Sample records for war injuries retrospective

  1. Comparison of Domestic and War Ocular Injuries during the Lebanese Civil War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad M. Mansour; Wadih M. Zein; Tarek A. Sibai; Abla Mehio-Sibai; Hussein Ismail; Sawsan Bu Orm

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the differences between war and domestic ocular injuries during the Lebanese Civil War in terms of baseline characteristics, treatment provided and prognosis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of subjects with traumatic ocular injuries referred to a major medical center from 1980 to 1996. The variables were tabulated according to the international classification of ocular trauma. Results:

  2. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  3. Retrospective Evaluation of Colon Injury Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sa??ro?lu, Tamer; Tunca, Fatih; Eren, Eryi?it; Meydan, Burhan; Gezer, Cem; Tunca, Erhan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: When considering abdominal region injuries, the colon is one of the most frequently wounded organs. Due to the septic contents of the colon, failure to treat or improper treatment of colon injuries increases the risk of major complications and may result in death. The aim of our study is a retrospective evaluation of colon injury cases over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine patients with a diagnosis of colon injury were included in the study. The cause of colon injury, injured area, Flint colon injury score, additional organs injured, type of surgical procedure performed, postoperative complications and mortality were evaluated. Results: The most frequent cause of colon injury was cutters (57.2%), followed by firearms (36.7%). The left colon was the most common site of injury (40.8%), followed by the transverse (28.6%) and right colon (20.4%). Primary treatment or resection and primary anastomosis were performed on 38 patients (77.6%), while primary treatment and proximal decompression colostomy were performed on 11 patients (22.4%). Eighteen of the patients (36.7%) experienced major postoperative complications, and 6 patients (12.2%) died. Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality of colonic injuries can be reduced by rapid patient transportation, good operational experience, use of wide spectrum antibiotics and postoperative care in an intensive care unit. PMID:25610019

  4. Back injuries in industry: a retrospective study. II. Injury factors.

    PubMed

    Bigos, S J; Spengler, D M; Martin, N A; Zeh, J; Fisher, L; Nachemson, A; Wang, M H

    1986-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of back injury on industry, the authors conducted an extensive retrospective analysis of injuries among hourly employees of The Boeing Company, the largest industrial manufacturer in western Washington. The Boeing Company provided injury information on 31,200 employees for a 15-month period from July 1, 1979 to September 30, 1980. From this information, we analyzed 4,645 injury claims filed as of February 28, 1981 by 3,958 different employees. There were 900 back injuries in this group. Claims were categorized according to total incurred cost (TIC), made up of the medical costs and indemnity costs. High-cost claims were defined as those with a TIC greater than $10,000, and low-cost claims were those with a TIC less than $10,000. Among 857 claimants with 900 back injuries, lifting or material handling was much more commonly considered the cause of injury than accidents such as slips or falls. Accidents, however, had a much greater tendency to result in an expensive claim. The authors could not make reliable conclusions regarding injuries and 32 job skill classifications. The rate of injury did not vary according to day of the week or month, but a significantly higher rate of high-cost back injuries was noted on the day shift than on the evening or night shifts. PMID:2940708

  5. Missile war injuries of the face.

    PubMed

    Kummoona, Raja K

    2011-11-01

    In a society struggling to rebuild its country after 3 decades of years of dictatorships and wars, Iraqi maxillofacial and craniofacial surgeons play a critical role in treatment of many most serious terrorist missile injuries of the face by ongoing conflict in Iraq. This study reflects our surgical techniques of treating explosive missile injuries and other combat- and terrorism-related injuries and also evaluates the immediate and secondary phase managements of patients with missile injuries. This study includes 235 patients with missile war injuries of the face during a period of 4 years; all injured patients were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit of Surgical Specialties Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad. There were 195 men and 40 women; their ages ranged from 1 to 70 years (mean, 39.5 years). Posttraumatic missile facial deformities were classified as follows: 95 patients (40.43%) had bone loss; 72 patients (30.64%) had soft tissue loss; 33 patients (14.05%) had orbital injuries; and 35 patients (14.90%) had other deformities of scar contracture, fistula, and sinus formation. Two techniques were used for reconstruction of the bony defect, either by bone chips carried by osteomesh tray harvested from the iliac crest or by free block of corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest. Soft tissue reconstruction was done by local flaps and regional flaps such as lateral cervical and cervicofacial flaps, and the orbit was reconstructed by bone graft, lyophilized dura, and sialastic implant. Scar contracture was treated by scar revision and sinus tract excised at the same time of scar revision. In conclusion, the primary phase required an urgent airway management, controlling an active bleeding by surgical intervention; most entrance and exit wounds as well as retained missiles were located in the cheek, chin, and mandibular body, with few cases of mortality due to complications related to head injuries. The secondary phase management of deformities of the face as a complication of missile injuries was classified as bone loss, soft tissue loss, combined bone and soft tissue loss, and others (sinus tracts and poor scars). PMID:22067852

  6. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment. PMID:21981845

  7. US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

  8. Equine-associated maxillofacial injuries: retrospective 5-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shofiq; Gupta, Benjamin; Taylor, Christopher J; Chow, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Gary R

    2014-02-01

    We explored the relation between the causes of facial injuries in equestrians and the presence or absence of associated injuries. Over a 5-year period we retrospectively reviewed all patients who presented to the John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, with facial injuries that had resulted from activity with horses. We analysed the rates of hard and soft tissue injuries, and of associated injuries by sex and mechanism. A total of 85 patients were included (50 female and 35 male) with an age range of 2-88 years. There was a significant difference in the rate of maxillofacial and associated injuries when groups were analysed for sex and mechanism of injury. Facial injuries caused by falling from a horse were more often associated with other injuries in men than in women (p<0.05), and men were 4 times more likely to present with associated injuries than women (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 14) We also found significant differences in the rates of facial fracture. Women who had been kicked by a horse were more likely to sustain bony injuries than men (p<0.05). Our data confirm the association between kicks and facial fracture, and this may provide an impetus for the development of appropriate protective equipment. Patients who sustain facial injuries when falling from a horse often present with associated injuries and this has practical implications for clinicians involved in their management. PMID:24168759

  9. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

  10. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

  11. Musculoskeletal injuries in Homer's Iliad: the War of Troy revisited.

    PubMed

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Tok, Fatih; Sim?ek, Ay?e; Ozçakar, Levent

    2014-04-01

    Homer's Iliad--the most famous and influential epic poem--has been previously reviewed with respect to head, craniomaxillofacial, neck, thoracic, and hand injuries in the literature. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no data regarding musculoskeletal injuries. This article describes the musculoskeletal injuries that had ensued during the war of Troy. The Turkish translation of the original epic poem Iliad was reviewed for musculoskeletal injuries, that is, their descriptions, outcome, the weapons used, and the engaged warriors. Extremity injuries were evaluated as regards the affected bones. The pertinent treatment methods were also recorded. In total, 103 musculoskeletal injuries were detected during 81 combats. The most commonly involved areas were the shoulder (15.5%), the head (14.5%), the cervical vertebrae (14.5%), and the thoracic vertebrae (8.7%). The weapons used were spear (n = 52); sword (n = 9); arrow (n = 9); stone (n = 8); and cane, animal, the hand, Chariot race, and broken yoke (n = 1 for each). Fifty-four combats (66.6%) resulted in death. Therapeutic herbs, compound of milk, and essence of fig were used as treatment alternatives. While providing a historic snapshot on the war of Troy, in this article, the authors have reviewed the musculoskeletal injuries and their management in those ancient times. Despite the long period in between, unfortunately, physicians/surgeons are still faced with war injuries in current medical practice. The authors strongly hope that, at least in the near future, physicians will be left with only natural health problems and without those artificially generated by human beings. PMID:24406735

  12. Spinal cord injury in Italy: A multicenter retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Grazia Celani; Lorenzo Spizzichino; Stefano Ricci; Mauro Zampolini; Marco Franceschini

    2001-01-01

    Celani MG, Spizzichino L, Ricci S, Zampolini M, Franceschini M, Retrospective Study Group on SCI. Spinal cord injury in Italy: a multicenter retrospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:589-96. Objective: To investigate certain factors influencing the length of stay (LOS) in a rehabilitation center, the incidence of pressure ulcers, and the neurologic improvement of patients with traumatic (T\\/SCI) and nontraumatic

  13. Traumatic brain injury in modern war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

  14. Management of extravasation injuries: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    F?rat, Cemal; Erbatur, Serkan; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-02-01

    The extravasation of many agents during administration by way of the peripheral veins can produce severe necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The incidence of an extravasation injury is elevated in the populations prone to complications, including the younger age groups. The severity of the necrosis depends on properties of the extravasated agent (vinca alkaloids, antracyclines, catecholamines, cationic solutions, osmotically active chemicals) including the type, concentration, and the quantity injected. In general, the primary diseases were chronic diseases such as hepatic or ischaemic encephalopathies, cardiac or pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus, and oncological diseases. The aim of this article was to explore the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of extravasation injuries with a review of the literature. From January 2009 to August 2011, 22 patients were reviewed. Ten patients were children, and the others were adults. The surgical interventions were delayed until the development of the necrosis. A topical boric acid 3% solution was applied to all wounds with repetitive debridement. Debridement was performed once every 2 days and was continued until healthy tissue was obtained. The wounds of eight patients were repaired with split-thickness skin grafts, the wounds of six patients were reconstructed with randomised fasciocutaneous flaps, and the wounds of five patients healed by secondary intention. The wounds of three patients with massive swelling of the forearms were treated with only conservative modalities and limb elevation for 24-48 hours. Boric acid was found to promote granulation tissue in the wounds. The extravasation injuries can be prevented by using appropriate measures, such as the avoidance of perfusion under pressure, patient participation in pain follow-up, wound management by experienced health professionals, and preference for large and suitable veins. PMID:23190022

  15. A Retrospective Review of Iatrogenic Skin and Soft Tissue Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Geun; Chung, Seum

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though the quality of medical and surgical care has improved remarkably over time, iatrogenic injuries that require surgical treatment including injuries caused by cast and elastic bandage pressure, extravasation, and dopamine-induced ischemia still frequently occur. The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence and analyze the distribution of iatrogenic injuries referred to our department. Methods A retrospective clinical review was performed from April 2006 to November 2010. In total, 196 patients (116 females and 80 males) were referred to the plastic surgery department for the treatment of iatrogenic injuries. We analyzed the types and anatomic locations of iatrogenic complications, along with therapeutic results. Results An extravasation injury (65 cases, 37.4%) was the most common iatrogenic complication in our study sample, followed by splint-induced skin ulceration, dopamine-induced necrosis, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-related wounds and elastic bandage-induced wounds. Among these, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-related complication incidence increased the most during the 5-year study period. Conclusions The awareness of the very common iatrogenic complications and its causes may allow physicians to reduce their occurrence and allow for earlier detection and referral to a plastic surgeon. We believe this is the first study to analyze iatrogenic complications referred to a plastic surgery department in a hospital unit. PMID:22872847

  16. Increases in Retrospective Accounts of War-Zone Exposure Over Time: The Role of PTSD Symptom Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizabeth Roeraer; Brett T. Litz; Susan M. Orsillo; Peter J. Ehlich; Matthew J. Friedman

    1998-01-01

    Retrospective reports of the frequency of war-zone exposure are commonly used as objective indices in studies investigating the mental health consequences of exposure to such stressors. To explore the temporal stability of these types of reports, we obtained frequency estimates of exposure to war-zone stressors at two time points from 460 U.S. soldiers who had served in the peace-keeping mission

  17. THE KOREAN WAR 1950-53: A 50 YEAR RETROSPECTIVE AUSTRALIA'S WAR IN KOREA: STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES AND MILITARY LESSONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Evans

    1 This exchange reflects the moral and physical paradoxes that have made the Korean War the so-called' forgotten war'.2 Unlike the Second World War with its clear-cut enemies and its moral crusade for decisive victory, Korea seemed confusing and indecisive. The conflict was partly a civil war; partly an East-West ideological struggle; partly a United Nations police action; and partly

  18. Motor vehicle driver injury and socioeconomic status: a cohort study with prospective and retrospective driver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, G; Norton, R; Clark, T; Pledger, M; Jackson, R; MacMahon, S

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the association between motor vehicle driver injury and socioeconomic status. Design: Cohort study with prospective and retrospective outcomes. Setting: New Zealand. Participants: 10 525 adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n=8008; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n=2517). Outcome measure: Motor vehicle driver injury resulting in admission of the driver to hospital or the driver's death, or both, during the period 1988–98; hospitalisation and mortality data were obtained by record linkage to national health databases. Main results: After adjustment for age and sex, driver injury risk was inversely associated with both occupational status (p for linear trend <0.0001) and educational level (p for linear trend =0.007). Participants in the lowest approximate quartile of occupational status were four times as likely (HR 4.17, 95% CI 2.31 to 7.55) to have experienced a driver injury during follow up as participants in the highest approximate quartile. Participants who had been to secondary school for less than two years were twice as likely (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.81) to have experienced a driver injury as those who had been to university or polytechnic. There was little evidence that driver injury risk was associated with neighbourhood income (p for linear trend =0.12) Conclusions: Occupational status and educational level seem to be important determinants of driver injury risk. Driver injury countermeasures should be targeted to people in low status occupations, as well as to people with comparatively little formal education. PMID:12821697

  19. Tug-of-War Injuries: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Pranit N.; Abdelgawad, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 10-year-old boy presenting with radial nerve palsy due to injury during a tug-of-war game. Patient was managed nonoperatively and regained radial nerve function. Tug-of-war is a globally popular noncontact sport. Injuries during this game are inevitable and may range from simple sprains to life and limb threatening trauma. Combined hip and knee injuries and soft-tissue injuries involving the back are most frequent. Most injuries occur when tug-of-war was played in an informal setting and where the tug-of-war International Federation rules were less likely to be followed. Measures should be taken to increase the awareness about these safety rules and prevention of consequent injuries. Sports physicians, pediatricians, orthopedic surgeons, general physicians, and athletic trainers should be aware of potential injuries resulting from this game while caring for these athletes, so as to be well prepared for apt management of the injuries associated with TOW. PMID:25530897

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment in Siblings of Children with War-Related Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic symptomatology and emotional and behavioral difficulties in siblings of children who incurred war-related injuries. It was predicted that injury severity, gender and attributional style would account for a significant amount of the variance in post-traumatic stress symptoms and…

  1. Motor vehicle driver injury and marital status: a cohort study with prospective and retrospective driver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, G; Norton, R; Clark, T; Jackson, R; MacMahon, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of marital status with risk of motor vehicle driver injury. Design: A cohort study with prospective and retrospective outcomes. Setting: New Zealand. Participants: A total of 10 525 adults (a volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 8008; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2517). Exposure variable: Self reported marital status, assessed from a questionnaire administered in 1992–93 (baseline). Main outcome measure: Motor vehicle driver injury resulting in admission of the driver to hospital and/or the driver's death, during the period 1988–98; hospitalisation and mortality data were obtained by record linkage to national health databases. Results: During 108 741 person-years of follow up, 139 driver injury cases occurred (85 before baseline, 54 after). After adjustment for age, sex, and study cohort, never married participants had twice the risk of driver injury (hazard ratio [HR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35 to 3.16) as married participants (HR 1.00). The relative risk for never married participants was slightly higher (HR 2.29), though less precise (95% CI 1.39 to 3.76), after further adjustment for alcohol intake, driving exposure, area of residence, body mass index, and occupational status. Conclusions: After taking age, sex, and other variables into account, never married people had a substantially higher risk of driver injury than married people. While requiring corroboration, these findings imply that it may be appropriate for driver injury countermeasures to be targeted to never married people. PMID:14760024

  2. [War injuries of the thorax. Aggressors and wound balistics].

    PubMed

    Jourdan, P; Jancovici, R

    1990-02-01

    War chest wounds are very common, but wound balistic notions are not known of physicians. Different threats are being listed, and we might retain the important rate of shrapnels wounds. Concerning the bullet behavior in soft tissue, one can discern full jacketed war bullets which may tumble after a variable "neck", and non jacketed missiles which cause wound through "mushrooming" and/or fragmentation effect. Buckshot wounds obey the rule of "all or none". Body reactions, particularly the clash with a hard material like bone, may overturn everything described in soft tissues. Every kind of possible chest wounds are analyzed from a ballistic point of view. We insist on the effects of so called terrible high velocity little bullets which do not wound because of an "explosive" shock wave, but with a fragmentation effect. The treatment sums up to the advice of good common sense which has had such a good effect on our masters. PMID:2187894

  3. Cut throat injury: a retrospective study of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, N; Arefin, S M; Mazumder, S M; Khan, M K

    1997-12-01

    Cut throat injuries and associated deaths are common in our society. Majority succumb to their injuries. In this study, the hospital records of twenty six such cases (13 M & 13 F) were reviewed. Eleven victims were in their third decade. Eighteen cases came from poor socio-economic class. Eleven had suicidal, eleven homicidal and four accidental injuries. Familial troubles, psychiatric illness and poverty were the triggering factors in suicidal attempts. The motives of homicide included political conflict, sex related crimes, dacoity, familial, land related disputes, etc. All had their hypopharynx and/or larynx exposed. Tracheostomy was done in fifteen cases. All but two had uneventful recovery. One died in the hospital due to hemorrhage, shock and asphyxia from aspirated blood. It was observed that appropriate measures could save lives in vast majority. PMID:9621478

  4. Access to war weapons and injury prevention activities among children in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kopjar, B; Wiik, J; Wickizer, T M; Bulajic-Kopjar, B; Mujki-Klaric, A

    1996-03-01

    To investigate the exposure of children in Croatia to war weapons, we surveyed random samples of children (n=986) aged 11 to 16 years and of parents (1469) of children aged 7 to 16 years in April 1994 in four war-affected districts in Croatia. The children's survey indicated that 57% of the boys and 36% of the girls had access to weapons at home, at some other place, or at both. Eighteen percent of the boys and 5% of the girls reported playing with weapons. The parents' survey showed that 68% of the households possessed weapons, with 19% of the children having access to weapons at home. Influenced by preliminary findings of these surveys, the Croatian government modified its national campaign (one partially supported by international aid) to prevent war-related injuries among children. This study demonstrates the feasibility of scientific evaluation of humanitarian aid programs. PMID:8604767

  5. Impairments, disabilities and needs assessment among non-fatal war injuries in South Lebanon, Grapes of Wrath, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abla Mehio Sibai; Nadine Sameer Shaar; Samar El Yassir

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVETo examine the impact of non-fatal war related injuries on physical disability in a group of war wounded civilians and to assess their needs.DESIGNCross sectional study. Home interviews were conducted using a structured interview schedule around one month after the injury, to assess impairments, disabilities, and needs.STUDY POPULATION AND SETTINGWar wounded persons in towns and villages in South Lebanon

  6. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31?years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p?0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  7. War injuries treated under primitive circumstances: experiences in an Ugandan mission hospital.

    PubMed Central

    de Wind, C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Due to political instability in many Third World countries doctors in simply equipped rural hospitals are sometimes confronted with war injuries. In those situations sending patients to specialized centres is often impossible. We studied a series of 100 consecutive patients with missile injuries treated during 1982/3 in an Ugandan mission hospital. Out of these 87 were available for sufficient follow-up, 11 disappeared before completing the treatment, and two died. The results are reported. It is concluded that many cases of missile injuries, except the most serious thoraco-abdominal lesions and major neurovascular problems, can be managed satisfactorily in rural hospitals with basic facilities only, provided sound surgical principles are observed, particularly wound treatment in two stages. PMID:3674679

  8. Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Susi?, Mato; Brozovi?, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipovi?; Milenovi?, Aleksandar; Strinovi?, Davor; Brki?, Hrvoje; Panduri?, Dragana Gabri?

    2014-03-01

    In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits. PMID:24851626

  9. Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Chest Injury Characteristics and Concurrent Injuries in Patients Admitted to Hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Methods We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. Results The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Conclusions Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. PMID:24816485

  10. A Retrospective Audit of Hundred Patients of Orbitozygomatic Fractures with Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gulzar, Gupta; Sanjeev, Uppal; Rajinder, Mittal; Ranabir, Pal; Nikhil, Garg

    2014-01-01

    Background: Orbitozygomatic fracture that most commonly accompanies craniofacial injury is a challenge for medical science to reduce complications and to attain aesthetically satisfying results. Objective: To summarize our experiences with the optimum management of orbito-zygomatic fractures. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was aimed at investigating indications and surgical approaches for orbitozygomatic fractures with clinical follow-up, particularly with regard to postoperative complications. Since 2010, 100 cases with faciomaxillary injury were assessed for Orbitozygomatic fractures with the help of physical examination, non-invasive investigations including computed tomography of the orbit. Patients were retrospectively analysed for data, such as mechanism of injury, classification of fracture, and complications. Results: Amongst 100 consecutive patients with orbito-zygomatic fractures an overwhelming majority were males (n=83). In the age distribution a great majority (45%) were in 30-45 years age group, followed by 15-30 years (22%) and 45-60 years (18%). So in the productive age group i.e. 15-60 years age group were affected mostly (85%) in our series. Among different injury mechanism, Road traffic accident affected most (69%) that landed up in orbito-zygomatic fractures followed by altercations (22%). We preferred Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for 68% of the patients with orbito- zygomatic fractures, followed by closed reduction (12%). Conclusion: Ophthalmology consultation is recommended for all patients presenting with orbitozygomatic fractures, and is essential for patients with orbital blowout fractures, based on the high incidence of clinical ocular findings and injuries in this subgroup of patients. PMID:25177598

  11. Effect of an Injury Awareness Education Program on Risk-Taking Behaviors and Injuries in Juvenile Justice Offenders: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok M. Ho; Edward Litton; Elizabeth Geelhoed; Monica Gope; Maxine Burrell; Jacqueline Coribel; Angela McDowall; Sudhakar Rao

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundRisk-taking behavior is a leading cause of injury and death amongst young people.Methodology and Principal FindingsThis was a retrospective cohort study on the effectiveness of a 1-day youth injury awareness education program (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth, P.A.R.T.Y.) program in reducing risk taking behaviors and injuries of juvenille justice offenders in Western Australia. Of the 3659 juvenile justice

  12. Neonatal Injury at Cephalic Vaginal Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Extent of Association with Shoulder Dystocia

    PubMed Central

    Iskender, Cantekin; Kaymak, Oktay; Erkenekli, Kudret; Ustunyurt, Emin; Uygur, Dilek; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim; Danisman, Nuri

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF) and brachial plexus injury (BPI); and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia. Methods This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared between groups. The control group (1300) was composed of the four singleton vaginal deliveries that immediately followed each birth injury. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed in order to find independent risk factors associated with BPI and CF. A subgroup analysis involved comparison of features of BPI cases with or without associated shoulder dystocia. Results During the study period, the total number of vaginal deliveries was 44092. The rates of CF, BPI and shoulder dystocia during the study period were 0,6%, 0,16% and 0,29%, respectively. In the logistic regression model, shoulder dystocia, GDM, multiparity, gestational age >42 weeks, protracted labor, short second stage of labor and fetal birth weight greater than 4250 grams increased the risk of CF independently. Shoulder dystocia and protracted labor were independently associated with BPI when controlled for other factors. Among neonates with BPI whose injury was not associated with shoulder dystocia, five (12.2%) sustained permanent injury, whereas one neonate (4.5%) with BPI following shoulder dystocia sustained permanent injury (p?=?0.34). Conclusion BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia might have a higher rate of concomitant CF and permanent sequelae. PMID:25144234

  13. If hunters end up in the emergency room: a retrospective analysis of hunting injuries in a swiss emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Valentina; Fisher, Emma E; Srivastava, David S; Ricklin, Meret E; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2015-01-01

    Aim. to characterize the mechanisms, patterns, and outcomes of nonfatal hunting-related injuries in patients presenting to Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, and compare these to reports of hunting injuries worldwide. Methods. patients presenting with hunting-related injuries to the Emergency Department at Bern University hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified by retrospectively searching the department database using the keyword "hunt." Each case was analyzed in terms of the patient age and gender, the mechanism and pattern of injury, and management and patient follow-up. Results. 19 patients were identified. 16 were male with a mean age of 50 years (range: 16-74). Mechanisms of injury included firearm-related injuries, falls, and knife wounds. The most common patterns of injury were head injuries (7), followed by injuries to the upper (5) or lower limb (5) and trunk (2). Over half of the patients were admitted, and nine required emergency surgery. Conclusion. Nonfatal hunting accidents in Bern, Switzerland, are largely caused by firearms and falls and tend to occur in male hunters with a mean age of 50 years. The most common patterns of injury are orthopedic and head injuries, often requiring surgery. These findings are consistent with international studies of nonfatal hunting accidents. PMID:25834746

  14. If Hunters End Up in the Emergency Room: A Retrospective Analysis of Hunting Injuries in a Swiss Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bestetti, Valentina; Fisher, Emma E.; Srivastava, David S.; Ricklin, Meret E.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. to characterize the mechanisms, patterns, and outcomes of nonfatal hunting-related injuries in patients presenting to Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, and compare these to reports of hunting injuries worldwide. Methods. patients presenting with hunting-related injuries to the Emergency Department at Bern University hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified by retrospectively searching the department database using the keyword “hunt.” Each case was analyzed in terms of the patient age and gender, the mechanism and pattern of injury, and management and patient follow-up. Results. 19 patients were identified. 16 were male with a mean age of 50 years (range: 16–74). Mechanisms of injury included firearm-related injuries, falls, and knife wounds. The most common patterns of injury were head injuries (7), followed by injuries to the upper (5) or lower limb (5) and trunk (2). Over half of the patients were admitted, and nine required emergency surgery. Conclusion. Nonfatal hunting accidents in Bern, Switzerland, are largely caused by firearms and falls and tend to occur in male hunters with a mean age of 50 years. The most common patterns of injury are orthopedic and head injuries, often requiring surgery. These findings are consistent with international studies of nonfatal hunting accidents.

  15. Alpine skiing injuries in Finland – a two-year retrospective study based on a questionnaire among Ski racers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpine skiing is one of the most popular winter sports in the world. Nevertheless, it has always been associated with a high risk of injury. There are however, only a few studies that have examined the risk of injury of competitive skiers, especially of the junior ski racers. Methods The inclusion criterion was an injury in alpine skiing resulting in a pause in training longer than one week. Athletes of all ages were included. The study period was from the start of the season of 2008–2009 to end of the season of 2009–2010 (two years). Results The average annual number of ski racers in Finland was 661. There were 61 injuries (36 males with a median age of 14 years, 25 females with a median age of 14) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ligamentous knee injury was the most frequent (17) and lower leg fracture the second common (16) injury, respectively. There was a female dominance in the ACL injuries. Only one major abdominal injury and no major head injuries were observed. The overall training pause was 26 weeks after the ACL injury and 17 weeks after the lower leg fracture, respectively. Conclusion The most common and most disabling injuries affect the knee and the lower leg. The high number of lower leg and ACL injuries is alarming. A continuous and careful monitoring of injuries needs to be established to assess this trend. A systematic review of injuries is the appropriate way to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of safety. The present retrospective two-year pilot study forms a base for a continuous alpine ski injury survey in Finland. PMID:24565467

  16. Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: A retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Nupur; Ashok, M.; Shiva, Kumar V.; Jhavar, Ketaki; Sampath, S.; Devi, B. Indira

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pedestrians contribute to 30-40 per cent of all road traffic injuries in India. However, there is a paucity of literature on pedestrian head injury as compared to two wheeler trauma. The purpose of the present study was to study the pattern of pedestrian injuries and their outcome with a special focus on head injuries. Methods: The study was conducted in two parts in the Trauma Center at National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences, Bangalore. A retrospective study was conducted at the casualty services of the hospital in which 529 consecutive pedestrians who sustained injury in a road traffic accident were studied from June to September 2009. In the second part, records from the hospital mortuary were retrospectively analyzed from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of 326 patients who died as a pedestrian in road accidents during this period was performed. Results: Patients in both paediatric and elderly age groups constituted 47.6 per cent (252/529) of all casualty admissions. Majority of the pedestrian injuries (41.7%, 221/529) occurred between 1600 - 2100 h; 87.1 per cent of all patients received some primary care before admission. The most common offending vehicle was a two wheeler (49.1%, 260/529). At the time of admission, 55.2 per cent (292/529) patients had sustained a moderate or severe head injury (GCS 3-13), and 40.5 per cent (214/529) had an abnormal CT scan. In addition, 90.4 per cent (478/529) patients had also sustained associated injuries. Major thoracoabdominal trauma was seen in 4 per cent and spine injury in 2.3 per cent of the patients. The mortality rate was 6.6 per cent. In the postmortem group, pedestrian deaths constituted 26.2 per cent of all the postmortems conducted. Two wheelers were the offending vehicle in the majority of the fatal crashes (39.9%). Interpretation & conclusions: Pedestrian injuries form a major part of the workload of a neurotrauma emergency. Majority of them sustained moderate to severe head injury. More attention, infrastructure and strict implementation of rules may help reduce this burden. PMID:23391802

  17. Proposed explanations for excess injury among veterans of the Persian Gulf War and a call for greater attention from policymakers and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, N; Amoroso, P; Wegman, D; Senier, L

    2001-01-01

    Introduction—Death rates among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War were lower than rates among non-deployed veterans and the US population at large, with the exception of injury deaths; returning veterans were at significantly greater risk of injury mortality. Similar patterns of excess injury mortality were documented among US and Australian veterans returning from Vietnam. In spite of these consistent findings little has been done to explain these associations and in particular to determine whether or not, and how, war related exposures influence injury risk among veterans returning home after deployments. Hypothesized pathways—Several potential pathways are proposed through which injury might be related to deployment. First, increases in injury mortality may be a consequence of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and symptoms of other psychiatric conditions developed after the war. Second, physical and psychological traumas experienced during the war may result in the postwar adoption of "coping" behaviors that also increase injury risk (for example, heavy drinking). Third, greater injury risk may be the indirect consequence of increased experiences of ill defined diseases and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. Fourth, veterans may experience poorer survivability for a given injury event resulting in greater mortality but not morbidity. Finally, the process that selects certain individuals for deployment may lead to a spurious association between deployment status and injury mortality by preferentially selecting individuals who are risk takers and/or exposed to greater hazards. Conclusions—More research and attention from policymakers is needed to clarify the link between deployment and postwar increased risk of injury. PMID:11289533

  18. Correlates for posttraumatic stress disorder in Gulf War veterans: a retrospective study of main and moderating effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda L. Stein; Giao Q. Tran; Linda M. Lund; Uzair Haji; Boris A. Dashevsky; Dewleen G. Baker

    2005-01-01

    With a sample of 120 Gulf War veterans, the present study investigated the main effects of childhood and lifetime trauma, combat exposure, and coping strategies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as combat exposure's moderating effects on the other variables’ relationships with PTSD. Logistic regression results indicated correct classification of PTSD diagnosis for 88% of the participants, with combat

  19. Identifying future ‘unexpected’ survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

  20. Incidence of acute kidney injury following total joint arthroplasty: a retrospective review by RIFLE criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Lara A.; Wilson, Scott; Janardan, Jyotsna D.; Liew, Susan M.; Walker, Rowan G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common procedure with demand for arthroplasties expected to increase exponentially. Incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) following TJA is reportedly low, with most studies finding an incidence of <2%, increasing to 9% when emergency orthopaedic patients are included. Methods Retrospective medical record review of consecutive primary, elective TJA procedures was undertaken at a large tertiary hospital (Alfred). Demographic, peri-operative and post-operative data were recorded. Factors associated with AKI (based on RIFLE criteria) were determined using multiple logistic regression. Results Between January 2011 and June 2013, 425 patients underwent TJA; 252 total knee replacements (TKR) and 173 total hip replacements (THR). Sixty-seven patients (14.8%) developed AKI, including 51 TKR. Factors associated with AKI (adjusting for known confounders) include increasing body mass index [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.14; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21], older age (AOR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02, 1.13) and lower pre-operative glomerular filtration rate (AOR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (AOR 2.70; 95% CI 1.12, 6.48) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (AOR 2.64; 95% CI 1.18, 5.93). In most patients, AKI resolved by discharge, however, only 62% of patients had renal function tests after discharge. Conclusions This study showed a rate of AKI of nearly 15% in our TJA population, substantially higher than previously reported. Given that AKI and long-term complications are associated, prospective research is needed to further understand the associated factors and predict those at risk of AKI. There may be opportunities to maximize the pre-operative medical management and mitigate risk.

