Sample records for war injuries retrospective

  1. Maxillofacial war injuries during the Iraq–Iran War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S Sadda

    2003-01-01

    The following study focuses on three hundred maxillofacial war casualties that were admitted to the Basra Republic Hospital during the Iraq–Iran War. These three hundred cases were chosen on the basis of them being only oral and maxillofacial injuries. Of these cases, there was no mortality recorded. This was in part due to the rapid evacuation, immediate resuscitation and proper

  2. Management of war-related vascular injuries: experience from the second gulf war

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aim To study the biomechanism, pattern of injury, management, and outcome of major vascular injuries treated at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital, Kuwait during the Second Gulf War. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective study. War-related injured patients who had major vascular injuries and were treated at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital from August 1990 to September 1991 were studied. Studied variables included age, gender, anatomical site of vascular injury, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, type of vascular repair, and clinical outcome. Results 36 patients having a mean (SD) age of 29.8 (10.2) years were studied. 32 (89%) were males and 21 (58%) were civilians. Majority of injuries were caused by bullets (47.2%) and blast injuries (47.2%). Eight patients (22%) presented with shock. There were 31 arterial injuries, common and superficial femoral artery injuries were most common (10/31). Arterial repair included interposition saphenous vein graft in seven patients, thrombectomy with end-to-end / lateral repair in twelve patients, vein patch in two patients, and arterial ligation in four patients. Six patients had arterial ligation as part of primary amputation. 3/21 (14.3%) patients had secondary amputation after attempted arterial vascular repair of an extremity. There were a total of 17 venous injuries, 13 managed by lateral suture repair and 4 by ligation. The median (range) hospital stay was 8 (1–76) days. 5 patients died (14%). Conclusions Major vascular injuries occurred in 10% of hospitalized war-related injured patients. Our secondary amputation rate of extremities was 14%. The presence of a vascular surgeon within a military surgical team is highly recommended. Basic principles and techniques of vascular repair remain an essential part of training general surgeons because it may be needed in unexpected wars. PMID:23816260

  3. Management of maxillofacial injuries in the Iran-Iraq war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahimeh Akhlaghi; Fariborz Aframian-Farnad

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study discusses types of maxillofacial injury, their treatment, and complications encountered in the Iran-Iraq war.Patients and Methods: During 1981 to 1986, 210 casualties were treated with 250 operations in Mostafa-Khomeini hospital in Tehran. Their records were analyzed retrospectively. The operations were mostly reconstructive and consisted of methods adopted because of available instruments of that time.Results: Mandibular defects were

  4. Weapons injuries during and after periods of conflict: retrospective analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meddings, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative frequency of weapon injuries during conflict and after periods of conflict in the absence of disarmament. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a database of war wounds. SETTING: Region with a protracted conflict between rival combatant groups and a subsequent transition to the uncontested military authority of a single power. SUBJECTS: 2332 people who received weapons injuries during the conflict or post-conflict periods and were admitted to hospital within 24 hours of injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage change in mean monthly admission rate by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods; annual incidence of injury by weapon type during conflict and post-conflict periods; percentage change in annual incidence by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods. RESULTS: Mean monthly admission rates for injuries from fragmentation munitions decreased by 8% between conflict and post-conflict periods and by 23% for injuries from mines and 32% for gunshot injuries. The decline in admissions for all injuries was 23%. After adjustment for population growth over the study period, declines in annual incidence were 22% for fragmentation munitions injuries, 34% for mine injuries, and 40% for gunshot injuries. The decline in incidence for all injuries was 33%. In-hospital mortality from weapons related injuries increased from 2.5% to 6.1% (P < 0.001) between conflict and post-conflict periods. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, continued availability of weapons is associated with increased mortality and a level of injuries from weapons that is only somewhat reduced from that observed during a period of conflict. PMID:9418089

  5. Retrospective injury epidemiology of strongman athletes.

    PubMed

    Winwood, Paul W; Hume, Patria A; Cronin, John B; Keogh, Justin W L

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first empirical evidence of strongman training and competition injury epidemiology. Strongman athletes (n = 213) (mean ± SD: 31.7 ± 8.8 years, 181.3 ± 7.4 cm, 113.0 ± 20.3 kg, 12.8 ± 8.1 years general resistance training, and 4.4 ± 3.4 years strongman implement training) completed a self-reported, 4-page, 1-year retrospective survey of physical injuries that caused a missed or modified training session or competition. Analysis by age (?30 and >30 years), body mass (?105 and >105 kg), and competitive standard (low and high level) was conducted. Eighty-two percent of strongman athletes reported injuries (1.6 ± 1.5 training injuries per lifter per year, 0.4 ± 0.7 competition injuries per lifter per year, and 5.5 ± 6.5 training injuries per 1,000-hour training). Lower back (24%), shoulder (21%), bicep (11%), knee (11%), and strains and tears of muscle (38%) and tendon (23%) were frequent. The majority of injuries (68%) were acute and were of moderate severity (47%). Strongman athletes used self-treatment (54%) or medical professional treatment (41%) for their injuries. There were significantly more competition injuries for the ?30- than the >30-year athletes (0.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.3 ± 0.6, p = 0.03) and >105-kg athletes compared with the ?105-kg athletes (0.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.3 ± 0.6, p = 0.014). Although 54% injuries resulted from traditional training, strongman athletes were 1.9 times more likely to sustain injury when performing strongman implement training when exposure to type of training was considered. To reduce risk of injury and improve training practices, strongman athletes should monitor technique and progressions for exercises that increase risk of lower back, shoulder, bicep, and knee musculoskeletal injuries. Clinicians should advise athletes who use of strongman resistance training programs can increase injury risk over traditional exercises. PMID:23669816

  6. Missile war injuries of the face.

    PubMed

    Kummoona, Raja K

    2011-11-01

    In a society struggling to rebuild its country after 3 decades of years of dictatorships and wars, Iraqi maxillofacial and craniofacial surgeons play a critical role in treatment of many most serious terrorist missile injuries of the face by ongoing conflict in Iraq. This study reflects our surgical techniques of treating explosive missile injuries and other combat- and terrorism-related injuries and also evaluates the immediate and secondary phase managements of patients with missile injuries. This study includes 235 patients with missile war injuries of the face during a period of 4 years; all injured patients were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit of Surgical Specialties Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad. There were 195 men and 40 women; their ages ranged from 1 to 70 years (mean, 39.5 years). Posttraumatic missile facial deformities were classified as follows: 95 patients (40.43%) had bone loss; 72 patients (30.64%) had soft tissue loss; 33 patients (14.05%) had orbital injuries; and 35 patients (14.90%) had other deformities of scar contracture, fistula, and sinus formation. Two techniques were used for reconstruction of the bony defect, either by bone chips carried by osteomesh tray harvested from the iliac crest or by free block of corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest. Soft tissue reconstruction was done by local flaps and regional flaps such as lateral cervical and cervicofacial flaps, and the orbit was reconstructed by bone graft, lyophilized dura, and sialastic implant. Scar contracture was treated by scar revision and sinus tract excised at the same time of scar revision. In conclusion, the primary phase required an urgent airway management, controlling an active bleeding by surgical intervention; most entrance and exit wounds as well as retained missiles were located in the cheek, chin, and mandibular body, with few cases of mortality due to complications related to head injuries. The secondary phase management of deformities of the face as a complication of missile injuries was classified as bone loss, soft tissue loss, combined bone and soft tissue loss, and others (sinus tracts and poor scars). PMID:22067852

  7. Late sequelae of retained foreign bodies after world war II missile injuries.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte

    2012-09-01

    A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions. PMID:21641596

  8. Body mass index in spinal cord injury – a retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Gupta; K T White; P R Sandford

    2006-01-01

    Study design:Retrospective chart review.Objective:To identify the prevalence of overweight and severely overweight (obese) in veterans with spinal cord injury.Setting:Veterans Administration Hospital in Wisconsin.Methods:A retrospective chart review of all the patients registered in the current database with the Spinal Cord Injury Unit in the Veterans Administration Hospital was undertaken Data collected for each patient included age, sex, height, date of assessment

  9. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

  10. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment. PMID:21981845

  11. [Reconstructive procedures in war injuries of the larynx and trachea].

