544544

  3. Sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention.

    PubMed

    Biétry, Damien; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Müller, Thomas; Zbären, Peter; Caversaccio, Marco; Arnold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention often present as serious emergency situations with the need for an immediate diagnosis and treatment. We report our study of the clinical evolution of this emergency condition. This study investigates the cases of sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Patient records were collected in a retrospectively reviewed and analyzed database. The current literature was compared to our findings. We found 36 cases (10 female and 26 male). The neck injuries were superficial and profound in 16 and 20 patients, respectively. Twenty-two patients were seen by the Head and Neck surgeon. A surgical neck exploration was necessary in 19 cases. Tracheal, laryngeal, pharyngeal and vascular injuries were found in one, five, three and three cases, respectively. The hospital stay ranged from 1 to 47 days. All the patients underwent emergency psychiatric assessment and were subsequently referred for psychiatric treatment. One patient died in the emergency room from an additional arterial injury to the wrist. Sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention treated with an interdisciplinary medical, surgical and psychiatric emergency assessment and treatment have low mortality and morbidity. PMID:25543307

  4. Propaganda, Effect, and the Cold War: Gauging the Status of America's "War of Words."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Giles, Shawn J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship among propaganda, effect, and the Cold War during congressional debates over America's first peacetime propaganda program. Argues that the "war of words" metaphor further heightened the need for empirical proof of America's status in that conflict. Suggests that the Cold War helped to ensure the institutionalization…

  5. Cold War in Asia: China's Involvement in the Korean and Vietnam War

    E-print Network

    Becker, Stefanie

    2015-05-31

    As essential components of the Cold War, the Korean War and the Vietnam War have played significant roles in global policy among the Western forces under the leadership of the United States and the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union in the 20th...

  6. Civil War Preservation Trust Two Week Curriculum for Teaching the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil War Preservation Trust, Washington, DC.

    The Civil War was perhaps the greatest turning point in U.S. history. The dual themes of slavery and power deeply divided the growing nation during the first half of the 19th century. The mission of the Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT) is to preserve the significant Civil War battlefields by protecting the land and educating the public about…

  7. "Doomed to go in company with miserable pain": surgical recognition and treatment of amputation-related pain on the Western Front during World War 1.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Mayhew, Emily R; Rice, Andrew S C

    2014-11-01

    The principal feature of injuries from World War 1 was musculoskeletal trauma and injury to peripheral nerves as a result of damage to the upper and lower limbs caused by gunshot wounds and fragments of artillery munitions. Amputation was used as a treatment in field hospitals to save lives; limb conservation was a secondary consideration. A century later, the principal feature of injuries to soldiers in today's wars in Iraq and Afghanistan is also musculoskeletal trauma and injury to the peripheral nerves caused by improvised explosive devices. Common to both types of injury is postamputation pain. We searched The Lancet's archives in this Series paper to show the efforts of surgeons in World War 1 to understand and treat postamputation pain in its own right both during and immediately after the war. Despite unprecedented patient numbers and levels of civilian medical expertise, little progress was made in providing relief from this type of pain, a grave concern to the surgeons treating these soldiers. Today postamputation pain is understood beyond a surgical context but remains a complex and poorly understood condition with few effective treatments. PMID:25441202

  8. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  9. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  10. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  11. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  12. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  16. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You usually injure your ACL by a sudden twisting motion. ACL and other knee injuries are common sports injuries. Treatment of knee problems depends on the cause. In ...

  17. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is ... stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What ...

  19. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in News and Social Media Heads Up to Concussion Injury Center Topics Saving Lives & Protecting People Home & Recreational Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Communications Press Room ...

  1. Injury & Illness Prevention Program

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    Injury & Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) Manual Henry Samueli School of Engineering & Applied Bioengineering IIPP i April 2015 Injury & Illness Prevention Program Henry Samueli School of Engineering ............................................................5-1 Section 6: Incident, Injury & Illness Reporting and Investigations

  2. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what part of the spinal cord is damaged, as ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ...

  4. 17.42 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Van Evera, Stephen

    The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. ...

  5. 17.423 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2001

    E-print Network

    Van Evera, Stephen

    Examines the causes of war, with a focus on practical measures to prevent and control war. Topics covered include: causes and consequences of national misperception; military strategy and policy as cause of war; US foreign ...

  6. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related...

  7. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related...

  8. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related...

  9. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related...

  10. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related...

  11. Epidemiology of pediatric facial trauma in Chile: A retrospective study of 7,617 cases in 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Sung-Hsieh, Hsiao H.; Cortés-Araya, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of facial trauma injuries in a group of Chilean children aged 15 years or less. Study Design: Retrospective study of case series. Between 2006 and 2009, clinical records of 293,090 patients were reviewed. Data of patients with trauma injuries to the face were collected and evaluated for: age, sex, day and month of hospital admission, cause of injury, anatomical location, type of injury and presence of associated injuries. Results: A total of 7,617 patients with 8,944 injuries were found. Boy to girl ratio was 1,7:1. Preschool age children were most frequently affected. Main cause of injury were falls, soft tissue injuries the most common type of injury. Associated injuries occurred in 11% of cases. Conclusions: Facial trauma presents a significant frequency in the group of Chilean children studied. Preeschool age boys were prone to present facial trauma of mild severity associated to falls. Key words:Facial trauma, pediatric trauma, epidemiology, pediatrics. PMID:23986019

  12. Injury and Treatment Characteristics of Sport-Specific Injuries Sustained in Interscholastic Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Snyder Valier, Alison R.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of clinical practice factors, beyond epidemiologic data, may help guide medical coverage and care decisions. Hypothesis: Trends in injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained by secondary school athletes will differ based on sport. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of electronic patient records. Level of evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants consisted of 3302 boys and 2293 girls who were diagnosed with a sport-related injury or condition during the study years. Injury (sport, body part, diagnosis via ICD-9 codes) and treatment (type, amount, and duration of care) characteristics were grouped by sport and reported using summary statistics. Results: Most injuries and treatments occurred in football, girls’ soccer, basketball, volleyball, and track and field. Sprain or strain of the ankle, knee, and thigh/hip/groin and concussion were the most commonly documented injuries across sports. The injury pattern for boys’ wrestling differed from other sports and included sprain or strain of the elbow and neck and general medical skin conditions. The most frequently reported service was athletic training evaluation/reevaluation treatment, followed by hot/cold pack, therapeutic exercise, manual therapy techniques, electrical stimulation, and strapping of lower extremity joints. Most sports required 4 to 5 services per injury. With the exception of boys’ soccer and girls’ softball, duration of care ranged from 10 to 14 days. Girls’ soccer and girls’ and boys’ track and field reported the longest durations of care. Conclusion: Injury and treatment characteristics are generally comparable across sports, suggesting that secondary school athletic trainers may diagnose and treat similar injuries regardless of sport. Clinical Relevance: Subtle sport trends, including skin conditions associated with boys’ wrestling and longer duration of care for girls’ soccer, are important to note when discussing appropriate medical coverage and care. PMID:25553215

  13. Carnosine treatment for gulf war illness: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James Nicholas; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib; Timbol, Christian

    2013-05-01

    About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (B-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

  14. Carnosine Treatment for Gulf War Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James Nicholas; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib; Timbol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

  15. Influence of war on quantitative and qualitative changes in drug-induced mortality in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marasovi? Šušnjara, Ivana; Definis Gojanovi?, Marija; Vodopija, Davor; ?apkun, Vesna; Smoljanovi?, Ankica

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study drug-induced mortality and characteristics of overdose deaths in the war (1991-1995), pre-war (1986-1990), and post-war period (1996-2000) in Split-Dalmatia County. Methods We retrospectively searched through Databases of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Split, the national register of death records, the archives of the Split-Dalmatia County Police, and the Register of Treated Drug Addicts of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, covering the period from 1986 to 2000, according to drug poisoning codes IX and X of the International Classification of Diseases. The indicators were statistically analyzed. Results There were 146 registered drug-induced deaths, with 136 (93%) deceased being men. The median age of all cases was 27 years (interquartile range 8). Most of them were single (70.6%), unemployed (44.6%), and secondary school graduates (69.2%). In the war period, there were 4.8 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P?=?0.014), and in the post-war period there were 5.2 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P?=?0.008). The most common site of death was the deceased person’s home. The toxicological analyses showed that 59 (61%) deaths were heroin related, alcohol use was found in 62 cases (42.5%), and multi-substance use was found in more than a half of the cases. In 133 (91.1%) cases, deaths were classified as unintentional, whereas 13 (8.9%) were classified as suicides. Conclusion The war, along with other risk factors, contributed to unfavorable developments related to drug abuse in Split-Dalmatia County, including the increase in the drug-induced mortality rate. PMID:21990081

  16. Teaching about Women and the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.

    Procedures for teaching about women and the Vietnam War using class activities and discussion questions are presented. The topics for which activities are suggested include: analysis of quotes by nurses and military women; dealing with the war-caused deaths; journalists; and civilian women. A list of seven references is included. (DB)

  17. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  18. Women at the Heart of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explores the experiences and the role of women during World War II. The unit can serve as an introduction or supplement to commonly taught topics such as Nazism in Germany, the Holocaust, the "home front," the USSR's Great Patriotic War, and the struggle between Nationalists and Communists in China. It begins with an overview…

  19. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  20. Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

  1. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

  2. Creative Chaos: Learning from the Yugoslavian War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to understand more about the continued learning process of those who have experienced negative life experiences. This paper focuses on the various issues of learning and living through war, specifically encounters from the war in former Yugoslavia. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to understand lessons learned by…

  3. War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

    The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

  4. "War of the Worlds" and the Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, G. Joseph

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of 1938 newspaper editorials about Orson Welles' notorious "War of the Worlds" broadcast reveals that they explained audience reaction on the grounds of gullibility, the ominous threat of war, and the technique of the broadcast, and that they offered radio a rather stern lecture on the relationship between freedom and responsibility.…

  5. The Effect on Fertility of the 2003–2011 War in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Cetorelli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This article provides the first detailed account of recent fertility trends in Iraq, with a particular focus on the changes resulting from the 2003–2011 war and the factors underlying them. The study is based on retrospective birth history data from the 2006 and 2011 Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (I-MICS). Estimates from the two surveys indicate that total fertility remained stable from 1997 to 2010, at about 4.5 children per woman. However, examination of the age patterns of fertility reveals an abrupt shift in the timing of births, with adolescent fertility rising by over 30 percent soon after the onset of the war. A decomposition analysis shows that the rise in early childbearing is due to an increased prevalence of early marriage among less-educated women. The prevalence of early marriage and childbearing among women with secondary or higher education is relatively low and has not increased after 2003. PMID:26300572