  1. A retrospective study on traumatic dental and soft-tissue injuries in preschool children in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vuleti?, Marko; Škari?i?, Josip; Batinjan, Goran; Trampuš, Zdenko; ?ukovi? Bagi?, Ivana; Juri?, Hrvoje

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, time elapsed before treatment and type of tooth from the records of traumatized children. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the University Dental Clinic in Zagreb, Croatia using the documentation of 128 patients (61 males and 67 females) aged 1 month to 6 years with injuries of primary teeth between February 2009 and January 2013. Trauma was seen in 217 primary teeth, which implies that the number of injured primary teeth was 1.69 per child. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently affected teeth (81.1%), they were followed by maxillary lateral incisors, while the least affected were mandibular central incisors. Traumatic dental injuries involved periodontal tissue 2.82 times more frequently than hard dental and pulp tissue. The main cause of teeth injury was fall (67.2%) and the majority of injuries occurred at home (51.6%) (p<0.05). Of 128 patients who received treatment 71 (55.5%) also had soft-tissue injuries. The distribution of soft-tissue injuries by gender (35 males, 36 females) was not statistically significant. Comparing children with soft-tissue injuries and those without them, a statistically significant difference was found in the time of arrival (p<0.01). The results of this study showed the need of informing about preventive measures against falls at home and the methods of providing first aid in dental trauma injuries. PMID:24579964

  2. A retrospective study on traumatic dental and soft-tissue injuries in preschool children in Zagreb, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vuleti?, Marko; Škari?i?, Josip; Batinjan, Goran; Trampuš, Zdenko; Bagi?, Ivana ?ukovi?; Juri?, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, time elapsed before treatment and type of tooth from the records of traumatized children. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the University Dental Clinic in Zagreb. Croatia using the documentation of 128 patients (61 males and 67 females) aged 1 month to 6 years with injuries of primary teeth between February 2009 and January 2013. Trauma was seen in 217 primary teeth, which implies that the number of injured primary teeth was 1.69 per child. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently affected teeth (81.1%), they were followed by maxillary lateral incisors, while the least affected were mandibular central incisors. Traumatic dental injuries involved periodontal tissue 2.82 times more frequently than hard dental and pulp tissue. The main cause of teeth injury was fall (67.2%) and the majority of injuries occurred at home (51.6%) (p<0.05). Of 128 patients who received treatment 71 (55.5%) also had soft-tissue injuries. The distribution of soft-tissue injuries by gender (35 males, 36 females) was not statistically significant. Comparing children with soft-tissue injuries and those without them, a statistically significant difference was found in the time of arrival (p<0.01). The results of this study showed the need of informing about preventive measures against falls at home and the methods of providing first aid in dental trauma injuries. PMID:24579964

  3. Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted. A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level. In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

  4. Investigation of characteristics and risk factors of sports injuries in young soccer players: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of children and adolescents in sports has become increasingly frequent, including soccer. This growing involvement gives rise to concerns regarding the risk of sports injuries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the musculoskeletal injuries in young soccer players. Methods 301 male soccer players with a mean age 14.67?±?2.08 years were randomly recruited. The Referred Condition Inquiry was used to collect information on the mechanism of injury and anatomic site affected as well as personal data on the participants. The variables were analyzed based on the degree of association using Goodman’s test for contrasts between multinomial populations, with the p?injury. With regard to height, taller individuals reported more injuries than shorter individuals (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively; p?Injuries were more frequent among players with a training duration greater than five years (69.65%) in comparison to those who trained for a shorter duration (30.35%) (p?injury. Conclusion The young practitioners of soccer analyzed had low rates of injury. The main causal mechanism was the impact. A taller height and longer exposure to training were the main risk factors for injury among young soccer players. PMID:23602027

  5. Returning Veterans on Campus with War Related Injuries and the Long Road Back Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the growing numbers of returning military personnel attending higher education based on emerging national trends, including the new GI Educational Bill, amendments to the ADA, and the rising unemployment rate. The trauma of war and the high survival rate have resulted in a high percentage of veterans returning from the Global…

  6. Pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries in Kashmir valley, a retrospective single-center study of 1467 patients.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Dar, Tahir; Beigh, Asif Qayoom; Dhar, Shabir; Ahad, Humayun; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Ahmad, Sharief

    2015-05-01

    This work aimed to study the pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal trauma and consequent morbidity in Kashmir Valley and compare the results with other studies and to formulate preventive measures and devise management strategies. This was a retrospective study of 1467 pediatric orthopedic trauma patients who presented to our hospital over a 3-year period between September 2005 and August 2008. Information was recorded in a prescribed proforma including the following: age, sex, mode of trauma, type of fracture/injury, radiological study, final diagnosis, intervention performed, and complications. The information was collected from the Medical Records Department of the hospital. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 16 years; there were 996 males and 471 females, with males outnumbering females in every age group (the overall male-to-female ratio was 2.12?:?1). Most fractures occurred in children aged 7-12 years [n=816 (53.96%)] and decreased in younger and older children beyond this age group. The left side was involved in 762 cases, 612 injuries involved the right side, 24 were bilateral, and 69 patients presented with multiple injuries. In children aged 0-6 years, the most common site of injury was the elbow, whereas in children aged 7-16 years, it was the forearm. In descending order, most injuries were sustained because of fall while playing (34.76%), fall from height (33.74%), road traffic accidents (14.92%), and fall from standing height (7.97%). The majority of injuries were caused by unintentional trauma (94.48 vs. 5.52%). The places where injury occurred were the home [603 (41.10%)], play field and orchards near the home [450 (30.67%)], roads [219 (14.92%)], school [183 (12.47%)], and unknown [12 (0.81%)]. The pattern and epidemiology of pediatric trauma differs from those in adults. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are because of unintentional trauma in this young age group and hence preventable. Enhanced supervision at home and school is recommended. A safer environment and better playing conditions may decrease the high frequency of trauma in pediatric patients. Dedicated trauma centers with such facilities as orthopedics, neurosurgery, and plastic surgery need to be established for the proper management of pediatric trauma. PMID:25647562

  7. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery. PMID:19772621

  8. A retrospective analysis of gunshot injuries to the maxillo-facial region.

    PubMed

    Kassan, A H; Lalloo, R; Kariem, G

    2000-07-01

    This study analysed the prevalence, demography, soft- and hard-tissue injury patterns, management and complications of gunshot injuries to the maxillo-facial region in 301 patients treated at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The number of patients presenting with maxillo-facial injuries caused by gunshot increased over the 15-year study period. The majority were caused by civilian type low-velocity hand-guns and were purposefully and intentionally inflicted by others. Males in their third decade of life and of low socioeconomic status were most often the victims. The wounding effects of these low-velocity injuries were characteristic--small rounded entrance wounds, causing fragmentation of teeth and comminution of the underlying bone, usually without any exit wounds. A comminuted displaced type of fracture pattern was most frequently observed. Special investigations included plain film radiographs with more sophisticated investigations being requested where indicated. Definitive surgical management was initiated by early soft-tissue debridement. Both the mandibular and maxillary fractures had more open than closed reductions. Bone continuity defects as a result of the initial injury were usually reconstructed secondarily using free autogenous bone grafts. All the patients received anti-tetanus toxoid on admission and the majority received antibiotic treatment. The most common complications were sepsis, ocular and neurological complications and limitation of mouth opening. The postoperative sepsis rate was high (19%). The wounding effects of these low-velocity missile injuries are devastating and pose a treatment challenge to the maxillo-facial surgeon. PMID:12608195

  9. Infrared Thermal Imaging in Patients with Medial Collateral Ligament Injury of the Knee - A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HyunJung; Park, HaeIn; Lim, Chungsan; Park, SangKyun; Lee, KwangHo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI) has been used widely for various inflammatory diseases, circulatory diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and cancers. In cases of ligament injury, obviously the temperature of the damaged area increases due to local inflammation; however, whether the temperature also increases due to DITI has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to identify whether or not the changes of temperature in patient’s with medial collateral ligament injury were really due to infrared thermography and to determine the applicability of DITI for assessing ligament injuries. Methods: Twenty patient’s who underwent DITI for a medial collateral ligament injury from September 2012 to June 2014 were included in the current study. The thermographic images from the patient’s knees were divided to cover seven sub-areas: the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the inferolateral, the superomedial, the superolateral, the medial, and the lateral regions of patella. The temperatures of the seven regions were measured, and the temperature differences between affected and unaffected regions were analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The 20 patient’s were composed of 14 women (70%) and 6 men (30%), with a mean age of 62.15 ± 15.71 (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) years. The temperature of the affected side, which included the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the superomedial, the superolateral, and the medial regions, showed a significant increase compared to that of the unaffected side (P < 0.05). The inferolateral and the lateral regions showed no significant changes. Conclusion: Our study results suggest that DITI can show temperature changes if a patient has a ligament injury and that it can be applied in the evaluation of a medial collateral ligament injury. PMID:25780719

  10. Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis). PMID:24460844

  11. Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karen Tohinaka

    2004-11-29

    Resources to assist you in your report for the Civil War. Lesson Plan for the Civil War To begin doing reasearch for the Civil War teachers will need a lesson plan. History Place Civil War time line Lesson Plan for Civil War Civil War Maps and Photographs Civil War Maps Civil War Photographs Civil War, The Museum Pictures Civil War Potpourri Many links to the civil war History Place Civil War time line Home of the American Civil War Many, many, resources for Civil War More Civil War Resources Civil War Webquest and Plays Create a webquest or film a play during the Civil War era Civil War Webquest Mary Chestnut Play Civil ...

  12. Quality of prehospital management of patients with burn injuries--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cupera, J; Mannová, J; Ríhová, H; Brychta, P; Cundrle, I

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of burn patient management prior to admission to a specialized department. The most frequent mistake was found to be inadequate airway management (no intubation) and a lack of an i.v. line and volume resuscitation. These problems could be seen especially in the patients admitted to the specialized department as secondary transfers, following initial treatment in another healthcare facility. Prehospital care of the patients admitted as primary transfers was found to be satisfactory in the majority of cases. The authors conclude that some mistakes in diagnosis may be caused by the development of the burn over time as well as by the fact that certain clinical experience is necessary for determining the correct diagnosis. The predominant cause of inadequate management in patients with severe thermal injuries is underestimating the severity of the injury and ignorance of the possible consequences of inadequate management of the patients for transfer. PMID:12197163

  13. Risk factors of hyperthyroidism with hepatic function injury: a 4-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Tan, J; Zhang, G; Meng, Z; Wang, R; Li, W; Zheng, W

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic function injury is one of the common complications of hyperthyroidism (mainly Graves' disease), which affects the choice of treatment and the curative rate. Our goal was to describe clinical and biochemical patterns in patients suffering from Graves' disease (GD) and hepatic function injury and to determine the influential factors. A cohort of 1?070 patients who received (131)I treatment were studied. Many examinations were performed before (131)I therapy, such as: the 24-h radioactive iodine uptake of thyroid (RAIU24?h) and serum-free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH), antithyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), serum hepatic function tests, etc. Data were analyzed by the unpaired t-test, the independent samples t-test, the ?(2) test, logistic regression, and Pearson bivariate correlation. Age, course of GD, thyroid's weight, FT4, TPOAb, and TRAb in GD patients with hepatic function injury were higher than those with normal hepatic function patients. The influential factors were age, hyperthyroidism duration, heart rate, thyroid's weight, FT4, RAIU24?h, TgAb, TPOAb, and TRAb. RAIU24?h was the protecting factor. Age, course of GD, heart rate, thyroid's weight, FT4, TRAb, and TPOAb were the risk factors. Patients whose age was higher than 45 years old, heart rate above 90?bpm, thyroid weight more than 35?g, the hyperthyroidism duration more than 3 years, FT4 higher than 70.5?pmol/l, the level of TPOAb above 360?IU/ml, and the level of TRAb above 15?IU/l have increased risk of hepatic function injury. As treatment (131)I therapy was found to be the best choice. PMID:24867136

  14. Causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries in India: 12-year retrospective study of 4437 patients in a tertiary hospital in Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Weihsin, Hu; Thadani, Sandeep; Agrawal, Mohit; Tailor, Suket; Sood, Ramita; Langalia, Akshay; Patel, Twinkle

    2014-10-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are unique because of the anatomical complexity of the area and their associated psychological effects. An understanding of the epidemiology of these injuries is important if we are to develop preventive measures, increase the efficiency and delivery of health services, improve the skills of healthcare providers, and better distribute resources. We retrospectively evaluated data on 4455 patients (aged between 3 and 84 years) who presented with maxillofacial injuries to a tertiary referral hospital in Ahmedabad, India, between 1 January 1999 and 31 January 2010. Of these, 18 needed only rest and medication so 4437 were included. Data included patients'characteristics and the cause of injury. Details on the presentation and severity of injury, associated injuries including head injuries, the influence of alcohol and other drugs, treatment, and outcome, were also included. Around one-third were aged between 21and 30 years, and the male to female ratio was 5:1. The main causes of injury were road traffic accidents (n=2347, 53%) and interpersonal violence (n=1041, 23%). Most road traffic accidents involved two-wheeled vehicles. Alcohol was associated with 11% of injuries. A total of 2546 patients (57%) had mandibular fractures. To reduce the number of injuries we need better road safety laws with stringent enforcement, and the public, particularly those between 15 and 45 years of age, must be educated about road safety. PMID:25086833

  15. Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

  16. British dental surgery and the First World War: the treatment of facial and jaw injuries from the battlefield to the home front.

    PubMed

    Hussey, K D

    2014-11-01

    When Britain went to war in 1914, the British Expeditionary Force was deployed without a single dentist. Initially considered combatants, the only dental professionals who could serve at the Front were medically qualified dental surgeons in the Royal Army Medical Corps. In treating the traumatic facial and jaw injuries caused by trench warfare, the dental surgeons of this era earned their place on specialist surgical teams and established the principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery. This article will examine the contribution of specialist dental surgeons to the management of facial and jaw wounds in the First World War along the chain of evacuation from the battlefield to the home front, using illustrative examples from the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England. PMID:25415020

  17. "The Maestro": a pioneering plastic surgeon--Sir Archibald McIndoe and his innovating work on patients with burn injury during World War II.

    PubMed

    Geomelas, Menedimos; Ghods, Mojtaba; Ring, Andrej; Ottomann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes McIndoe's revolutionary methods of burn treatment and rehabilitation of patients with burn injury and outlines his personality traits that made him one of the most important plastic surgeons of the twentieth century. As a consultant plastic surgeon to the Royal Air Force, he set up a plastic surgery unit in the Queen Victoria Hospital in East Grinstead. By using biographical data and photography, McIndoe's work on burns treatment and the challenges he faced are presented. Before World War II, little was known about the treatment of severe burns and their complications, and even less was done about the rehabilitation and social reintegration of patients with burn injury. McIndoe changed all that by developing new techniques for the management and reconstruction of burn injuries. He helped his patients become and get accepted as a normal part of society again. The patients with burn injury treated by him formed the Guinea Pig Club. Sir Archibald Hector McIndoe, a charismatic plastic surgeon with an uncanny instinctive knowledge of psychology, recognized early that the rehabilitation of a burned patient was as important as the reconstruction of his physical body. His therapeutic approach to patients with burn injury was mental and physical. PMID:21422943

  18. Decreased Risk of Stroke in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Receiving Acupuncture Treatment: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hsu, Yi-Ting; Wang, Hwang-Huei; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lane, Hsin-Long; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) face increased risk of stroke. Whether acupuncture can help to protect TBI patients from stroke has not previously been studied. Methods Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of 7409 TBI patients receiving acupuncture treatment and 29,636 propensity-score-matched TBI patients without acupuncture treatment in 2000–2008 as controls. Both TBI cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and adjusted for immortal time to measure the incidence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of new-onset stroke in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Results TBI patients with acupuncture treatment (4.9 per 1000 person-years) had a lower incidence of stroke compared with those without acupuncture treatment (7.5 per 1000 person-years), with a HR of 0.59 (95% CI?=?0.50–0.69) after adjustment for sociodemographics, coexisting medical conditions and medications. The association between acupuncture treatment and stroke risk was investigated by sex and age group (20–44, 45–64, and ?65 years). The probability curve with log-rank test showed that TBI patients receiving acupuncture treatment had a lower probability of stroke than those without acupuncture treatment during the follow-up period (p<0.0001). Conclusion Patients with TBI receiving acupuncture treatment show decreased risk of stroke compared with those without acupuncture treatment. However, this study was limited by lack of information regarding lifestyles, biochemical profiles, TBI severity, and acupuncture points used in treatments. PMID:24586597

  19. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration versus extended daily hemofiltration in patients with septic acute kidney injury: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) is superior to extended daily hemofiltration (EDHF) for the treatment of septic AKI is unknown. We compared the effect of CVVHF (greater than 72 hours) with EDHF (8 to 12 hours daily) on renal recovery and mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods A retrospective analysis of 145 septic AKI patients who underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT) between July 2009 and May 2013 was performed. These patients were treated by CVVHF or EDHF with the same polyacrylonitrile membrane and bicarbonate-based buffer. The primary outcomes measured were occurrence of renal recovery and all-cause mortality by 60 days. Results Sixty-five and eighty patients were treated with CVVHF and EDHF, respectively. Patients in the CVVHF group had significantly higher recovery of renal function (50.77% of CVVHF group versus 32.50% in the EDHF group, P?=?0.026). Median time to renal recovery was 17.26 days for CVVHF patients and 25.46 days for EDHF patients (P?=?0.039). Sixty-day all-cause mortality was similar between CVVHF and EDHF groups (44.62%, and 46.25%, respectively; P?=?0.844). 55.38% of patients on CVVHF and 28.75% on EDHF developed hypophosphatemia (P?=?0.001). The other adverse events related to RRT did not differ between groups. On multivariate analysis, including physiologically clinical relevant variables, CVVHF therapy was significantly associated with recovery of renal function (HR 3.74; 95% CI 1.82 to 7.68; P?

  20. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  1. Anti-epileptic prophylaxis in traumatic brain injury: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing craniotomy versus decompressive craniectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Dahlin, Robert; Hariri, Omid; Quadri, Syed A.; Farr, Saman; Miulli, Dan; Siddiqi, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Seizures account for significant morbidity and mortality early in the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there is sufficient literature suggesting short-term benefits of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in post-TBI patients, there has been no study to suggest a time frame for continuing AEDs in patients who have undergone a decompressive craniectomy for more severe TBI. We examined trends in a level-II trauma center in southern California that may provide guidelines for AED treatment in craniectomy patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy and those who underwent a standard craniotomy from 2008 to 2012. Results: Out of the 153 patients reviewed, 85 were included in the study with 52 (61%) craniotomy and 33 (39%) craniectomy patients. A total of 78.8% of the craniotomy group used phenytoin (Dilantin), 9.6% used levetiracetam (Keppra), 5.8% used a combination of both, and 3.8% used topiramate (Topamax). The craniectomy group used phenytoin 84.8% and levetiracetam 15.2% of the time without any significant difference between the procedural groups. Craniotomy patients had a 30-day seizure rate of 13.5% compared with 21.2% in craniectomy patients (P = 0.35). Seizure onset averaged on postoperative day 5.86 for the craniotomy group and 8.14 for the craniectomy group. There was no significant difference in the average day of seizure onset between the groups P = 0.642. Conclusion: Our study shows a trend toward increased seizure incidence in craniectomy group, which does not reach significance, but suggests they are at higher risk. Whether this higher risk translates into a benefit on being on AEDs for a longer duration than the current standard of 7 days cannot be concluded as there is no significant difference or trend on the onset date for seizures in either group. Moreover, a prospective study will be necessary to more profoundly evaluate the duration of AED prophylaxis for each one of the stated groups. PMID:25657861

  2. Long-Term Sequelae of Severe Acute Kidney Injury in the Critically Ill Patient without Comorbidity: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fortrie, Gijs; Stads, Susanne; Aarnoudse, Albert-Jan H.; Zietse, Robert; Betjes, Michiel G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acute kidney injury (AKI) necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT) is associated with high mortality and increased risk for end stage renal disease. However, it is unknown if this applies to patients with a preliminary unremarkable medical history. The purpose of this study was to describe overall and renal survival in critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT stratified by the presence of comorbidity. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements A retrospective cohort study was performed, between 1994 and 2010, including all adult critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT, stratified by the presence of comorbidity. Logistic regression, survival curve and cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate overall and renal survival. Standardized mortality rate (SMR) analysis was performed to compare long-term survival to the predicted survival in the Dutch population. Results Of the 1067 patients included only 96(9.0%) had no comorbidity. Hospital mortality was 56.6% versus 43.8% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. In those who survived hospitalization 10-year survival was 45.0% and 86.0%, respectively. Adjusted for age, sex and year of treatment, absence of comorbidity was not associated with hospital mortality (OR=0.74, 95%-CI=0.47-1.15), while absence of comorbidity was associated with better long-term survival (adjusted HR=0.28, 95%-CI = 0.14-0.58). Compared to the Dutch population, patients without comorbidity had a similar mortality risk (SMR=1.6, 95%-CI=0.7-3.2), while this was increased in patients with comorbidity (SMR=4.8, 95%-CI=4.1-5.5). Regarding chronic dialysis dependency, 10-year renal survival rates were 76.0% and 92.9% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. Absence of comorbidity was associated with better renal survival (adjusted HR=0.24, 95%-CI=0.07-0.76). Conclusions While hospital mortality remains excessively high, the absence of comorbidity in critically ill patients with RRT-requiring AKI is associated with a relative good long-term prognosis in those who survive hospitalization. PMID:25799318

  3. Risk of Acute Liver Injury Associated with the Use of Moxifloxacin and Other Oral Antimicrobials: A Retrospective, Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, James A; Castellsague, Jordi; Bui, Christine L; Calingaert, Brian; McQuay, Lisa J; Riera-Guardia, Nuria; Saltus, Catherine W; Quinlan, Scott; Holick, Crystal N; Wahl, Peter M; Suzart, Kiliana; Rothman, Kenneth J; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Perez-Gutthann, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To estimate the incidence and relative risk of a hospitalization or emergency visit for noninfectious liver injury in users of eight oral antimicrobials—amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, doxycycline, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, telithromycin—compared with nonusers of these antimicrobials. Design Retrospective, observational cohort study with a nested case-control analysis. Data Source HealthCore Integrated Research Database. Patients Adults with continuous health plan enrollment for at least 6 months before study entry who had a new dispensing of a study antimicrobial between July 1, 2001, and March 31, 2009. Cases had diagnoses indicating noninfectious liver injury during follow-up. To control for potentially confounding risk factors, 10 controls at risk for liver injury during follow-up were matched to each case by age, sex, and event date (liver injury date of the case), and analyses were adjusted for medical history, concomitant drugs, and health care service use. Measurements and Main Results Two physician reviewers (blind to exposure) validated the cases. Among 1.3 million antimicrobial users, we identified 607 cases of liver injury, including 82 cases of severe hepatocellular injury and 11 cases of liver failure. Liver injury incidence in nonusers of study antimicrobials was 35/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 29–42/100,000 person-years). For valid cases, the adjusted relative risk among current users of multiple antimicrobials was 3.2 (95% CI 1.6–6.7). Levofloxacin had the highest relative risk for current single use (3.2, 95% CI 1.8–5.8). Relative risks were also elevated for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.0), doxycycline (2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.2), moxifloxacin (2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.7), and amoxicillin (2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.7). Conclusion The results support a comparatively high adjusted relative risk of liver injury among patients exposed concurrently to multiple antimicrobials and modest elevations in the risk for several antimicrobials used alone; however, we found little evidence of any strong effect of commonly used antimicrobials on the risk of liver injury. PMID:24865821

  4. Medicine and War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As war predictably leaves injuries and ailments in its wake, medicine has long maintained a presence both on the battlefield and at hospitals where the wounded come home for treatment. This Report's Topic in Depth examines the role of medicine in war, and presents online resources and information regarding combat-related ailments, and services for active military and veterans. From PBS-NOVA, the first selection is a companion website to a program about an American Combat Support Hospital in Iraq. The website contains an article regarding combat medicine ethics, a Teacher's Guide, a visual tour of archival images from the American Civil War through the current Iraq War, and more (1). The second site, created by Civil War buff Jenny Goellnitz, posts a collection of old photos, and offers some interesting information about Civil War medicine, including a feature on amputation surgery (2). The third site, from the Gettysburg National Military Park, contains several photos and brief information for kids about medicine in the Civil War (3). From the Institute of Medicine, the fourth website presents information and reports relating to the health of veterans and deployed military forces. The site has sections for the Gulf War, Vietnam War, Korean War, World War II, and Deployment Health (4). The fifth site presents the Virtual Naval Hospital, which is a digital health sciences library of Naval and Military medicine. The site has separate sections for patients, providers, and administrators (5). From News@Nature.com, the sixth site contains a recent article discussing the debate over Gulf War syndrome (6). The seventh site presents Doctors Without Borders (MSF), an international medical relief organization that courageously enters regions of conflict to provide medical aid (7). The final selection is a companion website to a National Geographic television series reporting on the work of Doctors Without Borders. The site features profiles of MSF projects, episode summaries, and interviews with MSF staff and volunteers (8).

  5. The important role of the arthroscopic hip surgery in the athletes with hip injuries. our experience. a retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Tsikouris; I Tsolos; Ch Gosis; S Plessas; S Moschonas; D Tsikouris

    2011-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy has gradually evolved over the past two decades.Recently hip arthroscopy has increase its role in diagnosis and treatment for specific intraarticular and extraarticular hip injuries and especially for soft tissue injuries.Material and methodsFebruary 2004–March 2010, 48 athletes, football players, basketball players, weight lifters, gymnasts, three water polo players. Mean age: 32 years. (19–39 year old)Instrumentation and equipment70°, 4.5

  6. The association between brain injury, perioperative anesthetic exposure, and 12-month neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andropoulos, Dean B.; Ahmad, Hasan B.; Haq, Taha; Brady, Ken; Stayer, Stephen A.; Meador, Marcie R.; Hunter, Jill V.; Rivera, Carlos; Voigt, Robert G.; Turcich, Marie; He, Cathy Q.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Dickerson, Heather A.; Fraser, Charles D.; McKenzie, E. Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S.; Easley, R. Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are observed in up to 50% of infants after complex cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the association of perioperative anesthetic exposure with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12 months in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery and to determine the effect of brain injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Retrospective cohort study of neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery who had preoperative and 7-day postoperative brain MRI and 12-month neurodevelopmental testing with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Doses of volatile anesthetics (VAA), benzodiazepines, and opioids were determined during the first 12 months of life. Results From a database of 97 infants, 59 met inclusion criteria. Mean ± sd composite standard scores were as follows: cognitive = 102.1 ± 13.3, language = 87.8 ± 12.5, and motor = 89.6 ± 14.1. After forward stepwise multivariable analysis, new postoperative MRI injury (P = 0.039) and higher VAA exposure (P = 0.028) were associated with lower cognitive scores. ICU length of stay (independent of brain injury) was associated with lower performance on all categories of the Bayley-III (P < 0.02). Conclusions After adjustment for multiple relevant covariates, we demonstrated an association between VAA exposure, brain injury, ICU length of stay, and lower neurodevelopmental outcome scores at 12 months of age. These findings support the need for further studies to identify potential modifiable factors in the perioperative care of neonates with CHD to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:24467569

  7. A retrospective analysis of major and significant injuries and their consequences reported by retired Australian baseball players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi A Meir; Robert P Weatherby; Margaret I Rolfe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish if injuries sustained during a player’s career in baseball had consequences later in life following retirement from participation. Seventy-five retired Australian baseball players (mean age 55.8 ±11.4 years) completed a survey to establish the long-term consequences of major (i.e. those resulting in five or more consecutive weeks of training or playing being

  8. Reconstructive challenges in war wounds

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent military conflicts, hydrosurgery jet debridement and negative pressure wound therapy have been successfully used in the preparation of war wounds. In war injuries, due to a heavy casualty load, a faster and reliable method of reconstruction is aimed at. Pedicle flaps in extremities provide rapid and reliable cover in extremity wounds. Large complex defects can be reconstructed using microvascular free flaps in a single stage. This article highlights the peculiarities and the challenges encountered in the reconstruction of these ghastly wounds. PMID:23162233

  9. Non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations in Estonia—risk factors and association with the incidence of chronic conditions and quality of life: a retrospective study among the population aged 20–79

    PubMed Central

    Puur, Allan; Altmets, Katre; Saava, Astrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Sakkeus, Luule

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence about the health and quality-of-life outcomes of injuries is obtained mainly from follow-up studies of surviving trauma patients; population-based studies are rarer, in particular for countries in Eastern Europe. This study examines the incidence, prevalence and social variation in non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations and outcomes of injuries in Estonia. Design A retrospective population-based study. Setting Estonia. Participants 7855 respondents of the face-to-face interviews of the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey conducted between 2004 and 2005 based on the nationally representative probability sample (n=11?192) of the resident population of Estonia aged 20–79. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cumulative incidence and prevalence of injuries leading to activity limitations was estimated. Survival models were applied to analyse variations in the injury risk across sociodemographic groups. The association between injuries and the development of chronic conditions and quality of life was examined using survival and logistic regression models. Results 10% (95% CI 9.4 to 10.7) of the population aged 20–79 had experienced injuries leading to activity limitations; the prevalence of activity limitations due to injuries was 4.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 4.9%). Significant differences in injury risk were associated with gender, education, employment, marital status and nativity. Limiting injury was associated with a doubling of the likelihood of having chronic conditions (adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.46). Injury exhibited a statistically significant negative association with most quality-of-life measures. Although reduced, these effects persisted after recovery from activity limitations. Conclusions Substantial variation in injury risk across population groups suggests potential for prevention. Men and workers in manual occupations constitute major target groups for injury prevention in Estonia. The association of injury with the development of chronic conditions and reduced quality of life warrants further investigation. PMID:23901024

  10. Neuroimaging, Behavioral, and Psychological Sequelae of Repetitive Combined Blast/Impact Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Donna J.; Yarnykh, Vasily L.; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M.; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A.; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

  11. Vietnam War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Porter

    2007-02-27

    This project outlines the impact of the Vietnam War on the Cold War. Students will discover and comprehend the progression of the Vietnam War, its significance within the context of the Cold War, and other important factors that impacted the outcome of the war. Directions: ~ We will split into 4 groups. Each group will read two documents on the website and answer the questions for the documents. ~ to access the documents, click here Was Vietnam a Turning Point in the Cold War? and then click on \\"How and Why America Got Into Vietnam.\\" ~ each group will share their results with the ...