    PubMed

    Zelený, M; Voldrich, Z; Kozák, J; Sobota, J

    1990-08-01

    In recent years the authors operated three casualties from non-European battlefields with severe laryngotracheal stenoses due to war injuries. Median laryngotomy (thyrocricotracheotomy) made a revision and modification of the internal injury possible. An implanted tube from a vascular prosthesis, packed in Hydron kept the replaced cartilaginous cross bar and possibly mucous grafts from a gingivobuccal fold in the correct position. A cross bar made from a cartilaginous or bony portion of a rib also dilated the lumen. It was kept in position by the perichondrium of the cartilaginous cross bar sutured to the margin of the mucosal remnants. All three patients were decannulated. PMID:2289240

  12. Lower Extremity Injuries in Lateral Impact: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Banglmaier, R.F.; Rouhana, S.W.; Beillas, P.; Yang, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the NASS/CDS database from 1993 to 2000 was used to investigate lower extremity injury in lateral impact. The analysis includes the study of the injury patterns, crash characteristics and the interactions between the occupant and the vehicle interior, including injuries to the farside occupants. The findings include significantly different injury patterns for the nearside and farside impacts. In particular, while the proportion of pelvis/hip injuries, with respect to AIS2 and AIS3 lower extremity skeletal injuries and 2–4 and 10–8 o’clock side impacts, was higher in nearside (70.4%) than farside (38.3%), the opposite trend was observed for the thigh (2.8% vs 4.5%), knee (6.2% vs 16.7%), leg (10.1% vs 19.5%) and foot/ankle (5.6% vs 14.7) injuries. Analysis of the PDOF suggested that a large proportion the impacts occurred obliquely, at approximately 10 and 2 o’clock, with a rearward component of force. It is hoped that the findings of the current study can help to investigate injury mechanisms. PMID:12941240

  13. From Baghdad to Bethesda: Infection Control Considerations for Iraqi-War Related Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Vasquez; M. J. Duncan; K. Petersen; J. English; S. Tasker

    2004-01-01

    ISSUE: Literature from the Vietnam War, Iran-Iraq War, and field reports from Landsthul Regional Medical Center and USNS Comfort, identified multidrug-resistant acinetobacter (MDRA) and other gram-negative rods (GNR) as war-zone community-acquired pathogens both colonizing and infecting war casualties.PROJECT: Infection control professionals (ICPs) formed a multidisciplinary team to design a surveillance protocol for patients admitted with injuries from the Iraqi War

  14. A Retrospective Review of Iatrogenic Skin and Soft Tissue Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Geun; Chung, Seum

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though the quality of medical and surgical care has improved remarkably over time, iatrogenic injuries that require surgical treatment including injuries caused by cast and elastic bandage pressure, extravasation, and dopamine-induced ischemia still frequently occur. The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence and analyze the distribution of iatrogenic injuries referred to our department. Methods A retrospective clinical review was performed from April 2006 to November 2010. In total, 196 patients (116 females and 80 males) were referred to the plastic surgery department for the treatment of iatrogenic injuries. We analyzed the types and anatomic locations of iatrogenic complications, along with therapeutic results. Results An extravasation injury (65 cases, 37.4%) was the most common iatrogenic complication in our study sample, followed by splint-induced skin ulceration, dopamine-induced necrosis, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-related wounds and elastic bandage-induced wounds. Among these, prefabricated pneumatic walking brace-related complication incidence increased the most during the 5-year study period. Conclusions The awareness of the very common iatrogenic complications and its causes may allow physicians to reduce their occurrence and allow for earlier detection and referral to a plastic surgeon. We believe this is the first study to analyze iatrogenic complications referred to a plastic surgery department in a hospital unit. PMID:22872847

  15. Increases in Retrospective Accounts of War-Zone Exposure Over Time: The Role of PTSD Symptom Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizabeth Roeraer; Brett T. Litz; Susan M. Orsillo; Peter J. Ehlich; Matthew J. Friedman

    1998-01-01

    Retrospective reports of the frequency of war-zone exposure are commonly used as objective indices in studies investigating the mental health consequences of exposure to such stressors. To explore the temporal stability of these types of reports, we obtained frequency estimates of exposure to war-zone stressors at two time points from 460 U.S. soldiers who had served in the peace-keeping mission

  16. Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam S; Nair, Rajagopalan

    2009-01-01

    Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuries were identified. The impact of associated injuries on delay in initial surgical management, delay in rehabilitation & final outcome of the floating knee were assessed. Results 38 associated injuries were noted. 7 were associated with ipsilateral knee injuries. Lower limb injuries were most commonly associated with the floating knee. Patients with some associated injuries had a delay in surgical management and others a delay in post-operative rehabilitation. Knee ligament and vascular injuries were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The associated injuries were quite frequent with the floating knee. Some of the associated injuries caused a delay in surgical management and post-operative rehabilitation. In assessment of the final outcome, patients with associated knee and vascular injuries had a poor prognosis. Majority of the patients with associated injuries had a good or excellent outcome. PMID:19144197

  17. A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries

    PubMed Central

    Taunton, J; Ryan, M; Clement, D; McKenzie, D; Lloyd-Smith, D; Zumbo, B

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an extensive and up to date database for specific running related injuries, across the sexes, as seen at a primary care sports medicine facility, and to assess the relative risk for individual injuries based on investigation of selected risk factors. Methods: Patient data were recorded by doctors at the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre over a two year period. They included assessment of anthropometric, training, and biomechanical information. A model was constructed (with odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals) of possible contributing factors using a dependent variable of runners with a specific injury and comparing them with a control group of runners who experienced a different injury. Variables included in the model were: height, weight, body mass index, age, activity history, weekly activity, history of injury, and calibre of runner. Results: Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years was positively associated with injury in both sexes for tibial stress syndrome; and women with a body mass index less than 21 kg/m2 were at a significantly higher risk for tibial stress fractures and spinal injuries. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome. Conclusions: Although various risk factors were shown to be positively associated with a risk for, or protection from, specific injuries, future research should include a non-injured control group and a more precise measure of weekly running distance and running experience to validate these results. PMID:11916889

  18. Hospital Stay as a Proxy Indicator for Severe Injury in Earthquakes: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu-Ping; Gerdin, Martin; Westman, Lina; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Wu, Qi; van den Oever, Barbara; Pan, Liang; Albela, Manuel; Chen, Gao; Zhang, De-Sheng; Guha-Sapir, Debarati; von Schreeb, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes are the most violent type of natural disasters and injuries are the dominant medical problem in the early phases after earthquakes. However, likely because of poor data availability, high-quality research on injuries after earthquakes is lacking. Length of hospital stay (LOS) has been validated as a proxy indicator for injury severity in high-income settings and could potentially be used in retrospective research of injuries after earthquakes. In this study, we assessed LOS as an adequate proxy indicator for severe injury in trauma survivors of an earthquake. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using a database of 1,878 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Our primary outcome was severe injury, defined as a composite measure of serious injury or resource use. Secondary outcomes were serious injury and resource use, analysed separately. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to test the discriminatory accuracy of LOS when used to identify severe injury. An 0.7injury in earthquake survivors. However, LOS was found to be a proxy for major nonorthopaedic surgery and blood transfusion. These findings can be useful for retrospective research on earthquake-injured patients when detailed hospital records are not available. PMID:23585897