  6. Spinal injuries in the 2012 twin earthquakes, northwest iran.

    PubMed

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Golzari, Samad E J; Salehpour, Firooz; Imani, Taghi; Bazzazi, Amir Mohammad; Ghaffari, Alireza; Khanli, Hadi Mohammad; Tizro, Parastou; Taghizade, Shabnam; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem

    2013-01-01

    On 11 August 2012, twin earthquakes measured 6.3 and 6.4 on the Richter scale hit three towns (Ahar, Varzaqan, and Heris) in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran resulting in tragic loss of three hundred lives and leaving thousands of injured. The aim of the present study was to report the spinal injuries during recent earthquake in northwest Iran, its consequences and management. Of the 923 hospitalized patients, 26 (2.8%) had neurosurgical complications. The imaging and clinical data of the patients were retrospectively studied regarding the anatomical location of the injury, the severity of spinal injury and associated neurological deficit. To further analyze the findings, Magerl (AO) and Frankel's classifications were used. The injuries without any fracture were considered as minor spinal injuries. The mean age of the patients was 44.54±22.52 (range: 5-88) years. We detected a total of 38 vertebral injuries including 24 major (63.15%) and 14 minor injuries (36.85%). The most common injuries were observed in the lumbar spine (19 injuries, 50%). The 24 major injuries chiefly included Magerl type A (14 injuries, 58.3%). According to the Frankel's classification, majority of the patients (88.46%) had no neurological deficit. In this study, three patients had nerve injuries. In conclusion, the number and proportion of spinal fractures patients in the recent twin earthquakes, northwest Iran was limited and caused less nerve injuries compared to the previous similar disasters. This might be due to the milder earthquake consequences since the incident happened in the middle of the day when men were working their fields. Potential complications in patients traumatized in earthquake incidents should be monitored for and early assessment of the neurological function is required to prioritize care for the victims. PMID:23568085

  7. Determination of visual prognosis in children with open globe injuries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X; Liu, Z; Liu, Y; Zhao, L; Xu, S; Su, G; Zhao, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine the predictive factors of visual outcomes in children with open globe injury and to give guidance to reduce the incidence of open globe injury. Methods One hundred and forty eyes of 137 consecutive open globe injury patients, who were treated at the Eye Center of Second Bethune Hospital affiliated with Jilin University between August 2005 and August 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics, causes of injury, location and extent of injury, presenting visual acuity, detailed ocular anterior and posterior segment evaluations, details of primary and subsequent surgeries, and postoperative complications and outcomes. The follow-up data included the most recent best-corrected visual acuity, complications, and the duration of follow-up. Results Of the 137 patients, there were 116 (84.7%) boys and 21 (15.3%) girls. Their ages ranged between 3 and 17 years old (mean=11.57±4.19 years old). Sixty (43.8%) children had a right eye injury, whereas 74 (54.0%) had a left eye injury. Only three (2.2%) children suffered bilateral eye injury. Living utensils, industrial tools, and fireworks contributed to the most common causes of open globe injury. Eighty-one (59.1%) had sharp force injuries, 23 (16.8%) had blunt injuries, and 33 (24.1%) had missile injuries. Conclusions Unfavorable visual outcomes were related to a younger age at presentation, poor presenting visual acuity, injuries caused by blunt or missile objects, posterior wound location, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, and surgical intervention of pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:24833181

  8. Injury hospitalizations before and after the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake.

    PubMed

    McArthur, D L; Peek-Asa, C; Kraus, J F

    2000-07-01

    This study compared hospital-admitted injuries during the 14 days after the Northridge, California, earthquake of January 17, 1994, with hospital-admitted injuries during the preceding 16 days at the same facilities. Seventy-eight hospitals providing emergency care in Los Angeles County were screened; 16 were identified as having admitted at least one person for an earthquake-related injury. Retrospective chart reviews of hospitalized injuries for all of January 1994 were conducted at those facilities. The Northridge earthquake resulted in 138 injuries severe enough to require hospitalization. On the day of the earthquake, such injuries were 74% more frequent than usual overall. Some hospitals experienced as many as five times the number of injury admissions seen in the days preceding the event. The increase in caseload was short-lived, however; injury admissions tended to return to normal levels within two days after the quake. Previous reported estimates of the overall number of severe injuries caused by the Northridge earthquake appear to be exaggerated. PMID:10919519

  9. Epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Bjordal, J M; Arn?y, F; Hannestad, B; Strand, T

    1997-01-01

    We did a retrospective study of all anterior cruciate ligament injuries (972) verified by arthroscopic evaluation at hospitals in the Hordaland region of Norway from 1982 to 1991. Our final study group comprised 176 patients who had participated in organized soccer and answered a questionnaire. The overall incidence rate was 0.063 injuries per 1000 game hours. Men incurred 75.6% (133) of the injuries. Women had an incidence rate of 0.10 injuries per 1000 game hours, significantly higher than that for men (0.057). The incidence rate was higher (0.41) for men in the top three divisions. Most of the injuries (124) occurred during games. Contact injuries from tackling was the injury mechanism in 46.0% of the cases. Players on the offensive team incurred 122 (69.3%) of the injuries. Reconstructive surgery was performed on 131 (74.4%) of the injured players and was found necessary for return to a high level of play. Half of the players (87) returned to soccer; men at high levels of play had the highest return rate (88.9%), and men over age 34 had the poorest return rate (22.9%). Nearly one-third of the injured athletes gave up soccer because of poor knee function or fear of new injury. PMID:9167814

  10. Diagnosis of Depression in Adolescents Following Traumatic Fracture: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, James N.; Madaan, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how frequently adolescents are clinically diagnosed with depression following hospitalization for traumatic fracture, with the assumption that a retrospective approach would yield lower rates of depression compared to those reported previously in prospective studies. We hypothesized that depression would be less common among adolescents whose injuries were primarily limited to fractures of the appendicular skeleton, vertebral column, and/or thoracic cage compared to those sustaining concomitant spinal cord and/or brain injuries and those suffering from facial/skull fractures. Method: A patient population of 1,121 adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, who were hospitalized overnight at the University of Virginia (UVA) Health System, Charlottesville, for fractures between 2000 and 2009, was generated using the health system’s Clinical Data Repository. The number of these adolescents who received a new diagnosis of depression (per ICD-9 codes) at the UVA Health System within the first year following their injury was determined. Results: By the end of the first year, 37 of 913 adolescents (4.1%) who had at least 1 follow-up visit after their fracture were diagnosed with depression. When patients with a concomitant spinal cord injury and those with a facial/skull fracture with or without an associated brain injury were excluded, this percentage dropped to 3.2% and 1.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The results support our initial hypothesis that the percentage of adolescents diagnosed with depression following a traumatic fracture determined retrospectively would be lower than the percentages previously reported in related prospective studies. This finding adds to the growing concern that depression in youth is underdiagnosed, even among youth who have contact with health care providers. When compared to our own retrospectively determined data, the much higher rates of depression reported in several prospective studies indicate that more proactive, routine implementation of depression screening tools in the postinjury period is likely to improve identification of at-risk youth. PMID:23469317

  11. Ice Hockey Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Franklin H.; Simonet, William T.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the mechanisms, management, and prevention of each type of injury to which hockey players are prone. It surveys the injuries sustained by ice hockey players and discusses treatment of specific injuries, including those injuries to the head, eye, shoulder, hand, thigh, scalp, and face. (JL)

  12. Retroperitoneal tumours--a ten years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Subrata; Das, Shikha

    2005-01-01

    In a ten-year retrospective study (1985-95), 42 cases of retroperitoneal tumours were analysed. All cases were treated surgically. Among the relevant investigations CT scan and fine needle aspiration cytology were found to be most helpful to have a pre-operative idea regarding the best course of therapy. The highest incidence of retroperitoneal tumours were found in the 4th decade of life with roughly equal sex incidence. Malignant tumours were double in comparison to benign tumours and lymphoma was found to be the most common malignant tumour. Though complete resection should be the aim to treat them it may lead to sacrifice of other vital organs like kidney, spleen and part of large gut in advanced cases. Complication may be always for a heroic surgery leading to inadvertent injury to other structures, causing high mortality up to 19.1%. PMID:16008325

  13. Earthquake-related versus non-earthquake-related injuries in spinal injury patients: differentiation with multidetector computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, several massive earthquakes have occurred across the globe. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is reliable in detecting spinal injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the features of spinal injuries resulting from the Sichuan earthquake with those of non-earthquake-related spinal trauma using MDCT. Methods Features of spinal injuries of 223 Sichuan earthquake-exposed patients and 223 non-earthquake-related spinal injury patients were retrospectively compared using MDCT. The date of non-earthquake-related spinal injury patients was collected from 1 May 2009 to 22 July 2009 to avoid the confounding effects of seasonal activity and clothing. We focused on anatomic sites, injury types and neurologic deficits related to spinal injuries. Major injuries were classified according to the grid 3-3-3 scheme of the Magerl (AO) classification system. Results A total of 185 patients (82.96%) in the earthquake-exposed cohort experienced crush injuries. In the earthquake and control groups, 65 and 92 patients, respectively, had neurologic deficits. The anatomic distribution of these two cohorts was significantly different (P < 0.001). Cervical spinal injuries were more common in the control group (risk ratio (RR) = 2.12, P < 0.001), whereas lumbar spinal injuries were more common in the earthquake-related spinal injuries group (277 of 501 injured vertebrae; 55.29%). The major types of injuries were significantly different between these cohorts (P = 0.002). Magerl AO type A lesions composed most of the lesions seen in both of these cohorts. Type B lesions were more frequently seen in earthquake-related spinal injuries (RR = 1.27), while we observed type C lesions more frequently in subjects with non-earthquake-related spinal injuries (RR = 1.98, P = 0.0029). Conclusions Spinal injuries sustained in the Sichuan earthquake were located mainly in the lumbar spine, with a peak prevalence of type A lesions and a high occurrence of neurologic deficits. The anatomic distribution and type of spinal injuries that varied between earthquake-related and non-earthquake-related spinal injury groups were perhaps due to the different mechanism of injury. PMID:21190568

  14. Retrospective Conversion: Investing in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Report on developments in the retrospective conversion of manual library files to machine-readable form discusses planning and decision making; accommodating full records; conforming to standards; creating bibliographic records; sources of retrospective conversion support (bibliographic utilities, stand-alone systems); use of microcomputers;…

  15. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased awareness in the community. Aggressive awareness campaigns by government and non-government organisations was the cause. We can minimise the number and severity of accidents by raising awareness regarding safety precautions, encouraging professional displays and motivating manufacturers to adhere to strict quality control. PMID:18603491

  16. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and credibility: now involving organizations with 145,000 members in 41 countries, IPPNW has become the international voice of medicine's concern about nuclear war. PMID:21274253