  12. Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, C. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

  13. Outcome of occupational electrical injuries among French electric company workers: a retrospective report of 311 cases, 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Aleksandra; Fillet, Anne-Marie; Perez, Philippe; Walkowiak, Philippe; Simon, Denis; Corniere, Marie-Jean; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Lambrozo, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    This study reviewed records of all electrical incidents involving work-related injury to employees Electricité de France (EDF) from 1996 through 2005 and analysed data for 311 incidents. The results are compared with 1231 electrical incidents that occurred during 1970-1979 and 996 incidents during 1980-1989. A total of 311 electrical incidents were observed. The medical consequences of electrical incident remain severe and particularly, the current fatality rate (3.2%) is similar to that recorded in the 1980s (2.7%) and 1970s (3.3%). Among individuals with non-fatal incidents, any change has occurred in the prevalence of permanent functional sequelae (23.6% in the 1970s vs. 27.6% in the 1980s and 32.5% currently). An increase in the incidence of neuropsychiatric sequelae (5.4% in the 1980s vs. 13% currently) has been observed and they are now the second most common type of sequelae after those directly related to burns. Among the neurological sequelae, peripheral nervous system disorders are the most common, as observed in the 1980s. Since the definition of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has changed between the two periods, we can only report that the current prevalence of PTSD is 7.6%. This study emphasises the need for specific management of neurological and psychological impairments after electrical injuries, including especially early recognition and initiation of effective treatment. PMID:24028742

  14. War Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online exhibit from the Newseum (last reviewed in the January 26, 2001 Scout Report) explores what it is like to be a war correspondent. The site is composed of three sections. The first contains a number of excerpts from some outstanding video interviews with reporters who have covered armed conflicts from World War Two to the Balkans. These may be browsed by war or by journalist. The second section is a Flash feature that examines war reporting and technology from the US Civil War to the present. Finally, the site offers a thoughtful essay by Harold Evans, the guest curator of the exhibit.

  15. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

  16. Use of hyperbaric oxygen in traumatic brain injury: retrospective analysis of data of 20 patients treated at a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Tarun; Jain, Madhur; Prasad, Rajendra; Sogani, Shanti K; Singh, Varindera P

    2012-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) related impact results in a permanent need for help in performing daily activities. Standard treatment consists of removing the cause, restore perfusion, support metabolic requirement and limit inflammatory and oxidative damage. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is one such newer promising treatment that enhances neurological recovery to some extent. HBOT is intermittent inhalation of 100% oxygen at greater than normal atmospheric pressure and is internationally accepted for its role in well-defined indications. It is hypothesised that HBO has a role in reviving 'idling neurons', also called the ischemic penumbra defined as area of reduced cerebral blood flow, abolished synaptic activity but preserved structural integrity. We carried out a retrospective analysis of medical records of 20 patients of TBI who had been treated with HBOT in addition to standard management. These were placed in Group A (test group) and received at least 30 sessions of HBO along with standard treatment. The patients were assessed along the Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS). Another 20 patients of TBI, matched in age and severity of brain injury, who received standard treatment but not HBOT, were selected as the control group (Group B). Assessment on the DRS showed maximum improvement in patients with scores of 22-24 (vegetative state).The percentage of patients in the test group fell from 45% to 5% whereas only 20% patients in Group B had similar progress. After the treatment, a significantly higher proportion of HBOT treated subjects showed a good response in cognitive functions, as measured by RLA. In group A, 90% patients had a score of ? 3 and in Group B 95% had a similar score, which improved to ? 3 in 60% patients versus 30% patients respectively. In both groups maximum patients are in 1-6 months post-injury category and within the groups this category showed the greatest recovery, with a greater improvement in the test group as compared to control group. PMID:22085249

  17. (Gendered) War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Nordstrom

    2005-01-01

    Women and girls do not have an option about fighting in the wars of the twentieth and twenty-first century. The vast majority of war casualties today are average citizens and the preponderance of these are women and children. Political violence has moved over the last century from trench warfare to assaults on the very domestic stability that gives a society

  18. Emergency department visits for fall-related fractures among older adults in the USA: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the demographic characteristics and incidence of unintentional fall-related fractures among older adults treated in the US hospital emergency departments (EDs). Design Retrospective observational study. Settings Hospitals’ ED participants in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). Participants The NEISS-AIP was used to generate national estimates of hospital ED visits for unintentional fall-related fracture among adults aged 65?years or older between 2001 and 2008. Census population estimates were used as the denominator to calculate age-specific and age-adjusted fracture rates per 100?000 persons. Main outcome measures Fall-related fracture rates and ED disposition. Results On the basis of 70?199 cases, an estimated 4.05 million older adults were treated in US hospital EDs for fall-related fracture during the 8-year period. Two-thirds of the injuries occurred at home and 69.5% (95% CI 59.7% to 77.8%) of the affected individuals were white. Fall-related fracture rates increased gradually with age and were on average twofold higher among women. Of those hospitalised, women and fractures of the lower trunk represented 75.2% and 65.1% of the admissions, respectively. The estimated number of fall-related fractures treated in EDs increased from 574?500 in 2001 to 714?800 in 2008, a 24.4% increase. By gender, a non-significant upward trend in age-adjusted fall-related fracture rates was predominantly seen among men at an annual rate of 1.9% (95% CI ?0.1% to 4.0%), whereas fracture rates among women remained stable at 0.9% (95% CI ?0.7% to 2.5%) per year. Conclusions The oldest old, women and lower trunk fractures account for the majority of fall-related fractures among persons aged 65?years or older treated in US hospital EDs. Increasing ED visits and hospitalisations for fall-related fracture among older adults deserve further research. PMID:23355660

  19. A two-center retrospective review of the hematologic evaluation and laboratory abnormalities in suspected victims of non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Paroskie, Allison; Carpenter, Shannon L; Lowen, Deborah E; Anderst, James; DeBaun, Michael R; Sidonio, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Investigation for bleeding disorders in the context of suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) is inconsistent. We reviewed the hematologic evaluation of children who presented with symptoms of bleeding and/or bruising suspicious for NAI to determine the frequency of hematologic tests, abnormal hematologic laboratory results, and hematologic diagnoses. A retrospective cohort study design was employed at two freestanding academic children's hospitals. ICD-9 codes for NAI were used to identify 427 evaluable patients. Medical records were queried for the details of clinical and laboratory evaluations at the initial presentation concerning for NAI. The median age for the population was 326 days (range 1 day-14 years), 58% were male. Primary bleeding symptoms included intracranial hemorrhage (31.8%) and bruising (68.2%). Hematologic laboratory tests performed included complete blood cell count in 62.3%, prothrombin time (PT) in 55.0%, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in 53.6%; fibrinogen in 27.6%; factor activity in 17.1%; von Willebrand disease evaluation in 14.5%; and platelet function analyzer in 11.7%. Prolonged laboratory values were seen in 22.5% of PT and 17.4% of aPTT assays; 66.0% of abnormal PTs and 87.5% of abnormal aPTTs were repeated. In our cohort, 0.7% (3 of 427) of the population was diagnosed with a condition predisposing to bleeding. In children with bleeding symptoms concerning for NAI, hemostatic evaluation is inconsistent. Abnormal tests are not routinely repeated, and investigation for the most common bleeding disorder, von Willebrand disease, is rare. Further research into the extent and appropriate timing of the evaluation is warranted. PMID:24928052

  20. Clinical and radiographic outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 carotid artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level 1 trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    OBJECT Screening, management, and follow-up of Grade 3 and 4 blunt carotid artery injuries (BCAIs) remain controversial. These high-grade BCAIs were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 BCAIs were identified. The authors define Grade 3 injuries as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50%, or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, imaging findings, number of images obtained per individual, length of radiographic follow-up examination, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up period, treatment(s), and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were recorded. RESULTS Fifty-three Grade 3 BCAIs in 44 patients and 5 Grade 4 BCAIs in 5 patients were identified and had available follow-up information. The mean follow-up duration for Grade 3 BCAIs was 113 days, and the mean follow-up for Grade 4 BCAIs was 78 days. Final imaging of Grade 3 BCAIs showed that 53% of cases were radiographically stable, 11% had resolved, and 11% were improved, whereas 25% had radiographically worsened. In terms of treatment, 75% of patients received aspirin (ASA) alone, 5% received various medications, and 2% received no treatment. Eighteen percent of the patients in the Grade 3 BCAI group underwent endovascular intervention, and in all of these cases, treatment with ASA was continued after the procedure. Final imaging of the Grade 4 BCAIs showed that 60% remained stable (with persistent occlusion), whereas the remaining arteries improved (with recanalization of the vessel). All patients in the Grade 4 BCAI follow-up group were treated with ASA, although in 1 patient treatment was transitioned to Coumadin. There were 3 cases of cerebral infarction that appeared to be related to Grade 3 BCAIs (7% of 44 patients in the Grade 3 group), and 1 case of stroke that appeared to be related to a Grade 4 BCAI. All identified cases of stroke developed soon after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS Although the posttraumatic cerebral infarction rate may be overestimated, the results of this study suggest that the Grade 3 and 4 BCAIs carry the highest stroke risk of the blunt cerebrovascular injuries, and those infarctions were identified on or shortly after hospital admission. Despite a 40% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 BCAI group and an 89% rate of persistent pseudoaneurysm in the Grade 3 BCAI group, follow-up imaging showed progressive worsening without radiographic improvement in only a small number of patients, and these findings alone did not correlate with adverse clinical outcome. Follow-up protocols may require amending; however, further prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes as they relate to management. PMID:25526279

  1. World War II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Croxall

    2006-11-30

    World Conflict How did the second world war progress in Europe?War in Europe What happened before and after the war in the Pacific?The Pacific Theatre How did World War II change the world?World War, 1939-1945 What did World War II mean to the United States?World War II ...

  2. Violence, self-harm and drug or alcohol misuse in adolescents admitted to hospitals in England for injury: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Annie; Gilbert, Ruth; González-Izquierdo, Arturo; Li, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Of adolescents in the general population in England, we aimed to determine (1) the proportion that has an emergency admission to hospital for injury related to adversity (violence, self-harm or drug or alcohol misuse) and (2) the risk of recurrent emergency admissions for injury in adolescents admitted with adversity-related injury compared with those admitted with accident-related injury only. Design We used longitudinally linked administrative hospital data (Hospital Episode Statistics) to identify participants aged 10–19?years with emergency admissions for injury (including day cases lasting more than 4?h) in England in 1998–2011. We used the Office for National Statistics mid-year estimates for population denominators. Results Approximately 4.3% (n=141?248) of adolescents in the general population (n=3?254?046) had one or more emergency admissions for adversity-related injury (girls 4.6%, boys 4.1%), accounting for 50% of all emergency admissions for injury in girls and 29.1% in boys. Admissions for self-harm or drug or alcohol misuse commonly occurred in the same girls and boys. Recurrent emergency admissions for injury were more common in adolescents with adversity-related injury (girls 17.3%, boys 16.5%) than in those with accident-related injury only (girls 4.7%, boys 7.4%), particularly for adolescents with adversity-related injury related to multiple types of adversity (girls 21.1%, boys 24.2%). Conclusions Hospital-based interventions should be developed to reduce the risk of future injury in adolescents admitted for adversity-related injury. PMID:25667148

  3. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine and Feline Maxillomandibular Trauma Cases; Comparison of Lunar Cycle and Seasonality with Non-maxillomandibular Traumatic Injuries (2003-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Soukup, Jason W.; Hetzel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine relationships between seasonality and lunar cycle and the frequency of maxillomandibular (MM) and non-maxillomandibular (non-MM) injury in canine and feline trauma patients. Methods A medical records database was searched to identify all MM trauma patients (67) and a random sample of non-MM trauma patients (129) according to search criteria. Season of injury, moon phase and moon luminosity were calculated for the date of injury. Results MM injury occurred predominately in the spring and decreased through winter while non-MM injury occurred more frequently in the summer and fall. The difference in the frequency of MM and non-MM injuries during different seasons was not significant (p=0.071). When comparing injuries occurring in the quarters following the full moon and leading up to the full moon, a difference (p=0.007) was noted with an increased percentage of moon was illuminated at the time injuries occurred following a full moon as compared to leading up to the full moon. Clinical Significance These results may guide clinicians to closely evaluate trauma patients that are presented on emergency during a particular season or lunar phase. Based on the season at the time of injury, close evaluation for MM versus non-MM trauma may be appropriate. PMID:24569925

  4. Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

  5. Radiation combined injury: overview of NIAID research.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, Andrea L; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-06-01

    The term "radiation combined injury" (RCI) is used to describe conditions where radiation injury is coupled with other insults such as burns, wounds, infection, or blunt trauma. A retrospective account of injuries sustained following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima estimates that RCI comprised approximately 65% of all injuries observed. Much of the research that has been performed on RCI was carried out during the Cold War and our understanding of the clinical problem RCI presents does not reflect the latest advances in medicine or science. Because concerns have increased that terrorists might employ radiological or nuclear weapons, and because of the likelihood that victims of such terrorism would experience RCI, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting in 2007 to explore the state of the research in this area, identify programmatic gaps, and establish priorities for future research. As a follow-up to that meeting, in 2008 NIAID sponsored an initiative on RCI, leading to the award of several exploratory/developmental grants, the goals of which are to better understand biological synergy involved in RCI-induced damage, develop improved animal models for various type of RCI, and advance identification and testing of potential countermeasures to treat injuries that would be expected following a radiological or nuclear event. This program has already yielded new insight into the nature of combined injuries and has identified a number of novel and existing compounds that may be effective treatments for this condition. PMID:20445395

  6. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine and Feline Maxillomandibular Trauma Cases; A Comparison of Signalment with Non-Maxillomandibular Traumatic Injuries (2003-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Soukup, Jason W.; Hetzel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine differences in signalment between maxillomandibular (MM) and non maxillomandibular (non-MM) trauma patients to help predict the type of injury sustained. Methods A medical records database was searched from December 2003-September 2012 to identify all MM trauma patients, and also a random sample of non-MM trauma patients was generated. Patient species, age, sex, weight, and injury aetiology were recorded for both populations. Results Sixty-seven MM trauma patients and 129 non-MM trauma patients were identified. Feline patients were almost twice as likely to be presented for MM trauma compared with non-MM trauma. The median weight of canine patients suffering MM injury was significantly less than that of non-MM patients (p=0.025). A significant association existed between the causes of injuries associated with MM and non-MM trauma populations (p=0.000023). The MM trauma patients were more likely to sustain injury as a result of an animal altercation (Bonferroni p=0.001) while non-MM injuries were more likely to result from motor vehicle accidents (Bonferroni p=0.001). Overall animals <1yr of age with traumatic injuries were overrepresented (65/196) in comparison to entire patient population. Clinical Significance The results of this study may help guide clinicians in the evaluation and screening of trauma patients that are presented as an emergency. Cats, small dogs and animals suffering from animal altercations should all be closely evaluated for maxillomandibular injury. PMID:24569903

  7. Civil War Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

    2009-06-09

    Use the following resources as you research the Civil War. Resources Pioneer Library World Book Web Albion Library Online Catalog "Name of Battle" NPS Civil War The American Civil War Homepage American Civil War The Civil War Causes of the Civil War What Caused the American Civil War? Secession North Carolina Majority Against Secession in 1860 (1866 Meeting) Slavery Abolition and Slavery Twenty Reasons for Total Abstinence from Slave-Labour Produce Influence of Prominent Abolitionists The Underground Railroad Battles of the Civil War Civil War Battle Summaries By State 10 Costliest Battles of the Civil War Battle of Gettysburg Virtual Tour Battle of Shiloh Battle of Antietam Important People in the Civil War Civil War Biographies Women of the American Civil War Political Cartoons John Tenniel and the American Civil War Lincoln vs. Douglas America in Caricature 1765-1865 Virtual Museums Civil War @ Smithsonian Gettysburg: Camp Life Selected Civil War Photographs ...

  8. A Woman's War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly Pike

    2006-01-01

    The contemporary names given to what we now call World War I-the Great War, the war to end all wars-reflect a belief that the war that tore Europe apart from 1914 to 1918 was different from previous wars. Instead of naming it for a specific cause or location, contemporary observers defined it as new in scale, perhaps in response to

  9. WORLD WAR I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    dramsden

    2013-03-19

    We will start to examine the causes for the war, as well as peoples attitudes towards it. World War I is often described as either "The Great War", or "The War to End all Wars". While it was great in scope and historical significance it unfortunatly did not halt future wars. In fact it's after effect was a direct cause ...

  10. Venous air embolism, preservation\\/reperfusion injury, and the presence of intravascular air collections in human donor livers: a retrospective clinical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. E. Wolf; W. J. Sluiter; A. Ballast; R. Verwer; R. M. Dam; M. J. H. Slooff

    1995-01-01

    In human liver transplantation, air embolism is seldom encountered after graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, despite adequate flushing and clamping routines, air emboli have been reported in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies performed during the reperfusion phase. We retrospectively investigated whether air in the donor liver — as observed with pretransplant magnetic resonace imaging (MRI) — resulted in clinical air embolism or contributed

  11. The War (on Terror) on Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R; Whitehouse, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In the decade following the tragedies of 9/11, a US-led "War on Terror" has coincided with a US-led "War on Alzheimer's disease". Not only has the rhetoric from these two wars overlapped and produced similar practical and conceptual problems, the campaigns have also become interwoven through the emerging public health issue of war-related head injuries, as well as a shared neglect for environmental contributions to human suffering. This article first explores similarities in the framing and prosecution of both wars, and then considers the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and traumatic environmental injuries (TEI) in the context of a society facing the increased prevalence of dementia. Ultimately, it is argued that addressing the challenges of cognitive aging and preventing violent social conflict both require a vernacular of higher ideals and values--as well as new language patterns rising out of the ecological movement--to trump the more expedient war rhetoric that has disproportionately marked public discourse around terrorism and Alzheimer's disease during the past decade. PMID:24381043

  12. Math Wars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    In this article, Alan Schoenfeld presents his insightful commentary on a â??productive, middle-groundâ?ť theory in opposition to the extremist views of the math wars. Schoenfeld reviews the history of Mathematics education in the U.S. and how economic and political difficulties affected the education of Americaâ??s youth. He details the â??reformâ?ť of mathematics from standards-based to new math, and the downfall of that reform. It is a smart, interesting article that offers a tangible solution to a problem that has been looming in American school systems since the days of Sputnik.

  13. Nuclear War

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    Several chapters in Last Aid warrant the attention of the medical profession. What is known and not known about acute biologic effects following a nuclear explosion is described. The social, physical, and environmental impact of nuclear war on urban population centers is described. How nuclear weapons could affect the composition of the ozone layer and the effects this could have on human survival, including possible interruption of the aquatic ecosystem to produce single-cell organisms for the food cycle, especially seafood is noted.

  14. Catastrophic Cheerleading Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry P. Boden; Robin Tacchetti; Frederick O. Mueller

    2003-01-01

    Background: There are few epidemiologic studies of cheerleading injuries.Purpose: To develop a profile of catastrophic injuries in cheerleading and to describe relevant risk factors.Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.Methods: We reviewed 29 of 39 incidents of cheerleading injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research from 1982 to 2002.Results: Twenty-seven of the injured cheerleaders were women. There were

  15. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  16. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  17. National Debt and Wars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

    2009-02-12

    In this project, students will: determine if an exponential function adequately describes the changes in the National Debt from its inception; use technology (such as a spreadsheet program) to sketch graphs of functions and bar graphs of percent changes in the National Debt around war times; choose an appropriate scale and compare percent changes in the Debt around three major wars (the Civil War, World War I, and World War II).

  18. Amputation versus functional reconstruction in the management of complex hind foot injuries caused by land-mine explosions: a long-term retrospective comparison.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ege, Tolga; Kose, Ozkan; Yurttas, Yuksel; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of patients who were treated with either hind foot reconstruction or amputation in complex hind foot injuries accompanied with bone and soft tissue loss due to land-mine explosions. Between 1994 and 2004, all patients with hind foot complex injuries due to land-mine explosion, who were operated in our clinic, were enrolled to the study. All patients were evaluated with Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) after a mean of 15.1 ± 2.2 (range 9-19) years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, number of operations, necessity of psychiatric treatment and all complications were compared between groups. There were a total of 42 patients [21 in reconstruction group (Gr I) and 21 in amputation group (Gr II)]. The mean age at the time of final follow-up was 38.4 ± 3.04 years in Gr I and 38.2 ± 4.24 years in Gr II (p = 0.732). The mean follow-up duration was 15.7 ± 2.07 years in Gr I and 14.57 ± 2.29 years in Gr II (p = 0.081). The number of operations was significantly higher in Gr I (8.66 ± 10.2 times vs. 4.42 ± 7.7 times, respectively, p = 0.001). The mean FADI score at the final follow-up was 64.3 ± 18.1 in Gr I. In amputation group, more patients needed psychotherapy due to major depression (12 patients vs. 4 patients, p = 0.012). Major complications in Gr I were musculocutaneous flap atrophy in calcaneal region (n = 8 patients), limited ankle motion (n = 11) and painful osteophytes on plantar region (n = 6). In Gr II, stump problems were dominating (pain and tenderness n = 10, ulcer n = 2, allergic skin lesions n = 7, painful neuroma n = 10, bony spur n = 5, paresthesia n = 1, excessive sweating n = 12). At the final visit, although SF-36 scores were similar between groups (p = 0.182), extremity reconstruction group had significantly higher BIQLI scores than the amputation group (p = 0.016). If the dorsalis pedis is intact and midfoot and forefoot is relatively protected, hind foot reconstruction should be attempted. Long-term outcomes of hind foot reconstruction are satisfactory with minor complications and better BIQLI. PMID:24158743

  19. The unfought chemical war

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, K. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1991-12-01

    In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

  20. Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: A historical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tien Yin Wong; Major Benjamin Seet; Chong-Lye Ang

    1997-01-01

    With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50–80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and

  1. Science and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Alex

    1985-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of relations between war, science, and technology from the days of the American colonies to the Vietnam War, indicating that the overall impact of science and technology on war has been overstated by historians in many fields. Includes military histories that science/technology historians have not used. (JN)

  2. [War wounds of the upper vena cava. Recovery after management from Sarajevo to Paris].

    PubMed

    Jancovici, R; Dubrez, J; Legulluche, Y; Litzler, P Y; Oscariz, D; Lhomme Desages, B; Brinquin, L; Linden, L J; Hervé, L

    Penetrating chest injuries involving the superior veina cava are a seldom observed entity to our knowledge. Most often they cause death before the patient can reach a surgical facility; because of the exsanguination and a difficult surgical approach. The authors report a war-case of superior veina cava injury and have reviewed and analysed the literature concerning the issue of immediate intensive care and surgical approach of such life threatening injuries; especially in war conditions. PMID:7805493

  3. Australian War Memorial: Of Love and War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Australian War Memorial's online version of their exhibit Of Love and War illustrates how war impacts the availability of potential partners (especially from other countries), courtship, the sense of romantic urgency that war creates, and marriage. A reader's comment on the blog "Wedding Dresses, Part 3" sums up well what this exhibition is about in his comment regarding the display of wedding gowns in the exhibit: "Not the sort of item you usually associate with war, but on reflection at that time many sweethearts got married before the men went off to war and it helps paint a balanced picture of the times." Visitors should explore the themes the exhibit, which are divided up into: "First Glance", "Separation" and "The Future". Each theme has a multitude of sub-themes, including "Romance and Recruitment", "Loneliness" "Farewell and Fears" and "We Regret to Inform You". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Letters" sub-theme under "Separation", as there are several delicately embroidered silk greeting cards that were made in France in World War I.

  4. Revealing Latent Value of Clinically Acquired CTs of Traumatic Brain Injury Through Multi-Atlas Segmentation in a Retrospective Study of 1,003 with External Cross-Validation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a “big data” paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold cross-validation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  5. Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, W.; Khan, M. D.; Akbar, M; Khan, M. D.; Malik, A. M.; Durrani, O.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given.?METHODS—It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase.?RESULTS—It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less.?CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.?? PMID:10837390

  6. Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C; Kang, Han K

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted an extensive search for published works concerning healthcare utilization and mortality among Gulf War veterans of the Coalition forces who served during the1990–1991 Gulf War. Reports concerning the health experience of US, UK, Canadian, Saudi and Australian veterans were reviewed. This report summarizes 15 years of observations and research in four categories: Gulf War veteran healthcare registry studies, hospitalization studies, outpatient studies and mortality studies. A total of 149?728 (19.8%) of 756?373 US, UK, Canadian and Australian Gulf War veterans received health registry evaluations revealing a vast number of symptoms and clinical conditions but no suggestion that a new unique illness was associated with service during the Gulf War. Additionally, no Gulf War exposure was uniquely implicated as a cause for post-war morbidity. Numerous large, controlled studies of US Gulf War veterans' hospitalizations, often involving more than a million veterans, have been conducted. They revealed an increased post-war risk for mental health diagnoses, multi-symptom conditions and musculoskeletal disorders. Again, these data failed to demonstrate that Gulf War veterans suffered from a unique Gulf War-related illness. The sparsely available ambulatory care reports documented that respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints were quite common during deployment. Using perhaps the most reliable data, controlled mortality studies have revealed that Gulf War veterans were at increased risk of injuries, especially those due to vehicular accidents. In general, healthcare utilization data are now exhausted. These findings have now been incorporated into preventive measures in support of current military forces. With a few diagnostic exceptions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mental disorders and cancer, it now seems time to cease examining Gulf War veteran morbidity and to direct future research efforts to preventing illness among current and future military personnel. PMID:16687261

  7. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  8. When Kids Lose Parents in Our War in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    As of July, more than 1,200 children had lost parents in the war in Iraq, and thousands more had parents with serious injuries, according to the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress at the Uniform Services University in Bethesda, Maryland. The war, which began three and a half years ago, has resulted in the deaths of more than 2,600 U.S.…

  9. Traumatic war. Stress & schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yaktin, U S; Labban, S

    1992-06-01

    1. An examination of the effects of the Lebanese war on the citizens found that traumatic war events can be regarded as of primary importance for risk factors triggering the onset of schizophrenia. 2. The overall findings indicate an increase in the rate of admission for men diagnosed with schizophrenia throughout the 12 years of the war. The most significant increases occurred either following intensive fighting episodes or months later due to the additive effect of stress. 3. How soon individuals are affected by environmentally induced war stress may be related to their level of vulnerability to the disorder. PMID:1613685

  10. The Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex

    2006-02-08

    With this site you will be able to find all the necessary information about the background of the Civil War. You will find out when it happened, why it happenend, and most importantly of all, what happened. Use the following resource to gain a good overall of the important dates, names, and events of the Civil War: A Nation Divided: The U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 One of the most important battles of the Civil War was the Battle of Gettysburg. President Abraham Lincoln gave one of the most famous speeches in American History after ...

  11. US Civil War Generals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created using a number of print sources, this index by Kerry Webb is a fine resource for military historians and Civil War buffs. The index lists generals for each army alphabetically. Information provided includes date of birth and death, pre-war profession, war service, post-war career, and notes. Some entries also include suggestions for further reading and links to related sites. The main page of the site offers print references, a few links, and notes on the index entries. This site is a classic example of a "labor of love" resource that should prove useful and interesting to like-minded users.