  19. Cut throat injury: a retrospective study of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, N; Arefin, S M; Mazumder, S M; Khan, M K

    1997-12-01

    Cut throat injuries and associated deaths are common in our society. Majority succumb to their injuries. In this study, the hospital records of twenty six such cases (13 M & 13 F) were reviewed. Eleven victims were in their third decade. Eighteen cases came from poor socio-economic class. Eleven had suicidal, eleven homicidal and four accidental injuries. Familial troubles, psychiatric illness and poverty were the triggering factors in suicidal attempts. The motives of homicide included political conflict, sex related crimes, dacoity, familial, land related disputes, etc. All had their hypopharynx and/or larynx exposed. Tracheostomy was done in fifteen cases. All but two had uneventful recovery. One died in the hospital due to hemorrhage, shock and asphyxia from aspirated blood. It was observed that appropriate measures could save lives in vast majority. PMID:9621478

  20. Blunt Cardiac Injury in the Severely Injured – A Retrospective Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Marc; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Khalil, Philipe N.; Wierer, Matthias; van Griensven, Martijn; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Biberthaler, Peter; Lefering, Rolf; Huber-Wagner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blunt cardiac injury is a rare trauma entity. Here, we sought to evaluate the relevance and prognostic significance of blunt cardiac injury in severely injured patients. Methods In a retrospective multicentre study, using data collected from 47,580 patients enrolled to TraumaRegister DGU (1993-2009), characteristics of trauma, prehospital / hospital trauma management, and outcome analysis were correlated to the severity of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of cardiac injury was assessed according to the abbreviated injury score (AIS score 1-6), the revised injury severity score (RISC) allowed comparison of expected outcome with injury severity-dependent outcome. N = 1.090 had blunt cardiac trauma (AIS 1-6) (2.3% of patients). Results Predictors of blunt cardiac injury could be identified. Sternal fractures indicate a high risk of the presence of blunt cardiac injury (AIS 0 [control]: 3.0%; AIS 1: 19.3%; AIS 2-6: 19.1%). The overall mortality rate was 13.9%, minor cardiac injury (AIS 1) and severe cardiac injury (AIS 2-6) are associated with higher rates. Severe blunt cardiac injury (AIS 4 and AIS 5-6) is associated with a higher mortality (OR 2.79 and 4.89, respectively) as compared to the predicted average mortality (OR 2.49) of the study collective. Conclusion Multiple injured patients with blunt cardiac trauma are at high risk to be underestimated. Careful evaluation of trauma patients is able to predict the presence of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of blunt cardiac injury needs to be stratified according to the AIS score, as the patients’ outcome is dependent on the severity of cardiac injury. PMID:26136126

  1. Retrospective comparison of taping and ankle stabilizers in preventing ankle injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George D. Rovere; Theodore J. Clarke; C. Steven Yates; Katie Burley

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of taping and the effectiveness of wearing a laced stabilizer in preventing ankle injuries and reinjuries over six seasons of collegiate football practices and games were assessed retrospectively. For 1˝ years the players all had taped ankles, and for the remaining 4˝ years the players chose their type of ankle support. Over the entire period, the players chose

  2. Urethral and penile war injuries: The experience from civil violence in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzawi, Issam S.; Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, mechanism of injury, wounding pattern and surgical management of urethral and penile injuries sustained in civil violence during the Iraq war. Patients and methods In all, 2800 casualties with penetrating trauma to the abdomen and pelvis were received at the Al-Yarmouk Hospital, Baghdad, from January 2004 to June 2008. Of these casualties 504 (18%) had genitourinary trauma, including 45 (8.9%) with urethral and/or penile injuries. Results Of 45 patients, 29 (64%) were civilians and 16 (36%) were Iraqi military personnel. The injury was caused by an improvised explosive device (IED) in 25 (56%) patients and by individual firearms in 20 (44%). Of the patients, 24 had penile injuries, 15 had an injury to the bulbar urethra and six had an injury to the posterior urethra. Anterior urethral injuries were managed by primary repair, while posterior urethral injuries were managed by primary realignment in five patients and by a suprapubic cystostomy alone in one. An associated injury to major blood vessels was the cause of death in eight of nine patients who died soon after surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusion Urethral and penile injuries were caused by IEDs and individual firearms with a similar frequency. Most of the casualties were civilians and a minority were military personnel. Injuries to the anterior urethra can be managed by primary repair, while injuries to the posterior urethra can be managed by primary realignment. An associated trauma to major blood vessels was the leading cause of death in these casualties. PMID:26019940

  3. Famous head injuries of the first aerial war: deaths of the "Knights of the Air".

    PubMed

    Koul, Prateeka; Mau, Christine; Sabourin, Victor M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    World War I advanced the development of aviation from the concept of flight to the use of aircraft on the battlefield. Fighter planes advanced technologically as the war progressed. Fighter pilot aces Francesco Baracca and Manfred von Richthofen (the Red Baron) were two of the most famous pilots of this time period. These courageous fighter aces skillfully maneuvered their SPAD and Albatros planes, respectively, while battling enemies and scoring aerial victories that contributed to the course of the war. The media thrilled the public with their depictions of the heroic feats of fighter pilots such as Baracca and the Red Baron. Despite their aerial prowess, both pilots would eventually be shot down in combat. Although the accounts of their deaths are debated, it is undeniable that both were victims of traumatic head injury. PMID:26126404

  4. Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment. PMID:23852334

  5. Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

    PubMed

    Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding. PMID:22761707

  6. Retrospective comparison of taping and ankle stabilizers in preventing ankle injuries.

    PubMed

    Rovere, G D; Clarke, T J; Yates, C S; Burley, K

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of taping and the effectiveness of wearing a laced stabilizer in preventing ankle injuries and reinjuries over six seasons of collegiate football practices and games were assessed retrospectively. For 1 1/2 years the players all had taped ankles, and for the remaining 4 1/2 years the players chose their type of ankle support. Over the entire period, the players chose high-top or low-top shoes as preferred. During 51,931 exposures to injury (46,789 practice-exposures and 5,142 game-exposures), the 297 players sustained 224 ankle injuries and 24 reinjuries. Tape was worn during 38,658 exposures to injury (233 players), stabilizers during 13,273 exposures (127 players). Tape had been worn when 159 of the injuries and 23 of the reinjuries occurred; a stabilizer had been worn when 37 of the injuries (P = 0.003) and one of the reinjuries occurred. The combination allowing the fewest injuries overall was low-top shoes and laced ankle stabilizers. PMID:3132864

  7. Porcupine quill injuries in dogs: A retrospective of 296 cases (1998–2002)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Magnusson, Kristenn D.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify factors associated with quill injury in dogs. A second objective was to determine the risk of complications and any factors that would predict the likelihood of complications. Hospital records of 296 porcupine quill injuries in dogs from 1998 to 2002 were studied. There was an increased occurrence of porcupine encounters in the spring and fall months; Siberian huskies, rottweilers, and German shepherd crosses were significantly overrepresented for quill injuries. There was no association between risk of complications and either number of quills or antimicrobial use. Increasing time between quill injury and presentation was associated with an increased risk of complications. Because of the increased frequency of complication with a longer interval until presentation, clients should be strongly encouraged to bring the dog in as soon as the quill injury is discovered. Patients presented after 24 hours should be monitored closely during the first 3 weeks after injury, as most complications occurred during this time. PMID:16898110

  8. Porcupine quill injuries in dogs: a retrospective of 296 cases (1998-2002).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D; Magnusson, Kristenn D; Shmon, Cindy L; Waldner, Cheryl