  17. War casualties on the home front

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  18. Outcome Assessments of Patients with Posttraumatic “Ultra-Time Vascular Injuries” of the Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi-Feng; Fang, Qiong-Xuan; Zhan, Hong-Yan; Wang, Fan; Cao, Wei; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The management of posttraumatic vascular injury that presents after 8?h, or “ultra-time vascular injury”, is daunting, and inciting recognition of this injury is vital. We retrospectively analyzed 29 patients with ultra-time vascular injuries to determine the patients’ demographic characteristics and identify the determinants for amputation and disability. The age distribution of the high-risk population was from 18 years to 40 years, which indicated that these patients had plenty of productive life remaining. Injuries to the lower limbs (79.31%) were over four times more common than injuries to the upper limbs (17.24%), and open and blunt injuries occurred most commonly. The overall rate of limb salvage was 82.76% (24/29) and limb function is excellent in 45.83% (11/24) of the patients. The remaining patients experienced different degrees of disability in their limbs, which was determined by the anatomic location of the injury, and the presence of a combined arterial and venous injury, nerve injury, and complex soft tissue injury, as well as the occurrence of compartment syndrome. Hence, we recommend limb-salvage treatment for patients with traumatic ultra-time vascular injuries, particularly for those aged between 18 years and 40 years. Furthermore, we encourage the development of limb-salvage techniques for ultra-time vascular injuries. PMID:26639214

  19. Identification of Serum MicroRNA Signatures for Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in a Closed Head Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Erin S.; Bhomia, Manish; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Balakathiresan, Nagaraja S.; Grunberg, Neil E.; Maheshwari, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have highlighted the problems of diagnosis and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). MTBI is a heterogeneous injury that may lead to the development of neurological and behavioral disorders. In the absence of specific diagnostic markers, mTBI is often unnoticed or misdiagnosed. In this study, mice were induced with increasing levels of mTBI and microRNA (miRNA) changes in the serum were determined. MTBI was induced by varying weight and fall height of the impactor rod resulting in four different severity grades of the mTBI. Injuries were characterized as mild by assessing with the neurobehavioral severity scale-revised (NSS-R) at day 1 post injury. Open field locomotion and acoustic startle response showed behavioral and sensory motor deficits in 3 of the 4 injury groups at day 1 post injury. All of the animals recovered after day 1 with no significant neurobehavioral alteration by day 30 post injury. Serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles clearly differentiated injured from uninjured animals. Overall, the number of miRNAs that were significantly modulated in injured animals over the sham controls increased with the severity of the injury. Thirteen miRNAs were found to identify mTBI regardless of its severity within the mild spectrum of injury. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that the more severe brain injuries were associated with a greater number of miRNAs involved in brain related functions. The evaluation of serum miRNA may help to identify the severity of brain injury and the risk of developing adverse effects after TBI. PMID:25379886

  20. Gunshot Injuries in Children Served by Emergency Services

    PubMed Central

    Kuppermann, Nathan; Holmes, James F.; Haukoos, Jason S.; Wetzel, Brian; Hsia, Renee Y.; Wang, N. Ewen; Bulger, Eileen M.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Mann, N. Clay; Barton, Erik D.; Wintemute, Garen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, injury severity, resource use, mortality, and costs for children with gunshot injuries, compared with other injury mechanisms. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study (January 1, 2006–December 31, 2008) including all injured children age ?19 years with a 9-1-1 response from 47 emergency medical services agencies transporting to 93 hospitals in 5 regions of the western United States. Outcomes included population-adjusted incidence, injury severity score ?16, major surgery, blood transfusion, mortality, and average per-patient acute care costs. RESULTS: A total of 49?983 injured children had a 9-1-1 emergency medical services response, including 505 (1.0%) with gunshot injuries (83.2% age 15–19 years, 84.5% male). The population-adjusted annual incidence of gunshot injuries was 7.5 cases/100?000 children, which varied 16-fold between regions. Compared with children who had other mechanisms of injury, those injured by gunshot had the highest proportion of serious injuries (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.6–28.4), major surgery (32%, 95% CI 26.1–38.5), in-hospital mortality (8.0%, 95% CI 4.7–11.4), and costs ($28?510 per patient, 95% CI 22?193–34?827). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being less common than other injury mechanisms, gunshot injuries cause a disproportionate burden of adverse outcomes in children, particularly among older adolescent males. Public health, injury prevention, and health policy solutions are needed to reduce gunshot injuries in children. PMID:24127481

  1. Major Vascular Injury in Laparoscopic Urology

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Ziaee, Seyed-Amir-Mohsen; Tabibi, Ali; Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Sarhangnejad, Reza; Mirsadeghi, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Major vascular injury is the most devastating complication of laparoscopy, occurring most commonly during the laparoscopic entry phase. Our goal is to report our experience with major vascular injury during laparoscopic entry with closed- and open-access techniques in urologic procedures. Methods: All 5347 patients who underwent laparoscopic urologic procedures from 1996 to 2011 at our hospital were included in the study. Laparoscopic entry was carried out by either the closed Veress needle technique or the modified open Hasson technique. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to investigate for access-related major vascular injuries. Results: The closed technique was used in the first 474 operations and the open technique in the remaining 4873 cases. Three cases of major vascular injury were identified among our patients. They were 3 men scheduled for nephrectomy without any history of surgery. All injuries occurred in the closed-access group during the setup phase with insertion of the first trocar. The injury location was the abdominal aorta in 2 patients and the external iliac vein in 1 patient. Management was performed after conversion to open surgery, control of bleeding, and repair of the injured vessel. Conclusions: Given the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with major vascular injury, its clinically higher incidence in laparoscopic urologic procedures with the closed-access technique leads us to suggest using the open technique for the entry phase of laparoscopy. Using the open-access technique may decrease laparophobia and encourage a higher number of urologists to enter the laparoscopy field. PMID:25392667

  2. Hamstring Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven B.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Zoga, Adam; Irrgang, Jay J.; Makda, Junaid; Deluca, Peter F.; Bradley, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for detailed evaluation of hamstring injuries; however, there is no classification that allows prediction of return to play. Purpose: To correlate time for return to play in professional football players with MRI findings after acute hamstring strains and to create an MRI scoring scale predictive of return to sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Thirty-eight professional football players (43 cases) sustained acute hamstring strains with MRI evaluation. Records were retrospectively reviewed, and MRIs were evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists, graded with a traditional radiologic grade, and scored with a new MRI score. Results were correlated with games missed. Results: Players missed 2.6 ± 3.1 games. Based on MRI, the hamstring injury involved the biceps femoris long head in 34 cases and the proximal and distal hamstrings in 25 and 22 cases, respectively. When < 50% of the muscle was involved, the average number of games missed was 1.8; if > 75%, then 3.2. Ten players had retraction, missing 5.5 games. By MRI, grade I injuries yielded an average of 1.1 missed games; grade II, 1.7; and grade III, 6.4. Players who missed 0 or 1 game had an MRI score of 8.2; 2 or 3 games, 11.1; and 4 or more games, 13.9. Conclusions: Rapid return to play (< 1 week) occurred with isolated long head of biceps femoris injures with < 50% of involvement and minimal perimuscular edema, correlating to grade I radiologic strain (MRI score < 10). Prolonged recovery (missing > 2 or 3 games) occurs with multiple muscle injury, injuries distal to musculotendinous junction, short head of biceps injury, > 75% involvement, retraction, circumferential edema, and grade III radiologic strain (MRI score > 15). Clinical Relevance: MRI grade and this new MRI score are useful in determining severity of injury and games missed—and, ideally, predicting time missed from sports. PMID:23016038

  3. Photojournalism: A Record of War. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Chris; Ritz, Glenda

    Photography has been used to record war since the Crimean War in 1855. This lesson plan explores how and why war has been photographed and also gives students an opportunity to see the bias within the recording/reporting of war. The lesson plan: cites educational objectives; gives time required; recommends a grade level; notes curriculum fit; and…

  4. Middle School Students, Science Textbooks, Television and Nuclear War Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Mary

    The extent to which the issue of nuclear war technology is treated in middle-school science texts, and how students learn about nuclear war and war technology were studied. Five raters compared the most widely used textbooks for grades 6 and 7 to determine the amount of content on: (1) population growth; (2) world hunger; (3) war technology; (4)…

  5. Groups in Mind: The Coalitional Roots o[War and

    E-print Network

    Cosmides, Leda

    8 Groups in Mind: The Coalitional Roots o[War and Morality John Tooby and Leda Cosmides War, Coalitions, and the HUnlan Condition War is older than the human species. It is found in every region. There is no evidence of it having originated in one place, and spread by contact to others. War is reflected

  6. Experience of War in 20th Century Europe

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Experience of War in 20th Century Europe History 451 Consider Resources Primary Resources of the Second World War REF DA740 .W47 1995 Blackwell Reference OnLine: History (Online) A range of "Companion, personal narratives, sources... #12;2 "world war 1939" and correspondence "world war 1914" and diaries

  7. Risks of using AP locations discovered through war driving

    E-print Network

    Kotz, David

    Risks of using AP locations discovered through war driving Minkyong Kim, Jeffrey J. Fielding the actual locations are often unavailable, they use estimated locations from war driving estimated through war driving. War driving is the process of collecting Wi-Fi beacons by driving or walking

  8. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  9. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  10. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  11. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  12. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war

  13. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  14. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  15. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  17. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  18. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  19. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  1. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  3. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  4. A REMF's View of Viet Nam War Literature Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, David A.

    An academic librarian who is a Vietnam War veteran was inspired by the exemplary collection of Vietnam War literature at the Colorado State University Library to begin his own personal collection of mass market paperbacks dealing with the Vietnam War. Although Vietnam War fiction was common on the mass market racks in the mid 1980s, it has been…

  5. Cost-appropriateness of whole body vs limited bone imaging for suspected focal sports injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.E.

    1986-07-01

    Bone imaging has been recognized as a useful diagnostic tool in detecting the presence of focal musculoskeletal injury when radiographs are normal. A retrospective review of bone images in a small number of amateur athletes indicates that secondary injuries were commonly detected at sites different from the site of musculoskeletal pain being evaluated for injury. While a larger study will be necessary to confirm the data, this review suggests that it is medically justified and cost-appropriate to perform imaging of the entire skeleton as opposed to imaging limited to the anatomic site of pain and suspected injury.