  12. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  13. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  14. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  15. American Experience: War Letters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based on the book by Andrew Carroll, War Letters is a television special airing on PBS on Sunday, May 26, at 9pm (Eastern Time). Revealing personal correspondence from the Revolutionary War to the Gulf War, War Letters gives accounts of famous battles, intimate declarations of love and longing, heartbreaking "Dear John" letters from home, and much more. The accompanying Web site provides a comprehensive description of the film and a transcript. It also provides a timeline of US military actions and wars from 1775 to the present, excerpts of letters from Carroll's book, and a teachers guide section grouped into categories of history, economics, geography, and civics. Additionally, for those interested in letter preservation, the site also provides tips on how to keep letters safe.

  16. Predictors of displacement behaviour during the 2006 Lebanon war.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Marwan; Assaf, Shireen; Yamout, Rouham

    2011-01-01

    The July 2006 war in Lebanon was one of the country's shortest wars. Yet perhaps it was also the worst interstate war in the history of Lebanon. Over the course of 33 days, the war resulted in over 1000 deaths, thousands of injuries, large-scale destruction of infrastructure and properties, as well as massive population displacements. Approximately a third of the Lebanese population was displaced during the war. Population-based survey data collected in early 2007 and logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of some demographic and socio-economic factors on displacement, stratified by war-affected and non-affected areas. The sample was restricted to adults who were at least 18 years old. We found that the intensity of the conflict as captured by the region of residence was understandably the most important variable in predicting displacement. The odds of displacement were higher for those who were younger in age, married or who had obtained a higher education. Females and those of Lebanese nationality had higher odds of displacement than their male and non-Lebanese counterparts, but only in war-damaged areas. Interestingly, household composition and size, economic standing and car ownership were not related to the odds of displacement. Findings from the present study may help policy-makers and humanitarian agencies in their planning efforts during emergencies, including wars. PMID:21331966

  17. Americans as Warriors: "Doughboys" in Battle during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Jennifer D.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)

  18. Civil War Traveler

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The tag line of this website is "Everything you Need to Plan your Civil War Trips." With the 150th anniversary of the Civil War being commemorated this year, this website offers everything for the mildly interested to the downright enthusiastic. Visitors can find every kind of map here, including "Civil War Trails Maps," almost two dozen "Podcast Tour Maps," "Interactive Maps," "National Park Service Maps," and relevant "State Highway Maps." The "Multimedia" link on the site gives visitors access to 26 podcasts of tours of Civil War sites. The podcasts are narrated by noted national park service historians and accompanied by period music. Also in the Multimedia area are the "Richmond Walking Tours" in Richmond, VA, which was the capitol of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. These include five tours, maps for each, and an hour-long podcast to accompany each tour. Visitors interested in going to some Civil War lectures, reenactments, tours, or demonstrations should definitely check out the "Events" link to see a list of all the Civil War events for the 150th anniversary, month by month. The month of April alone has over 100 on the calendar throughout the South.

  19. Ankle injuries in basketball players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Leanderson; G. Nemeth; E. Eriksson

    1993-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study of the frequency of ankle sprains in basketball players. A questionnaire about previous ankle injuries, time off after such injuries, current ankle problems, personal data, number of practice hours and the use of prophylactic measures was sent out to 102 basketball players in a second division league in Sweden. Ninety-six players answered. 92% of

  20. Tug-of-War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into tug-of-war physics. Groups of learners will test two tug-of-war strategies. Which is better: a team of a few big kids or lots of smaller kids? Learners form teams based on weight. Each team is timed as it pulls a sled of sand bags equal to their weight for 30 feet. Learners determine an average pull time for each time (after resting) and compare the results. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Tug O’ War.

  1. War Experiences and War-related Distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina Eight Years after War

    PubMed Central

    Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between war experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The survey was performed in the late 2003 on a representative sample of 3313 respondents. The face-to-face interviews included 15 items on war-related distress and 24 items on war experiences. From these items we developed the War-related Distress Scale, the Direct War Experiences Scale, and the Indirect War Experiences Scale. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between war-related distress symptoms and war experiences variables, controlling for a range of other variables. Results Almost half of the respondents did not report any war-related distress symptoms, while about 13% reported 7 or more symptoms. Direct war experiences had a significant effect on war-related distress even eight years after the war, while indirect war experiences showed no significant effect on war-related distress. We found that marital status weakly decreased war-related distress, while household size increased it. Conclusion Direct war experiences seem to have a long-lasting traumatic effect on a substantial number of residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:18293460

  2. Effects of World War I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Kilpatrick

    2012-04-10

    Determine the effects of World War I on countries involved in the war. In this activity, read the links and use the information given to determine the effects of World War I on the major players in the war. Fill out the graphic organizer with the information you find. Organizer Casualties - Use this site to determine how many soldiers each country lost in ...

  3. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  4. Catastrophic Injuries in Pole-Vaulters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry P. Boden; Paul Pasquina; Jan Johnson; Frederick O. Mueller

    2001-01-01

    Pole vaulting is a unique sport in that athletes often land from heights ranging from 10 to 20 feet. We retrospectively reviewed 32 catastrophic pole-vault injuries that were reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research between 1982 and 1998. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms of injury so that preventive strategies can be

  5. Incidence of Football Injury During International Tournaments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence J. R. Babwah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injury of the Trinidad and Tobago National Men's Football Team involved in three international tournaments and associated training camps (ITATC) within a 14-month period and compare the data with that published for the Sweden National Team. A retrospective analysis of injury records assessed the number and types of injuries,

  6. Penile injuries: A 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

  7. Anaesthesia in war surgery 

    E-print Network

    Brydon, Adam

    1918-01-01

    For the past fifteen months, I have been attached to the Third Australian General Hospital as Anaesthetist, and now record my experiences gleaned from somewhere over a thousand cases of anaesthesia in war surgery. I may conveniently divide up...

  8. Fog of War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    In conjunction with the eighth anniversary of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the Washington Post Online has created this site, a compendium of information about and analysis of the 42-day air war waged by the US against Iraq in 1991. The site contains author William M. Arkin and General Charles Homer's analyses of the air war's effectiveness, information on the US war goals articulated at the time, an interactive air strike map and calendar (including Arkin's 1995 report "Collateral Damage" and Iraqi Civilian Deaths During Operation Desert Storm [available in Microsoft Word format only]), and images and Quicktime videos of war damage. Although the site is overzealous in its use of unnecessary javascript to propel navigation, the story it tells is both controversial and compelling. Note that content can be most easily accessed via the Resources section.

  9. Civil War Cartoons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Civil War Cartoons is a paper that investigates American visual satire (political cartoons) during the Civil War era. An American Studies Project at the University of Virginia, the site was originally created by Ian Finseth and later edited with a graphic introduction by Dan Backer. Beginning at the start of the Civil War and ending with its aftermath, the site is a history lesson that emphasizes the importance of understanding the ways in which political cartoons contributed to the nation's social and political climate of the time. Furthermore, it reveals the potency of the medium, tracing the success and influence of visual images during the Civil War-era. It shows the period to be a significant landmark in the history of American political art.

  10. Sacrilizing total war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Turpin; Patience E. Patterson

    1996-01-01

    At Strategic Air Command Headquarters, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, there's a chapel dedicated to combat crewmen of the Cold War. The chapel's stained glass windows, installed in 1959, feature key artifacts—as defined by the U.S. military—of the Cold War. Those windows, and the literature created by SAC to describe them, reveal core assumptions and values underlying U.S. participation in

  11. PRIV-WAR: Regulating Privatisation of War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What does it mean to have private military companies involved in the conduct of war? This is a subject of interest to the European University Institute, and a host of other partners, including the University of Sheffield and the Riga Graduate School of Law. The purpose of the PRIV-WAR project is to "assess the impact of the increasing use of private military companies and security companies in situations of armed conflict." The project was started in 2008, and on their website interested parties can learn about their activities and click on to the "Publications" area. The working papers are quite worthy of special attention, and they include "Passing the Buck: State Responsibility for Private Military Companies" and "A History of Private Warfare".

  12. The Great War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As many historians know, the Great War was meant to be the "war to end all wars", but this was regrettably not the case. During this period, many artists and members of the literati offered their impassioned feelings about the conflict and its aftermath in the form of poetry. Created by the scholar Harry Rusche, this site was designed as a resource for courses in World War I poetry. The site contains sections such as "Poetry", "Postcards", and "Links". Visitors will want to begin their journey through the site by clicking on the "Poetry" area, where they will find digitized versions of rare poetry volumes that address various aspects of this world conflict. Specifically, they might do well to look over the "Flower of Youth: Poems in War Time" volume, which contains the poems "A Girl's Song" and "To One in Grief". The "Postcards" section offers a number of postcards created during World War I that deal with different aspects of nationalism, the military, and life on the homefront.

  13. Review Article: Total War or Traditional War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip G. Dwyer

    2009-01-01

    MICHAEL ADAMS. Napoleon and Russia. London and New York, NY: Hambledon Continuum, 2006. Pp. xxiii, 596. $34.95 (US); ROY ADKINS and LESLEY ADKINS. The War for All the Oceans: From Nelson at the Nile to Napoleon at Waterloo. London: Little Brown, 2006. Pp. xxix, 534. Ł10.9g, paper; ALESSANDRO BARBERO. The Battle: A New History of Waterloo, trans. John Cullen. New

  14. Cold War Entanglements of Social ANDY BYFORD

    E-print Network

    Solovey, Mark

    in particular) and political agents of all hues in post-war America. In this context `the Cold War' is madeREVIEW Cold War Entanglements of Social Science ANDY BYFORD MLAC, Durham University, UK Cold War.00. The Cold War era the three decades between the end of the Second World War and the end of the Vietnam War

  15. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Asia: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Li, Yu-Lin; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Study design A systematic review. Background The number of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) reports grows annually, especially in China and Korea. The epidemiological characteristics of TSCI in Asia differ from those in other countries. Thus, we compiled epidemiological factors from Asia to compare with those from other countries. Method We searched articles published in any language between January 1980 to December 2011 using the terms “spinal cord injury”, “traumatic spinal cord injury”, “epidemiology”, and “Asia”. The articles were reviewed for information regarding TSCI incidence, total cases, case criteria, case source, causes of injury, male/female ratio, mean age, prospective or retrospective, neurological level of injury, extent of injury, and America Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS)/grade. Results Epidemiological data were extracted from 39 reports in the published literature that met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies reported prevalence rates. Incidence rates ranged from 12.06 to 61.6 per million. The average age ranged from 26.8 to 56.6 years old. Men were at higher risk than women. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and falls were the main causes of TSCI. However, several countries reported war wounds as the major cause. The neurological level and extent of injury were mixed, and most patients were categorized as AIS/Frankel grade A. Conclusion TSCI is an important public health problem and a major cause of paralysis. We must understand the epidemiology to implement appropriate preventative measures. Asian epidemiology is different from that in other regions, so intervention measures must be established according to population-specific characteristics. PMID:22925749

  16. Battlefield trauma, traumatic shock and consequences: war-related advances in critical care.

    PubMed

    Allison, Carrie E; Trunkey, Donald D

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of history, while the underlying causes for wars have remained few, mechanisms of inflicting injury and our ability to treat the consequent wounds have dramatically changed. Success rates in treating war-related injuries have improved greatly, although the course of progress has not proceeded linearly. From Homer's Iliad to the Civil War to Vietnam, there have been significant improvements in mortality, despite a concurrent increase in the lethality of weapons. These improvements have occurred primarily as a result of progress in three key areas: management of wounds, treatment of shock, and systems of organization. PMID:19268793

  17. Prevalence of dental trauma in 6000 patients with facial injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gassner; Renato Bösch; Tarkan Tuli; Rüdiger Emshoff

    1999-01-01

    Objective. In contrast to epidemiologic studies on facial injuries reporting on dental trauma, facial bone fractures with dentoalveolar injuries, or soft tissue injuries individually, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall place of dental trauma in facial injuries. This was a retrospective investigation of the impact of sport, work, violence, traffic, household, and play accidents in the

  18. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to

  19. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to

  20. Rationalist causes of war : mechanisms, experiments, and East Asian wars

    E-print Network

    Quek, Ch-yuan Kaiy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation specifies and tests rationalist mechanisms of war. Why would rational states fight each other despite their incentives for peaceful bargains that would avoid the costs of war? In the rationalist theory ...

  1. Australian Army War Diaries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    The Australian War Memorial site has worked diligently over the past several years to add to their rather nice online collections, and this particular addition is quite a find. It consists of excerpts from diaries from those who served Australia during the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, and in the South East Asian conflicts. The homepage for these diaries includes a brief introduction to the collection and a description of the general contents of these different digitized documents. Visitors can browse through selections from the diaries at their leisure and they can also print them out for detailed consideration. Finally, the site also provides a link to the Memorial's Research Centre in case visitors would like to send along questions or comments.

  2. Civil War Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Accuracy in mapping is crucial, and during the Civil War in the United States this important skill was vital to a successful campaign. In one of its most ambitious digital collections to date, the American Memory project at the Library of Congress has placed approximately 2240 Civil War maps and charts in this archive, along with 200 maps from the Library of Virginia and 400 maps from the Virginia Historical Society. Visitors can jump right in by browsing the entire collection by place, subject, creator, or title. Some real gems include the multitude of maps and views of Vicksburg in Mississippi and those of the infamous Andersonville Prison in Georgia. The site also contains a number of classroom resources for educators, and a very nice essay (divided into seven sections) by Richard W. Stephenson that explores the history of mapping the Civil War.

  3. People on War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Launched by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in August 1999 to mark the 50th anniversary of the modern Geneva Conventions, the People on War Project has conducted interviews and surveys with over 20,000 people in seventeen countries on their perceptions of what is right and wrong in wartime. At present, users can read the full text of the resulting final comparative report and six country reports in HTML and .pdf formats. In addition, users can read a selection of "Best of People on War stories," view several excellent collections of annotated photographs, and (after free registration) enter CrossFire, an "interactive documentary" on the "dilemmas soldiers, civilians, and others face in war." Additional resources at the site include discussion forums, a questionnaire, and several reference sources, among them the full searchable text of the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

  4. First World War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Almost all of the remaining veterans of World War One have passed on, but the "Great War" remains a subject of considerable interest for the general public and historians alike. This intriguing site created by the Guardian newspaper in Britain features slideshows, articles, and a set of external links to additional websites of note. First-time visitors may wish to click on the "Series" section to read the four part set of articles that delves into topics such as "The western front" and "The road to war". The site also does a nice job of weaving in modern commentary and editorials on the current state of European affairs and armed conflicts both throughout the Continent and in other regions of the world. Additionally, the site also contains video clips of veterans talking about their time in the trenches and historians commenting on the legacy of this tremendous conflict.

  5. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  6. War Report -- Iraq War and Afghan Aftermath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This helpful omnibus of links to timely research, editorials, papers, and other written material on the situation in both Iraq and Afghanistan is provided by the Project on Defense Alternatives. The Project was found in 1991, and part of its mission is to "adapt security policy to the challenges and opportunities of the post-Cold War era. Toward this end it promotes consideration of the broadest range of defense options." Their advisory board is made up of an impressive range of scholars, policymakers, and scientists. The War Report page itself contains numerous links to a wide array of sources, including special reports from the United Nations on the opium economy in Afghanistan and the latest reports on the status of nuclear inspections in Iraq. Equally valuable are numerous links to news coverage from around the world, including the Guardian, BBC News, Eurasian Insight, and Global Affairs Commentary. The site is updated frequently and will be quite beneficial to those persons interested in staying in touch with the most current news and reports dealing with these two countries.

  7. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  8. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  9. Cold War in Southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

    Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa

    • Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. <\\/li>
    • Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253

    • The Great War: Online Resources.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Duncanson, Bruce

      2002-01-01

      Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

    • Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hobson, Art

      1983-01-01

      Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

    • War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

      2004-01-01

      In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

    • Exposure to a First World War blistering agent

      PubMed Central

      Le, HQ

      2006-01-01

      Sulfur mustards act as vesicants and alkylating agents. They have been used as chemical warfare since 1917 during the first world war. This brief report illustrates the progression of injury on a primary exposed patient to a first world war blistering agent. This case documents the rapid timeline and progression of symptoms. It emphasises the importance of appropriate personal protective equipment and immediate medical response plan with rapid decontamination and proper action from military and civilian medical treatment facilities. This case reports the first US active duty military exposure to a blistering agent in the age of global terrorism. PMID:16549577

    • The Massachusetts Math Wars

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Stotsky, Sandra

      2007-01-01

      This article recounts the battle in the "math wars" that took place in Massachusetts, United States in 1999-2000 over the scope, content and teaching of the state's K-12 mathematics curriculum. Harsh controversies arose between the partisans of a "reform-math" movement stressing an undefined "conceptual understanding" and student-created…

    • Education and War

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

      2009-01-01

      This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

    • End the Math Wars

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

      2011-01-01

      In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

    • The Math Wars

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Schoenfeld, Alan H.

      2004-01-01

      During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

    • The War Against Pests

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Ray F.

      1973-01-01

      Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

    • Medicalized weapons & modern war.

      PubMed

      Gross, Michael L

      2010-01-01

      "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

    • The Eritrean War

      Microsoft Academic Search

      Roy Pateman

      1990-01-01

      The Eritrean War has been in process for over 20 years. The Eritrean People's Liberation Front, which has borne the brunt of the fighting against the Ethiopian government forces in the last decade, is one of the world's most important-and unknownliberation movements. Its military wing, the Eritrean People's Liberation Army has battle experience of many years. This article examines the

  1. American prisoner of war policy and practice from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror

    E-print Network

    Springer, Paul Joseph

    2006-08-16

    American prisoner of war (POW) policy consists of repeated improvisational efforts during wartime followed by few efforts to incorporate lessons learned. As such, in every war, the United States has improvised its system of POW maintenance...

  2. In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of débridement.

    PubMed Central

    Helling, T S; Daon, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The care of traumatic wounds has evolved over hundreds of years, largely as a result of armed conflicts. The lessons learned during World War I in the treatment of extensive soft-tissue injuries proved invaluable in reducing infection and preventing loss of limb and life. Foremost among these was the use of debridement. This report reviews the development of debridement as standard treatment of war wounds and highlights the surgeon largely responsible for its resurgence during one of this century's saddest chapters. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Before World War I, the care of wounds consisted of minimal exploration and liberal use of then-new antiseptics. For limited injuries, this approach appeared adequate. World War I saw the introduction of devastating weapons that produced injuries that caused extensive devitalization of tissue. Standard treatment of these patients proved woefully inadequate to prevent life-threatening infections. METHODS: This is a historical review of the conditions that occurred during World War I that prompted a change in wound management. One of those responsible for this change was the Belgian surgeon Antoine Depage. His life and contributions to the care of war wounds are profiled. Depage reintroduced the discarded French practice of wound incision and exploration (debridement) and combined it with excision of devitalized tissue. RESULTS: Through the use of debridement, excision, and delayed wound closure based on bacteriologic survey, Depage was able to reduce the incidence of infectious complications of soft-tissue injuries, particularly those involving fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Through his experiences in the Great War, Antoine Depage was able to formulate a treatment plan for wounds of war. All such injuries were assumed to be contaminated and, as such, they required early and careful debridement. Depage thought that wound closure should often be delayed and based his decision to close on the bacteriologic status of the wound. To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9712561

  3. Back Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  4. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  5. Civil War Washington

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-24

    What was Washington, D.C. like during the Civil War? It's an arresting and interesting question, and the people at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Center for Digital Research in the Humanities have created this digital archive to look into it. As their introductory statement notes, this collection "examines the U.S. national capital from multiple perspectives as a case study of social, political, cultural, and medical/scientific/transitions provoked or accelerated by the Civil War." On the homepage, visitors will find six sections, including Maps, Texts, Visual Works, and Data. For those with a spatial bent, the Maps area is a real find. Visitors can use the interactive GIS-enabled map to look at the layers of history throughout the city with a grain of detail that is remarkable. Moving along, the Interpretations area includes scholarly essays, such as "Washington, the Strategic Capital."

  6. Civil War Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Library of Congress (LOC) American Memory collection has recently expanded yet again with this new exhibit. This exhibit, from the LOC's Geography and Map Division, features a selection from the approximately 2,240 Civil War maps and charts and 76 atlases and sketchbooks held by the Division. The majority of the maps were made during the Civil War, although some were produced afterwards to illustrate certain events or battles. Of special interest are maps produced by Confederate Major Jedediah Hotchkiss, a topographical engineer responsible for battle maps that were used by Generals Lee and Jackson. Users can search the collection by keyword or browse by subject, creator, title, or geographic location. Maps are offered as thumbnail images with several size and zoom options. Updates will be made to the collection on a monthly basis.

  7. Crimes of War Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by American University, this project is a collaborative effort of journalists, lawyers, and scholars "that seeks to raise awareness of the laws of war." Resources at the site include an online magazine, featured essays, analysis, a discussion forum, information on future seminars, and related resources. The essays are concise, cover a range of international topics, and link to related items on the site. This unique project is well worth a visit.

  8. The Math Wars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H. Schoenfeld

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the “reform” stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented, “standards-based” curricula are superficial and undermine classical mathematical values; reformers

  9. Shared Experience: Art & War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    The use of artistic expression to convey the experience of war and the battlefield has been around since antiquity, and has given rise to glorious poetry, epic stories, and more recently, paintings. This online exhibit created by the people at the Australian War Memorial presents the experiences of Australians, Britons, and Canadians in the Second World War through paintings created during this turbulent period. As the homepage suggests, "The men and women that feature in these works are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating". First-time visitors will want to start by reading the introductory essay by Roger Tolson titled "A Shared Experience". After doing so, they should feel free to browse around the paintings offered here, all of which are grouped into thematic categories that include "Casualties", "Work", and "Battle". There are a number of rather haunting and evocative paintings scattered across these categories, but visitors should be sure to take a look at the work "Battlefield burial of three NCOs" by Ivor Hele and "Airmen In A Village Pub Yorkshire" by Miller Brittain. The site is rounded by brief biographies for each of the artists whose work is included on the site.

  10. War on fear

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

  11. Australian War Memorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

  12. Physicists in times of war

    E-print Network

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  13. American Civil War Music & Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-17

    The Library of Congress has created this delightful site that brings together hundreds of items that tell of the musical culture of the American Civil War. First-time visitors will want to start by perusing the Civil War Sheet Music section. Here they will find 2,500 pieces culled from the Library's collection, including songs about various generals, battles, and a longing for the tranquility of home life. Further along, the site also includes the Civil War Era Band Music section. This area features over 700 musical compositions, along with over a dozen audio files of these fine ditties. Visitors shouldn't miss the Historic Events in the Civil War area, as it offers a new profile of an important event from this conflict every day. On the right-hand side of the page, visitors can also browse different collections such as Civil War Maps and Civil War Treasures from the New York Historical Society.

  14. 'My War is not Your War': the Bulgarian Debate on the Great War 'The experienced war' and Bulgarian modernization in the inter-war years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snezhana Dimitrova

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores how the experience of the First World War was represented and instrumentalized in inter-war Bulgaria in debates about social and political modernization and national identity. The main focus is on the memoir writings of a group of middle-class intellectual reservist officers. These authors constructed a generic conventional picture of trench warfare as 'the war of the mud',

  15. The Effect of War on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…

  16. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capăo Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcăo-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  17. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Capdarest-Arest, Nicole; Bertoch, Spencer T.; Bakken, Erik C.; Hoover, Susan E.; Zou, Jiyao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s) and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection. PMID:25210653

  18. WWII: Supporting the War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Murray

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this IA is to make comparison/contrasts between the advertising and propaganda efforts of the U.S. government and Nazi government during WWII. Also racial issues are addressed. It works with core curriculum Standard 7, Objective 2 and 2a Please use these sites to view posters produced during the World War II Era and follow the instructions below to complete the assignment. German Propaganda Posters from WWII Pick three of the posters listed on this website and compare them with the three U.S. produced posters that you will ...

  19. US Army War College

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Strategic Studies Institute is the primary research faculty of the U.S. Army War College, and includes both civilian scholars and uniformed military officers with extensive experience in national security and military affairs. The most common products of the Institute are SSI Studies which deal with topics having strategic implications for the Army, the Department of Defense, and the larger National Security community. Additional information is available on the mission, history, and organization of SSI, plus a link to the U.S. Army Military History Institute. http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usassi/

  20. Whither the "signature wounds of the war" after the war: estimates of incidence rates and proportions of TBI and PTSD diagnoses attributable to background risk, enhanced ascertainment, and active war zone service, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Brundage, John F; Taubman, Stephen B; Hunt, Devin J; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are "signature wounds" of the Afghanistan/Iraq wars; however, many TBI/PTSD cases are not war related. During the wars, diagnoses of TBI/PTSD among military members increased because risks of TBI/PTSD, and capabilities to detect cases, increased. This report summarizes TBI/PTSD diagnosis experiences of three cohorts of overseas deployers in relation to the natures of their exposures to active war service and enhanced case ascertainment efforts. The findings suggest that, during the war, the proportions of PTSD diagnoses attributable to war zone service decreased from approximately 80% to less than 50%, while the proportions attributable to enhanced case ascertainment increased from less than 10% to nearly 50%. The proportions of TBI diagnoses attributable to war zone service more than tripled from 2003-2005 (13.1%) through 2007-2009 (44.8%); the proportions attributable to enhanced ascertainment also markedly increased, but not until after 2007. By the end of the war, war zone service and enhanced ascertainment accounted for similar proportions of all PTSD and TBI diagnoses. If programs and resources currently focused on TBI and PTSD continue, rates of diagnoses post-war will greatly exceed those pre-war. PMID:25734618

  1. War and Economics: Spanish Civil War Finances Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Martin-Acena; Elena Martinez Ruiz; Maria A. Pons Brias

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews how the Spanish civil war was financed. We present new evidence to show that the two combatant parties, the Republican government and the Franco administration followed similar financial strategies. In both cases money creation, rather than new taxes or the issue of debt, was the main mechanism used to cover the expenses of the war. We argue,

  2. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1?000?h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age?19 vs. >?19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  3. Moderators of the Safety Climate-Injury Relationship: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    E-print Network

    Beus, Jeremy M.

    2010-07-14

    Retrospective versus Prospective Study Designs............................................. 29 Time Frame for Gathering Injury Data ............................................................ 31 Safety Climate Content Contamination and Deficiency... versus Prospective Study Designs............................................. 40 vii Page Time Frame for Gathering Injury Data ............................................................ 42 Safety Climate Content Contamination...

  4. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  5. Birth Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caregivers > Children's Health Issues > Problems in Newborns 4 Birth Injury Birth injury is damage sustained during the birthing process, usually occurring during transit through the birth canal. Many newborns have minor injuries during birth. ...

  6. Health Care for Gulf War Veterans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wars & Operations Exposure Categories A-Z Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects ... Veterans Health Initiative Veterans Health Initiative Home Agent Orange Gulf War Infectious Diseases of Southwest Asia War ...

  7. A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2010-12-31

    We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. The interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of limited commitment ...

  8. A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. Our focus is on the interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of ...

  9. Education and the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markusen, Eric

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the role of education in preventing nuclear war. Includes information on projects and organizations involved in educating children and youth about nuclear war and profiles of organizations that have been promoting nuclear war education at colleges and universities. (JN)

  10. Spanish Civil War Posters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Library of Congress' collection of 120 Spanish Civil War posters dating from 1936-1939 are a good-looking group of items that portray both the Republican and Nationalist causes of Spain during the Spanish Civil War. In order to start searching or browsing all the images of this collection, click on "Search This Collection" in the middle of the page. To browse the images, click on "View All". If you would rather search, you have many modes to do so, including subjects and formats, creators and other associated names, and titles. As most of the text on the posters is in Spanish, visitors may wish to look over the English translations. Unfortunately, many of the posters can only be viewed as thumbnails, unless they are being viewed in person at the Library of Congress. Although many of the posters are in bold reds, blues and yellows, their undertones are dark. Some of the black and white prints look much like newsprint, and are more pedestrian in form.

  11. The cold war's “soft” recruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Richards

    1998-01-01

    When forecasts of swift victory give way to pessimism as wars inevitably become prolonged, nations often search within their own borders for the reasons that explain the possibility of defeat. It was a revealing irony of the Cold War stalemate that the U.S. worried that democratic individualism and a free enterprise economy might prove to be the nation's most crippling

  12. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  13. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  14. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  15. The ‘medicine is war’ metaphor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia L. Warren

    1991-01-01

    As the Berlin Wall fell and the Iron Curtain was raised, we entered the post-Cold War era. Adapting to this new situation will require reconceptualizing how we interpret political events and make political decisions. Experiencing life in terms of war is more than mere rhetorical flourish. Metaphors may influence which ethical issues we raise, how we interpret problems, which alternatives

  16. The War Against Drug Producers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herschel I. Grossman; Daniel Mejia

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of a war against the producers of illegal hard drugs. This war occurs on two fronts. First, to prevent the cultivation of crops that are the raw material for producing drugs the state engages the drug producers in conflict over the control of arable land. Second, to impede further the production and exportation of drugs

  17. Civil War and Foreign Influence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Facundo Albornoz; Esther Hauk

    2010-01-01

    We study a symmetric information bargaining model of civil war where a third (foreign) party can affect the probabilities of winning the conflict and the size of the post conflict spoils. We show that the possible alliance with a third party makes peaceful agreements difficult to reach and might lead to new commitment problems that trigger war. Also, we argue

  18. Posthuman Soldiers in Postmodern War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Hables Gray

    2003-01-01

    The centrality of human-machine weapon systems is a key aspect of postmodern war. Since 1939 such systems have proliferated while improved interfaces have led to several types of actual cyborg soldiers. As the crisis of postmodern war deepens it is producing a series of quite different militarized bodies. Cyborgs proliferate in type so it is no surprise that we have

  19. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  20. The Impact of War on Vaccine Preventable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Obradovic, Zarema; Balta, Snjezana; Obradovic, Amina; Mesic, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which lasted from 1992-1995, the functioning of all sectors was disturbed, including the health sector. The priority of the heath sector was treatment and less attention was paid to prevention, and this applies also to the Program of implementation of obligatory immunization, as one of the most important prevention measures. This program was conducted with difficulty and sometimes was completely interrupted because of the lack of necessary vaccines and the inability of adequate maintenance of the cold chain. It was difficult and sometimes completely impossible to bring children to vaccination. Because of these problems, a great number of children stayed unvaccinated so they suffered from vaccine-preventable diseases several years after the war. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological study. We analyzed data from January 1994 to July 2014 in Canton Sarajevo, and data about measles outbreak in 2014. Results: In the period from January 1994 to July 2014, 3897 vaccine-preventable diseases were registered in Canton Sarajevo. Among them measles, rubella and mumps were the most frequent. In March 2014, measles outbreak was registered. Almost all cases are unvaccinated (99%) and 43% of all cases are connected with failure of vaccination during the war. Conclusion: During the war, routine immunization program was disrupted in Bosnia and Herzegovina (also in Canton Sarajevo). The consequences are presented as vaccine preventable diseases cases. PMID:25685082

  1. The Epidemiology of Hospital-Referred Head Injury in Northern Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor Ingebrigtsen; Kim Mortensen; Bertil Romner

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective population-based survey describes the epidemiology of head injury in a defined population in Northern Norway. It includes all 247 patients with head injury referred to the University Hospital of Tromsř, Norway, during 1993. Head injury was defined as physical damage to the brain or skull caused by external force. The annual incidence rate of hospital-referred head injury was

  2. Give War a Chance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, an online complement to a PBS Frontline program aired earlier this week, explores how US diplomats and the military differ on the use of forceful interventions in the post-Vietnam era. The difference is explored through the experiences of US Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, UN Ambassador-nominee, and Admiral Leighton "Snuffy" Smith (ret.), a Vietnam war hero who commanded NATO forces in Bosnia. The site features biographies and interviews with Holbrooke and Smith, and also includes a report on American use of military might, an analysis of US foreign policy in regard to the nations of the former Yugoslavia, an interview with Major H.R. McMaster about the lessons learned from Vietnam, and a chronology of US military interventions in the last 30 years.