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify factors associated with quill injury in dogs. A second objective was to determine the risk of complications and any factors that would predict the likelihood of complications. Hospital records of 296 porcupine quill injuries in dogs from 1998 to 2002 were studied. There was an increased occurrence of porcupine encounters in the spring and fall months; Siberian huskies, rottweilers, and German shepherd crosses were significantly overrepresented for quill injuries. There was no association between risk of complications and either number of quills or antimicrobial use. Increasing time between quill injury and presentation was associated with an increased risk of complications. Because of the increased frequency of complication with a longer interval until presentation, clients should be strongly encouraged to bring the dog in as soon as the quill injury is discovered. Patients presented after 24 hours should be monitored closely during the first 3 weeks after injury, as most complications occurred during this time. PMID:16898110

  9. Self-reported ill health in male UK Gulf War veterans: a retrospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Simmons; Noreen Maconochie; Pat Doyle

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill

  10. E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department—A Retrospective Study from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Papoutsi, Sylvana; Martinolli, Luca; Braun, Christian Tasso; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital by focusing on the following parameters: age, gender, time, period, and cause of the accident, as well as injury and outcome. Results. Patients were predominantly male. The mean age of injured E-cyclists was 47.5 years. The main causes of injury were self-accident. Most injuries were to the head/neck. The mean ISS was 8.48. The outcome showed that 9 patients were treated as outpatients, 9 were inpatients, and 5 patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Only six patients underwent surgery (S). Discussion. This is the first attempt to evaluate E-bike injuries in Switzerland in an acute hospital setting. Since there is increasing popular preference for E-bikes as means of transportation and injuries to the head or neck are prevalent among E-cyclists, the hazard should not to be underestimated. PMID:24778880

  11. Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Susi?, Mato; Brozovi?, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipovi?; Milenovi?, Aleksandar; Strinovi?, Davor; Brki?, Hrvoje; Panduri?, Dragana Gabri?

    2014-03-01

    In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits. PMID:24851626

  12. Injuries and allegations of oral rape: A retrospective review of patients presenting to a London sexual assault referral centre.

    PubMed

    Brew-Graves, Emmeline; Morgan, Louise

    2015-08-01

    A retrospective review was carried out of patients seen at the Haven sexual assault referral centre in South East London between January 2009 and September 2010 to determine the frequency and nature of oral injuries found in people reporting oral rape. Ninety five eligible patients were identified and relevant information was extracted from standardised Haven forms completed during forensic medical examination. The main outcome measures were prevalence, type and location of oral injury. Eighteen (19%) were found to have sustained an oral injury. The most common injury was abrasions, followed by bruising and petechiae. The lips were the most common site of injury followed by the soft palate and the inside of the cheeks. It was concluded that injuries in the mouth were not common after an allegation of oral rape. Injuries were minor and did not require treatment. PMID:26165676

  13. If Hunters End Up in the Emergency Room: A Retrospective Analysis of Hunting Injuries in a Swiss Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bestetti, Valentina; Fisher, Emma E.; Srivastava, David S.; Ricklin, Meret E.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. to characterize the mechanisms, patterns, and outcomes of nonfatal hunting-related injuries in patients presenting to Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, and compare these to reports of hunting injuries worldwide. Methods. patients presenting with hunting-related injuries to the Emergency Department at Bern University hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified by retrospectively searching the department database using the keyword “hunt.” Each case was analyzed in terms of the patient age and gender, the mechanism and pattern of injury, and management and patient follow-up. Results. 19 patients were identified. 16 were male with a mean age of 50 years (range: 16–74). Mechanisms of injury included firearm-related injuries, falls, and knife wounds. The most common patterns of injury were head injuries (7), followed by injuries to the upper (5) or lower limb (5) and trunk (2). Over half of the patients were admitted, and nine required emergency surgery. Conclusion. Nonfatal hunting accidents in Bern, Switzerland, are largely caused by firearms and falls and tend to occur in male hunters with a mean age of 50 years. The most common patterns of injury are orthopedic and head injuries, often requiring surgery. These findings are consistent with international studies of nonfatal hunting accidents. PMID:25834746

  14. If hunters end up in the emergency room: a retrospective analysis of hunting injuries in a swiss emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Valentina; Fisher, Emma E; Srivastava, David S; Ricklin, Meret E; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2015-01-01

    Aim. to characterize the mechanisms, patterns, and outcomes of nonfatal hunting-related injuries in patients presenting to Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, and compare these to reports of hunting injuries worldwide. Methods. patients presenting with hunting-related injuries to the Emergency Department at Bern University hospital from 2000 to 2014 were identified by retrospectively searching the department database using the keyword "hunt." Each case was analyzed in terms of the patient age and gender, the mechanism and pattern of injury, and management and patient follow-up. Results. 19 patients were identified. 16 were male with a mean age of 50 years (range: 16-74). Mechanisms of injury included firearm-related injuries, falls, and knife wounds. The most common patterns of injury were head injuries (7), followed by injuries to the upper (5) or lower limb (5) and trunk (2). Over half of the patients were admitted, and nine required emergency surgery. Conclusion. Nonfatal hunting accidents in Bern, Switzerland, are largely caused by firearms and falls and tend to occur in male hunters with a mean age of 50 years. The most common patterns of injury are orthopedic and head injuries, often requiring surgery. These findings are consistent with international studies of nonfatal hunting accidents. PMID:25834746

  15. Protective and risk factors in amateur equestrians and description of injury patterns: A retrospective data analysis and a case - control survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca M Hasler; Lena Gyssler; Lorin Benneker; Luca Martinolli; Andreas Schötzau; Heinz Zimmermann; Aristomenis K Exadaktylos

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Switzerland there are about 150,000 equestrians. Horse related injuries, including head and spinal injuries, are frequently treated at our level I trauma centre. OBJECTIVES: To analyse injury patterns, protective factors, and risk factors related to horse riding, and to define groups of safer riders and those at greater risk METHODS: We present a retrospective and a case-control survey

  16. Going Back to Civvy Street: A historical account of the impact of the Everest and Jennings wheelchair for Canadian World War II veterans with spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY TREMBLAY

    1996-01-01

    In February 1945, the Canadian government agreed to provide the Everest and Jennings folding, self-propelled wheelchair to all World War II veterans with spinal cord injury. These wheelchairs replaced wooden and wicker invalid wheelchairs that were usually assigned to hospital wards rather than to individuals. Veterans with spinal cord injury were among the first group of Canadians to use these

  17. Identifying future ‘unexpected’ survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

  18. Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007–2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Results Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age?injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p???0.01 for all). Conclusions Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with “minor” injuries at their previous event. PMID:25174531

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Levetiracetam Compared to Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, G. Christina; Hughes, Darrel W.; Maxwell, Pamela R.; Green, Kay; Gamboa, Conrado D.; Barthol, Colleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phenytoin is standard of care for seizure prophylaxis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Levetiracetam, an alternative antiepileptic drug, is utilized for seizure prophylaxis despite limited data supporting its use. Objective: Our primary outcome was post-TBI seizure activity measured by electroencephalogram (EEG) for levetiracetam versus phenytoin. Secondary outcomes were length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, requirement for additional antiepileptic drugs (AED), and drug and monitoring costs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients admitted to neurosurgical or surgical trauma ICU. Adult patients with at least 1 day of EEG monitoring were included. Patients were excluded if they had history of epilepsy, prior TBI, less than 48 hours of AED therapy, or additional AED prior to EEG monitoring. Results: A total 90 patients met inclusion criteria, with 18 receiving levetiracetam and 72 receiving phenytoin. Prevalence of EEG-confirmed seizure activity was similar between the levetiracetam and phenytoin groups (28% vs 29%; P = .99). ICU length of stay (13 vs 18 days; P = .28), time to EEG-confirmed seizure activity (4 vs 6 days; P = .24), and duration of seizure prophylaxis (9 vs 14 days; P = .18) were also similar. The median daily cost of levetiracetam therapy was $43 compared to $55 for phenytoin therapy and monitoring (P = .08). When all anticonvulsant therapy and monitoring were included, costs were lower for the levetiracetam group ($45 vs $83; P = .02). Conclusion: Levetiracetam may provide an alternative treatment option for seizure prevention in TBI patients in the ICU. Total antiepileptic drug and monitoring costs were lower for levetiracetam patients. PMID:24421550