  6. Complex posterior urethral injury

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay B.; Joshi, Pankaj M.; Hunter, Craig; Surana, Sandesh; Shahrour, Walid; Alhajeri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess treatment strategies for seven different scenarios for treating complex pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), categorised as repeat surgery for PFUI, ischaemic bulbar urethral necrosis (BUN), repair in boys and girls aged ?12 years, in patients with a recto-urethral fistula, or bladder neck incontinence, or with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and bladder neck/prostate region. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the success rates and surgical procedures of these seven complex scenarios in the repair of PFUI at our institution from 2000 to 2013. Results In all, >550 PFUI procedures were performed at our centre, and 308 of these patients were classified as having a complex PFUI, with 225 patients available for follow-up. The overall success rates were 81% and 77% for primary and repeat procedures respectively. The overall success rate of those with BUN was 76%, using various methods of novel surgical techniques. Boys aged ?12 years with PFUI required a transpubic/abdominal approach 31% of the time, compared to 9% in adults. Young girls with PFUI also required a transpubic/abdominal urethroplasty, with a success rate of 66%. In patients with a recto-urethral fistula the success rate was 90% with attention to proper surgical principles, including a three-stage procedure and appropriate interposition. The treatment of bladder neck incontinence associated with the tear-drop deformity gave a continence rate of 66%. Children with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and at the bladder neck-prostate junction were all continent after a one-stage transpubic/abdominal procedure. Conclusion An understanding of complex pelvic fractures and their appropriate management can provide successful outcomes. PMID:26019978

  7. Student attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war: Friends as influential reference persons

    SciTech Connect

    Marasch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    A renewed interest in research into the psychology of the threat of nuclear war occurred in the past decade as national attention focused increasingly on the arms race between the US and the USSR. Some of this research began the task of exploring the social influences upon attitudes and responses to the nuclear threat. Research on friends as potential influences upon nuclear attitudes was minimal. The present study investigated the role of college friends as potential reference persons in the formation of nuclear attitudes. A battery of questionnaires addressing various nuclear war and non-nuclear war attitudes was completed by 200 student-friend dyads from introductory psychology and sociology courses at the University of North Dakota. Three hypotheses were presented in this study. One hypothesis was that students would perceive their friends as having similar attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war. A second hypothesis was that the actual attitudes between pairs of students and friends would be similar. The third hypothesis was that the attitudes would have become more similar over the course of the development of the friendship (as measured retrospectively). The first hypothesis was borne out by the data. The second and third hypotheses were not supported. There are several implications of the findings. One implication is that the nuclear issue may not be as salient to college students as other, more immediate, issues. Another implication is that a relative lack of communication between college students on political issues precludes more effective mutual influence upon the development and change of such attitudes. A false consensus bias appeared to be operative when the students perceived that their attitudes were similar. Further discussion is presented in regard to past and future psychological research upon nuclear war attitudes.

  8. Translation: in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    2001-01-01

    This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425

  9. A retrospective of VAWT technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Sutherland, Herbert J.; Berg, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) technology at Sandia National Laboratories started in the 1970's and concluded in the 1990's. These studies concentrated on the Darrieus configurations because of their high inherent efficiency, but other configurations (e.g., the Savonius turbine) were also examined. The Sandia VAWT program culminated with the design of the 34-m 'Test Bed' Darrieus VAWT. This turbine was designed and built to test various VAWT design concepts and to provide the necessary databases to validate analytical design codes and algorithms. Using the Test Bed as their starting point, FloWind Corp. developed a commercial VAWT product line with composite blades and an extended height-to-diameter ratio. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design process and results of the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed program and the FloWind prototype development program with an eye toward future offshore designs. This paper is our retrospective of the design, analysis, testing and commercial process. Special emphasis is given to those lessons learned that will aid in the development of an off-shore VAWT.

  10. World War II Fire Safety Propaganda Posters 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous

    1943-01-01

    This document contains scanned copies of seven different World War II fire safety propaganda posters currently kept at the FRS/BRE Fire Research Archives at The University of Edinburgh. These posters were design and first printed by the National...

  11. A survey of the war neuroses 

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Frederick

    1920-01-01

    The simplicity of the war neuroses has been the subject of observation by many writers. It is a remarkable fact, however, that the observed simplicity has not led to any unanimity of opinion on the actual constitution of ...

  12. The anthropology of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  13. The Portable War Room Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govers, Francis X., III; Fry, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The Portable War Room is an internal TASC project to research and develop a visualization and simulation environment to provide for decision makers the power to review the past, understand the present, and peer into the future.

  14. Climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.

    1984-05-01

    Projecting comprehensively the climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war brings into question the perceived security ascribed to policies of deterrence, as well as the efficacy of civil preparedness measures, particularly relocation plans. It is presumed the probability that nuclear war will occur is low, but the potential consequences are so great that the issue must be given full attention. Nuclear war is the greatest environmental threat we face. Yet the problem should be solvable. It is especially important that environmentally concerned citizens and scientists apply their knowledge and understanding to the problem because many of the changes in environmental quality that concerns us today, such as air and water pollution by a host of organic and inorganic agents, represent the principle mechanism whereby life could be threatened in the aftermath of nuclear war. 29 references.

  15. The Emerging Criminal War on Sex Offenders

    E-print Network

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses four central questions. First, what is the difference between normal law enforcement policy and a “war” on crime? Second, assuming such a line can be discerned, has the enactment of the Adam Walsh ...

  16. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  17. The Mounting Prospects of Nuclear War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Frank

    1977-01-01

    Postulates that the probability of a nuclear world war is steadily increasing due to the aims race escalation, the spread of nuclear technology, the international trade in arms, and the failure of arms controls. (SL)

  18. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  19. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  20. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  1. Preoperative Statin Use and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Steven M.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Bateman, Brian T.; Chang, Tara I.; Lii, Joyce; Garg, Amit X.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury is a frequent postoperative complication that confers increased mortality, morbidity, and costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative statin use is associated with a decreased risk of postoperative acute kidney injury. METHODS We assembled a retrospective cohort of 98,939 patients who underwent a major open abdominal, cardiac, thoracic, or vascular procedure between 2000 and 2010. Statin users were pair-matched to nonusers on the basis of surgery type, baseline kidney function, days from admission until surgery, and propensity score based on demographics, comorbid conditions, and concomitant medications. Acute kidney injury was defined based on changes in serum creatinine measurements applying Acute Kidney Injury Network and Risk-Injury-Failure staging systems, and on the need for renal replacement therapy. Associations between statin use and acute kidney injury were estimated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Across various acute kidney injury definitions, statin use was consistently associated with a decreased risk: adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) varied from 0.74 (0.58–0.95) to 0.80 (0.71–0.90). Associations were similar among diabetics and nondiabetics, and across strata of baseline kidney function. The protective association of statins was most pronounced among patients undergoing vascular surgery and least among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative statin use is associated with a decreased risk of postoperative acute kidney injury. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to determine causality. PMID:23062398

  2. Maxillofacial and ocular injuries in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Christopher Noel

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injuries from motor vehicle crashes constitute a leading cause of death in the young and a high degree of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Facial trauma has been consistently shown to be the single most common injury to the occupants of vehicles involved in crashes. This has been confirmed by more recent studies which have demonstrated a continuing high incidence of facial fractures amongst belted drivers. Airbags have been advocated as a supplemental restraint system. However, their deployment can cause injury particularly if the driver is of short stature, unrestrained or out of position within the vehicle. METHODS: The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) project aims to correlate the injuries received by occupants in vehicle crashes with the biomechanics of vehicle deformation. All cases of facial injury which presented to the University of Michigan Medical Center, USA in 1999 were retrospectively evaluated with reference to the methods of occupant restraint and to the correlation between the injuries sustained and vehicle deformation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The case analysis confirmed the value of airbags to the safety of vehicle occupants but reinforced the conclusion that they must still be considered supplemental restraint systems. New generation airbags will minimise the risk of injury even to small stature or out of position occupants as they will prevent deployment in situations where they may have an adverse effect. PMID:15140296

  3. Shoulder injuries attributed to resistance training: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kolber, Morey J; Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Cheng, Ming-Shun S; Hellman, Madeleine A

    2010-06-01

    The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and OVID databases to identify relevant articles for inclusion using combinations of key words: resistance training, shoulder, bodybuilding, weightlifting, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. The results of the review indicated that up to 36% of documented RT-related injuries and disorders occur at the shoulder complex. Trends that increased the likelihood of injury were identified and inclusive of intrinsic risk factors such as joint and muscle imbalances and extrinsic risk factors, namely, that of improper attention to exercise technique. A majority of the available research was retrospective in nature, consisting of surveys and descriptive epidemiological reports. A paucity of research was available to identify predictive variables leading to injury, suggesting the need for future prospective-based investigations. PMID:20508476

  4. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

  5. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

  6. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

  7. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

  8. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340...Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans....

  9. War Peace Film Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    This filmography is a selective listing of 287 films dealing with the topics of war and peace for use with K-12 and college students and with adults. The annotated guide will be of use to anyone planning a world affairs program and of special value to those interested in the problem of war. A wide variety of subject areas are treated in the films.…

  10. Occupational injuries in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    Firth, H; Herbison, G P

    1990-06-13

    Attendances for work-related injury at the accident and emergency department, Dunedin Hospital over a 10 week period are described. The number of workers attending from Dunedin city, St Kilda and Green Island boroughs was 655, the overall rate being 15.8/1000 workers. The injury rate varied according to age, sex, ethnicity, occupation and industry. Laceration, strain/sprain and foreign body in the eye were the most common injuries and machinery was the commonest cause of injury. Small factories had significantly higher rates for lost time injuries compared with large factories. Serious under reporting of occupational injury to the Department of Labour was identified. PMID:2356045

  11. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  12. 77 FR 37865 - Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY...competitiveness, and job creation. The NTSB is...periodic retrospective analysis of their existing...retrospective review and analysis by agencies of their...productivity, competition, jobs, the environment,...