  3. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  4. Illinois Civil War Newspapers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created as part of an ambitious effort to digitize a wide range of documents related to the Civil War in Illinois, this site is a great resource for historians and the curious public. It's quite a trove, as it offers visitors access to over 1,900 documents including commentaries from Senator Stephen Douglas, letters from soldiers back home, the draft, and much more. The site also has a nice search engine that gives visitors the ability to perform a full-text search across all of the articles. Accounts of well known battles in places such as Richmond and Gettysburg can be read through the lenses of small town newspapers in Illinois. Finally, the site also has great links to the rest of the digitization projects at Northern Illinois University.

  5. Men, machines, and war

    SciTech Connect

    Haycock, R.; Neilson, K.

    1987-01-01

    Using examples from the last two centuries, this collection of essays discusses the close links between technology and war. In the opening essay, historian William H. McNeill demonstrates the extent to which military technology has often led to differentiations among people, both within and between societies. The other studies examine various aspects of weapons technology, drawing on the histories of the armed forces of Britian, Prussia, and Australia, among others. The concluding chapter by Dr. G. R. Lindsey, the Chief of the Operational Research and Analysis Establishment at the Department of National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa, makes the case that, with nuclear weapons added to the scene, the impact of technology on international security has never been as great as at present, and that the competition of nations seeking the technological edge in weaponry threatens to destabilize the precarious balance that has existed since 1945.

  6. World War II Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Posted by the History department at the University of San Diego, this site makes available over 100 strategic maps from World War II. All the major theaters of conflict are represented here from Asia and the South Pacific to Northern Africa, Europe, and the Battle for the Atlantic. Thumbnail versions of the maps are listed in chronological order beginning with a 1939 map of Gibraltar and ending with cartography from the battle for the Philippines in late 1944. The entries also state the source of each map with the majority coming from the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library, the Illustrated London News, the Library of Congress, and the National Archives. Users can click on the thumbnail image to get a full-screen version of the map for further study.

  7. Lessons from history: morbidity of cold injury in the Royal Marines during the Falklands Conflict of 1982

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental conditions in the Falklands Conflict of 1982 favoured the genesis of cold injuries. Immediately, post-war, cold injury morbidity and its contributory factors were assessed, in the personnel of UK 3 Commando Brigade (3 Cdo Bde). Methods A questionnaire survey of the 3,006 members of 3 Cdo Bde who landed on the islands was conducted within 6–10 weeks of the end of hostilities. Questions included those relating to features of cold injury, body morphology, age, symptoms experienced, past medical history and other possible contributory causes. Additionally, the unit medical team conducted a cursory examination. Data were sent to the Royal Navy Institute of Naval Medicine (INM), where the degree of likely cold injury was broadly classified (‘asymptomatic’ ‘mild’, ‘moderate’ or ‘severe’). A sample (total 109) was then selected at random from each category and subsequently examined and tested at the INM (nerve conduction, photoplethysmography and thermography testing). Forty-seven non-cold exposed sailors acted as a control group. These contemporaneous records have now been identified and interrogated. Results Some 2,354 (78%) completed questionnaires were returned, revealing that 1,505 (64%) had experienced symptoms of non-freezing cold injury. The morbidity in the infantry units was significantly greater than that in the support troops (1,051 (76%) vs 454 (46%), p?injury. Whilst there was no significant relationship between past history and cold injury morbidity in the brigade as a whole, or within the infantry units alone, an association was identified in the collective infantry units (73%) and the support/headquarter units (59%) (p?retrospective interrogation of historical documents hard, the available data do appear to offer valuable historical and clinical insights. Cold injury affected the majority of those fighting in the cold temperate climate of the Falklands. The overwhelming environmental conditions meant that, for most, a past history of cold injury did not appear to represent a risk factor for subsequent injury, as is the case for less severe conditions. Importantly, even asymptomatic individuals when tested often showed physiological evidence of cold injury—perhaps predisposing them to subsequent elevation in risk. PMID:24070118

  8. [Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management].

    PubMed

    Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy. PMID:24343140

  9. Ocular Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    What causes eye injuries? Injuries to the eye and surrounding structures can be caused by blunt trauma from a ball or fist, sharp ... eye,or the eyeball itself. What are some injuries to the eyelids? Eyelid injuries usually occur as ...

  10. Spanish Civil War Memory Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of California, San Diego in collaboration with several Spanish civic associations, including the Federacion Estatal de Foros por La Memoria and others, have put together this remarkable digital archive of the Spanish Civil War and the Francoist Dictatorship. Since 2007, several teams of graduate students have been recording audiovisual testimonies of militants, witnesses, and victims of the Spanish Civil War and Francoist repression. On this site, visitors can listen to dozens of recorded testimonies in English and Spanish and also read about the interview protocol and methods. The Video Catalog area contains some helpful resources, including information about each participant and their specific involvement in the war.

  11. Neurologic injury in snowmobiling

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling. PMID:25024887

  12. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  13. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  14. War Rape: New Conceptualizations and Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Farwell

    2004-01-01

    This article presents new conceptualizations of war rape in international law and defines rape as a weapon and strategy of war. It also outlines the intersections of gender, patriarchy, militarism, and ethnic, religious, and political identities that fuel war rape as part of a continuum of violence against women. Local and transnational examples of women’s responses to war rape demonstrate

  15. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: crash characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zulkipli, Zarir Hafiz; Abdul Rahmat, Abdul Manap; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Atiqah; Paiman, Noor Faradila; Wong, Shaw Voon; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p<0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury. PMID:23036400

  16. Childhood sledding injuries in 1990-91.

    PubMed

    Manary, M J; Hollifield, W C

    1993-06-01

    Sledding injuries are a common wintertime problem. To better characterize these injuries, three analyses were done: a retrospective chart review of all injured sledders at St. Louis Children's Hospital (SLCH) in the winter of 1990-91, a review of Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) injury data for 1990, and measurements of sledding speeds. Analyses of the SLCH data and the CPSC data yielded similar results. Younger children incur more head injuries, while older children incur more extremity injuries. The SLCH data indicate that most injuries occur close to home when a sledder strikes a fixed object in his path. Velocities of 10 to 20 mph may be easily achieved. Injury prevention includes appropriate selection of sledding site, use of protective clothing, and refraining from sledding at times of highest risk. PMID:8346090

  17. World war, civil war, and polar bears: the american-north russian expeditionary force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Aaron Comfort

    2010-01-01

    At the height of the First World War the Russian Empire under Tsar Nicolas the II collapsed, to be followed quickly by the Provisional government set up to replace it, plunging Russia into its famous and bloody Civil War. The Russian Civil War took a primary Allie out of the war, forcing an increasingly desperate Allied War Council to make

  18. Civil War, World War, and polar bears: The American North Russian Expedition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Comfort

    2010-01-01

    At the height of the First World War the Russian Empire under Tsar Nicolas the II collapsed, to be followed quickly by the Provisional government set up to replace it, plunging Russia into its famous and bloody Civil War. The Russian Civil War took a primary Allie out of the war, forcing an increasingly desperate Allied War Council to make

  19. How Much War Should Be Included in a Course on World War II?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that end of Cold War increases need for students to understand causes and aftermath of World War II. Recommends spending less time on military aspects of the war and more time on the economic, social, and cultural impact of total war. Provides a selected list of resources to be used in a college level course on the war. (CFR)

  20. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  1. [Hospital under fire--take home message from one war].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2010-07-01

    Future conflicts in our region will no longer be limited to clashes between opposing armies. Unlike past wars, which by and large did not target places of worship and hospitals, such structures will not be immune from attack in the "total wars" of the future, nor will the civilian population be spared. Hospitals may be hit by enemy fire and must, therefore, be ready to work under adverse conditions and emergency situations. This article describes the accumulated experience of our hospital as a confrontation Line medical facility for over 30 years, sustaining direct hits with injuries to people and damage to buildings. Lessons from those confrontations, particularly the second Lebanon war, are discussed and recommendations to other hospitals formulated, essentially highlighting the following: The need to protect the hospital's physical structures in order to guarantee the safety of patients, staff and visitors in the event of conventionaL or non-conventional war. The provision of protected transportation for the staff and in-hospitaL day-camps and dormitories for their children in order to bolster the presence of the staff on board and enable them to work unperturbed. Preparation of the hospital for work under fire, drafting emergency procedures that are custom-tailored to the needs of the hospital, particularly the evacuation of patients from vulnerable wards to protected areas, and drilling the entire staff regularly and methodically. PMID:21465761

  2. BA War & Society Module Information

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    of Imperial Rome ML-227 War and Conflict in European Film AM-240 The Paradox of Power: PO-222 Globalisation (To select this module students must pursue HIH3329 also) HIH3319 The History of Violence HIH3329

  3. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  4. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  5. Psychological aspects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

  6. Civil War and Foreign Influence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Facundo Albornoz; Esther Hauk

    2010-01-01

    We study a symmetric information bargaining model of civil war where a third (foreign) party can a?ect the probabilities of winning the con?ict and the size of the post con?ict spoils. We show that the possible alliance with a third party makes peaceful agreements di?cult to reach and might lead to new commitment problems that trigger war. Also, we argue

  7. War On No Uncertain Terms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RYAN T. BENNETT; Friedrich Nietzsche

    T he war story, from Hemingway to Heller, is a cherished staple of American literature. Through the words of the war narrative—as often irrev- erent as bellicose—we engage in vicarious conflict, mounting armchair cam- paigns and capturing capitals before bedtime. But can the actual experience of warfare be adequately transmitted through prose? Beyond descriptions of crackling machine-gun fire and the

  8. U.S. Civil War Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The U.S. Civil War Center's area of interest includes all aspects of the Civil War and Reconstruction. The Center combines scholarly pursuits with projects and programs designed to enhance the general public's perception of the Civil War. Anyone with an interest in the Civil War is welcome to visit the CWC homepage and their collection of Web links related to the Civil War, which include indexes, letters, diaries, museums, discussion groups, newspapers, university archives, and Web-accessible documents.

  9. First World War.Com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Michael Duffy, this site amasses an impressive amount of valuable cultural, historical, and social documentation of "the Great War." The site begins with some highlighted collections, such as Peace and Truce on the Western Front, Photo Reconnaissance, and Keeping 'em on The Farm. While the Web site is a work-in-progress, visitors will enjoy browsing through different sections that offer a broad portrait of the causes of the war (How it Began), the different political and military leaders involved in the conflict (Who's Who), and the war's technological innovations (such as flamethrowers and machine guns) that made this first modern war possible. Persons looking for first-hand accounts of the war should go to the Memoirs and Diaries section, which contains dozens of documents recounting the personal experiences. Historians will appreciate the primary documents that lead up to the beginning of the war itself and continue to 1919. Overall, it is a well-thought out site, and one that is both engaging and quite informative.

  10. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  11. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

  12. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex [Naval Dosimetry Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD, 20889 (United States); Trompier, Francois [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France 92262 (France)

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  13. Pediatric Genital Injury: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603

  14. Activity of daily living and its associated factors in war survivors with no visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Reza; Haghani, Hamid; Masoomi, Mehdi; Assari, Shervin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: War is a known cause of tremendous physical injuries to different body organs, and eyes are not exceptions. War-related no visual acuity (NVA) affects both the victim and the family. Activity of daily living (ADL) can display personal life independency and is considered as a morbidity index. This study was designed to investigate the ADL profile of war survivors with NVA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Iran. In this study, 500 Iranian people with war related NVA were invited to take part in a camp in Mashhad city. ADL was evaluated using Barthel Index and demographic data were collected using a data sheet. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the associates of ADL. RESULTS: The overall response rate to the invitation was 50%. From the total 250 participants 96.5% were male with a mean age of 43 ± 8 years. Only 8.3% had no dependency in ADL and other 91.7% had some ranges of dependency in at least one of the daily living activities. ADL score was higher in highly educated participants, those younger than 50 years old, those with less co-morbid physical problems (hearing loss) and those with regular physical exercises. According to regression analysis, age and duration of war related NVA were significant predictors of ADL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, both age and the time passed from war related NVA increase the dependency of people with war related NVA. PMID:21526082

  15. Physical Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... advancing trauma-informed knowledge, leadership and methodologies. The Center’s work addresses a wide scope of trauma exposure from the consequences of combat, operations other than war, terrorism, natural and human-made ...

  16. Injury risk evaluation in sport climbing.

    PubMed

    Neuhof, A; Hennig, F F; Schöffl, I; Schöffl, V

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and rate acute sport climbing injuries. Acute sport climbing injuries occurring from 2002 to 2006 were retrospectively assessed with a standardized web based questionnaire. A total number of 1962 climbers reported 699 injuries, which is equivalent to 0.2 injuries per 1?000?h of sport participation. Most (74.4%) of the injuries were of minor severity rated NACA I or NACA II. Injury distribution between the upper (42.6%) and lower extremities (41.3%) was similar, with ligament injuries, contusions and fractures being the most common injury types. Years of climbing experience (p<0.01), difficulty level (p<0.01), climbing time per week during summer (p<0.01) and winter (p<0.01) months were correlated with the injury rate. Age (p<0.05 (p=0.034)), years of climbing experience (p<0.01) and average climbing level (p<0.01) were correlated to the injury severity rated through NACA scores. The risk of acute injuries per 1?000?h of sport participation in sport climbing was lower than in previous studies on general rock climbing and higher than in studies on indoor climbing. In order to perform inter-study comparisons of future studies on climbing injuries, the use of a systematic and standardized scoring system (UIAA score) is essential. PMID:21913158

  17. Injury Patterns In Low Intensity Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, V

    2009-01-01

    Summary Injury patterns and their outcome has been the subject of interest in all kinds of military conflicts. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital (Level I trauma centre) to find out the trends in injuries in low intensity conflict, adequacy of pre hospital treatment, mortality patterns and adequacy of treatment after reaching tertiary care hospital. 418 patients were treated over a period of two years. All were male and 76% younger than 30 years of age. 61% patients reported directly from the site of incident and 39% were transferred from other trauma centre. Two-third of patients (73.9%) reported with at least one limb injury and 44.9% with extremity injury alone. Multiple injuries were most common injury (29%). Head and neck injuries were seen in 20% patients and Thoracic and abdominal injuries were seen in 2.6% and 3.4% patients only. Most common mode of injury was Gunshot wound (41.4%), followed by splinter injuries (39.2%) and Road traffic accident(RTA) (19.4%). Overall mortality was 3.8% and inpatient mortality of 1.4%. Head and neck injuries were leading cause of death followed by thoracic injuries. PMID:20640095

  18. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. PMID:24961713

  19. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  20. Corneal injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  1. Reconstruction of blast injuries of the hand and upper limb.

    PubMed

    Bakhach, Joseph; Abu-Sitta, Ghassan; Dibo, Saad

    2013-03-01

    Over recent years, hand surgeons in the Middle East and Arabic region have particularly had to deal with an increasing number of war blast injuries to the upper extremity, in the acute, subacute and chronic phases. Many have been referred from War Zone countries such as Iraq and, more recently, Syria, where the resources to treat such complex injuries are scarce. The present article is a comprehensive review of the basic principles of management of blast injuries based on the available literature merged with the authors' personal experience of these injuries. The state of the art in treatment of blast injuries to the hand, from ammunition physics and wound ballistics to radiological investigation and, ultimately, the principles of surgical management are discussed. PMID:23357578

  2. Epidemiology of violence and war.

    PubMed

    Cvjetanovi?, B

    2000-06-01

    The magnitude of the threat that violence and war pose to the health, the quality of life, and the very survival of humanity is obvious. A number of scientific disciplines have provided, each through its own methodology, insights into the causation, genesis, and dynamics of violence and war. Although epidemiological and psychological methodologies received priority, the multidisciplinary approach to this problem seems to be the most appropriate. This essay attempts to approach holistically the study of epidemiology of violence and war and the ways of preventing these severe problems of the contemporary society. Conceptual models of the causative mechanisms and dynamics of violence and war, mapping the various psychic, social, and environmental factors, are presented. These models, besides advancing abstract ideas, also provide a concrete framework for determining and exploring the interactions and dynamics of the factors and processes which lead to violence and war. The types of interventions outlined for control and prevention are intended to make an impact upon "critical points" within the dynamics of the process which produces violence and war, and are conceived to be implemented on both the national and international level. The importance of family, community, and school influences is considered, but the role of international organizations, including the United Nations, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations is also stressed. Discussion is focused on the factors which favour peace and hamper aggression, on "internationalization" and global society versus xenophobia and nationalism. The conclusions state that there is sufficient knowhow to devise and implement a reasonable and effective international programme for the control and prevention of violence and war, provided there is adequate public and political willingness and support. PMID:10895528

  3. Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Promoting and facilitating the study of the global impact of World War II, the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIWD) actively encourages consultation of its archives and services -- some of which are accessible online, while others must be consulted in person. With extensive textual and photographic documentation of the war, especially aspects relating to the German occupation of the Netherlands, the NIWD is a fantastic resource for anyone attempting to conduct research on the traumatic impact of world war. Particularly strong in documenting the war as it impacted the Netherlands and its immediate geographic neighbors, the Institute supports research on the mistreatment and deportation of the Jews through meticulously maintained records, the majority of which are in Dutch or German. Aside from presenting lists of its holdings and areas of expertise, the NIWD site also makes available online bibliographies produced by its area scholars and archivists. Lastly, the site also serves as a source of information on associated organizations and their efforts, including forthcoming publications, conferences, and research awards.

  4. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  5. Karate injuries in children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merrilee N Zetaruk; Mariona A Violan; David Zurakowski; Lyle J Micheli

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for injury and to establish safety guidelines for children in Uechi–Ryu karate. Design: A 1-year retrospective survey of injuries. Setting: A private karate school (Uechi–Ryu style) in Plymouth, MA. Patients: A total of 68 athletes (age 6–16 years; mean age 10 years) who participated in karate during the 1995–1996 season. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures:

  6. Rethinking the war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanahan, Douglas

    2014-02-01

    Some 40 years ago a metaphor was posed that cancer was such an insidious adversary that a declaration of war on the disease was justified. Although this statement was a useful inspiration for enlistment of resources, despite extraordinary progress in our understanding of disease pathogenesis, in most cases and for most forms of cancer this war has not been won. A second metaphor was about magic bullets--targeted therapies based on knowledge of mechanisms that were envisaged to strike with devastating consequences for the disease. The reality, however, is that targeted therapies are generally not curative or even enduringly effective, because of the adaptive and evasive resistance strategies developed by cancers under attack. In this Series paper, I suggest that, much like in modern warfare, the war on cancer needs to have a battlespace vision. PMID:24351321

  7. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. PMID:21941691

  8. Wisconsin in the Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    There's lots of talk about the Civil War these days, and a myriad of organizations have started releasing digital collections, mobile applications, and so on. The Wisconsin Historical society has created this digital collection of over 20,000 original documents containing a wealth of diaries, regimental histories and hundreds of newspaper articles and maps. The materials are divided into sections that include Stories, People, Places, Regiments, and Battles. Visitors are encouraged to get started by clicking on the This Day in Civil War History to get a flavor for the events from each day during the four-year conflict. Also, the Brief Excerpts from the Collection allow visitors to dip into the offering here with ease. The Places area is quite excellent, as visitors can read narratives from those soldiers and other people who set forth into the war from towns small and large around the Badger State.

  9. BBC: WW2 People's War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the passing of another Veteran's Day here in the United States, many persons may be interested to learn about the everyday experiences of persons around the world during various military conflicts. The BBC has created this website in an attempt to allow people to share their reminisces of World War II, and quite a few stories and tales have been contributed thus far. Visitors to the site can browse stories by date, location, or type; additionally, stories are organized into thematic categories such as Childhood and Evacuation, Family Life, The Blitz, and Home Front. For each story, visitors have the option of commenting on each narrative, or offering their own remembrances as well. The site also offers some links to other online features offered by the BBC, such as QuickTime movies dealing with various facets of World War II and another quirky site that details how the war affected British children.

  10. Interior Department goes to war

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, S.

    1981-06-01

    Interior Department policy to open US public lands to the mining industry use is rationalized as the resource war with the Soviet Union over strategic minerals vital to national defense. Mining-industry members and government officials express concerns about vulnerability despite a National Defense Stockpile of materials for military hardware manufactures. Promoters of the concept of resource war and locked-up land use a number of figures, definitions, and interpretations that differ from those claimed by environmentalists and researchers. Restrictions may be eased and changes in legislation may make mining the highest priority use of public land. (DCK)

  11. World War II - Prisoners of War - Stalag Luft I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Begun as a tribute to their father Dick Williams Jr., a prisoner of war in the WWII German prison camp Stalag Luft I, this website has become a comprehensive record of what life was like at the prison camp. Some of the many links on the website include POW's stories, photos, poetry, art, roommates, newspaper, and account of the evacuation. There are also links on the guards and interrogators at the Stalag Luft I. Visitors interested in verse will surely want to browse the Poetry section, which has dozens of poems and quotes taken from the diaries of WWII prisoners of war, as well as a song composed by a member of the kriegie (prisoner of war) orchestra, called "Low is the Sun". Visitors should also be sure to check out the Newspaper link, which is about the paper called the POW WOW, Prisoners of War - Waiting on Winning. The paper had a circulation of thousands and traveled to as many as seven camps. Visitors can appreciate how lucky they are to be able to read the six issues known to be in existence, as the newspaper was meant to be destroyed immediately after reading. Interestingly, there was even a newspaper parodying POW WOW, called BOW WOW, which can be found below the issues of POW WOW. Overall it is a fascinating site filled with a trove of primary resources and information about the WWII POW experience.

  12. The Geometry Of War The Geometry Of War

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    Formations. In Gunnery, we traced the development of cannons through the centuries. The cannons had evolved. The Half Speed Rule is used to calculate the distance travelled by a falling object which falls at uniform Of War 1.0 Gunnery Any study of military weapons involves a guided tour of the `dark side' of human

  13. Specialist neurocritical care and outcome from head injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiren C. Patel; David K. Menon; Susan Tebbs; Rebecca Hawker; Peter J. Hutchinson; Peter J. Kirkpatrick

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To document the effect of neurocritical care, delivered by specialist staff and based on protocol-driven therapy aimed at intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) targets, on outcome in acute head injury. Design: Retrospective record review to compare presentation, therapy and outcome in patients with head injury referred to a regional neurosurgical centre, before and after establishment of

  14. Paediatric sports injuries in Hong Kong: a seven year survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Maffulli; R C Bundoc; K M Chan; J C Cheng

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the epidemiological characteristics of sports injuries in children in Hong Kong. METHODS: Retrospective review of all cases seen in the Sports Injury Clinic of the Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, in the period May 1984 to December 1990. The variables studied were age at presentation, gender, side of the body injured, anatomical location of the

  15. Risk of Early Childhood Injuries in Twins and Singletons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudsari, Bahman S.; Utter, Garth H.; Kernic, Mary A.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of twin births in the United States (US) has increased more than 65 per cent since 1980. However, the risk of injury to multiple-birth children is unknown. We sought to compare the risk of injury-related hospitalization and death between multiples and singletons. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked birth…

  16. 17.582 Civil War, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Petersen, Roger

    This course surveys the social science literature on civil war. It studies the origins of civil war, discusses variables affecting duration, and examines termination of conflict. This subject is highly interdisciplinary ...

  17. Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood

    E-print Network

    Osgood, Brad

    Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood Stanford University #12;Tehran meeting November 28th expansion, neither German diplomacy nor German war preparation could have carried the weight they did. In the

  18. STS.436 Cold War Science, Spring 2004

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, David

    This course examines the history and legacy of the Cold War on science, looking predominantly at examples in the United States. It begins by exploring scientists’ new political roles after World War II, ranging from elite ...

  19. Children and Nuclear War. Reviews of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallinga, Charlotte; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews research on children's and adolescents' knowledge, feelings, and fears about nuclear war. Offers suggestions for teachers who wish to address children's and adolescents' concerns about nuclear war. (Author/BB)

  20. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. (Western Washington Univ. (US))

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  1. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  2. Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail S.

    Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

  3. Toys as discourse: children's war toys and the war on terror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Machin; Theo Van Leeuwen

    2009-01-01

    War toys of different eras realize the dominant discourses of war of the time, and they do so in a way which allows children to enact these discourses and values in play. This paper examines war toys over the past 100 years before providing a detailed multimodal analysis of contemporary war toys distributed around the planet, mainly by global American

  4. Nowhere to Run? Punishing War Crimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael ClarkPeter Cave; Peter Cave

    2010-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to pose problems appropriate for the first paper of this issue, to provide something of an overview of\\u000a the punishment of war crimes. It considers first the rationale of the law of war, the identification and scope of war crimes,\\u000a and proceeds to consider the justification of punishing war crimes, arguing for a consequentialist view with

  5. [The characteristics of blast traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hatano, Ben; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji

    2010-08-01

    With the increase in terrorist activity in recent times, the number of blast injuries has also increased in civilian and military settings. In a recent war, the number of patients who suffered blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) increased, so treatment of bTBI is currently a very important issue. Blast injury is complicated and can be divided into 4 categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary blast injury results from exposure to blast waves; secondary blast injury is trauma caused by fragments of explosive devices; tertiary blast injury is the result of collision with objects; and quaternary blast injury is the result of exposure to toxic and other substances. Blast waves mainly injure air-containing organs such as the lung, bowel, and ear. The brain may also be affected by blast waves. From the clinical perspective, hyperemia and severe cerebral edema occur frequently in patients who sustain significant bTBI. Penetrating or closed head injury caused by the explosion may be associated with vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Mild traumatic brain injury during war can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. To elucidate the mechanism of bTBI, many research works using animal models and computer analysis are underway. Such studies have so far shown that blast waves can cause damage to the brain tissue and cognitive deficits; however, detailed investigations on this topic are still required. Treatment of bTBI patients may require clinical knowledge and skills related to intensive care, neurology, and neurosurgery. Moreover, further research is required in this field. PMID:20697143

  6. An Anthropology of Violence and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balandier, Georges

    1986-01-01

    Describes anthropological thinking about primeval violence; how it originated, was manifested, and controlled. Discusses the role of war in Mawri of Niger society as an example of a society which preferred war to peace. Concludes with reflections on present 'secondary or induced wars,' and the need to understand these conflicts in terms of an…

  7. The American jeremiad in Civil War literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Hadley Stratman

    2007-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes the religious rhetoric and Biblical allusions in literature written surrounding the American Civil War: Herman Melville's Battle Pieces: Aspects of the War ; Walt Whitman's Memoranda During the War ; selected poetry of John Greenleaf Whittier published in William Lloyd Garrison's abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator ; and, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Dred. Each chapter explores how

  8. The Civil War in Literature: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Dave

    The Civil War in Literature is a course in which investigation is made into the legacy that this war left to humanity. Through the reading and discussion of literary works written during or about the Civil War, including "Jubilee,""Gone with the Wind,""Red Badge of Courage," poetry by Walt Whitman, and the essays of Frederick Douglass, students…

  9. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  10. Redefining America's "War on Drugs"

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Redefining America's "War on Drugs" FSU Center for the Advancement of Human Rights presents Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Director Kerlikowske was nominated by President Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. In his position

  11. International War Veterans' Poetry Archives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by and for war veterans, this website contains poetry and short stories that are not only written about war veterans, but they are also written by them. The submissions can be from veterans of any nation, but must pertain to war, veterans, or the consequences of war. The website also includes resources for veterans who want to connect with other veterans and for those saddled with the unique challenges associated with being a veteran. "The Index of Authors" section at the top of the page will lead visitors to author pages and their writings. Some have photos, and others have extensive biographical essays. Visitors can find everything new added to the site, by month and year, going all the way back to 2001, by clicking on "Recent Additions" at the top of the page. The "Writing Resources" link at the top of the page has some great links to general writing sources, and to specific veteran writing resources, such as "Voice of the Vet: Veterans Writing Project", which takes place weekly at the National Vietnam Veterans Art Museum in Chicago. "Recommended Links", found at the top of the page, offers a slew of sites that honor veterans, help veterans, inform veterans, remember veterans, and tell the stories of veterans.

  12. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains chapters under the following headings: deterrence and reassurance; arms race and war; nuclear decisions: cognitive limit to the thinkable; is there a role for third parties as mediators for the prevention; sources of moderation in Soviet security policy.