  20. Late sequelae of retained foreign bodies after world war II missile injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey Surov; Florian Thermann; Curd Behrmann; Rolf-Peter Spielmann; Malte Kornhuber

    A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications.The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war

  1. Management of war-related burn injuries: lessons learned from recent ongoing conflicts providing exceptional care in unusual places.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Hayek, Shady N

    2010-09-01

    Thermal injury is a sad but common and obligatory component of armed conflicts. Although the frequency of noncombat burns has decreased, overall incidence of burns in current military operations has nearly doubled during the past few years. Burn injuries in the military environment do not need to be hostile in nature. Burns resulting from carelessness outnumber those resulting from hostile action. Unfortunately, civilians are becoming the major targets in modern-day conflicts; they account for more than 80% of those killed and wounded in present-day conflicts. The provision of military burn care mirrors the civilian standards; however, several aspects of treatment of war-related burn injuries are peculiar to the war situation itself and to the specific conditions of each armed conflict. Important aspects of management of burned military personnel include triage to ensure that available medical care resources are matched to the severity of burn injury and the number of burn casualties, initial management and resuscitation in the combat zone, and subsequent evacuation to higher echelons of medical care, each with increasing medical capabilities. Care of military victims is usually well structured and follows strict guidelines for first aid and evacuation to field hospitals by military personnel usually having had some form of training in first aid and resuscitation and for which necessary equipment and material for such interventions are more or less available. Options available for civilian injury intervention in wartime, however, are limited. Of all pre-hospital transport of civilian victims, 70% are done by lay public and 93% receive in the field, or during transport, some form of basic first aid administered by relatives, friends, or other first responders not trained for such interventions. Civilian casualties frequently represents 60% to 80% of all injured admitted to the level III facilities of overseas forces stationed throughout the host country. Unlike military personnel who are rapidly evacuated to higher echelons IV and V for definitive and long-term care, civilians must receive definitive burn treatment at these level III military facilities. The present review was intended to highlight peculiar aspects of war-related burn injuries of both military personnel and civilians and their management based on the most recently published material that, for the most part, is related to the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:20818237

  2. Proposed explanations for excess injury among veterans of the Persian Gulf War and a call for greater attention from policymakers and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, N; Amoroso, P; Wegman, D; Senier, L

    2001-01-01

    Introduction—Death rates among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War were lower than rates among non-deployed veterans and the US population at large, with the exception of injury deaths; returning veterans were at significantly greater risk of injury mortality. Similar patterns of excess injury mortality were documented among US and Australian veterans returning from Vietnam. In spite of these consistent findings little has been done to explain these associations and in particular to determine whether or not, and how, war related exposures influence injury risk among veterans returning home after deployments. Hypothesized pathways—Several potential pathways are proposed through which injury might be related to deployment. First, increases in injury mortality may be a consequence of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and symptoms of other psychiatric conditions developed after the war. Second, physical and psychological traumas experienced during the war may result in the postwar adoption of "coping" behaviors that also increase injury risk (for example, heavy drinking). Third, greater injury risk may be the indirect consequence of increased experiences of ill defined diseases and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. Fourth, veterans may experience poorer survivability for a given injury event resulting in greater mortality but not morbidity. Finally, the process that selects certain individuals for deployment may lead to a spurious association between deployment status and injury mortality by preferentially selecting individuals who are risk takers and/or exposed to greater hazards. Conclusions—More research and attention from policymakers is needed to clarify the link between deployment and postwar increased risk of injury. PMID:11289533

  3. A retrospective study on traumatic dental and soft-tissue injuries in preschool children in Zagreb, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vuleti?, Marko; Škari?i?, Josip; Batinjan, Goran; Trampuš, Zdenko; Bagi?, Ivana ?ukovi?; Juri?, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, time elapsed before treatment and type of tooth from the records of traumatized children. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the University Dental Clinic in Zagreb. Croatia using the documentation of 128 patients (61 males and 67 females) aged 1 month to 6 years with injuries of primary teeth between February 2009 and January 2013. Trauma was seen in 217 primary teeth, which implies that the number of injured primary teeth was 1.69 per child. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently affected teeth (81.1%), they were followed by maxillary lateral incisors, while the least affected were mandibular central incisors. Traumatic dental injuries involved periodontal tissue 2.82 times more frequently than hard dental and pulp tissue. The main cause of teeth injury was fall (67.2%) and the majority of injuries occurred at home (51.6%) (p<0.05). Of 128 patients who received treatment 71 (55.5%) also had soft-tissue injuries. The distribution of soft-tissue injuries by gender (35 males, 36 females) was not statistically significant. Comparing children with soft-tissue injuries and those without them, a statistically significant difference was found in the time of arrival (p<0.01). The results of this study showed the need of informing about preventive measures against falls at home and the methods of providing first aid in dental trauma injuries. PMID:24579964

  4. A 2-year retrospective analysis of facial injuries in patients treated at department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, IGGDC, Jammu, India

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Parveen; Singh, Amrit Pal; Kour, Indumeet; Kumar, Misha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial injuries is on the rise due to motor vehicle accidents and increased incidence of violence in recent times. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence, etiology, and the pattern of fractures in the maxillofacial region. Materials and Methods: After obtaining permission from the concerned authorities, a predesigned questionnaire was used to collect the necessary data from the department. A retrospective analysis of 787 patients, who suffered trauma and were managed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Indira Gandhi Government Dental College (IGGDC), Jammu over a period of 2 years was carried out. Results: Road traffic accident (RTA) was the common cause of maxillofacial injuries. Men sustained more injuries as compared to women. Injuries were most commonly sustained in the age group of 11-40 years, constituting about 76% of all injuries, mandibular fractures were the most common. Conclusion: RTAs were the commonest cause for the maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25937724

  5. Differences in Injury Pattern and Prevalence of Cartilage Lesions in Knee and Ankle Joints: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Aurich, Matthias; Hofmann, Gunther O.; Rolauffs, Bernd; Gras, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically) and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically) of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients) was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints. PMID:25568732

  6. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented. PMID:18214089

  7. Investigation of characteristics and risk factors of sports injuries in young soccer players: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of children and adolescents in sports has become increasingly frequent, including soccer. This growing involvement gives rise to concerns regarding the risk of sports injuries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the musculoskeletal injuries in young soccer players. Methods 301 male soccer players with a mean age 14.67?±?2.08 years were randomly recruited. The Referred Condition Inquiry was used to collect information on the mechanism of injury and anatomic site affected as well as personal data on the participants. The variables were analyzed based on the degree of association using Goodman’s test for contrasts between multinomial populations, with the p?injury. With regard to height, taller individuals reported more injuries than shorter individuals (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively; p?Injuries were more frequent among players with a training duration greater than five years (69.65%) in comparison to those who trained for a shorter duration (30.35%) (p?injury. Conclusion The young practitioners of soccer analyzed had low rates of injury. The main causal mechanism was the impact. A taller height and longer exposure to training were the main risk factors for injury among young soccer players. PMID:23602027

  8. Pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries in Kashmir valley, a retrospective single-center study of 1467 patients.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Dar, Tahir; Beigh, Asif Qayoom; Dhar, Shabir; Ahad, Humayun; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Ahmad, Sharief