  13. Blast injury in a civilian trauma setting is associated with a delay in diagnosis of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Grant V; Lumpkins, Kimberly; O'Connor, James; Simard, Marc; Schaub, Stacey; Conway, Anne; Bochicchio, Kelly; Scalea, Thomas M

    2008-03-01

    High-pressure waves (blast) account for the majority of combat injuries and are becoming increasingly common in terrorist attacks. To our knowledge, there are no data evaluating the epidemiology of blast injury in a domestic nonterrorist setting. Data were analyzed retrospectively on patients admitted with any type of blast injury over a 10-year period at a busy urban trauma center. Injuries were classified by etiology of explosion and anatomical location. Eighty-nine cases of blast injury were identified in 57,392 patients (0.2%) treated over the study period. The majority of patients were male (78%) with a mean age of 40 +/- 17 years. The mean Injury Severity Score was 13 +/- 11 with an admission Trauma and Injury Severity Score of 0.9 +/- 0.2 and Revised Trauma Score of 7.5 +/- 0.8. The mean intensive care unit and hospital length of stay was 2 +/- 7 days and 4.6 +/- 10 days, respectively, with an overall mortality rate of 4.5 per cent. Private dwelling explosion [n = 31 (35%)] was the most common etiology followed by industrial pressure blast [n = 20 (22%)], industrial gas explosion [n = 16 (18%)], military training-related explosion [n = 15 (17%)], home explosive device [n = 8 (9%)], and fireworks explosion [n = 1 (1%)]. Maxillofacial injuries were the most common injury (n = 78) followed by upper extremity orthopedic (n = 29), head injury (n = 32), abdominal (n = 30), lower extremity orthopedic (n = 29), and thoracic (n = 19). The majority of patients with head injury [28 of 32 (88%)] presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. CT scans on admission were initially positive for brain injury in 14 of 28 patients (50%). Seven patients (25%) who did not have a CT scan on admission had a CT performed later in their hospital course as a result of mental status change and were positive for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Three patients (11%) had a negative admission CT with a subsequently positive CT for TBI over the next 48 hours. The remaining four patients (14%) were diagnosed with skull fractures. All patients (n = 4) with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8 died from diffuse axonal injury. Blast injury is a complicated disease process, which may evolve over time, particularly with TBI. The missed injury rate for TBI in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 was 36 per cent. More studies are needed in the area of blast injury to better understand this disease process. PMID:18376697

  14. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury

    MedlinePLUS

    Cruciate ligament injury - posterior; PCL injury; Knee injury - posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); Hyperextended knee ... signs of PCL injury. This includes moving the knee joint in various ways. Your doctor may also ...

  15. Abdominal injury patterns in patients with seatbelt signs requiring laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Seema; Adileh, Mohamed; Almogy, Gidon; Bala, Miklosh

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We analyzed our series of patients with seatbelt signs (bruising) that underwent laparotomy in order to correlate injury pattern with clinical course and outcome. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with seatbelt signs presenting to the level 1 Trauma Unit between 2005 and 2010 was performed. We evaluated the nature of injuries during laparotomy associated with seatbelt signs and their treatment and complications. Results: There were 41 patients, 25 (61%) male, with a median age of 26 years. Median injury severity score (ISS) was 25 (range 6–66) and overall mortality was 10% (four patients). Patients were classified into three groups according to time from injury to surgery. Median time to surgery for the immediate group (n = 12) was 1.05 h, early group (n = 22) was 2.7 h, and delayed group (n = 7) was 19.5 h. Patients in the immediate group tended to have solid organ injuries; whereas, patients in the delayed group had bowel injury. Patients with solid organ injuries were found to be more seriously injured and had higher mortality (P < 0.01) and morbidity compared with patients with the “classic” bowel injury pattern associated with a typical seatbelt sign. Conclusion: Our data suggest that there is a cohort of patients with seatbelt injury who have solid organ injury requiring urgent intervention. Solid organ injuries associated with malpositioned seatbelts lying higher on the abdomen tend to result in hemodynamic instability necessitating immediate surgery. They have more postoperative complications and a greater mortality. Seatbelt signs should be accurately documented after any car crash. PMID:25400391

  16. Agriculture-related injuries in the parkland region of Manitoba.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review a series of farm injuries in the parkland region of Manitoba, compare the collected data to similar studies, and provide a baseline for deriving effective preventive measures for the local community. DESIGN: Retrospective case study involving review of hospital charts. SETTING: The population studied was derived from the catchment area for Dauphin General Hospital, a referral centre servicing an agricultural region of 57,000 people. PATIENTS: Seventy-two patients were admitted to hospital between January 1981 and December 1991 after being injured by agricultural machines, farm animals, herbicides or other chemicals, and fertilizers. Four fatalities were identified through a review of local medical examiner records, for a total of 76 cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following data were abstracted for each case: sex, age, time and date of injury, cause, type of injury, and body part involved. RESULTS: Most cases involved men, between the ages of 20 and 69, during the afternoon and early evening with a seasonal peak in late summer. More than 60% of injuries were caused by agricultural machinery, followed by animal-related injuries (25%). Grain augers were the most common type of machine causing injury (35%). All patients younger than 9 years were female, and 75% of their injuries involved farm animals. A decreasing annual frequency of farm injuries was noted over the 11-year period. Fewer accidents involving farm machinery appear most responsible for this trend. CONCLUSIONS: Many agriculture-related injuries occur in the parkland region of Manitoba. The type and pattern of injuries observed resembles those documented in other studies. With effective education and preventive measures, most injuries and fatalities could be prevented. Physicians are obliged to encourage and support educational programs in their communities and to review safety practices with patients. Images p1191-a PMID:7647624

  17. Concomitant Vascular War Trauma Saturating a French Forward Surgical Team Deployed to Support the Victims of the Syrian War (2013). Interest of the Vascular Damage Control.

    PubMed

    Hornez, Emmanuel; Boddaert, Guillaume; Baudoin, Yoann; Daban, Jean Louis; Ollat, Didier; Ramiara, Patrice; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    Vascular injuries from war require an emergency treatment whose objective is to quickly obtain hemostasis and the restoration of arterial flow. In this context of heavy trauma and limited means, damage control surgery is recommended and is based on the use of temporary vascular shunts (TVSs). We report the management of the simultaneous arrival of 2 vascular injuries of war in a field hospital. Patient 1 presented a ballistic trauma of the elbow with a section of the humeral artery (Gustillo IIIC). A TVS was set up during the external fixation of the elbow. Final revascularization was carried out and aponevrotomies of the forearm were performed. Patient 2 had a riddled knee with an open fracture of the femur, an avulsion of the popliteal artery, and a hemorrhagic shock. A strategy of damage control surgery was carried out with placing an arterial and venous shunt. Aponevrotomies of the leg were carried out before casting. For the traumatisms of the arteries of the members, the use of shunts is reserved for the lesions of the proximal vessels. Many vascular shunts available have the same performances to restore the arterial flow and prevent secondary thrombosis. The time before the final revascularization depends on the clinical condition of the patient. The value of anticoagulation in these cases was not shown. PMID:26362619

  18. Environmental dermatology: skin manifestations of injuries caused by invertebrate aquatic animals*

    PubMed Central

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals. The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions. The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians). In this review, we discuss the clinical, therapeutic and preventive aspects of injuries caused by marine and freshwater invertebrates, focusing on first aid measures and diagnosis for dermatologists and professionals in coastal areas. PMID:24068119

  19. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 90% of these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed ... body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ...

  20. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg ...

  1. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  2. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually ...

  3. War and Peace in Literature. Prose, Drama and Poetry Which Illuminate the Problem of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougall, Lucy, Comp.

    Literary works that will help teachers of humanities and conflict resolution courses lead their students to a better understanding of the problems of war and peace are summarized. The document is based on two premises: (1) literature that captures the experience and the meaning of war leads to an understanding of that phenomenon, and (2) the…

  4. Dialectical Disorientation in Vietnam War Films: Subversion of the Mythology of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Karen; Downey, Sharon D.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of "dialectical disorientation," a rhetorical form that creates ambiguity through confrontation between competitive but complementary orientations. Applies the form to the Vietnam War movies "The Deer Hunter,""Apocalypse Now,""Platoon," and "Full Metal Jacket." Observes that the films portray the war as destructive and…

  5. Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.

    The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

  6. Teaching about the Period between World War I and World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a teaching guide to accompany a forthcoming Mobil Showcase television series, "Between the Wars." The series chronicles events between the end of World War I and the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The guide contains background information, discussion questions, and activities for each of the 16 programs in the series. (Author/AV)

  7. Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadas, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

  8. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  9. The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreso, Adila Pasalic

    2008-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…

  10. AIR QUALITY MODEL EVALUATION - FORECASTING AND RETROSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation discusses the CMAQ model evaluation framework, and presents results of evaluation of CMAQ's particulate matter estimates for PM2.5, and its components for 2005 air quality forecast predictions as well as retrospective modeling for 2001.

  11. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with Reintegration Problems: Differences by Veterans Affairs Healthcare User Status.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Orazem, Robert J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Gravely, Amy; Frazier, Patricia; Carlson, Kathleen F; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather

    2015-07-01

    We studied 1,292 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who participated in a clinical trial of expressive writing to estimate the prevalence of perceived reintegration difficulty and compare Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare users to nonusers in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. About half of participants perceived reintegration difficulty. VA users and nonusers differed in age and military background. Levels of mental and physical problems were higher in VA users. In multivariate analysis, military service variables and probable traumatic brain injury independently predicted VA use. Findings demonstrate the importance of research comparing VA users to nonusers to understand veteran healthcare needs. PMID:24913102

  12. Spinal fractures in recreational bobsledders: an unexpected mechanism of injury

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Erik P.; Sofianos, Dmitri A.; Powell, Amy; Daubs, Michael; Patel, Rakesh; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2012-01-01

    Study design:?Retrospective case series and literature review. Objective:?To report and discuss spinal fractures occurring in recreational bobsledders. Summary of background data:?Spinal fractures have been commonly described following traumatic injury during a number of recreational sports. Reports have focused on younger patients and typically involved high-impact sports or significant injuries. With an aging population and a wider array of recreational sports, spinal injuries may be seen after seemingly benign activities and without a high-impact injury. Methods:?A retrospective review of two patients and review of the literature was performed. Results:?Two patients with spinal fractures after recreational bobsledding were identified. Both patients, aged 57 and 54 years, noticed a simultaneous onset of severe back pain during a routine turn on a bobsled track. Neither was involved in a high-impact injury during the event. Both patients were treated conservatively with resolution of symptoms. An analysis of the bobsled track revealed that potential forces imparted to the rider may be greater than the yield strength of vertebral bone. Conclusions:?Older athletes may be at greater risk for spinal fracture associated with routine recreational activities. Bobsledding imparts large amounts of force during routine events and may result in spinal trauma. Older patients, notably those with osteoporosis or metabolic bone disease, should be educated about the risks associated with seemingly benign recreational sports. PMID:23230417

  13. Limb replantation after avulsion injuries: techniques and tactics for success

    PubMed Central

    Paulos, Renata Gregorio; Simão, Danielle Tiemi; Mattar Júnior, Rames; Wei, Marcelo Rosa de Rezende Teng Hsiang; Torres, Luciano Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective evaluation of cases of limb replantation after avulsion injuries. Evaluation of the techniques and tactics used, that contributed to success and good functional results. Methods Forty-three patients' records were assessed. All the cases had been submitted to limb replantation after avulsion injuries. Results The majority of the cases were young men. The most common injury was to the thumbs. The surgical techniques and tactics used were: nerve grafting, vein grafting, transposition of the digital vessels, limb shortening, and heterotopic replantation. The most commonly used technique was vein graft. The limb survival rate was high (93%), as was patient satisfaction. Conclusion Replantation after avulsion injury depends on the correct diagnosis of the limb viability and the use of appropriate surgical techniques and tactics for each case. The experience of the team of surgeons and a good hospital structure are essential for good results. There are few articles in medical literature about the indications, techniques and results of limb replantation after avulsion injuries. We believe that this retrospective evaluation can bring new information and contributions to the correct management of this highly complex situation. Level of evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453590