  13. Crime wars and peacemaking criminology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David O. Friedrichs

    1994-01-01

    In the mid?1990s, the long?standing “war on crime” has acquired a new momentum. A major public opinion poll in January 1994 showed 37 percent of the respondents believing that crime is the nation's premier problem; this is twice as high as it had been only five months earlier, and four times the figure for January 1993 (USA Today, January 25,

  14. The Revolutionary War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's novel "My Brother Sam Is Dead," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that one way to learn about the past is to read historical novels; and that some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict, and some find themselves caught in the…

  15. Young People and Nuclear War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav K. Roschin; Tatiana S. Kabachenko

    Although no bombs have yet exploded in World War III, there are already victims - not physically, but psychologically. Worse yet, these victims are often those most precious to us, our children. This paper examines the impact of the nuclear threat on the human psyche with particular emphasis on the mental state of young people and children. While a few

  16. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  17. The Korean War: A Bibliography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robinson, Ken.

    This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

  18. Outcome After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. KUO; N. C. TEJWANI; C. W. DIGIOVANNI; S. K. HOLT; S. K. BENIRSCHKE; S. T. HANSEN; B. J. SANGEORZAN

    2000-01-01

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended as the treatment for most un- stable injuries of the Lisfranc (tarsometatarsal) joint. It has been thought that purely ligamentous injuries have a poor outcome despite such surgical management. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent open reduction and screw fixa- tion of a Lisfranc injury in a

  19. RETROSPECTIVE MONITORING OF INORGANIC MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of chronological reference points to which present levels of inorganic pollutants can be compared is increasingly needed. The requirements for retrospective monitoring methods are discussed in relation to their attainability. The literature has been reviewed for b...

  20. Dr. Seuss Went to War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Between 1941 and 1943, Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss) was the chief editorial cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM (1940-1948), penning over 400 editorial cartoons that commented first on American neutrality and then involvement in the Second World War. The entire collection of these cartoons (original drawings and/or newspaper clippings) is held by the Mandeville Special Collections Library at the University of California, San Diego. While the 1999 book Dr. Seuss Went to War reproduced 200 of these cartoons, the remaining half have not been published or studied since their original appearance. This amazing collection has now been placed online and is browseable by year, month, and day. Subject term browsing will be available in the future. The cartoons are presented as large thumbnails which link to a full-sized image presented in an unfortunately cramped frame. The cartoons comment on a wide variety of topics, including war preparedness, domestic politics, and isolationism, with particular criticism for the US Congress and Americans not prepared to sacrifice for the war effort. Caricatures of the Axis nations, especially the Japanese, reflect contemporaneous stereotypes. Drawn in characteristic Seuss style, with many creatures familiar to fans of his best-known work, these cartoons are both an excellent look into wartime US domestic politics and public opinion and clever, visually interesting cartoons in their own right. As an added bonus, the site also features some even rarer cartoons that Geisel drew for other publications and for war bond drives. This is simply an excellent resource for students, researchers, and any fan of Horton, the Grinch, the Lorax, and Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose.

  1. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  2. Chiropractic treatment of chronic ‘whiplash’ injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Woodward; J. C. H. Cook; M. F. Gargan; G. C. Bannister

    1996-01-01

    Forty-three per cent of patients will suffer long-term symptoms following ‘whiplash’ injury, for which no conventional treatment has proven to be effective. A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the effects of chiropractic in a group of 28 patients who had been referred with chronic ‘whiplash’ syndrome. The severity of patients' symptoms was assessed before and after treatment using the

  3. Managing the health effects of the explosive remnants of war.

    PubMed

    Kett, Maria E; Mannion, Steve J

    2004-11-01

    Many civilian deaths and injuries across the globe are a consequence of 'explosive remnants of war' (ERW). These ERW include mines, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and cluster bombs. The numbers of deaths, injuries and resulting disabilities from ERW are expected to increase as armed conflicts proliferate. This will have a substantial effect on all aspects of health. This article first describes the mechanisms of these ERW and the nature of the injuries they can cause. It then briefly outlines the immediate medical management such injuries require; the long-term outcomes and sequelae, and what can be done to manage them. It highlights how research and medical interventions must take into account cultural, social and economic factors in addition to utilising safe and appropriate techniques and practices. The article concludes by noting that medical personnel are well placed not only to intervene and manage the direct health effects of ERW, but also indirectly by advocating on behalf of those affected by adding their voices to campaigns against their proliferation. PMID:15602994

  4. Wisconsin Goes To War: Our Civil War Experience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the Civil War, over 12,000 men from Wisconsin were killed. Their stories, along with the stories of other Wisconsin residents, is told through first person narrative accounts which form part of this important digital collection created by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections group. These documents were originally selected for digitization for use by Civil War history courses taught at University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh. The first phase of the collection consists of over 630 pages of materials from the years 1861 to 1866, and when the entire project is complete visitors will be able to search through approximately 2,600 pages of materials. Visitors may wish to start their journey by looking at some of the 42 sub collections here, which include the diary of William Ault who served in the 14th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment and the papers of the Ladies' Union League, which handled claims for money for Wisconsin soldiers and their families.

  5. World War I & World War II Propaganda Posters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The horrors of war are many and the fighting often extends to the homefront via various forms of propaganda. This magnificent collection from Brandeis University brings together 87 propaganda posters from World Wars I & II in glorious color and equally glorious black and white. The posters deal with a number of themes, including the work of the Red Cross, the subscription of Liberty, and Victory loans. Many notable artists contributed work to this effort, including James Montgommery Flagg, Adolph Treidler, and Haskell Coffin. Visitors can browse the posters by title, author, or date. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the rather dramatic "All together!" poster or the demanding "Are you 100% American" work created to promote the purchasing of U.S. government bonds. [KMG

  6. World War I and II Poster Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    War posters from World War I and II encouraged the people of the nations at war to buy war bonds, plant gardens, ration, enlist, or work extra hard for the sake of the war effort. A collection of these posters can be found in abundance on the library website of the University of North Texas. The library has over 600 war posters, and fortunately, 493 of them are digitized. Some are quaint by today's standards, but some, like the fifth record on the homepage, entitled "Deliver Us From Evil: Buy War Bonds," has an eerie haunting quality to it. In the search box underneath the introduction to the poster collection, type in Geisel to see a poster by a familiar artist and author, encouraging Americans to "Starve the Squander Bug." Visitors should click on the thumbnail to see those "squander bugs" in full detail.

  7. Bomb blast, mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric morbidity: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld; Nick L. Ford

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) arising from blast exposure during war is common, and frequently complicated by psychiatric morbidity. There is controversy as to whether mild TBI from blast is different from other causes of mild TBI. Anxiety and affective disorders such as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression are common accompaniments of blast injury with a significant overlap in the

  8. When Service Members with Traumatic Brain Injury Become Students: Methods to Advance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Kimberly Turner; Libertz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain which evidence-based interventions in study strategies have been successful in helping soldiers and veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) return to the classroom. Military leaders have specifically identified TBI as one of the signature injuries of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with over a quarter of…

  9. Lightning Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien-Tsung Hsu; Tzong-Luen Wang

    2004-01-01

    Lightning strikes the earth millions of times every day. Lightning causes serious injuries in 1000- 1500 individuals and over 1000 people death every year worldwide. Lightning causes damage to a wide range of body systems including cardiopulmonary, neurological, vascular, cutaneous burns, ophthalmic, and otological injuries. The most common cause of death in lightning strikes is cardiop- ulmonary arrest. If multiple

  10. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  11. Hawaii War Records Depository Photos

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hawaii War Records Depository was established in 1943, and it contains over 880 photographs taken by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Navy during the Second World War. The Depository also holds around 1000 newspaper photographs from the Honolulu Star Bulletin and 330 photographs identified as being from the Honolulu Advertiser. These unique items depict various Army and Navy activities throughout Hawaii during this period. The University of Hawaii was able to digitize these items via a grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and they are now available for perusal by the web-browsing public. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, and they can do so by photo number, agency, category, or date. Browsing by category is a good way to start, and some of the headings include "Boy Scouts", "Civic Events", and "Religion". Additionally, visitors can use the "Search" section to explore the collection via keywords.

  12. Hawaii War Records Depository Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Life in Hawaii after World War II was documented in part due to a joint resolution passed by the Hawaii Territorial Legislature which stated that the University of Hawaii would be the official depository of material related to Hawaii's part in this global conflict. Over a five-year period, individuals and agencies donated personal accounts, reports, photographs, scrapbooks, newspapers, and maps to the collection. Parts of the collection have been digitized, and visitors can look through those revealing items here. The sections here include "Veterans' Essays", "Japanese American Veterans Timeline", and "Digitized Photographs". The "Veterans' Essays" is a good place to start, and visitors shouldn't miss the "Digitized Photographs", which contains hundreds of images related to life on the islands during the period. The site also contains links to other World War II collections online and contact information.

  13. World War One Color Photos

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While color photography was around by the start of World War I, it was not in widespread use. Interestingly enough, the French Army happened to take many photographs in color during the last two years of World War I. This site presents several hundred of these photographs, and visitors can browse through them at their leisure. Visitors can search the entire archive, or they may also wish to look through several of the galleries. While complete bibliographic information is not available for the photos, each photo does have a brief caption which describes the basic context and setting for each image. The site is rounded out by a selection of relevant links, including several online WWI forums and sites that compile military quotations.

  14. `Books in WarTime'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Marshall

    1940-01-01

    IN the libraries books are divided into two great classes: fiction and non-fiction. Nine tenths of the fiction published is of such poor quality that it could well be spared in war-time, whereas publications on non-fiction nearly always contain something of value. Good fiction is valuable and should not be discouraged, but a reduction of the present enormous volume of

  15. Comparing Fractions War Card Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-22

    In this math activity, learners practice comparing fractions. Learners use special cards (included in PDF) to play a card game similar to "War." Players each flip over a card and compare them to see who has the greater fraction. The person with the greater fraction collects that card pair. The object of the game is to collect the most card pairs by the end of the game.

  16. Boarding Injuries: The Long and the Short of It

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Leslie A.; Thygerson, Steven M.; Merrill, Ray M.

    2014-01-01

    As the popularity of longboarding increases, trauma centers are treating an increased number of high severity injuries. Current literature lacks descriptions of the types of injuries experienced by longboarders, a distinct subset of the skateboarding culture. A retrospective review of longboarding and skateboarding injury cases was conducted at a level II trauma center from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2011. Specific injuries in addition to high injury severity factors (hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), patient treatment options, disposition, and outcome) were calculated to compare longboarder to skateboarder injuries. A total of 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. Skull fractures, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were significantly more common among longboard patients than skateboarders (P < 0.0001). All patients with an ISS above 15 were longboarders. Hospital and ICU LOS in days was also significantly greater for longboarders compared with skateboarders (P < 0.0001). Of the three patients that died, each was a longboarder and each experienced a head injury. Longboard injuries account for a higher incidence rate of severe head injuries compared to skateboard injuries. Our data show that further, prospective investigation into the longboarding population demographics and injury patterns is necessary to contribute to effective injury prevention in this population. PMID:24660063

  17. Massachusetts Historical Society: Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-30

    For many people, Massachusetts' role in the Civil War may be summed up by the impressive sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens that dominates one corner of the Boston Common. It depicts Colonel Robert Shaw leading the 54th Regiment (which was made up of African Americans) down Beacon Street in 1863 before they went off to battle in South Carolina. Those persons looking to learn more about the role that Massachusetts played in the Civil War will find this website from the Massachusetts Historical Society most edifying. On the site, visitors should start their journey via the monthly feature "Massachusetts Finds Her Voice." This rotating collection contains letters from the Society's archives, including a rather evocative letter from Captain Richard Cary of the Second Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment to his wife Helen. Each of these items can be viewed in its entirety, and many of them are complemented by links to additional online resources. The site also contains a timeline of Civil War events, complete with links to related web content. Finally, the site is rounded out by a selection of classroom tools and information about Society publications.

  18. Patterns in Blast Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Buntic, Rudolf F.; Brooks, Darrell

    2008-01-01

    Blast injuries to the hand are not just a wartime phenomenon but also quite common in rural communities throughout northern California. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with blast injuries in the community and review the most common patterns in an attempt to identify the pathomechanics of the hand injury and the reconstructive procedures that are required. This is a retrospective study of blast injuries to the hand treated between 1978 and 2006. Medical records, X-rays, and photos were reviewed to compile standard patient demographics and characterize the injury pattern. Explosives were classified based on their rate of decomposition. Reconstructive solutions were reviewed and characterized based on whether damaged tissues were repaired or replaced. Sixty-two patients were identified with blast injuries to their hand. Patients were predominantly male (92%) with an average age of 27 years. Firecrackers were the most commonly encountered explosives. Thirty-seven patients were identified as holding a low explosive in their dominant hand and were used for characterization of the injury pattern. The apparent pattern of injury was hyperextension and hyperabduction of the hand and digits. Common injuries were metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint hyperextension with associated soft tissue avulsion, hyperabduction at the web spaces with associated palmar soft tissue tears, and finger disarticulation amputations worse at radial digits. Given the mechanisms of injury with tissue loss, surgical intervention generally involved tissue replacement rather than tissue repair. Blast injuries to the hand represent a broad spectrum of injuries that are associated with the magnitude of explosion and probably, the proximity to the hand. We were able to identify a repetitive pattern of injury and demonstrate the predominant use for delayed tissue replacement rather than microsurgical repair at the acute setting. PMID:18780004

  19. Do families want to be present during CPR? A retrospective survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa A. Meyers; Dezra J. Eichhorn; Cathie E. Guzzetta

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to interview families who had experienced the death of a loved one to determine their desires, beliefs, and concerns about family presence during CPR. Methods A retrospective, descriptive telephone survey of families of patients who had died because of traumatic injuries while in an emergency department was used. A family presence survey was

  20. Fatal firearm wounds: A retrospective study in Bari (Italy) between 1988 and 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biagio Solarino; Emanuele Maria Nicoletti; Giancarlo Di Vella

    2007-01-01

    Fatal gunshot injuries are routinely encountered by forensic pathologists practicing in Southern Italy. Bari, the capital city of the Italian region known as Apulia, is a leader with regard to the number of firearm deaths in Italy. This is mainly attributable to local organized crime groups which control a variety of illicit activities. This retrospective study analyzes autopsy data related

  1. Eritrea-Ethiopia Border War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Osmond, Andrew.

    This week's In the News takes a look at the renewed fighting in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eleven resources discussed provide news, analysis, and commentary. Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea were a single nation until May 1993, when Eritrea achieved sovereignty and seceded from Ethiopia after a protracted war of independence that lasted nearly thirty years. Eritrea, a nation of 3.6 million located on the Red Sea, was a former Italian colony (1890-1941) that was put under British administration during World War II, federated as an autonomous unit by Ethiopia in 1952, and then finally absorbed by the Ethiopian empire in 1962. Since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 1993, the two nations have disputed the demarcation of their 620-mile shared boundary, which was ostensibly delimited earlier this century in a series of treaties between the Imperial Government of Ethiopia and the Italian colonial government in Eritrea. Despite recent bilateral attempts to delineate the former colonial divide, a joint border commission has failed to settle the dispute. This on-going border conflict, compounded by severe economic tensions between the two states, erupted into war when Ethiopian and Eritrean forces clashed on May 6, 1998, in the Ethiopian-administered region of Badme. The skirmish resulted in about five weeks of fierce battle that ended last June with an unofficial peace plan brokered by the US and Rwanda. However, on February 6, the tenuous seven month stalemate snapped as heavy fighting re-ignited at several flashpoints along the contested border where both countries had amassed troops. Last weekend amid continued fighting, a delegation from the European Union failed to reach a cease-fire agreement between Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki and Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin. The unsuccessful proposal, based on a framework drafted by the Organization of African Unity, called for Eritrea to concede its current positions and return to the territory it held before the border conflict last May. As military involvement between the two countries escalates, the EU, the OAU, and the United Nations Security Council promise to re-initiate the mediation process as soon as possible before the Horn War further destabilizes east Africa.

  2. Functional outcome and discharge destination in elderly patients with spinal cord injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gulati; C J Yeo; A D Cooney; A N McLean; M H Fraser; D B Allan

    2011-01-01

    Study design:Retrospective cohort study.Objective:To describe functional outcome and discharge destination of elderly patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries.Setting:National Spinal Injuries Unit, Glasgow, UK.Methods:We collected data for 5 years on all patients >65 years old with a traumatic spinal cord injury treated at the National Spinal Injuries Unit.Results:We identified 39 patients. Of these, nine patients died during admission; all had cervical

  3. Why are Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans seeking PTSD disability compensation at unprecedented rates?

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced historically low rates of fatalities, injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. combatants. Yet they have also produced historically unprecedented rates of PTSD disability compensation seeking from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The purpose of this article is to consider hypotheses that might potentially resolve this paradox, including high rates of PTSD, delayed onset PTSD, malingered PTSD, and economic variables. PMID:23954726

  4. Overuse Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... physical examination. This is best done by a sports medicine specialist with specific interest and knowledge of your ... relieve symptoms. OVERUSE INJURIES If symptoms persist, a sports medicine specialist will be able to create a more ...

  5. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. Back Continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  6. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DVBIC & TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Blast Injuries (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati) ... games. More Information: 04/12/11: Research Examines Blast Impact on Human Brain 04/06/09: Military ...

  7. Elbow Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Lee; Michael J. Tuite; Humberto G. Rosas

    \\u000a Sports-related elbow injuries have increased over the last decade. With one in every four members of a household participating\\u000a in sports, both clinics and radiology departments are seeing more patients with elbow injuries. The most common clinical presentation\\u000a is lateral elbow pain. Familiar terms such as “tennis elbow,” “golfer’s elbow,” and “little leaguer’s elbow,” are mostly due\\u000a to the popularity

  8. The Civil War-Important People

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Kaschak

    2011-04-06

    Students will learn about the most important induviduals in the Civil War. First you will need to use the online guide; PBS Guide to the Civil War Then use the advanced Organizer to input information about important induviduals involved in the Civil War. If you need help finding intresting facts about our induviduals, try these websites for some assistance Abraham Linclon Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Ulysses S. Grant After you have successfully filled out all of the boxes, ...

  9. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War*

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Jennifer H.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family’s migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work. PMID:20852719

  10. Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan

    E-print Network

    Cherniack, Mitch

    Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan± , Magdalena Balazinska± , Don Carney§ , Uur �etintemel the key lessons we learned throughout the design and implementation of the Aurora stream processing engine. For the past two years, we have built five stream-based applications using Aurora. We first describe in detail

  11. Mathematical retrospections Robert P. Langlands

    E-print Network

    and girls, were all older than I, many several years older and with no academic future, just two or three school age, the family returned to a more populated region with a parochial school where the nuns years old, in another town, neither rural nor urban ­ in retrospect a kind of catch-all for families

  12. Gender in PER: A Retrospective

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Gender in PER: A Retrospective Laura McCullough University of Wisconsin-Stout Physics Department 1Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Outline Gender in PER AAPT meetings TPT articles AJP articles PRST-PER articles Conceptual tests Author info Semantics 2Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Gender in PER How does

  13. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

  14. 8.6: Presentation session: BRAiN measurement and imaging technologies, brain injuries and neuro-regeneration panel, and making a difference: Identifying and closing the knowledge gaps discussion\\/forum: “Animal models for the study of military-related, blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph McCabe

    2010-01-01

    In present war time conditions, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has moved to the forefront as a “signature injury.” In terms of prevalence and understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie the injury, blast-induced TBI -particularly in “mild” cases-has proven to be a significant challenge for military medicine. Basic research that employs animal models of TBI is a key element for furthering

  15. Occupational Injury Patterns of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aim Each year, a significant number of people die or become handicapped due to preventable occupational accidents or occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic features, mechanism, causes, injury area, and sectoral features of occupational accidents in patients presented to our department. Materials and methods The study was carried out retrospectively after local ethics committee approval. Age and sex of the patients, mechanism of injury, type and exact location of injuries were all evaluated. The groups were compared using Chi-Square test, Student’s T test and Kruskall-Wallis test. p value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results Totally 654 patients were included in the study. 93.4% of patients were male, and mean age was 32.96?±?5.97 (18–73) years. Sectoral distribution of accidents was statistically significant and mostly occurred in industrial and construction workers (p?injuries (36.4%), the least was due to multiple traumas (0.5%). Distribution of occupational accidents according to injury type was statistically significant (p?Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 9.79?±?8.1. The mean cost of occupational injury was $1729.57?±?8178.3. There was statistically significant difference between the sectors with respect to cost. Seventy-one patients (10.9%) recovered with permanent sequel and two (0.3%) died in hospital. Conclusion Occupational accidents are most commonly seen in young males, especially in primary school graduated workers, and during daytime period. PMID:24373156

  16. Menzies, the cold war and the 1953 convention on peace and war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Deery

    2003-01-01

    In the early 1950s the imminence and inevitability of a third world war was widely accepted. America had lost its atomic monopoly, Russia promoted itself as the defender of world peace against the war?mongering West and Korea had turned the Cold War hot. In Australia, the Menzies government prepared the country for combat while the fledgling peace movement mobilised public

  17. Civil War Preservation Trust Two Week Curriculum for Teaching the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil War Preservation Trust, Washington, DC.

    The Civil War was perhaps the greatest turning point in U.S. history. The dual themes of slavery and power deeply divided the growing nation during the first half of the 19th century. The mission of the Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT) is to preserve the significant Civil War battlefields by protecting the land and educating the public about…

  18. Chicago History Museum: Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does one teach young people about the Civil War? 150 years later, this is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination. The staff members at the Chicago History Museum have gathered all of their online classroom resources together on this site for use by educators and others. The items are divided into seven categories, including slavery, Abraham Lincoln, photography, and black soldiers. Each resource has a brief description, along with information about the appropriate grade level. The Abolitionist Movement and Northern Racism area is quite good and contains the resources "Living Under the Black Laws of Illinois" and "A House Divided: Slavery in the United States."

  19. Post war federal reserve policy

    E-print Network

    Modrow, William Geoffery

    1953-01-01

    POST WAR FEDERAL RESERVE POLICY A Theeie %ill iaa Q ~ Mod roe Jllne 1/$3 Approval as to style and content recur. endedl ead o the Depar ent of Economics POST 'kH F FERAL P"-. 'EBVE OLXCY k Thesis Subaitted to the Faoulty of th? kgrioultural... ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~, ~ 1 XI, The Problem of monetary Control, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 IXX. Federal He;erve Pol'cy, 19%-1948 . o ~ e ~ s ~ ~ ~ XVo Federal Heserve Policg 19~9 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o e e ~ ~ ~ ~ S V, Federal Heserve 1'alley, January-June, 1950 ~ ~ . ~ 74 VX ~ An Evil...

  20. Indonesia the War in Aceh

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This 41-page report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) covers the conflict in Aceh, on the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. The war has been marked by human rights violations on both the part of the Indonesian security forces and GAM (an acronym for the Free Aceh Movement), and HRW here reports on both sides' infractions. To gather information for the report, HRW met with and interviewed military and civilian Indonesian government officials, GAM leaders, NGO representatives, and villagers. The report contains a series of recommendations for the Indonesian government and GAM as well as recommendations for the International community.

  1. The World At War 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This concise and sobering page from the Center for Defense Information (CDI) (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report) offers an overview of the 38 major (those with over 1,000 casualties, both military and civilian) conflicts in the world at the start of 2000. After an introduction and a list of major events of the past year, users can view a chart of ongoing conflicts which lists the main warring parties, year began, cause(s), and other foreign involvement. A chart of potential hot spots is also included.

  2. Ankle Injury TYPES OF ANKLE INJURIES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Ankle Injury TYPES OF ANKLE INJURIES: Ankle injuries can be acute or chronic in nature. Inverting (turning in) of the ankle, accounts for most acute injuries. Damage occurs when ankle is twisted or moved. Sometimes, a severe injury or repeated sprain can cause chronic (recurrent) ankle pain. Chronic problems

  3. Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES: Knee injuries can be acute or chronic in nature. A direct blow or twisting of the knee accounts for most acute injuries. Chronic problems arise from overuse of the joint, such as contact sports or any repetitive movements involving the knee can increase risk for injury. TREATING KNEE

  4. A ‘special case’ between independence and interdependence: Cold War studies and Cold War politics in post-Cold War Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Wenger; Christian Nuenlist

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland only played a marginal role in the Cold War, even though the small country was situated very close to the central battleground of any potential armed conflict in Europe the ‘special role’ that Switzerland played in the East-West conflict was closely linked to its policy of strict neutrality. Swiss Cold War historians have focused on the reasons for the

  5. Catastrophic injuries in pole-vaulters.

    PubMed

    Boden, B P; Pasquina, P; Johnson, J; Mueller, F O

    2001-01-01

    Pole vaulting is a unique sport in that athletes often land from heights ranging from 10 to 20 feet. We retrospectively reviewed 32 catastrophic pole-vault injuries that were reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research between 1982 and 1998. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms of injury so that preventive strategies can be implemented. Information was obtained by means of a telephone interview with someone familiar with the accident. All injuries occurred in male athletes at an average age of 17.5 years; 31 were catastrophic head injuries and 1 was a thoracic spine fracture that resulted in paraplegia. Three common mechanisms were identified: 17 (53%) athletes landed with their body on the landing pad and their head on the surrounding hard ground, 8 (25%) landed in the vault box after being stranded at the height of the jump, and 5 (16%) completely missed the landing pad. The mechanism of injury in the remaining two athletes was unknown. The accident resulted in death in 16 (50%) athletes and in permanent disability in 6 (19%). Increasing the minimum landing pad size and enforcing the rule requiring soft surfaces adjacent to the landing pads are the primary recommendations for preventing injuries. The authors discuss other rule and equipment changes that may help reduce the occurrence of future injuries. PMID:11206256

  6. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  7. 17.42 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Van Evera, Stephen

    The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. ...

  8. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

  9. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107...

  10. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107...

  11. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

  12. 17.423 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2001

    E-print Network

    Van Evera, Stephen

    Examines the causes of war, with a focus on practical measures to prevent and control war. Topics covered include: causes and consequences of national misperception; military strategy and policy as cause of war; US foreign ...

  13. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107...

  14. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107...

  15. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

  16. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104...

  17. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood vessels in the feet, is observed in shipwreck survivors or in soldiers whose feet have been wet, but not freezing, for long periods. Patients with frostbite frequently present with multisystem injuries (e.g., systemic hypothermia, blunt trauma, substance abuse). The freezing of the corneas has been reported to occur in individuals who keep their eyes open in high wind-chill situations without protective goggles (e.g., snowmobilers, cross-country skiers). PMID:15715518

  18. Analyzing the Spell of War: A War\\/Peace Framing Analysis of the 2009 Visual Coverage of the Sri Lankan Civil War in Newswires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahira Fahmy

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the extent to which the visual coverage of the final stages (April\\/May 2009) of the long-lasting Sri Lankan Civil War relied on war and peace frames. Based on the revolutionary conceptual work of Norwegian scholar Johan Galtung, who viewed war and peace journalism as two competing frames in covering conflicts and wars,

  19. War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

    The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

  20. The Climatic Effects of Nuclear War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Turco; Owen B. Toon; Thomas P. Ackerman; James B. Pollack; Carl Sagan

    1984-01-01

    Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent

  1. Children in War: Community Strategies for Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Laura

    In today's wars, children are on the front lines. This handbook, the result of a meeting of psychologists and humanitarian workers, presents a strategy to meet the needs of children in war and refugee crises that intends to be cost-effective, empowering, and child-focused. The strategy emerged from field work based on the belief that each…

  2. Stalin and the Economics of War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Harrison

    The Stalinist command economy was designed to overcome the weaknesses that had destroyed the Russian economy in World War I: a shortage of industrial capacity combined with the peasant farmers' withdrawal from the urban- rural market into autarky. Industrialization created the specialized mass production facilities that ensured the supply of the Red Army with weapons in World War II. There

  3. Women at the Heart of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explores the experiences and the role of women during World War II. The unit can serve as an introduction or supplement to commonly taught topics such as Nazism in Germany, the Holocaust, the "home front," the USSR's Great Patriotic War, and the struggle between Nationalists and Communists in China. It begins with an overview…

  4. Rethinking the civil war in Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Dean

    2000-01-01

    A troubled country, the largest in a troubled continent, the Sudan surely tells one of the most tragic stories of war. The war is presented in the West as a religiously inspired persecution of Christian tribesmen in the south by the Islamic Fundamentalist government. The real story, however, is one of continued opposition and periodic fighting since shortly before independence

  5. Frontiers of blame: India's ‘War on Terror’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Svensson

    2009-01-01

    The article interrogates the meaning of terror in India, enacted through the recurring articulation of a particular logic of blame, via a specific focus on the train blasts in Mumbai in July 2006. The conceptual extent of ‘violence as terror’ is examined broadly: as boundaries erected to equal ‘war on terror’ with ‘war on Muslim terror’, as a purifying of

  6. [Wound care during the First Word War].

    PubMed

    Lefort, Hugues; Olier, François; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Domanski, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    Following the sanitary disaster which occurred during the first months of First Word War, the French Military Health System has structured itself. Focus was made on effective surgical sorting for stabilization aids before evacuation. The functional prognosis of the war injured individual as his survival has been significantly improved. We report nurses' testimonies, for some unpublished yet: challenging aids, especially wounds. PMID:25069360

  7. Globalization, Ethics, and the ‘War on Terror’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Youngs; Heather Widdows

    2009-01-01

    This article serves as a lead-in to the special issue and reflects on the relationship between globalization, ethics, and the ‘war on terror’. It argues that while globalization studies have focused substantially on the marketization of life, including the realms of politics and culture, the current ‘war on terror’ phase has directed focus in theory and practice back to traditional

  8. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  9. Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

  10. The American Civil War Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Civil War Home Page has links to hundreds of resources, including general resources such as timelines and overviews, images, letters, accounts and diaries, bibliographies, state studies, specific battles, and rosters, among others. It is a very comprehensive page, and a good place to start for Civil War information.

  11. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

  12. Price war with migrating customers Patrick Maille

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Price war with migrating customers Patrick Maill´e TELECOM Bretagne 2, rue de la Ch^ataigneraie CS customers churn between providers due to better prices, better reputation or better services. We propose in this paper to study the price war between two providers in the case where users' decisions are modeled

  13. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  14. Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

  15. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  16. Civil Wars and International Trade Philippe Martin

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    economic ties and dependence between groups and regions inside a country as trade with foreign countriesCivil Wars and International Trade Philippe Martin Thierry Mayer Mathias Thoenig§ November 18, 2007 Abstract This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between civil wars and international trade. We

  17. After Guantanamo: War, Crime, and Detention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeline Morris; Frances A. Eberhard; Michael A. Watsula

    2009-01-01

    Neither the law of war nor the criminal law, alone or in combination, provides an adequate legal structure for responding to the most serious threats posed by Al Qaeda and similar groups. After identifying the limits of the criminal law and the law of war for these purposes, this article outlines a comprehensive proposal for counterterrorism prosecution and detention policy.