    2015-05-01

    This work aimed to study the pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal trauma and consequent morbidity in Kashmir Valley and compare the results with other studies and to formulate preventive measures and devise management strategies. This was a retrospective study of 1467 pediatric orthopedic trauma patients who presented to our hospital over a 3-year period between September 2005 and August 2008. Information was recorded in a prescribed proforma including the following: age, sex, mode of trauma, type of fracture/injury, radiological study, final diagnosis, intervention performed, and complications. The information was collected from the Medical Records Department of the hospital. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 16 years; there were 996 males and 471 females, with males outnumbering females in every age group (the overall male-to-female ratio was 2.12:1). Most fractures occurred in children aged 7-12 years [n=816 (53.96%)] and decreased in younger and older children beyond this age group. The left side was involved in 762 cases, 612 injuries involved the right side, 24 were bilateral, and 69 patients presented with multiple injuries. In children aged 0-6 years, the most common site of injury was the elbow, whereas in children aged 7-16 years, it was the forearm. In descending order, most injuries were sustained because of fall while playing (34.76%), fall from height (33.74%), road traffic accidents (14.92%), and fall from standing height (7.97%). The majority of injuries were caused by unintentional trauma (94.48 vs. 5.52%). The places where injury occurred were the home [603 (41.10%)], play field and orchards near the home [450 (30.67%)], roads [219 (14.92%)], school [183 (12.47%)], and unknown [12 (0.81%)]. The pattern and epidemiology of pediatric trauma differs from those in adults. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are because of unintentional trauma in this young age group and hence preventable. Enhanced supervision at home and school is recommended. A safer environment and better playing conditions may decrease the high frequency of trauma in pediatric patients. Dedicated trauma centers with such facilities as orthopedics, neurosurgery, and plastic surgery need to be established for the proper management of pediatric trauma. PMID:25647562

  9. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery. PMID:19772621

  10. Returning Veterans on Campus with War Related Injuries and the Long Road Back Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the growing numbers of returning military personnel attending higher education based on emerging national trends, including the new GI Educational Bill, amendments to the ADA, and the rising unemployment rate. The trauma of war and the high survival rate have resulted in a high percentage of veterans returning from the Global…

  11. Examination for sexual assault: Is the documentation of physical injury associated with the laying of charges? A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, M J; Le, G; Marion, S A; Wiebe, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether there is an association between individual medical findings and legal outcome in cases of sexual assault. This study was undertaken to determine the relation between the extent of documented physical injury and a positive legal outcome in cases of sexual assault and to determine other factors associated with the laying of charges in such cases. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the authors reviewed the charts and medicolegal reports for all cases of sexual assault that were handled by the BC Women's Sexual Assault Service in 1992 for which a police report had been filed. Information on patients' characteristics, the nature of the assault and the extent of injury was extracted from these records. A system for scoring clinical injury was developed by 4 of the physicians at the Sexual Assault Service, and a clinical injury score was assigned for each case by one physician. The relation between the outcome (in terms of whether charges were laid) and the circumstances of the case was examined by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 95 cases with complete medical records and information about legal outcome were identified during the 1992 calendar year. After adjustment for income level and the patient's knowledge of the assailant (either as an acquaintance or as his or her partner), the odds ratio (OR) for charge-laying in a sexual assault case with documented moderate to severe injury was 3.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-10.42). Socioeconomic status above the group median (defined as annual income greater than $21,893) (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.09-9.71) and knowledge of the assailant (OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.52-13.79) were also associated with charge-laying. Presence of genital injury per se, age of the patient and detection of sperm by microscopy at the time of examination were not associated with the laying of charges. INTERPRETATION: The results of this study show that the extent of documented injury is associated with the laying of charges in cases of sexual assault. However, many questions remain about the effectiveness of the medical component of gathering such evidence. PMID:10373997

  12. Protective and risk factors in amateur equestrians and description of injury patterns: A retrospective data analysis and a case - control survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Switzerland there are about 150,000 equestrians. Horse related injuries, including head and spinal injuries, are frequently treated at our level I trauma centre. Objectives To analyse injury patterns, protective factors, and risk factors related to horse riding, and to define groups of safer riders and those at greater risk Methods We present a retrospective and a case-control survey at conducted a tertiary trauma centre in Bern, Switzerland. Injured equestrians from July 2000 - June 2006 were retrospectively classified by injury pattern and neurological symptoms. Injured equestrians from July-December 2008 were prospectively collected using a questionnaire with 17 variables. The same questionnaire was applied in non-injured controls. Multiple logistic regression was performed, and combined risk factors were calculated using inference trees. Results Retrospective survey A total of 528 injuries occured in 365 patients. The injury pattern revealed as follows: extremities (32%: upper 17%, lower 15%), head (24%), spine (14%), thorax (9%), face (9%), pelvis (7%) and abdomen (2%). Two injuries were fatal. One case resulted in quadriplegia, one in paraplegia. Case-control survey 61 patients and 102 controls (patients: 72% female, 28% male; controls: 63% female, 37% male) were included. Falls were most frequent (65%), followed by horse kicks (19%) and horse bites (2%). Variables statistically significant for the controls were: Older age (p = 0.015), male gender (p = 0.04) and holding a diploma in horse riding (p = 0.004). Inference trees revealed typical groups less and more likely to suffer injury. Conclusions Experience with riding and having passed a diploma in horse riding seem to be protective factors. Educational levels and injury risk should be graded within an educational level-injury risk index. PMID:21294862

  13. Infrared Thermal Imaging in Patients with Medial Collateral Ligament Injury of the Knee - A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HyunJung; Park, HaeIn; Lim, Chungsan; Park, SangKyun; Lee, KwangHo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI) has been used widely for various inflammatory diseases, circulatory diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and cancers. In cases of ligament injury, obviously the temperature of the damaged area increases due to local inflammation; however, whether the temperature also increases due to DITI has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to identify whether or not the changes of temperature in patient’s with medial collateral ligament injury were really due to infrared thermography and to determine the applicability of DITI for assessing ligament injuries. Methods: Twenty patient’s who underwent DITI for a medial collateral ligament injury from September 2012 to June 2014 were included in the current study. The thermographic images from the patient’s knees were divided to cover seven sub-areas: the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the inferolateral, the superomedial, the superolateral, the medial, and the lateral regions of patella. The temperatures of the seven regions were measured, and the temperature differences between affected and unaffected regions were analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The 20 patient’s were composed of 14 women (70%) and 6 men (30%), with a mean age of 62.15 ± 15.71 (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) years. The temperature of the affected side, which included the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the superomedial, the superolateral, and the medial regions, showed a significant increase compared to that of the unaffected side (P < 0.05). The inferolateral and the lateral regions showed no significant changes. Conclusion: Our study results suggest that DITI can show temperature changes if a patient has a ligament injury and that it can be applied in the evaluation of a medial collateral ligament injury. PMID:25780719

  14. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    PubMed

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. PMID:26165650

  15. Management of a complex hind foot war injury with negative pressure wound therapy: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Bonner; K. Allison; I. Sargent; S. Adedapo

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) in a 39 year old patient with a complex open hind foot injury. The patient sustained an open calcaneal fracture with extensive soft tissue damage following the detonation of an explosively formed penetrating round in a confined space. A remarkable recovery was made following surgical debridement, internal fixation of the