  14. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  15. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  16. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  17. INJURY & ILLNESS PREVENTION PLAN

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    INJURY & ILLNESS PREVENTION PLAN (IIPP) University of California Riverside (UCR) Injury & Illness) Title 8, Section 3203. University of California Riverside #12;Injury & Illness Prevention Plan and Illness Prevention Plan (IIPP) this document... Template online at http://ehs.ucr.edu under the Programs

  18. The retrospective chart review: important methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review and discuss ten common methodological mistakes found in retrospective chart reviews. The retrospective chart review is a widely applicable research methodology that can be used by healthcare disciplines as a means to direct subsequent prospective investigations. In many cases in this review, we have also provided suggestions or accessible resources that researchers can apply as a “best practices” guide when planning, conducting, or reviewing this investigative method. PMID:24324853

  19. Pressure ulcer incidence on a spinal cord injury unit.

    PubMed

    Hammond, M C; Bozzacco, V A; Stiens, S A; Buhrer, R; Lyman, P

    1994-11-01

    Because of the high risk for pressure ulcers among hospitalized, spinal cord injured patients, one quality improvement measure is to monitor incidence of pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart review of each patient who developed an ulcer during an 18-month period revealed patient characteristics associated with pressure ulcer risk. Of 468 inpatient admissions, 35 patients developed 81 pressure ulcers. Patient variables associated with an incidence rate of 7.5% were an admission diagnosis of pressure ulcer, surgical repair of pressure ulcers, length of stay, new spinal cord injury, longstanding injury (> 10 years), and the use of condom catheters. PMID:7795866

  20. [Penetrating head and brain injuries with nonmetal foreign bodies].

    PubMed

    Potapov, A A; Okhlopkov, V A; Latyshev, Ya A; Serova, N K; Eolchiyan, S A

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are common in neurosurgical practice. Most of them are civil or war-time missile and blast injuries. This type of trauma is widely presented in neurosurgical publication, textbooks and clinical evidence-based guidelines. At the same time, PBI by non-metallic foreign bodies are very rare. All the data are limited to case reports and small series of cases. Moreover, there are no clinical consideration on diagnosis, treatment, complication, outcome and prognosis of PBI by non-metallic penetrating brain injuries. In this review all the data are summarized to provide recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of PBI by non-metallic foreign bodies. PMID:25874292

  1. Open Calcaneus Fractures and Associated Injuries.

    PubMed

    Worsham, Jacob R; Elliott, Mark R; Harris, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Open calcaneus fractures are usually the result of high-energy mechanisms and are associated with other orthopedic and whole body system injures. Understanding the difference between open versus closed fractures is essential for the provider, and they must be vigilant for the associated injuries that present with this condition. We performed a retrospective medical record review of 62 patients (64 calcaneus fractures) with open calcaneus fractures from January 2003 to January 2013 presenting at a level 1 trauma center. Sex, age, laterality, mechanism of injury, wound appearance, initial management, and associated injures were recorded. The most common mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents (35 [56.4%]) and falls from >6 ft (15 [24.1%]). Four (6.4%) patients had a posterior tibial artery transection. Eight (12.9%) patients had a femoral shaft fracture, 14 (22.5%) an ipsilateral ankle fracture, 16 (25.8%) a metatarsal fracture, and 11 (17.7%) had associated midfoot fractures. Of the midfoot fractures, 12 (19.3%) patients had a talus fracture and 5 (8.0%) a cuboid fracture. Spinal fractures were present in 9 (14.5%) of the patients, with lumbar fractures occurring in 6 (9.6%) patients. Fifteen (24.1%) patients had associated upper extremity fractures. Thirteen (20.9%) patients had an associated pulmonary injury, including 8 pneumothoraces. Ten (16.1%) patients had a closed head injury and 6 (9.6%) had an abdominal injury. Fifteen (23.4%) patients were treated with percutaneous wire fixation and 7 (10.9%) with open reduction internal fixation. A total of 44 (68.7%) fractures were treated without internal fixation. Overall, 5 (8.0%) patients with an open calcaneus fracture eventually underwent a below-the-knee amputation. Open calcaneus fractures are severe, high-energy injuries with the potential for considerable morbidity to the patient, given the high rate of concomitant orthopedic and whole body system injuries. Type III open injuries have an increased risk of requiring subsequent amputation. The management of these injuries should include intravenous antibiotics, tetanus prophylaxis, and urgent debridement and irrigation. PMID:26243720

  2. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Congress: Epidemiology and Rehabilitation Report to Congress: Military Personnel TBI in the US: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, ... a leading cause of TBI for active duty military personnel in war zones. 15 CDC estimates of TBI ...

  3. Treatment of Facial Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... developed by OMSs in combat hospitals during World War II, Korea, Vietnam and today’s international conflicts. Treating ... country or plans to jump the horse. Basketball, Water Polo, Handball, Rugby, Karate, Judo, and Gymnastics Participants ...

  4. Pharmacy in the American Civil War.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, G R

    2000-03-01

    The role of pharmacists and the process of military drug supply in the American Civil War are described. Most raw drugs used in the United States in the mid-1800s were imported. During the Civil War, imports into the North continued, but the Union blockade forced the Confederacy to obtain medicines through means such as smuggling, capture of enemy supplies, and processing of indigenous medicinal plants. Medical supplies for Civil War troops were typically purchased by military physicians called medical purveyors and sometimes by pharmacists serving as acting medical purveyors. In the latter half of the war, U.S. Army medical laboratories, in which many pharmacists were employed, inspected purchases, repackaged supplies bought in bulk, and manufactured medicines from raw materials. The Confederacy also had medical laboratories, which were primarily responsible for manufacturing medicines from indigenous plant material but also inspected drugs that had been smuggled into the South. At a few large Union medical depots, pharmacists called medical storekeepers assumed many of the responsibilities of medical purveyors by receiving, storing, issuing, and accounting for supplies. Noncommissioned officers called hospital stewards assumed diverse duties that included dispensing drugs prescribed by military physicians. Although many hospital stewards were pharmacists or physicians, others had no previous pharmaceutical experience. Civilian pharmacists were employed in the medical laboratories and in military general hospitals. Pharmacists participated in nearly every aspect of military drug supply during the Civil War. PMID:10711530

  5. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    PubMed

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

  6. Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

  7. Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Saluan, Paul; Styron, Joseph; Ackley, J. Freeland; Prinzbach, Arianna; Billow, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background: With childhood sports opportunities continuing to increase at an enormous rate along with participation starting at younger ages, the number of female participants in sports has increased in paramount fashion over the past few decades. A review of the current literature reveals a very small number of studies (<30) that document specific injuries suffered by competitive female gymnasts. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of various injuries and injury rates for different gymnast levels among young precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period, from 1985 to 2005. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This institutional review board–approved study retrospectively evaluated young, precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period. Gymnasts were stratified into 1 of 4 competition levels based on the number of hours spent training. In addition to the frequency of injuries and hours trained, data collected on each gymnast included the following: age at the time of injury, body part injured, laterality of the injury, and diagnosis. Results: Over the 21-year period, 3681 new injuries were evaluated by a single physician. The injury incidence (2.155 per 1000 exposure hours) was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. There were 1,452,574 total exposure hours documented from training facility records. The injury rate per 1000 exposure hours was 2.859 for elite, 2.820 for high-level, 1.667 for intermediate, and 0.687 for novice gymnasts. The lower extremity was injured more often than the upper extremity (60.9% compared with 22.6% of total injuries). This difference was statistically significant across all levels. Conclusion: The injury incidence in this study was 2.155 per 1000 exposure hours. This was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. Although those studies only lasted 3 years or less, the injury rates can be directly compared because they are reported as injuries per 1000 training hours. Clinical Relevance: With the variability in data available and limited studies reported, a conclusive analysis is needed because of the long-term effects of injury seen on gymnasts, such as early degenerative disorders, cost of injury treatment, and reduction of well-being. In our 21-year study, we found the incidence of injury was slightly lower than that shown in prior shorter studies. In addition, we were able to evaluate specific injuries seen in this population over that time period. Also, this extended study revealed the longitudinal nature of a series of injuries over a period of time that has not been seen in other studies, thus giving insight into the effects of increased gymnastics in the young, female, adolescent population, which could be potentially used in guidelines for gymnasts in the future. PMID:26665051

  8. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    PubMed Central

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  9. Paintball: dermatologic injuries.

    PubMed

    Ambay, Aparna R; Stratman, Erik J

    2007-07-01

    The popularity of paintball as an extreme sport has gained momentum in recent years. Injuries related to paintball are growing as the number of participants increases. An increasing percentage of paintball-related injuries have occurred in noncommercial settings, such as backyards. We report distinctive follicular stippling and annular scars resulting from paintball injuries in 2 males. Dermatologists may encounter paintball-related injuries during routinely scheduled visits for acne or nevi surveillance. Patients should be verbally reminded to use protective gear to prevent injuries. PMID:17725065

  10. Classification and grading of muscle injuries: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Bruce; Valle, Xavier; Rodas, Gil; Til, Luis; Grive, Ricard Pruna; Rincon, Josep Antoni Gutierrez; Tol, Johannes L

    2015-03-01

    A limitation to the accurate study of muscle injuries and their management has been the lack of a uniform approach to the categorisation and grading of muscle injuries. The goal of this narrative review was to provide a framework from which to understand the historical progression of the classification and grading of muscle injuries. We reviewed the classification and grading of muscle injuries in the literature to critically illustrate the strengths, weaknesses, contradictions or controversies. A retrospective, citation-based methodology was applied to search for English language literature which evaluated or utilised a novel muscle classification or grading system. While there is an abundance of literature classifying and grading muscle injuries, it is predominantly expert opinion, and there remains little evidence relating any of the clinical or radiological features to an established pathology or clinical outcome. While the categorical grading of injury severity may have been a reasonable solution to a clinical challenge identified in the middle of the 20th century, it is time to recognise the complexity of the injury, cease trying to oversimplify it and to develop appropriately powered research projects to answer important questions. PMID:25394420

  11. Blunt splenic injury in Sikkimese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Amrita; Pal, Ranabir; Pal, Shrayan