  18. Blast injury.

    PubMed

    de Candole, C A

    1967-01-28

    The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  19. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  20. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

  1. Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic ice shelves.

  2. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Injury Prevention & Control : Traumatic Brain Injury CDC's Injury Center Share Compartir This Page has ... redirected to a new page on the Traumatic Brain Injury website. If you have this page book marked, ...

  4. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... of Cold Injuries Hypothermia Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries Frostbite Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Injuries and Poisoning > Cold Injuries 4 ...

  5. Acts of Violence, Terrorism, or War: Triggers for Veterans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Training – Exposure – Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic ... National Center for PTSD » Public » War » Acts of Violence, Terrorism, or War: Triggers for Veterans PTSD: National ...

  6. World War II: The Home Front

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Murray

    2010-06-01

    World War II brought great changes to America here at home. Great sacrifices were asked by all citizens in order to support the war effort. Advertising campaigns publicized various things civilian citizens were asked to do. U.S. History II Standard 7, Objective 2:Examine the impact of World War II on the American home front. Also, Standard 7 Objective 2 Examine the role women played in the wartime workforce. Brief History of World War Two Advertising Campaigns This website shows the advertising campaigns of World War II. You will see six links to six different campaigns. Look at each of them and answer the following questions for EACH campaign on your worksheet. 1. Briefly explain what each campaign was for. 2. Describe one graphic for ...

  7. Britain and the American Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the Civil War, both the Confederacy and the Union tried to curry favor with Britain in order to support their respective causes. This online exhibition explores these relationships through original period maps, photographs, diplomatic documents, and much more. The Highlights area is a great place to start, as it showcases great finds from the collection including Civil War songs, silk cords from Abraham Lincoln's cortege, and Confederate banknotes. The Anglo-American Relations area provides a brief summary of the relationship and mentions various activities that took places between the United States and Britain during this conflict. Mapping the Civil War is another great feature on the site. Selected by curator, Matthew Shaw, the collection illustrates the terrain, history, and progress of the war. These items include a "Bird's-eye view of the Seat of War" and a fascinating composite portrait of Union Army generals titled, "The Field of Battle.â?ť

  8. Mothering during war and postwar in Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Cheryl Lee; Duckett, Laura

    2007-11-01

    The study aim was to describe displaced Bosnian mothers' experiences caring for their children during and immediately after the war (1992-1995). Mothers described their progression into war, through war, and into vastly changed lives. Using ethnographic methods, narrative data were collected near Sarajevo, Bosnia, from 14 displaced women who participated in one to three interviews each between 1996 and 1999. Data from the semistructured interviews were analyzed to determine patterns in participants' descriptions of mothering during war. Four common themes of mothering were identified in the data: "on the move," "I have to feed them," "living somewhere in between," and "still living the war inside." As care providers and policy makers develop initiatives to improve the health of women and children during complex humanitarian emergencies, there is much to learn from the narratives of Bosnian women about their extraordinary struggle to protect the lives of their children amid violence and loss. PMID:18180470

  9. Relationship between Hippocampal Volume changes and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Traumatic Brain Injury in US Military Personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the most common, and serious injuries suffered by United States servicemen in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Compared to roughly 2% of the civilian population, nearly 20% of military personnel returning from current military operations in the Middle East have been diagnosed with TBI. Additionally, an increasing number of military personnel returning

  10. The Myles Gibson military lecture: surgery in the Napoleonic Wars.

    PubMed

    Crumplin, M K H

    2002-06-01

    Throughout the twenty-two year period of the Napoleonic Wars, campaigns under extremes of climate cost the Allies much in terms of mortality and morbidity. Although Bonaparte brought about many sound political and national improvements, when France had been brought to its knees by the bloody Revolution, his ambitions became excessive and his military forays difficult to support. Following early successes in the field, he underestimated the determination, persistence and the ability of some opposing commanders. The French medical services profited greatly from the innovations of the post-revolutionary period, and the efforts of men such as Larrey and Percy. The British Army medical support was scanty, and, initially lacked experience. To some extent, this latter defect was corrected by Sir James McGrigor during the Peninsular War. Each campaign brought it's own perils and most men died of deprivation, disease and effects of climate, rather than battle injury. There were technically able surgeons who were inevitably hampered by lack of antiseptic technique, anaesthesia and the lack of understanding of the fundamental aspects of hygiene, adequate diet and good nursing care. PMID:12109612

  11. Carnosine Treatment for Gulf War Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James Nicholas; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib; Timbol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

  12. Influence of war on quantitative and qualitative changes in drug-induced mortality in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marasovi? Šušnjara, Ivana; Definis Gojanovi?, Marija; Vodopija, Davor; ?apkun, Vesna; Smoljanovi?, Ankica

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study drug-induced mortality and characteristics of overdose deaths in the war (1991-1995), pre-war (1986-1990), and post-war period (1996-2000) in Split-Dalmatia County. Methods We retrospectively searched through Databases of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Split, the national register of death records, the archives of the Split-Dalmatia County Police, and the Register of Treated Drug Addicts of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, covering the period from 1986 to 2000, according to drug poisoning codes IX and X of the International Classification of Diseases. The indicators were statistically analyzed. Results There were 146 registered drug-induced deaths, with 136 (93%) deceased being men. The median age of all cases was 27 years (interquartile range 8). Most of them were single (70.6%), unemployed (44.6%), and secondary school graduates (69.2%). In the war period, there were 4.8 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P?=?0.014), and in the post-war period there were 5.2 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P?=?0.008). The most common site of death was the deceased person’s home. The toxicological analyses showed that 59 (61%) deaths were heroin related, alcohol use was found in 62 cases (42.5%), and multi-substance use was found in more than a half of the cases. In 133 (91.1%) cases, deaths were classified as unintentional, whereas 13 (8.9%) were classified as suicides. Conclusion The war, along with other risk factors, contributed to unfavorable developments related to drug abuse in Split-Dalmatia County, including the increase in the drug-induced mortality rate. PMID:21990081

  13. Misinformation, disinformation, and violent conflict: from Iraq and the "War on Terror" to future threats to peace.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Stritzke, Werner G K; Freund, Alexandra M; Oberauer, Klaus; Krueger, Joachim I

    2013-10-01

    The dissemination and control of information are indispensable ingredients of violent conflict, with all parties involved in a conflict or at war seeking to frame the discussion on their own terms. Those attempts at information control often involve the dissemination of misinformation or disinformation (i.e., information that is incorrect by accident or intent, respectively). We review the way in which misinformation can facilitate violent conflicts and, conversely, how the successful refutation of misinformation can contribute to peace. We illustrate the relevant cognitive principles by examining two case studies. The first, a retrospective case, involves the Iraq War of 2003 and the "War on Terror." The second, a prospective case, points to likely future sources of conflict arising from climate change and its likely consequences. PMID:24128313

  14. Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Seet, M B; Ang, C L

    1997-01-01

    With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50-80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and injuries associated with intraocular foreign bodies pose special diagnostic and management problems. Injuries are bilateral in 15-25% of cases. Injuries associated with chemical, nuclear, and laser weapons have distinct characteristics and epidemiology. Enucleation was commonly performed at the turn of the century, but incidence has declined with better understanding of the pathophysiology of ocular trauma, improved surgical techniques and sepsis control with antibiotics. Sympathetic ophthalmia appears to be uncommon and earlier fears of this complication seem to have been exaggerated. Timely evacuation to a surgical facility is important for a good visual prognosis and preservation of the globe. However, prevention of injuries with eye armor is ultimately the best management, and the need for a comprehensive eye protection program in the military cannot be overemphasized, especially since eye injuries pose important socioeconomic, as well as medical, problems. PMID:9220567

  15. The evacuation of British children during World War II: A preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Foster; S. Davies; H. Steele

    2003-01-01

    The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former

  16. Hand Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  17. Testicular Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  18. Foot Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  19. Leg Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  20. Knee Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  1. Shoulder Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  2. Elbow Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  3. Coccygeal Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  4. Ankle Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  5. Wrist Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

  6. World War I Sheet Music

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Digital Initiatives at Brown University has created a number of fine collections since its inception in 2001, and this latest offering is no exception to that trend. The site is focused on providing access to hundreds of instances of sheet music that addresses various aspects of World War I. In this area, it is a definite success as the material is perfect for historians, musicians, or others who may be studying material and visual culture in the early 20th century. Users may browse through the sheet music by title, publisher, subject, and creator. Additionally, a historical essay and general introduction should be forthcoming on the site in the near future. Visitors would do well to check out such fine titles as "America He's for You", "Salvation Sal", and of course, "The Girl Behind the Man Behind the Gun," with lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse.

  7. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  8. Atomic Platters: Cold War Music

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Along with ushering in a new age of global unrest and high anxiety, the emergence of the atomic bomb had a curious and not totally unpredictable effect on the world of popular (and not-so-popular) music. This site brings together these various subgenres of "atomic" music in a way that's rather fun, intriguing, and at times, a bit scary. Visitors can look through such subgenres as "Atomic", "Cold War", "Flying Saucer", and so on. While most of the songs are not available in their full form, visitors can read all of the lyrics and interpretive essays. Of course, visitors can find plenty of audio joy at the "CONELRAD Audio Archives" area. Herein are contained such gems as the positively odd "The Complacent Americans" and the equally lovable novelty album "The Goldwaters Sing Folk Songs to Bug the Liberals".

  9. [Peninsular War and military health].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Fernández, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The Napoleonic Wars served to consolidate Army Medical Services on a national scale. All major eminent surgeons of the moment, such as Guthrie or Larrey, took part in the fight. Larrey made the revolutionary contribution of developing the "flying ambulances", a completely new concept at the time. Although surgical techniques were already well described at the time, the deficient hemostasis, the unchecked pain, and above all the numerous infections imposed severe limitations. Mortality among the injured reached 33% and the rate of infection was 90%. The Spanish surgical school contributed to military surgery with the practice known as "the Spanish Cure" which was a conservative approach to the treatment of wounds. This approach was later adopted by the army surgeons of the other countries. Deaths by illness were ten times higher than the number of injured. PMID:19505003

  10. Telegraph: World War II Articles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The seventieth anniversary of the beginning of World War II is being commemorated across the world this year, and a number of media organizations are drawing on their own historic archives to offer a bit of perspective on that moment in world history. The Telegraph is one such organization, and they have created this fine collection of essays, video clips, photo galleries, and original articles from the fall of 1939. In the "As It Happened" area, visitors can view the original articles from the Telegraph and offer their own comments on these events. On the right-hand side of the page, a video player offers clips from newsreels of the day which document subjects like air raids and the movement of important cultural items away from potential bombing sites. The homepage also contains a "WW2 In Focus" area which features commentaries from former soldiers, evacuees, and reporters revisiting key sites around Europe for a bit of perspective on these events.

  11. Newfoundland and the Great War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Project, this site is a good example of how to use the Web to showcase primary source materials that document the participation of a region or group in a major historical event, in this case, Newfoundland's participation in World War I. The site has four major sections based on material type, so that users can read articles, look at pictures or videos, or listen to audio clips. Some highlights are a virtual scrapbook of images, marches and ballads played by the Royal Newfoundland Regiment Band, and video clips from the film "For the Folks Back Home" featuring archival footage from the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador.

  12. Pediatric hand injuries due to home exercycles.

    PubMed

    Benson, L S; Waters, P M; Meier, S W; Visotsky, J L; Williams, C S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical presentation and management of 19 children who sustained injuries by stationary exercise bicycles were reviewed retrospectively. These injuries represented 32 traumatized digits with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The index and long fingers were most commonly involved. Wheel-spoke injuries typically produced repairable nerve and tendon lacerations, and full functional recovery in these cases was common. The chain/sprocket injury involved a crushing mechanism and frequently produced severe injury including amputations that were not salvageable. Stationary exercise bicycles represented a predictable source of severe hand injury in children between the ages of 18 months and 5 years. Adult supervision was not reliable in preventing contact between an operating exercycle and a child's hand. We recommend that children not be allowed access to any stationary exercycle machinery, whether it is in use or not. Safety design considerations should focus on not only shielding the wheel spokes, but also (and perhaps even more important) on enclosing the entire chain axis and gear interface. In addition to these design considerations, public education will be critical in reducing the incidence of injury. PMID:10641685

  13. Traumatic injury rates in meatpacking plant workers.

    PubMed

    Culp, Kennith; Brooks, Mary; Rupe, Kerri; Zwerling, Craig

    2008-01-01

    This was a 3-year retrospective cohort study of traumatic injuries in a midwestern pork meatpacking plant. Based on n = 5410 workers, this was a diverse workforce: Caucasian (56.6%), Hispanic (38.9%), African American (2.7%), Asian (1.1%) and Native American (0.8%). There were n = 1655 employees with traumatic injuries during this period. At 6 months of employment, the probability of injury was 33% in the harvest workers who were responsible for slaughter operations. The overall incidence injury rate was 22.76 per 100 full-time employees per year. Women experienced a higher incidence for injury than men. The risk ratio (RR) for traumatic injury was significantly lower in Hispanic workers compared to Caucasians (RR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.49-0.60) and nonsignificantly higher in African American and Native American workers after adjusting for age, gender, work section assignment, and experience (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21-1.47). These findings suggest that either Hispanics are very safe employees or they underreport injuries. We make the case for the latter in the discussion. PMID:19042688

  14. Effects of injury level and severity on direct costs of care for acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Mohan; Makriyianni, Ioli; Marcoux, Judith; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    New treatments are being investigated for spinal cord injury (SCI), and any improvement may result in incremental cost savings. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of care 2 years after an SCI, stratifying for completeness and level of injury. A retrospective database analysis was carried out using data from the Quebec Trauma Registry, the Quebec Medical Insurance Board, and the Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation between 1997 and 2007. Excluding individuals sustaining moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries, 481 individuals who sustained an SCI from motor vehicle accidents were identified. Individuals were classified as complete and incomplete in the following categories: C1-C7, C8-T6, T7-L1, L2-S5. Using data from governmental public healthcare organizations makes this study comprehensive. For C1-C7 complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries, the first-year cost was $157?718 and $56?505, respectively (2009 Canadian dollars calculated per patient). Similar differences between complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries were seen for the other groups. Furthermore, for complete injuries, costs were higher for higher levels of injury during both the first and the second year after injury. For incomplete lesions, costs did not differ significantly between groups during the first or the second year. Incomplete spinal cord injuries result in lower healthcare costs compared with complete injuries across all groups during the first 2 years after injury. As less severe levels of injury result in measurably lower costs, the funds spent to reduce the severity or level of SCI could at least partially be recouped through healthcare savings. PMID:25192008

  15. Anatomical and functional outcomes in contusion injuries of posterior segment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Cuneyt Erdurman; G Sobaci; C H Acikel; M O Ceylan; A H Durukan; V Hurmeric

    2011-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the clinical features, and anatomical and visual outcomes in patients with closed-globe contusion injury involving the posterior segment.MethodsRetrospective review of posterior segment contusion injuries admitted to our tertiary referral center.ResultsIn all, 115 patients (115 eyes) with complete data were reviewed. Surgery had been performed in 79 (69%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range, 2–34 months).

  16. Arterial Blood Gas Analysis in Acute Caustic Ingestion Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Jen Cheng; Eing-Long Kao

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. Quickly differentiating patients who need emergency salvage operation for caustic ingestion injury from those who do not\\u000a remains difficult. We thus conducted a retrospective study to assess whether arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is helpful\\u000a for deciding on the best management plan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. We divided 129 patients with caustic ingestion injuries into two groups according to treatment. Group 1

  17. Compliance with bladder management in spinal cord injury patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Yavuzer; H Gök; S Tuncer; T Soygür; N Arikan; T Arasil

    2000-01-01

    Study design: Retrospective analysis of medical records on spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neuropathic bladder.Objective: To determine SCI patients' compliance with the method of bladder management they used on discharge from inpatient rehabilitation.Setting: Ankara University Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spinal Cord Injury Unit, which treats patients referred from throughout Turkey.Methods: The bladder management method of

  18. Bicycle injuries: a matter of mechanism and age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Siman-Tov; D H Jaffe; K Peleg

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionBicycle riding is a popular form of recreation with positive health and environmental consequences. These road users are vulnerable to serious injuries, especially when motor vehicles are involved.ObjectivesThe goal of this study is to characterise cyclist-related injuries according to motor vehicle involvement for adults versus children.MethodsA retrospective study was carried using data from 11 trauma centres in the Israeli National

  19. Mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Katz, Douglas I; Cohen, Sara I; Alexander, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but accurate diagnosis and defining criteria for mild TBI and its clinical consequences have been problematic. Mild TBI causes transient neurophysiologic brain dysfunction, sometimes with structural axonal and neuronal damage. Biomarkers, such as newer imaging technologies and protein markers, are promising indicators of brain injury but are not ready for clinical use. Diagnosis relies on clinical criteria regarding depth and duration of impaired consciousness and amnesia. These criteria are particularly difficult to confirm at the least severe end of the mild TBI continuum, especially when relying on subjective, retrospective accounts. The postconcussive syndrome is a controversial concept because of varying criteria, inconsistent symptom clusters and the evidence that similar symptom profiles occur with other disorders, and even in a proportion of healthy individuals. The clinical consequences of mild TBI can be conceptualized as two multidimensional disorders: (1) a constellation of acute symptoms that might be termed early phase post-traumatic disorder (e.g., headache, dizziness, imbalance, fatigue, sleep disruption, impaired cognition), that typically resolve in days to weeks and are largely related to brain trauma and concomitant injuries; (2) a later set of symptoms, a late phase post-traumatic disorder, evolving out of the early phase in a minority of patients, with a more prolonged (months to years), sometimes worsening set of somatic, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. The later phase disorder is highly influenced by a variety of psychosocial factors and has little specificity for brain injury, although a history of multiple concussions seems to increase the risk of more severe and longer duration symptoms. Effective early phase management may prevent or limit the later phase disorder and should include education about symptoms and expectations for recovery, as well as recommendations for activity modifications. Later phase treatment should be informed by thoughtful differential diagnosis and the multiplicity of premorbid and comorbid conditions that may influence symptoms. Treatment should incorporate a hierarchical, sequential approach to symptom management, prioritizing problems with significant functional impact and effective, available interventions (e.g., headache, depression, anxiety, insomnia, vertigo). PMID:25702214

  20. Toward understanding the effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.; White, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    The authors discuss the scientific justifications for studying the consequences of nuclear war. The consequences of nuclear war and nuclear winter - biotic impoverishment, climate change, pollution of the air, water, and soil - recapitulate in compressed time the patterns of ecological change humankind is even now imposing on the planet. By studying the biological consequences of nuclear war, important discoveries about the intricate nature of the global ecosystem may be made. Wiser management practices and more thorough appreciation of alterations in the physical and biological environment could results.

  1. War casualties on the home front

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  2. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and credibility: now involving organizations with 145,000 members in 41 countries, IPPNW has become the international voice of medicine's concern about nuclear war. PMID:21274253

  3. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1%) followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06%) had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%). Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%). Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24%) whereas 3 (1.94%) had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%). Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis. PMID:20025766

  4. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF WOUND CHARACTERISTICS AND TETANUS DEVELOPMENT IN CAPTIVE MACAQUES

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Danielle A.; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine; Smith, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and access to outdoor enclosures containing soil contribute to development of tetanus in non-human primates. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted at a primate center to evaluate these factors by analysis of medical records of animals sustaining traumatic injuries during a three year study period: 31 macaques with traumatic injuries and a clinical diagnosis of tetanus were selected as cases and 62 macaques with traumatic injuries and no diagnosis of tetanus were selected as controls. For an animal with injuries to the digits, the odds of developing tetanus were 9.6 times those of a similar animal without injuries to the digits (OR = 9.55, 95% CI = 1.56 – 58.59); with injuries to the tail, the odds of developing tetanus were 8.0 times those of a similar animal without injuries to the tail (OR = 7.95, 95% CI = 0.82 – 77.04); and with injuries in more than one location, the odds of developing tetanus were 8.5 times those for a similar animal with injuries in just one location (OR = 8.45, 95% CI = 1.01 – 70.46). A non-human primate with injuries to the leg was less likely to develop tetanus than a similar non-human primate without injuries to the leg (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.03 – 1.2). Results indicated that wound location is associated with development of tetanus infection in rhesus macaques. Identification of high risk trauma cases will allow better allocation of wound management and tetanus prophylaxis in institutions, especially those housing non-human primates outdoors. PMID:19368246

  5. Studying America's Struggle against War: An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    American history surveys and monographs have been dominated by discourses on war. The vocabulary itself--the inter-war period, postwar planning, the prewar economy, the revolutionary war generation, the irrepressible conflict--strongly suggests that the United States has been in a virtual state of war throughout its history. Ironically, this…

  6. A REMF's View of Viet Nam War Literature Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, David A.

    An academic librarian who is a Vietnam War veteran was inspired by the exemplary collection of Vietnam War literature at the Colorado State University Library to begin his own personal collection of mass market paperbacks dealing with the Vietnam War. Although Vietnam War fiction was common on the mass market racks in the mid 1980s, it has been…

  7. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war

  8. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    PubMed

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms. PMID:23695004

  9. Prisoners of War-Cold War Allies: The Anglo-American Relationship with Wehrmacht Generals

    E-print Network

    Mallett, Derek Ray

    2012-02-14

    the generals as prisoners of war. Only two books offer significant treatment of the generals in British custody. British historian Matthew Barry Sullivan devotes two chapters to the British treatment of German generals in his comprehensive study of German... PRISONERS OF WAR?COLD WAR ALLIES: THE ANGLO-AMERICAN RELATIONSHIP WITH WEHRMACHT GENERALS A Dissertation by DEREK RAY MALLETT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  10. War dogs: the U.S. K-9 Corps in World War II

    E-print Network

    Whatley, Donald Alan

    1990-01-01

    WAR DOGS: THE U. S. K-9 CORPS IN WORLD WAR II A Thesis by DONALD ALAN WHATLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AiIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS August 1990 Major... Subject: History WAR DOGS: THE U. S. K-9 CORPS IN WORLD WAR II A Thesis by DONALD ALAN WHATLEY Approved as to style and content by: Jos ph . Dawson (Chair of Committee) Terry . Anderson Member) Woodrow nes (Member La r . Hill (Head o...

  11. Changed by War Five stories from the

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Changed by War Five stories from the University of Toronto's most testing time Cyberbullying is Everywhere The Internet makes it easy to be mean. No wonder cyberbully- ing among teens has everyone worried

  12. The Emerging Criminal War on Sex Offenders

    E-print Network

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses four central questions. First, what is the difference between normal law enforcement policy and a “war” on crime? Second, assuming such a line can be discerned, has the enactment of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety...

  13. CWIHP: Cold War International History Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Cold War International History Project was established in 1991 to facilitate the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War, and to disseminate new information and perspectives on Cold War history emerging from previously inaccessible sources. This web site is the latest CWIHP initiative to make available these documents. The core of the site is the CWIHP Virtual Library, a searchable collection of documents, working papers, and articles from the CWIHP Bulletin. The library covers numerous topics related to the Cold War and users can sort the documents by several methods, including keyword, subject, geographic subject, and bulletin issue. Other features at the site include the CWIHP Bulletin (in .pdf format) and a discussion group (free registration required).

  14. The Great War: 80 Years On: BBC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    November 11 marks the 80th anniversary of the armistice that ended "the war to end all wars," a conflict which took as many as ten million lives, wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, and helped to spark a revolution in Russia. This new site from the BBC commemorates the war and offers users a number of interesting resources. Multimedia offerings include a ten-minute video collage of photos and newsreel footage produced by the Imperial War Museum and a selection of fascinating and poignant audio interviews of veterans, including one man who was just fourteen when he left to fight in France. The site also contains a selection of soldiers' letters home, overviews of four major battles (Gallipoli, Verdun, the Somme, and Passchendaele), and a number of topical articles.

  15. The Cold War and American Education

    E-print Network

    Marden, David L.

    1975-10-01

    American historians who have studied the Cold War have usually focused upon either the events on the international scene which gave rise to tensions or on the policies and rhetoric of national political leaders such as ...

  16. The anthropology of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  17. War, terrorism and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights, increase militarism, and divert resources from health care and from other needed services. War and terrorism may be best prevented through addressing their causes, which include limited resources, injustice, poverty and ethnic and religious enmity, and through strengthening the United Nations and the treaties controlling specific weapons systems, particularly weapons of mass destruction. In particular, the United States should cease its interference in the internal affairs of other nations and its advocacy of unilateral pre-emptive war. PMID:18771191

  18. Newspaper Pictorials: Word War I Rotogravures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During World War I, a number of newspapers aggressively worked to take advantage of the rotogravure printing process to offer their readers higher quality images. Expansive pictorial sections helped document the wartime experience and brought the war vividly home to people a long way from the front in Europe. This digital collection from the Library of Congress's American Memory Project brings together hundreds of images from the New York Times, the New York Tribune, and the War of the Nations. Visitors can browse these items by date or start by reading one of the five essays that accompany the collection, including "Events and Statistics," "Military Technology in World War I," and "Pictures as Propaganda." The more casual users will want to browse through the Gallery for highlights like images of young soldiers, American munitions in use at Argonne, and the Egyptian Camel Corps.

  19. Moral Judgment and Concern About Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on two studies relating moral development to concern about nuclear war and to antinuclear activism. Two Dutch samples tested the following hypothesis: the higher the level of moral judgment, the more concern there is about nuclear arms. (LHW)

  20. The Mounting Prospects of Nuclear War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Frank

    1977-01-01

    Postulates that the probability of a nuclear world war is steadily increasing due to the aims race escalation, the spread of nuclear technology, the international trade in arms, and the failure of arms controls. (SL)

  1. Can We Prevent a Second ’Gulf War Syndrome’? Population-Based Healthcare for Chronic Idiopathic Pain and Fatigue after War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Engel; A. Jaffer; J. Adkins; J. Riddle; R. Gibson

    2006-01-01

    In the 1991 Gulf War less than 150 of nearly 700,000 deployed US troops were killed in action. Today, however, over 1 in 7 US veterans of the war has sought federal healthcare for related-health concerns, and fully 17% of UK Gulf War veterans describe themselves as suffering from the ’Gulf War syndrome’, a set of poorly defined and heterogeneous

  2. The Pulse of War: Writing a Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Bowen; Tony Aiello; Chris Agee; Almira El-Zein; Fred Marchant; Carolyn Forché; Fanny Howe

    2005-01-01

    Introduction and a series of articles and poetry concerning the war on terror being imposed by the U.S., and more.\\u000aWrites Kevin Bowen:\\u000aOne year into the war in Iraq, the ugliness of the undertaking has become more and more inescapable. If anything, the experience has reaffirmed a few simple facts that deserve reiteration. There is no such thing as

  3. The Civil War (1861-1865)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Harward

    2007-11-01

    Objectives: Students will use weblinks to examine the major battles of the Civil War. Students will use the provided links to answer questions on a history \\"scavenger hunt\\" on the Civil War. 1861 Battle of Fort Sumter Battle of Bull Run (nps) 1862 Battle of Shiloh (nps) Battle of Antietam 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville Battle of Gettysburg Battle of Vicksburg 1864 Battle of Atlanta (nps) 1865 Battle of Petersburg Appomattox (nps) Scavenger Hunt ...

  4. War Peace Film Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    This filmography is a selective listing of 287 films dealing with the topics of war and peace for use with K-12 and college students and with adults. The annotated guide will be of use to anyone planning a world affairs program and of special value to those interested in the problem of war. A wide variety of subject areas are treated in the films.…

  5. [German nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution. PMID:25069369

  6. Triage and Management of the Injured in World War I: The Diuturnity of Antoine De Page and a Belgian Colleague

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    A system of orderly triage of the injured in World War I and a protocol for early wound management of war injuries were introduced by Antoine De Page in 1914 at the beginning of World War I. The five steps of the De Page protocol (coined by the author as Ordre de Triage) were to be followed in detail by the French and Belgian armies. A younger Belgian colleague, Robert Danis, was recruited to aid in the management of the ambulance corps to transport the injured from dressing (“clearing”) stations to centers of more advanced care, away from the Franco-Belgian front. Danis, also from Brussels, introduced the principles of osteosynthesis of bone a little over a decade later. De Page and Danis, both surgeons, tendered immense carry-forwards for future generations. PMID:22110790

  7. Student attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war: Friends as influential reference persons

    SciTech Connect

    Marasch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    A renewed interest in research into the psychology of the threat of nuclear war occurred in the past decade as national attention focused increasingly on the arms race between the US and the USSR. Some of this research began the task of exploring the social influences upon attitudes and responses to the nuclear threat. Research on friends as potential influences upon nuclear attitudes was minimal. The present study investigated the role of college friends as potential reference persons in the formation of nuclear attitudes. A battery of questionnaires addressing various nuclear war and non-nuclear war attitudes was completed by 200 student-friend dyads from introductory psychology and sociology courses at the University of North Dakota. Three hypotheses were presented in this study. One hypothesis was that students would perceive their friends as having similar attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war. A second hypothesis was that the actual attitudes between pairs of students and friends would be similar. The third hypothesis was that the attitudes would have become more similar over the course of the development of the friendship (as measured retrospectively). The first hypothesis was borne out by the data. The second and third hypotheses were not supported. There are several implications of the findings. One implication is that the nuclear issue may not be as salient to college students as other, more immediate, issues. Another implication is that a relative lack of communication between college students on political issues precludes more effective mutual influence upon the development and change of such attitudes. A false consensus bias appeared to be operative when the students perceived that their attitudes were similar. Further discussion is presented in regard to past and future psychological research upon nuclear war attitudes.