  16. Risk factors for traumatic blunt cerebrovascular injury diagnosed by computed tomography angiography in the pediatric population: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Sivakumar, Walavan; Metzger, Ryan R; Bollo, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is frequently used to examine patients for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) after cranial trauma, but the pediatric population at risk for BCVI is poorly defined. Although CTA is effective for BCVI screening in adults, the increased lifetime risk for malignant tumors associated with this screening modality warrants efforts to reduce its use in children. The authors' objective was to evaluate the incidence of BCVI diagnosed by CTA in a pediatric patient cohort and to create a prediction model to identify children at high risk for BCVI. METHODS Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data were collected retrospectively for pediatric patients who underwent CTA during examination for traumatic cranial injury from 2003 through 2013. The primary outcome was injury to the carotid or vertebral artery diagnosed by CTA. RESULTS The authors identified 234 patients (mean age 8.3 years, range 0.04-17 years, 150 [64%] boys) who underwent CTA screening for BCVI. Of these, 24 (10.3%) had a focal neurological deficit, and 153 (65.4%) had intracranial hemorrhage on a head CTA. Thirty-seven BCVIs were observed in 36 patients (15.4%), and 16 patients (6.8%) died. Multivariate regression analysis identified fracture through the carotid canal, petrous temporal bone fracture, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of < 8, focal neurological deficit, and stroke on initial CT scan as independent risk factors for BCVI. A prediction model for identifying children at high risk for BCVI was created. A score of ? 2 yielded a 7.9% probability of BCVI and a score of ? 3 a risk of 39.3% for BCVI. CONCLUSIONS For cranial trauma in children, fracture of the petrous temporal bone or through the carotid canal, focal neurological deficit, stroke, and a GCS score of < 8 are independent risk factors for BCVI. PMID:25745952

  17. Metals detected by ICP/MS in wound tissue of war injuries without fragments in Gaza

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amount and identity of metals incorporated into "weapons without fragments" remain undisclosed to health personnel. This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management. We assessed if there was evidence that metals are embedded in "wounds without fragments" of victims of the Israeli military operations in Gaza in 2006 and 2009. Methods Biopsies of "wounds without fragments" from clinically classified injuries, amputation (A), charred (C), burns (B), multiple piercing wounds by White Phosphorus (WP) (M), were analyzed by ICP/MS for content in 32 metals. Results Toxic and carcinogenic metals were detected in folds over control tissues in wound tissues from all injuries: in A and C wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co, Hg, V, Cs and Sn), in M wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co and Hg) and in B wounds (Co, Hg, Cs, and Sn); Pb and U in wounds of all classes; B, As, Mn, Rb, Cd, Cr, Zn in wounds of all classes, but M; Ni was in wounds of class A. Kind and amounts of metals correlate with clinical classification of injuries, exposing a specific metal signature, similar for 2006 and 2009 samples. Conclusions The presence of toxic and carcinogenic metals in wound tissue is indicative of the presence in weapon inducing the injury. Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination. We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys. PMID:20579349

  18. Clinical and radiological outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 vertebral artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Grade 3 and 4 blunt vertebral artery (VA) injuries may carry a different natural course from that of lower-grade blunt VA injuries. Proper screening, management, and follow-up of these injuries remain controversial. Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were identified. Grade 3 injuries were defined as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50% or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries were defined as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, radiographic imaging findings, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS A total of 79 high-grade (Grade 3 and 4) blunt VA injuries in 67 patients were identified. Fifty-nine patients with 66 high-grade blunt VA injuries were available for follow-up. There were 17 patients with 23 Grade 3 injuries and 42 patients with 43 Grade 4 injuries. The mean follow-up duration was 58 days for Grade 3 and 67 days for Grade 4 blunt VA injuries. Repeat imaging of Grade 3 blunt VA injuries showed that 39% of injuries were radiographically stable, 43% resolved, and 13% improved, while 1 injury radiographically worsened. Repeat imaging of the Grade 4 blunt VA injuries showed that 65% of injuries were radiographically stable (persistent occlusion), 30% improved (recanalization of the vessel), and in 2 cases (5%) the injury resolved. All Grade 3 injuries that were treated were managed with aspirin or clopidogrel alone, as were the majority of Grade 4 injuries. There were 3 cerebral infarctions thought to be related to Grade 4 blunt VA injuries, which were likely present on admission. All 3 of these patients died at a mean of 13.7 days after hospital admission. No cerebral infarctions directly related to Grade 3 blunt VA injuries were identified. CONCLUSIONS The majority of high-grade blunt VA injuries remain stable or are improved at final follow-up. Despite a 4% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 3 blunt VA injury group and a 35% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. No cerebral infarctions were noted in the Grade 3 group. A 7% stroke rate was identified in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group; however, this was confined to the immediate postinjury period and was associated with 100% mortality. While these data suggest that these high-grade vertebral artery injuries may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25343180

  19. Does Traumatic Brain Injury Lead to Criminality? A Whole-Population Retrospective Cohort Study Using Linked Data

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Peter W.; Malacova, Eva; Preen, David B.; D’Este, Catherine; Tate, Robyn; Reekie, Joanne; Wand, Handan; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a risk factor for criminal behaviour however multiple factors potentially confound the association. Methods Record linkage and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the association between hospital-recorded TBI (n = 7,694) and subsequent first criminal conviction in a retrospective cohort matched 1:3 with 22,905 unaffected community controls and full-sibling controls (n = 2,397). Aboriginality, substance abuse, social disadvantage, and mental illness were included in analyses as potential confounders Results In multivariable models, relative to general population controls, TBI was associated with any conviction (males: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1·58 (95% CI 1·46 to 1·72); females: HR = 1·52 (95% CI 1·28 to 1·81)); and similar Hazard Ratios were obtained for the sibling analyses in males (HR = 1.68 (95% CI 1.31-2.18)) and females (HR 1.27 (95% CI 0.71-2.29)). TBI was also associated with violent convictions relative to the general population, (males: HR = 1.65 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.92); females HR = 1.73 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.47)), and in analyses with sibling controls in men (HR = 1.89 (95% CI 1.20-3.00)), but not in women (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.29-1.81)). Conclusion The results support a modest causal link between TBI and criminality after comprehensive adjustment for confounding. Reducing the rate of TBI, a major public health imperative, might have benefits in terms of crime reduction. PMID:26172545

  20. Abdominal trauma in war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Rignault

    1992-01-01

    In war, the percentage of casualties with abdominal wounds on battle-fields is near 20%. Roughly half of these casualties die almost immediately from bleeding. Wounding agents are most often either bullets or fragments from various detonating devices. Severity of pathology induced by these agents and prolonged lag time between injury and treatment constitute major differences between peace and war abdominal

  1. Anti-epileptic prophylaxis in traumatic brain injury: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing craniotomy versus decompressive craniectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Dahlin, Robert; Hariri, Omid; Quadri, Syed A.; Farr, Saman; Miulli, Dan; Siddiqi, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Seizures account for significant morbidity and mortality early in the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there is sufficient literature suggesting short-term benefits of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in post-TBI patients, there has been no study to suggest a time frame for continuing AEDs in patients who have undergone a decompressive craniectomy for more severe TBI. We examined trends in a level-II trauma center in southern California that may provide guidelines for AED treatment in craniectomy patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy and those who underwent a standard craniotomy from 2008 to 2012. Results: Out of the 153 patients reviewed, 85 were included in the study with 52 (61%) craniotomy and 33 (39%) craniectomy patients. A total of 78.8% of the craniotomy group used phenytoin (Dilantin), 9.6% used levetiracetam (Keppra), 5.8% used a combination of both, and 3.8% used topiramate (Topamax). The craniectomy group used phenytoin 84.8% and levetiracetam 15.2% of the time without any significant difference between the procedural groups. Craniotomy patients had a 30-day seizure rate of 13.5% compared with 21.2% in craniectomy patients (P = 0.35). Seizure onset averaged on postoperative day 5.86 for the craniotomy group and 8.14 for the craniectomy group. There was no significant difference in the average day of seizure onset between the groups P = 0.642. Conclusion: Our study shows a trend toward increased seizure incidence in craniectomy group, which does not reach significance, but suggests they are at higher risk. Whether this higher risk translates into a benefit on being on AEDs for a longer duration than the current standard of 7 days cannot be concluded as there is no significant difference or trend on the onset date for seizures in either group. Moreover, a prospective study will be necessary to more profoundly evaluate the duration of AED prophylaxis for each one of the stated groups. PMID:25657861