    2011-01-01

    Background: The contemplation for the salvage operations and the nonoperative treatment for the pediatric splenic injuries had increasingly been suggested as the standard case management. Objectives: The study was carried out to identify the risk factors, the presentations, the severities and outcome of the interventions of blunt splenic injuries in the children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Sikkim on the children and adolescents admitted with splenic injury from January 2005 to December 2009. Splenic injuries were graded with the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Splenic Injury Scale followed by the operative and nonoperative managements (NOM). Results: Overall 147 cases with the abdominal trauma were diagnosed with splenic injury. Of them, males reported in higher numbers; three-fourths were adolescents with preponderance above 16 years of age. Majority of the cases [n=91(61.90%)] were due to fall from heights and others from road traffic accidents. Immediate surgical interventions was instituted in the hemodynamically unstable cases (n=87) NOM failed in 27 patients; of them eight cases underwent splenectomy, and 19 underwent surgical salvage; 33 were closely followed up by conservative approach with both clinical and CT criteria. Total number of cases in grade III and above was significantly higher than with lower grades of injury. Conclusions: In total 95(64.63%) of the cases were managed with total splenectomy; 19 cases in the initial nonsurgical group underwent salvage operation and 33 cases received NOM. PMID:21769209

  12. Classification and grading of muscle injuries: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Bruce; Valle, Xavier; Rodas, Gil; Til, Luis; Grive, Ricard Pruna; Rincon, Josep Antoni Gutierrez; Tol, Johannes L

    2015-01-01

    A limitation to the accurate study of muscle injuries and their management has been the lack of a uniform approach to the categorisation and grading of muscle injuries. The goal of this narrative review was to provide a framework from which to understand the historical progression of the classification and grading of muscle injuries. We reviewed the classification and grading of muscle injuries in the literature to critically illustrate the strengths, weaknesses, contradictions or controversies. A retrospective, citation-based methodology was applied to search for English language literature which evaluated or utilised a novel muscle classification or grading system. While there is an abundance of literature classifying and grading muscle injuries, it is predominantly expert opinion, and there remains little evidence relating any of the clinical or radiological features to an established pathology or clinical outcome. While the categorical grading of injury severity may have been a reasonable solution to a clinical challenge identified in the middle of the 20th century, it is time to recognise the complexity of the injury, cease trying to oversimplify it and to develop appropriately powered research projects to answer important questions. PMID:25394420

  13. Head and facial injuries due to cluster munitions.

    PubMed

    Fares, Youssef; Fares, Jawad; Gebeily, Souheil

    2014-06-01

    Cluster munitions are weapons that scatter smaller sub-munitions intended to kill or mutilate on impact. They have been used by the Israeli army in the south of Lebanon and are now scattered over wide rural areas affecting its inhabitants. Because of their easily "pickable" nature, sub-munitions can inflict injuries to the head and face regions. In this study, we aimed to explore the head and face injuries along with their clinical features in a group of Lebanese patients who suffered from such injuries due to a sub-munition's detonation. The study included all the cases reported between 14 August 2006 and 15 February 2013, with head and face injuries related to cluster bombs. Injuries were classified into brain, eye, otologic and auditory impairments, oral and maxillofacial, and skin and soft-tissue injuries. Psychological effects of these patients were also examined as for post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and acute stress syndrome. During the study period, there were 417 casualties as a result of cluster munitions' blasts. Out of the total number of victims, 29 (7 %) were injured in the head and the face region. The convention on cluster munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these inhumane weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm innocent civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict and war today. PMID:24389857

  14. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n?=?257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non?fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n?=?85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non?fatal injury events was 48 per 100?000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student?training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  15. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  16. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper’s knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball. PMID:25565908

  17. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball. PMID:25565908

  18. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  19. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

  20. Prevention and treatment of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jianjie; Chen, Jinping; Zhang, Shu; Luo, Donglin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To summary the experience for prevention and treatment of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury in thyroid surgery. Methods: Clinical features of 623 patients who received thyroid surgery from January 2010 to December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, and the features of RLN injury and intraoperative as well as postoperative treatments were reviewed. Results: RLN injury occurred in 31 patients (4.98%), in which, unilateral RLN injury occurred in 27 patients and bilateral RLN injuries occurred in 4 patients (temporary injury in 28 patients and permanent injury in 3 patients). 6 patients underwent RLN anastomosis during surgery and exhibited transient hoarseness after surgery. RLN exploration and decompression was given in 1 patient and the patient got normal vocal cord motion 2 months after surgery. 1 patient with bilateral injuries received tracheotomy and CO2 laser resection of arytenoid cartilage and achieved recovery 1 year later. Conclusions: In order to prevent RLN injury, the anatomic variations of RLN should be mastered. Routine exposure of RLN can effectively prevent the injury in patients receiving the second or multiple surgeries. Early interventions for RLN injury include mainly early discovery, early exploration and early anastomosis, and the function of RLN in some patients can recover completely. Subsequent treatments mainly focus on the improvement of the voice, expansion of glottis and melioration of dyspnea. PMID:24482694

  1. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  2. Conscientious objectors during Britain's last popular war 

    E-print Network

    Breech, Allyson

    2013-02-22

    and national pride were appalled by the brutalities encountered in it. After the war Britons, along with the rest of the countries who had fought, believed that there would never be another conflict like it. There were two reasons for this. First there xmas... a faith in the League of Nations as an international peacekeeping body. The second reason was that it was difficuh to imagine anyone supporting another show of brutality and waste such as the Great War. These reasons combined to create...

  3. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Vannevar Bush and the war against disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, K.I.

    1995-12-31

    War against disease has been a major rationale for funding support for post-war science. The author cites statistics for significant increases in life expectancy in recent decades through improved science and technology. Special problems are addressed that health scientists face in policy and planning. Four general categories are presented in some detail: education and training, intellectual development, funding, and ethical and social issues. The delima faced by health management organizations, industry, insurance companies and government agencies due to funding limitations and rapidly escalating costs is examined.

  5. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCracken, Michael C.

    1988-12-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several per cent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe.

  6. ISMA 2007 Schelleng in retrospect SCHELLENG IN RETROSPECT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF BOW FORCE

    E-print Network

    Boye, Johan

    ISMA 2007 Schelleng in retrospect SCHELLENG IN RETROSPECT ­ A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF BOW FORCE LIMITS.guettler@nmh.no Abstract An experimental study of the upper and lower bow force limits for bowed violin strings is reported of bow force and 11 values of relative bow-bridge distance at four bow velocities (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm

  7. ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS WITH THE WAR ALGORITHM: REVIEW AND UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review uses of the WAR algorithm and current developments and possible future directions. The WAR algorithm is a methodology for analyzing potential environmental impacts of 1600+ chemicals used in the chemical processing and other industries. The algorithm...

  8. Real Estate War in Cyberspace: An Emerging Electronic Market?1

    E-print Network

    Crowston, Kevin

    Real Estate War in Cyberspace: An Emerging Electronic Market?1 Kevin Crowston and Rolf T. Wigand ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¥ § ¨ ¦ © £ ¨ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¤ ¨ ¦ ¦ ¨ ! " # $ % # " " & ¦ ' £ § ( ¨ ¤ ¨ ) ! © ¤ § © § 0 ¨ ¤ #12;Real Estate War in Cyberspace: An Emerging Electronic Market? 1 Introduction

  9. 54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, LOOKING WEST 56/43A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  10. PTSD Can Affect Female Vietnam War Vets, Too

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_155033.html PTSD Can Affect Female Vietnam War Vets, Too: Study They're at higher risk ... were stationed in the United States during that war, a new study finds. "Because current PTSD is ...

  11. Terror Attacks and the Duration of Civil War

    E-print Network

    Crist, Rachel

    2015-05-31

    Several factors that scholars have thought relate to the duration of civil war including: low per capita income, ethnic divisions, resources/contraband, and terrain were found to have no correlation to the duration of civil war. Another factor...

  12. Injuries in Irish dance.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

  13. ctnow.com: The Water Wars courant.com

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    ctnow.com: The Water Wars courant.com http://www.courant.com/news/local/hc-finalriversriogrande.artoct23,0,6151647.story AMERICA'S RIVERS AT RISK The Water Wars Pressures Mount On The Legendary Waterway Wars.htm (1 of 5)10/28/2006 8:08:20 AM #12;ctnow.com: The Water Wars company and a self-described, self

  14. Inner ear damage following electric current and lightning injury: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Modayil, P C; Lloyd, G W; Mallik, A; Bowdler, D A

    2014-05-01

    Audiovestibular sequelae of electrical injury, due to lightning or electric current, are probably much more common than indicated in literature. The aim of the study was to review the impact of electrical injury on the cochleovestibular system. Studies were identified through Medline, Embase, CINAHL and eMedicine databases. Medical Subject Headings used were 'electrical injury', 'lightning', 'deafness' and 'vertigo'. All prospective and retrospective studies, case series and case reports of patients with cochlear or vestibular damage due to lightning or electrical current injury were included. Studies limited to external and middle ear injuries were excluded. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen reported audiovestibular damage following electric current injury (domestic or industrial); a further 15 reported lightning injuries and five concerned pathophysiology and management. There were no histological studies of electrical current injury to the human audiovestibular system. The commonest acoustic insult after lightning injury is conductive hearing loss secondary to tympanic membrane rupture and the most frequent vestibular symptom is transient vertigo. Electrical current injuries predominantly cause pure sensorineural hearing loss and may significantly increase a patient's lifetime risk of vertigo. Theories for cochleovestibular damage in electrical injury include disruption of inner ear anatomy, electrical conductance, hypoxia, vascular effects and stress response hypothesis. The pathophysiology of cochleovestibular damage following electrical injury is unresolved. The mechanism of injury following lightning strike is likely to be quite different from that following domestic or industrial electrical injury. The formulation of an audiovestibular management protocol for patients who have suffered electrical injuries and systematic reporting of all such events is recommended. PMID:23649510

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Maxillofacial Trauma in Shiraz, Iran: a 6-Year- Study of 768 Patients (2004-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Arabion, HR.; Tabrizi, R.; Aliabadi, E.; Gholami, M.; Zarei, K.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Information about the etiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma is important for prevention and appropriate treatments of such injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to conduct an analysis of maxillofacial injuries transferred and/or referred to the department of maxillofacial Surgery at Chamran emergency hospital, Shiraz, over a 6-year period with special reference to age, gender, occupation, date, type, site, etiology and clinical management. Materials and Method: The data for this study were collected and reviewed retrospectively from the records and radiographs of 768 patients who were treated for maxillofacial trauma in the department of maxillofacial surgery at the Shiraz Chamran Emergency Hospital, Iran, between 2004 and 2010. Results: A total of 730 of the subjects were the patients with fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was 26.6± 12.6 years, ranging from 2 to 81 years. Traffic accident was the most frequent etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures irrespective of gender (69.9% for men and 54.2% for women), whereas the second most frequent cause of injuries was falling down (9.8% for men and 21.5% for women) .The other etiologies were assaults (5.2%), sport related injuries (1.3%) and firearm injuries (1%). Regarding the head injuries in patients with maxillofacial fractures, brain contusion was seen in 227(29.6%) patients and 13.5% of patients had lacerations in the facial soft tissue. The monthly distribution peaked in October, with 81 cases (10.5%), which would be for the reason that schools open in this month. The next highest incidence was in December, with 80 cases (10.4%), probably because of the changing weather's effect on road traffic. Conclusion: Isolated mandibular fracture due to the road traffic accident was the most common type of maxillofacial injuries in the city of Shiraz. PMID:24738085

  16. Injuries and violence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a review of the health, economic and social burden.