  8. [Wars in the history of rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Pasero, G; Marson, P

    2007-01-01

    Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas), but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwaffe aviators, in order to increase their performance ability. PMID:18157291

  9. The Vietnam War Declassification Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the fall of Phnom Penh and Saigon, this month the Ford Presidential Library released nearly 30,000 pages of newly declassified material concerning the Vietnam War. Most of the documents "are from the White House offices of national security advisers Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft or from the files of National Security Council staff. Included are President Ford's 'Country Files' for Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; a 'Backchannel' collection of especially sensitive messages; and 'Memcons,' transcript-like memoranda of high level conversations." At the site, users can view a list of topics covered by the recently opened documents and the Library's core holdings on Vietnam, read a press release, and of course, view the full text of a number of selected documents as well as some photos. The majority of documents are offered as page images, and include Henry Kissinger's cable informing Saigon of President Ford's decision to evacuate, Helicopter pilot radio transmissions during the evacuation, Cabinet meeting minutes, National Security Council meeting minutes, General Fred C. Weyand's Vietnam Assessment Report of April 4, 1975, and materials related to the Mayaguez Incident, among others. While this release will certainly grab the attention of scholars and researchers, almost anyone interested in the waning days of American involvement in Vietnam will find multiple items of interest.

  10. Vietnam War Era Ephemera Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The traumatic and unsettled backdrop of social and cultural change throughout the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s will not soon be forgotten by any of those persons who lived through that period. Some groups of people came together under the banner of the women's liberation movement, and still others surrounded themselves in the unifying guise of ethnic solidarity and pride, such as those who participated in the American Indian Movement. No one ongoing event garnered as much attention, however, as the Vietnam War did. That particular event inspired a host of posters, handouts, and other printed ephemera that may have quickly disappeared, as do many pieces of material culture often do. Fortunately, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections division has created this online archive which brings many of these documents together in one place. The documents are divided into thematic categories, such as racism, socialism, farm workers, gay rights, and religion. There are some real compelling documents on the site, and those with a penchant for social and cultural history will enjoy this fine collection.

  11. Pediatric sports elbow injuries.

    PubMed

    Greiwe, R Michael; Saifi, Comron; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2010-10-01

    Elbow injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can be categorized as medial tension injuries, lateral compression injuries, and posterior shear injuries. Early and accurate diagnosis can improve outcomes for both nonoperative and operative treatments. Prevention strategies are important to help reduce the increasing incidence of elbow injuries in youth athletes. PMID:20883904

  12. Eye injury (ocular trauma) in southern Turkey: epidemiology, ocular survival, and visual outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merih Soylu; Selcuk Sizmaz; Sibel Cayli

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of ocular trauma in southern Turkey. Methods Patients referred to the University of Çukurova, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, with ocular trauma during\\u000a the last two years were reviewed retrospectively. Age and gender of patients, type of injury, cause of injury, place where\\u000a injury occurred, initial and final visual acuities, and final

  13. Pediatric Fireworks-Related Injuries in the United States: 1990-2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel J. Witsaman; R. Dawn Comstock; Gary A. Smith

    OBJECTIVE.Our goal was to describe the epidemiology of pediatric fireworks-related injuries among children aged 19 years and younger by using a nationally repre- sentative sample. DESIGN.We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 1990-2003. RESULTS.An estimated 85 800 pediatric fireworks-related injuries were treated in US emergency departments during

  14. Patterns of Increased Intracranial Pressure After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine H. O’Phelan; Jimmy T. Efird; Katherine Johnson; Melanie Albano; Juliet Beniga; Deborah M. Green; Cherylee W. J. Chang

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  Secondary brain injury due to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) contributes to post-traumatic morbidity and mortality.\\u000a Although it is often taught that increased ICP begins early after traumatic brain injury, some patients develop increased\\u000a ICP after the first 3 days post-injury. We examined our data to describe temporal patterns of increased ICP.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected physiologic and

  15. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nexhmedin Morina; Konrad Reschke; Stefan G. Hofmann

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death

  16. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    SciTech Connect

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  17. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to athletes' success by means of gaining medals during competition. A logistic regression model (using the Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) method) was used to investigate the relationship between injuries and success. Injury rate was associated with performance after holding variables constant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.124, P = 0.039). Moreover, with each additional injury per match, competitors were 88% (1-0.124) less likely to win a medal. Although not statistically significant, additional injuries prior to competition were associated with a 30% increase in medal prevalence (OR = 1.299, P = 0.203). When comparing athletes (gender, tournament difficulty, injury variables), a competitor who is one year older is 10% less likely to medal (OR = 0.897, P = 0.068). When an additional injury occurred during competition, the athlete was 88% less likely to win a medal. Prevention, correct diagnosis, and immediate therapeutic intervention by qualified health care providers are important. PMID:22165861

  18. Snowblower injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Jardin, E; Uhring, J; Rey, P-B; Ferrier, M; Obert, L

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the nature and incidence of hand injuries caused by snowblowers, as well as the accident conditions and accident prevention. We conducted a retrospective evaluation over ten consecutive winters. Nine patients were included. All were men with an average age of 49.7 years (17-71). The accidents occurred at home in seven out of nine patients. The machine was running in 50% of the injury events. In most cases, the injuries occurred when the patient tried to unclog snow from the lateral discharge chute. Only four out of the nine patients had read the instructions or received instructions from the salesperson. The dominant hand was injured in 7 out of 9 patients. An average of 2.7 fingers were injured. The longest fingers were most commonly injured: 8 middle fingers, 7 ring fingers, 4 little fingers, 2 indexes and 1 thumb. All the fractures were open. Three patients were operated on several times. In 7 out of 9 cases, the patients had sequelae such as amputation. The mean time off work was 11.4 weeks (3-24). All the patients were experienced snowblower users (9 years and 57th use on average). Snowblower accidents are very mutilating. Prevention must include protected access to blades and better verbal and written safety warnings. PMID:24996696

  19. Crush injuries of the hand.

    PubMed

    Okeke, L I; Dogo, D; Ladipo, J K; Ajao, O G

    1993-09-01

    A retrospective review of 58 patients presenting with crush injuries of the hand within the 6 year period April 1984 to March 1990 was undertaken. The male-female ratio was 3:1, with a mean age of 25.13 +/- 15.1 years. The peak incidence was in the 3rd decade of life. Machines (55.17%) were the commonest cause with the pepper grinder featuring most prominently. The dorsum (60.3%), little (55.1%) and ring (53.5%) fingers of the right hand were the most commonly involved. Most of the injuries were multiple. Management was mainly conservative and entailed initial limited debridement, thorough washing with soap and water under adequate anaesthesia, bulky boxing glove dressing, elevation, antibiotics and early hand physiotherapy with late reconstruction. Results were excellent in 13 (22.41%), good in 19 (32.76%) poor in 23 (39.66%) and unknown in 3 (5.17%) who were lost to follow-up. Our poor result is perhaps the warning signal that we should abandon our extreme conservative stance and be more aggressive in our attitude to these injuries. PMID:7839916

  20. Wounds and Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  1. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury Association - ...

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric Autologous BMMNC for Severe TBI The purpose of this study ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

  4. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  5. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type of injury. For acute injuries , many pediatric sports medicine specialists usually take a "better safe than sorry" ... or if your child needs to see a sports medicine specialist. Doctors usually can diagnose overuse injuries by ...

  6. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the ... function. This is called a traumatic brain injury. Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury. Symptoms of ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what part of the spinal cord is damaged, as well ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric rehabilitation ...

  9. Beyond the War on Terror: Into the Fifth Generation of War and Conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J. Reed

    2008-01-01

    Fifth generation warfare has arrived and is irreversibly changing the character and nature of human conflict. It confronts the United States with the evolving strategic dilemma of not only dealing with the War on Terror, but of simultaneously crafting strategies that look beyond military preparedness for past wars and embrace the perspective of national preparedness for the spectrum of future

  10. Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadas, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

  11. The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreso, Adila Pasalic

    2008-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…

  12. Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.

    The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

  13. Teaching about the Period between World War I and World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a teaching guide to accompany a forthcoming Mobil Showcase television series, "Between the Wars." The series chronicles events between the end of World War I and the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The guide contains background information, discussion questions, and activities for each of the 16 programs in the series. (Author/AV)

  14. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  15. Adjective self-descriptions of world war II and korean prisoner of war and combat veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia B. Sutker; Bradley T. Thomason; Albert N. Allain

    1989-01-01

    Self-descriptions were generated among 71 former prisoners of war (POWs) and 35 combat veterans of similar ages, personal backgrounds, and war duty assignments using the Adjective Check List format. Former POWs differed significantly from combat controls in selection of self-descriptive identifiers across the 37 scales, specifically on Number of Favorable Adjectives Checked, Need Scales measuring Affiliation, Exhibition, Change, Succorance, and

  16. War: The dynamics of vicious civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispolatov, I.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    1996-08-01

    The dynamics of ``vicious,'' continuously growing civilizations (domains), which engage in ``war'' whenever two domains meet, is investigated. In the war event, the smaller domain is annihilated, while the larger domain is reduced in size by a fraction ? of the casualties of the loser. Here ? quantifies the fairness of the war, with ?=1 corresponding to a fair war with equal casualties on both sides and ?=0 corresponding to a completely unfair war where the winner suffers no casualties. In the heterogeneous version of the model, evolution begins from a specified initial distribution of domains, while in the homogeneous system, there is a continuous and spatially uniform input of point domains, in addition to the growth and warfare. For the heterogeneous case, the rate equations are derived and solved and comparisons with numerical simulations are made. An exact solution is also derived for the case of equal-size domains in one dimension. The heterogeneous system is found to coarsen, with the typical cluster size growing linearly in time t and the number density of domains decreases as 1/t. For the homogeneous system, two different long-time behaviors arise as a function of ?. When 1/2wars), a steady state arises that is characterized by egalitarian competition between domains of comparable size. In the limiting case of ?=1, rate equations that simultaneously account for the distribution of domains and that of the intervening gaps are derived and solved. The steady state is characterized by domains whose age is typically much larger than their size. When 0<=?<1/2 (unfair wars), a few ``superpowers'' ultimately dominate. Simulations indicate that this coarsening process is characterized by power-law temporal behavior, with nonuniversal ?-dependent exponents. Some of these features are captured by a deterministic self-similar model, for which the characteristic exponents can be computed easily. The transition point ?=?c=1/2 is characterized by slower than power-law coarsening.

  17. Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals: United Nations War Crimes Commission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Library of Congress' Military Legal Resources has a section on its website that highlights war criminal trials from World War II that offer "major points of municipal and international law that were raised and settled during the trials as well as the potential for the greatest legal interest." The trials cover the time period of 1947-1949, and comprise 15 volumes, each with an introduction by the chairman of the United Nations War Crimes Commission. Visitors will find that each volume's table of contents contains the breakdown of each case, including "Outline of the Proceedings" which is typically comprised of facts and evidence, defense of the accused, and the findings and resulting sentences. The "Notes on the Case" name and discuss the appropriateness of the laws or statutes applied to the case. Visitors interested in World War II history will find these cases provide an interesting perspective by which to view the war.

  18. Mechanical ventilation after injury.

    PubMed

    Maung, Adrian A; Kaplan, Lewis J

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a major cause of critical illness worldwide. Severely injured patients often require mechanical ventilation not only to manage primary respiratory failure but also as adjunct to manage other conditions. Injury induces fundamental changes in multiple organ systems which directly impact ventilator management; these changes are not shared by patients without concomitant tissue injury. In this article, we review the physiologic changes after injury and discuss the impact of injury on ventilator strategies and management. We also explore the special considerations in patients with traumatic brain injury, thermal injury, blast injury or bronchopleural fistula. PMID:22956744

  19. Mortality of first world war military personnel: comparison of two military cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Christine; Summers, Jennifer A; Bannister, John; Harper, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of the first world war on the lifespan of participating military personnel (including in veterans who survived the war). Design Comparison of two cohorts of military personnel, followed to death. Setting Military personnel leaving New Zealand to participate in the first world war. Participants From a dataset of the New Zealand Expeditionary Forces, we randomly selected participants who embarked on troopships in 1914 and a comparison non-combat cohort who departed on troopships in late 1918 (350 in each group). Main outcome measures Lifespan based on dates of birth and death from a range of sources (such as individual military files and an official database of birth and death records). Results A quarter of the 1914 cohort died during the war, with deaths from injury predominating (94%) over deaths from disease (6%). This cohort had a significantly shorter lifespan than the late 1918 “non-combat” cohort, with median ages of death being 65.9 versus 74.2, respectively (a difference of 8.3 years shown also in Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank P<0.001). The difference for the lifespan of veterans in the postwar period was more modest, with median ages of death being 72.6 versus 74.3, respectively (a difference of 1.7 years, log rank P=0.043). There was no evidence for differences between the cohorts in terms of occupational class, based on occupation at enlistment. Conclusions Military personnel going to the first world war in 1914 from New Zealand lost around eight years of life (relative to a comparable military cohort). In the postwar period they continued to have an increased risk of premature death. PMID:25516379

  20. Retrospective Conversion: Investing in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Report on developments in the retrospective conversion of manual library files to machine-readable form discusses planning and decision making; accommodating full records; conforming to standards; creating bibliographic records; sources of retrospective conversion support (bibliographic utilities, stand-alone systems); use of microcomputers;…

  1. Measuring Program Outcomes: Using Retrospective Pretest Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; McGuigan, William M.; Katsev, Aphra R.

    2000-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 307 mothers of firstborn infants participating in a home-visitation, child abuse prevention program in a retrospective pretest methodology. Results shows that when response shift bias was present, the retrospective pretest methodology produced a more legitimate assessment of program outcomes than did the traditional…

  2. Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages (GWVRP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beer, Jeff.

    The Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages provides a single resource for information on Gulf War Syndrome. Included is information on the syndrome and how to obtain benefits; hyperlinked versions of reports and studies of Gulf War syndrome and its possible causes and treatments; information about and newsletters from Gulf War veteran activist organizations; direct links to the Department of Veteran Affairs Home Page and other online resources of interest to veterans, their families and others concerned. The site is fully searchable by keyword. A new feature is "Tracings in the Sand," a section where veterans can share their experiences of their Gulf War service, and how it has affected their lives. Also included are weekly news flashes, such as the following: "Jan Williams of Sen. Rockefeller's office has indicated an interest in how PL 103-446 is being administered. If you are a Persian Gulf veteran and have been turned down for VA disability, please call Jan Williams at 202 224-2074. She is looking for records and the reasons stated on the decision letter."

  3. Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

  4. War with Iraq: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kaysen, Carl.

    2002-01-01

    Released as part of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Committee on International Security Studies Occasional Papers series, this 93-page report from December 2002 examines the political, military, and economic consequences of war with Iraq. The report is divided into three self-contained chapters, with each one exploring a different facet that illustrates the potential costs of war for the United States. In the first chapter, Carl Kaysen, John D. Steinbruner, and Martin B. Malin engage in an extended appraisal of the national security strategy behind the move toward a preventive war against Iraq. The second chapter finds Steven E. Miller considering a number of potentially detrimental military and strategic outcomes of war for the United States. The third chapter, John Nordhaus offers his economic cost estimations of war with Iraq by looking at scenarios that are both favorable and unfavorable to the United States. All in all, this paper is a thought-provoking and scholarly examination of a pressing topic that often receives only superficial consideration by the mainstream media.

  5. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    PubMed Central

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  6. Reaction of Vietnam veterans to the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Kobrick, F R

    1993-08-01

    The notion that veterans' war experiences can be reawakened on exposure to subsequent wars has not received the attention it merits by mental health professionals. A current or recent war can significantly affect veterans; in particular, some Vietnam veterans have had intense reactions to the Persian Gulf War. This article reviews the evolution of the concept of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and analyzes reports of Vietnam veterans' reactions to the Persian Gulf War. A case study of a Vietnam veteran whose traumatic memories were reawakened with the onset of the Persian Gulf War is presented, and implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:8406221

  7. Clinical and critical care concerns of cranio-facial trauma: A retrospective study in a tertiary care institute

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Amarjit; Kapoor, Vinod; Bindra, Gavinder Singh; Ghai, Gagandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Maxillofacial trauma is commonly associated with other injuries, predominantly head injuries. The predictors of outcome in such concomitant injuries have been studied the least. The present study aims at the evaluation of types of injury, management and outcome of patients sustaining maxillofacial trauma and concomitant cranial injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in the department of anesthesiology and intensive care. A case series of 129 patients was evaluated who were admitted in ICU (Intensive Care Unit) with maxillofacial trauma and head injuries. The data was then compiled systematically and analyzed using SPSS windows and value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. Results: Among the 129 patients, majority of them had roadside accidents (RSA > 90%) and male gender predominance with male to female ratio of 5: 1. Fracture maxilla and nasal bones were the most commonly encountered injuries (51.93%) followed by mandibular fractures (39.53%) and fracture of zygomatic bones (28.68%). Eighty five patients (65.90%) required mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy was needed in 29 (22.48%) patients and 81 (62.8%) patients were operated for head injuries as well. Majority of the victims were aged between 15 and 40 years. Conclusions: Maxillofacial trauma and cranial injuries are common among young males and so is the nature of injuries, that is, RSA. Besides facial injuries, head injuries are important determinant of outcome in such patients. Timely resuscitation and surgical interventions at specialized centers are of prime importance as far as a better prognosis is concerned in such injuries. PMID:23833486

  8. A retrospective of VAWT technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Sutherland, Herbert J. (HJS Consulting, Albuquerque, NM); Berg, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) technology at Sandia National Laboratories started in the 1970's and concluded in the 1990's. These studies concentrated on the Darrieus configurations because of their high inherent efficiency, but other configurations (e.g., the Savonius turbine) were also examined. The Sandia VAWT program culminated with the design of the 34-m 'Test Bed' Darrieus VAWT. This turbine was designed and built to test various VAWT design concepts and to provide the necessary databases to validate analytical design codes and algorithms. Using the Test Bed as their starting point, FloWind Corp. developed a commercial VAWT product line with composite blades and an extended height-to-diameter ratio. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design process and results of the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed program and the FloWind prototype development program with an eye toward future offshore designs. This paper is our retrospective of the design, analysis, testing and commercial process. Special emphasis is given to those lessons learned that will aid in the development of an off-shore VAWT.

  9. Translation: in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    2001-01-01

    This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425

  10. Imperial War Museums: Google Cultural Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many institutions, such as the Imperial War Museums in Britain, are choosing to partner up with the Google Cultural Institute to host digital exhibitions online. On this corner of its site, visitors can explore different collections, artists, and artworks related to World War One. Currently, there are 78 items in total, including wonderful paintings by John Singer Sargent and Henry Tonks depicting the privations and trials of war. Visitors can view a map of the artworks' geographical locations and also use the site to create personalized galleries. Also, the Sort Function allows users to examine these items in the order that they have been added. This is an especially great feature for returning visitors.

  11. Art of the First World War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While many of the literary accomplishments that arose out of the trauma and desolation wrought by the experiences of World War I remain at the forefront of literary and philosophical explorations, the paintings from this period are at times overlooked. This thoughtful exhibit, supported by UNESCO (working in tandem with partner museums throughout Europe) brings to the Web approximately 110 paintings from 54 painters. The exhibit begins with an introductory essay by art historian and exhibition curator Philippe Dagen. Visitors can elect to continue through the exhibit thematically through areas devoted to the declaration of war, the use of artillery, the battlefield, and suffering. Some of the works profiled here including William Roberts' "The First German Gas Attack at Ypres" (which gives dramatic representation to the use of toxic gases by the German artillery) and Felix Vallotton's "Le plateau de Bolante", which depicts the war-swept landscape of the Artois region of France.

  12. Brandeis University Spanish Civil War Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Composed of North American volunteers, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was one of several international brigades that fought on the side of the Republicans against Franco's fascist Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9). The Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archive (ALBA) was founded in 1975 by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (VALB) to preserve the history of the Brigade's actions in Spain and the post-war activities of its veterans in America. Part of ALBA's mission includes supervising the comprehensive archive of materials related to the North American involvement in the Spanish Civil War at Brandeis University. The site provides a description of the collections, a select reading list, and related links.

  13. History of Vietnam and the Vietnam War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Vets With A Mission, "a non-political organization of Vietnam veterans which seeks to alleviate the widespread suffering still victimizing the people of Vietnam," this Website offers a plethora of articles, research, book excerpts, and other learning materials about the Vietnam War and the history of Vietnam. There are sections here on Vietnamese history; Vietnam War research; the Tet Offensive; Marine, Army, and Air Force Operations; the History of the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NFL); as well as personal profiles of veterans of the war. Updates seem to have been somewhat infrequent, but given the historical nature of the materials, this may not be a significant drawback to an otherwise useful and interesting site.

  14. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

  15. Symptom Patterns Among Gulf War Registry Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Diefenbach, Michael; Boyd, Kendal; Kang, Han; Leventhal, Howard; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We identify symptom patterns among veterans who believe they suffer from Gulf War–related illnesses and characterize groups of individuals with similar patterns. Methods. A mail survey was completed by 1161 veterans drawn from the Gulf War Health Registry. Results. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 symptom factors. A K-means cluster analysis revealed 2 groups: (1) veterans reporting good health and few moderate/severe symptoms, and (2) veterans reporting fair/poor health and endorsing an average of 37 symptoms, 75% as moderate/severe. Those in Cluster 2 were more likely to report having 1 or more of 24 medical conditions. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of symptom patterns in Gulf War veterans. This multisymptom illness may be more fully characterized by the extent, breadth, and severity of symptoms reported. PMID:12660208

  16. Reading Like a Historian: Korean War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stanford History Education Group

    2012-11-04

    In this lesson, students analyze secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Who started the Korean War? The teacher begins by first explaining that textbooks can be biased sources and then uses a brief PowerPoint to show the geography of Korea and why/when war began there. Students then form pairs and read 2 accounts of the war: one from a South Korean textbook and another from a North Korean book. For both, students not only summarize and answer questions, but they must identify which source is which (North or South Korea?) and use textual details to prove it. In a class discussion, students share their answers. If time remains, the class may corroborate these sources with their own class textbook.

  17. The War of the Rebellion Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As the country prepares to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Civil War, a number of organizations and groups are planning various activities, academic seminars, and other events. This atlas of the War of the Rebellion (as it was also called) was created decades after the war was over to accompany the official records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Published in 1895, the 175 plates in the volume contain more than 1,000 maps, illustrations and diagrams detailing battlefield maps, scenes from the conflict, and military equipment. Visitors can browse the maps by state, city, and bodies of water. This fine resource was created by the Digitization Projects Group at the Baylor University Libraries, which also happens to have a pristine copy of the atlas as part of their Texas Collection. It's quite an amazing document, and one that will be of great interest to those who appreciate geography, American history, and military affairs.

  18. The odontoid synchondrotic slip: an injury unique to young children.

    PubMed

    Connolly, B; Emery, D; Armstrong, D

    1995-11-01

    We report seven children (three female, four male) diagnosed with traumatic synchondrotic slip of the odontoid. The clinical records, plain films and CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. The patients ranged in age between 3 and 5 years. Their injuries resulted from a motor vehicle accident in four cases and from a fall from a height in three. The injury was isolated in five; it was associated with a closed head injury in one and with facial and brachial plexus trauma in another. Radiographs showed anterior angulation with or without displacement in all seven cases. Axial CT with sagittal reformation and 3D reconstructions were performed in six cases. This confirmed the synchondrotic slip and, in addition, identified a rotary component to the injury in three cases, with compromise of the canal in two. Other additional injuries were also noted. All cases were treated conservatively and the injuries healed. Only one child had a neurological deficit attributable to her head injury rather than her cervical injury (MR of the cervical cord was normal). The presence of the synchondrosis between the dens and the body of C-2 makes this injury unique to children under 7 years of age; by the age of 7 the synchondrosis has fused. PMID:8577504

  19. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  20. Dermabrasion — a novel concept in the surgical management of sulphur mustard injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Rice; R. F. R Brown; D. G. K Lam; R. P Chilcott; N. J Bennett

    2000-01-01

    Since its first use on the battlefields of Northern France during the First World War (1914–1918), sulphur mustard has remained a significant chemical threat to military forces around the world. Progress towards an effective treatment for these injuries has been slow due to the lack of suitable animal models upon which to study the toxicology and pathology. However, porcine and

  1. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  2. The World War I Document Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Compiled by volunteers of the World War I Military History List (WWI-L) and provided by Brigham Young University, this site offers a large number of primary documents related to the First World War. The main body of documents is sorted chronologically and includes government papers, memoranda, letters by significant figures, reports, and agreements. Other documents include Conventions, Treaties, Memorials, and Personal Reminiscences. Additional resources at the site include a biographical dictionary, an image archive, commentary articles, and a collection of related links.

  3. Documents about the Effects of Nuclear War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    A militarily plausible nuclear attack, even "limited," could be expected to kill people and to inflict economic damage on a scale unprecedented in American experience; a large-scale nuclear exchange would be a calamity unprecedented in human history. This collection of documents includes: "The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki" by The Manhattan Engineer District (1946), "The Effects of Nuclear War, Worldwide Effects of Nuclear War" by U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" by Samuel Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan.

  4. World War One: The British Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The British Library has gone above and beyond with this multimedia collection of materials related to World War One. Offered as a form of scholarly rumination and educational resource, the site examines key themes in the history of the Great War, along with 50 newly commissioned historical articles, teachers' notes, and much more. First-time visitors might look over the Explore area to find manuscripts, illustrations, letters, maps, and other items contributed by several dozen European institutions. The Teaching Resources includes 40 different items that cover topics such as aerial warfare, propaganda, and bombing raids. The Articles section is a masterstroke and it covers the lives of soldiers, civilians, and colonial troops.

  5. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  6. 76 FR 31018 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...information on the Gulf War and Gulf War Veterans' illnesses, immune function and system activation in Gulf War illness, genomics modeling and etiologic factors of Gulf War illness, and possible therapies and treatments for ill Veterans. The session...

  7. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  8. Head injuries in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R C Cantu

    1996-01-01

    Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common

  9. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Spinal Cord Injury Information Page Condensed from Spinal Cord Injury: Hope Through Research Table of Contents (click to jump to ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Spinal Cord Injury? A spinal cord injury usually begins with a ...

  10. ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS WITH THE WAR ALGORITHM: REVIEW AND UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review uses of the WAR algorithm and current developments and possible future directions. The WAR algorithm is a methodology for analyzing potential environmental impacts of 1600+ chemicals used in the chemical processing and other industries. The algorithm...

  11. TheugsofWar TIM BON YH DY & NIGEL LENDON

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    TheugsofWar TIM BON YH DY & NIGEL LENDON #12;The ugs of War #12;TThhee RRuuggss ooff WWaarr iiss for Indigenous Australia HRC, Humanities Research Centre NIH, the National Institute of the Humanities NIAP

  12. Rebel and Regime Adaptation in a Civil War Setting

    E-print Network

    Jorgensen, Alexander Bjortvedt

    2011-05-31

    Civil wars represent one of the most heinous forms of disagreement between human beings. The level of violence seen in some civil wars far outrank most interstate conflicts in casualty figures from pure military activity ...

  13. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Military Personnel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stomach upset, trouble eating ? Headaches and sweating when thinking of the war ? Rapid heartbeat or breathing ? Existing ... comrades died during the war, you may be thinking a lot about them. You may feel anger, ...

  14. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future directions for the important discipline of technology readiness assessments.

  15. Straddle injuries--is current practice safe?

    PubMed

    Greaney, H; Ryan, J

    1998-12-01

    Genital injuries may be markers of sexual abuse and child protection issues should be considered when case present. This study evaluates the quality of history taking and the physical examination of children who present with straddle injuries to an accident and emergency department. A retrospective analysis of the accident and emergency case notes of children who presented over a 12-month period with straddle injuries was undertaken. A scoring system of risk factors was devised to help identify children at risk of sexual abuse and applied to the case notes. The results showed that the documentation of injuries was inadequate in the majority of cases, increasing the risk that cases of sexual abuse may be missed. Core questions which aid in the selection of children who require further evaluation have previously been identified. Utilizing the information from our findings we have devised a protocol for the assessment of children with straddle injuries which includes an action plan for the management of such cases. PMID:9919446

  16. Roots of the Anti?Vietnam war movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin T. Harrison

    1993-01-01

    The anti?war movement of the 1960s against the Vietnam war has its roots in the collective experiences of the two world wars and the Great Depression. Parents of the worst period of scarcity in U.S. history gave birth to children raised during the most affluent age the country has ever known. Two world wars opened the doors of employment for

  17. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  18. Cheerleading-Related Injuries to Children 5 to 18 Years of Age: United States, 1990-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J. Shields; Gary A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of cheerleading-related injuries among chil- dren in the United States. DESIGN. A retrospective analysis of data for children 5 to 18 years old from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1990 -2002. METHODS. Sample weights provided by the NEISS were used to make national estimates of cheerleading-related

  19. Equestrian injuries: a comparison of professional and amateur injuries in Berkshire.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, M R; Whitlock, J; Johnston, B

    1987-03-01

    A retrospective study of horse riding injuries in Berkshire was undertaken over a one year period from November 1983. The information was obtained from the Ambulance Service, the Jockey Club and the St. John Ambulance Brigade. There was a total of 103 injured persons with no deaths. Information from the Jockey Club was compared with the other two groups, the former sustaining more limb injuries and the latter more head injuries. A questionnaire was sent to all 42 ambulance patients. Thirty-eight had radiographs taken, 16 of which showed a fracture. Forty-one were wearing some form of hard hat, but if a safety strap was available it was attached in 24 cases. The dangers of riding are highlighted and the importance of adequate protective clothing emphasised. PMID:3580723

  20. Equestrian injuries: a comparison of professional and amateur injuries in Berkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, M R; Whitlock, J; Johnston, B

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of horse riding injuries in Berkshire was undertaken over a one year period from November 1983. The information was obtained from the Ambulance Service, the Jockey Club and the St. John Ambulance Brigade. There was a total of 103 injured persons with no deaths. Information from the Jockey Club was compared with the other two groups, the former sustaining more limb injuries and the latter more head injuries. A questionnaire was sent to all 42 ambulance patients. Thirty-eight had radiographs taken, 16 of which showed a fracture. Forty-one were wearing some form of hard hat, but if a safety strap was available it was attached in 24 cases. The dangers of riding are highlighted and the importance of adequate protective clothing emphasised. PMID:3580723