    PubMed

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Zhang, Xiaoge Julia; Allen, Katharine A; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-10-01

    We review current literature and data on the burden of injury and violence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO), with a special focus on the health, economic and social burden they impose on individuals, families and society. Injury-associated mortality and disability is on the rise in EMR, especially among economically productive adults, young males and vulnerable road users. In particular, road traffic injuries, the leading cause of injuries, account for 27% of the total injury and violence mortality in EMR according to WHO. Violence including suicide, homicide and war-related injury has also been increasing over the past two decades for both females and males. There is need for greater interest and efforts in slowing and ultimately halting the trend through interventions, legislative actions, and research that examine the special needs and challenges in the Region. PMID:25356696

  17. A model of suicidal behavior in war veterans with posttraumatic mood disorder.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2009-08-01

    Many wars have been fought during the history of civilization. About 30 armed conflicts are occurring now around the globe involving more than 25 countries. Many war veterans have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) including suicidal ideation and behavior. PTSD is frequently comorbid with MDD. I have previously proposed that some or all individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and MDD have a separate psychobiological condition that can be termed "posttraumatic mood disorder" (PTMD). This idea was based on the fact that a significant number of studies suggested that patients suffering from comorbid PTSD and MDD differed clinically and biologically from individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and MDD are characterized by greater severity of symptoms, increased suicidality and the higher level of impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Neurobiological evidence supporting the concept of PTMD includes the findings from neuroendocrine challenge, cerebrospinal fluid, neuroimaging, sleep and other studies. In this paper, I propose a model of suicidal behavior in war veterans with PTMD. The model consists of the following components: (1) genetic factors; (2) prenatal development; (3) biological and psychosocial influences from birth to mobilization/deployment; (4) mobilization/pre-deployment stress; (5) combat stress, traumatic brain injury, and physical injury; (6) post-deployment stress; (7) biological and psychosocial influences after the deployment; (8) trigger (precipitant) of a suicidal act; and (9) suicidal act. The first four components determine vulnerability to combat stress. The first seven components determine predisposition to suicidal behavior, a key element that differentiates PTMD patients who are at high risk from those at lower risk. Suicidal behavior in PTMD can be attributed to the coincidence of a trigger with a predisposition for suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention in war veterans with PTMD should focus on (1) improvement in recognition of PTMD; (2) treating symptoms of PTMD; (3) preventing a relapse when the patient is in remission; (4) treating suicidal ideation; (5) treating comorbid psychiatric conditions including alcohol and drug abuse; (6) treating medical and neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury; and (7) social support. It is extremely important to understand PTMD, to optimize assessment and treatment for people with PTMD, and to identify processes that facilitate recovery from exposure to traumatic events. Every nation, every generation, faces traumas that cause suicide. The world needs to deal with this and it is one thing that the world can come together on. PMID:19327892

  18. Civil War Photography and Its Impact from 1863-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seels, Jody M.; Seels, Barbara A.

    The United States Civil War was the first American war to be documented extensively by photographs, and these photographs have had tremendous impact and importance. During the war and immediately following, the cost and difficulty of reproducing photographs limited their appeal. Economic pressures actually caused Matthew Brady, the most famous…

  19. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313 Section...Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service...

  7. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  8. Modeling the Size of Wars From Billiard Balls to Sandpiles*

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    wars is power-law distributed belongs to the most striking empirical regularities in world politics be found in world politics. Apart from its intrinsic interest, this pattern has important consequences distribution of future wars and could therefore assist force-planning (Axelrod 1979). Focusing on war

  9. The Making of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War," a set of units which cover legal, cultural, and historical questions of the war in greater depth than do survey textbooks. Examples of the 12 topics are "Introduction to Vietnam: Land, Culture, and History" and "Taking Sides: The War at Home." (GEA)

  10. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import permit requirements and other restrictions set forth in 27 CFR parts 47, 178, 179. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...

  11. By war's end,in 1945,the University

    E-print Network

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    III By war's end,in 1945,the University was braced for the influx of returning veterans who were. By then the nation had already been at war for two years and had turned itself into "the Arsenal of Democracy the howitzer that had stood on Front Campus for twenty years as reminder of the school's World War I dead

  12. TERRORISM AND WAR (SAS 7) UC Davis; Spring, 2013

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    1 TERRORISM AND WAR (SAS 7) UC Davis; Spring, 2013 INSTRUCTORS OFFICE HOUR (VIRTUAL) Prof. James R to varying degrees in major conflicts around the world, issues of terrorism and war are heavily debated deeply about terrorism and war and question your assumptions. You will be asked to understand

  13. 22 CFR 121.15 - Surface vessels of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surface vessels of war. 121.15 Section 121.15... MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.15 Surface vessels of war. (a) In USML Category VI, “surface vessels of war” are those, manned or unmanned, that: (1) Are warships or other combatant...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  17. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import permit requirements and other restrictions set forth in 27 CFR parts 47, 178, 179. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...

  18. Freshwater Availability Anomalies and Outbreak of Internal War

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Freshwater Availability Anomalies and Outbreak of Internal War: Results from a Global Spatial Time, Asker, near Oslo, 21­23 June 2005 Organizers: Centre for the Study of Civil War, International Peace War: Results from a Global Spatial Time Series Analysis1 Abstract We investigated the relationship

  19. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  20. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import permit requirements and other restrictions set forth in 27 CFR parts 47, 178, 179. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...

  1. War: The dynamics of vicious civilizations I. Ispolatov,1

    E-print Network

    Redner, Sidney

    War: The dynamics of vicious civilizations I. Ispolatov,1 P. L. Krapivsky,2 and S. Redner1 1 Center The dynamics of ``vicious,'' continuously growing civilizations domains , which engage in ``war'' when- ever two domains meet, is investigated. In the war event, the smaller domain is annihilated, while

  2. The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Marjori M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korean War is often given a cursory glance, if that, in U.S. foreign relations today. This article provides all the information necessary to conduct a role-play in one class period to help students understand the events of the war. Introductory and follow-up questions are also included to stimulate discussion and to connect the events of a war

  3. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import permit requirements and other restrictions set forth in 27 CFR parts 47, 178, 179. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...

  4. The Milne Collection An American Civil War Library

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    The Milne Collection An American Civil War Library The Milne Collection is one of Swansea to the American Civil War (1861-1865), as well as the Sectional crisis and Reconstruction era, was gifted in 2010 Library, the donation was gifted by Civil War enthusiast and educator Mr. Allan Milne of Cardiff. One

  5. Freshwater Availability Anomalies and Outbreak of Internal War

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Freshwater Availability Anomalies and Outbreak of Internal War: Results from a Global Spatial Time Organizers: Centre for the Study of Civil War, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) & Centre Freshwater Availability Anomalies and Outbreak of Internal War: Results from a Global Spatial Time Series

  6. Civil War and the Making of America History 304

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    Civil War and the Making of America History 304 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries of the Civil War G1201 .S5A85 1994 (Maps) A Companion to American Cultural History E169.1 .C684 2008 (and of the Civil War REF E468 .H57 1986 Oxford Companion to United States History (Online) Find Primary Sources

  7. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  8. Peace Education: How We Come to Love and Hate War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a huge volume of work on war and its causes, most of which treats its political and economic roots. In Loving and Hating War: An Approach to Peace Education, Nel Noddings explores the psychological factors that support war: nationalism, hatred, delight in spectacles, masculinity, religious extremism, and the search for existential…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  10. The Oxford Programme on the Changing Character of War

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    The Oxford Programme on the Changing Character of War Trinity Term 2015 Lunchtime Discussions on the Changing Character of War Seminars are at 1.00pm, Seminar Room G, Manor Road Building, Oxford A light sandwich lunch is served at 12.50pm. All are welcome. Tuesday 28th April Sir Ivor Roberts (Oxford) War

  11. Wahrscheinlich war Ilse Radschikofsky nicht die Einzige, die im September

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Wahrscheinlich war Ilse Radschikofsky nicht die Einzige, die im September 1983 weiche Knie hatte. Damals ver- lieh die Universität Greifswald Berthold Beitz den Ehrendoktor für Medizin. ,,Es war ein", sagt Dietlind Behnke aus der Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftlichen Fakultät. ,,Interessant für mich war

  12. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  13. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import permit requirements and other restrictions set forth in 27 CFR parts 47, 178, 179. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  15. The Impact of the Civil War on Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Shirley A.

    Before the U.S. Civil War, vocational education was relegated to apprenticeship training and a few scattered schools dedicated to the purpose. The Civil War brought widespread death and destruction throughout the South. By the end of the war, half of the land mass and population of the reunited United States of America had been destroyed. A major…

  16. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  18. "The Art of War". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Beth

    Based on Sun Tzu's book "The Art of War," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the book has become required reading in military curricula as well as business, economics, and political science classes, and that many cultures rely on ancient texts and ideas for advice and guidance. The main activity in the…

  19. Psychologists and Nuclear War: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyson, James; And Others

    A questionnaire was mailed to 530 randomly selected members of the American Psychological Association to determine their views on the nuclear war threat and on efforts by the American Psychological Association to reduce that threat. Completed questionnaires were received from 290 psychologists. The two-page questionnaire asked respondents whether…

  20. Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about unexplained illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War appeared soon after that conflict ended. Many environmental causes have been suggested, including possible exposure to depleted uranium munitions, vaccines and other drugs used to protect troops, deliberate or accidental exposure to chemical warfare agents and pesticides and smoke from oil-well fires. To help resolve these issues, US and UK governments have sought independent expert scientific advice from prestigious, independent scientific and public health experts, including the US National Academies of Science and the UK Royal Society and Medical Research Council. Their authoritative and independent scientific and medical reviews shed light on a wide range of Gulf War environmental hazards. However, they have added little to our understanding of Gulf War veterans' illnesses, because identified health effects have been previously well characterized, primarily in the occupational health literature. This effort has not identified any new health effects or unique syndromes associated with the evaluated environmental hazards. Nor do their findings provide an explanation for significant amounts of illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Nevertheless, these independent and highly credible scientific reviews have proven to be an effective means for evaluating potential health effects from deployment-related environmental hazards. PMID:16687269