  2. Risk of Cervical Spine Injury and Other Complications Seen with Skull Fractures in the Setting of Mild Closed Head Injury in Young Children: A Retrospective Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Kim; Jennifer S. Jennings; Mariah Fisher; Adnan H. Siddiqui

    2008-01-01

    We have reviewed records for patients under 2 years of age who presented at our hospital with mild closed head injuries and nondisplaced skull fractures, specifically to examine methods utilized for spine clearance, associated cervical injuries, involvement and findings of child protective services and delayed complications. Of 42 patients included in the series, none were found to have cervical spine

  3. The accuracy of FAST in relation to grade of solid organ injuries: A retrospective analysis of 226 trauma patients with liver or splenic lesion

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigated the role of a negative FAST in the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm of multiply injured patients with liver or splenic lesions. Methods A retrospective analysis of 226 multiply injured patients with liver or splenic lesions treated at Bern University Hospital, Switzerland. Results FAST failed to detect free fluid or organ lesions in 45 of 226 patients with spleen or liver injuries (sensitivity 80.1%). Overall specificity was 99.5%. The positive and negative predictive values were 99.4% and 83.3%. The overall likelihood ratios for a positive and negative FAST were 160.2 and 0.2. Grade III-V organ lesions were detected more frequently than grade I and II lesions. Without the additional diagnostic accuracy of a CT scan, the mean ISS of the FAST-false-negative patients would be significantly underestimated and 7 previously unsuspected intra-abdominal injuries would have been missed. Conclusion FAST is an expedient tool for the primary assessment of polytraumatized patients to rule out high grade intra-abdominal injuries. However, the low overall diagnostic sensitivity of FAST may lead to underestimated injury patterns and delayed complications may occur. Hence, in hemodynamically stable patients with abdominal trauma, an early CT scan should be considered and one must be aware of the potential shortcomings of a "negative FAST". PMID:19323813

  4. Total war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talbot Imlay

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the five volume series, published by Cambridge University Press, on the history of total war from the American Civil War and Wars of German Unification to World War II. The discussion focuses on two questions: how to define total war; and is total war a useful conceptual tool for understanding warfare during this period? Although the editors

  5. The association between brain injury, perioperative anesthetic exposure, and 12-month neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andropoulos, Dean B.; Ahmad, Hasan B.; Haq, Taha; Brady, Ken; Stayer, Stephen A.; Meador, Marcie R.; Hunter, Jill V.; Rivera, Carlos; Voigt, Robert G.; Turcich, Marie; He, Cathy Q.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Dickerson, Heather A.; Fraser, Charles D.; McKenzie, E. Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S.; Easley, R. Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are observed in up to 50% of infants after complex cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the association of perioperative anesthetic exposure with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12 months in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery and to determine the effect of brain injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Retrospective cohort study of neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery who had preoperative and 7-day postoperative brain MRI and 12-month neurodevelopmental testing with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Doses of volatile anesthetics (VAA), benzodiazepines, and opioids were determined during the first 12 months of life. Results From a database of 97 infants, 59 met inclusion criteria. Mean ± sd composite standard scores were as follows: cognitive = 102.1 ± 13.3, language = 87.8 ± 12.5, and motor = 89.6 ± 14.1. After forward stepwise multivariable analysis, new postoperative MRI injury (P = 0.039) and higher VAA exposure (P = 0.028) were associated with lower cognitive scores. ICU length of stay (independent of brain injury) was associated with lower performance on all categories of the Bayley-III (P < 0.02). Conclusions After adjustment for multiple relevant covariates, we demonstrated an association between VAA exposure, brain injury, ICU length of stay, and lower neurodevelopmental outcome scores at 12 months of age. These findings support the need for further studies to identify potential modifiable factors in the perioperative care of neonates with CHD to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:24467569

  6. Medicine and War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As war predictably leaves injuries and ailments in its wake, medicine has long maintained a presence both on the battlefield and at hospitals where the wounded come home for treatment. This Report's Topic in Depth examines the role of medicine in war, and presents online resources and information regarding combat-related ailments, and services for active military and veterans. From PBS-NOVA, the first selection is a companion website to a program about an American Combat Support Hospital in Iraq. The website contains an article regarding combat medicine ethics, a Teacher's Guide, a visual tour of archival images from the American Civil War through the current Iraq War, and more (1). The second site, created by Civil War buff Jenny Goellnitz, posts a collection of old photos, and offers some interesting information about Civil War medicine, including a feature on amputation surgery (2). The third site, from the Gettysburg National Military Park, contains several photos and brief information for kids about medicine in the Civil War (3). From the Institute of Medicine, the fourth website presents information and reports relating to the health of veterans and deployed military forces. The site has sections for the Gulf War, Vietnam War, Korean War, World War II, and Deployment Health (4). The fifth site presents the Virtual Naval Hospital, which is a digital health sciences library of Naval and Military medicine. The site has separate sections for patients, providers, and administrators (5). From News@Nature.com, the sixth site contains a recent article discussing the debate over Gulf War syndrome (6). The seventh site presents Doctors Without Borders (MSF), an international medical relief organization that courageously enters regions of conflict to provide medical aid (7). The final selection is a companion website to a National Geographic television series reporting on the work of Doctors Without Borders. The site features profiles of MSF projects, episode summaries, and interviews with MSF staff and volunteers (8).

  7. The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

    2010-07-01

    The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections. PMID:23634479

  8. A retrospective analysis of major and significant injuries and their consequences reported by retired Australian baseball players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi A Meir; Robert P Weatherby; Margaret I Rolfe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish if injuries sustained during a player’s career in baseball had consequences later in life following retirement from participation. Seventy-five retired Australian baseball players (mean age 55.8 ±11.4 years) completed a survey to establish the long-term consequences of major (i.e. those resulting in five or more consecutive weeks of training or playing being

  9. Shoulder Injuries During Alpine Skiing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mininder S. Kocher; John A. Feagin

    1996-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed alpine skiing injuries at a destination ski resort during three seasons to charac terize the incidence and types of shoulder injuries. A total of 3451 injuries in 3247 patients were reviewed. The overall injury rate was 4.44 injuries per 1000 skier- days. Injuries to the upper extremity represented 29.1% (N = 1004) of all alpine ski injuries.

  10. Clinical and radiographic outcomes following traumatic Grade 1 and 2 carotid artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Proper screening, management, and follow-up of Grade 1 and 2 blunt carotid artery injuries (BCIs) remains controversial. These low-grade BCIs were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries treated between August 2003 and April 2013 was performed and Grade 1 and 2 BCIs were identified. Grade 1 injuries are defined as a vessel lumen stenosis of less than 25%, and Grade 2 injuries are defined as a stenosis of the vessel lumen between 25% and 50%. Demographic information, radiographic imaging, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS One hundred seventeen Grade 1 and 2 BCIs in 100 patients were identified and available for follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 60 days. Final imaging of Grade 1 and 2 BCIs demonstrated that 64% of cases had resolved, 13% of cases were radiographically stable, and 9% were improved, whereas 14% radiographically worsened. Of the treatments received, 54% of cases were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 31% received no treatment, and 15% received various medications and treatments, including endovascular stenting. There was 1 cerebral infarction that was thought to be related to bilateral Grade 2 BCI, which developed soon after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS The majority of Grade 1 and 2 BCIs remained stable or improved at final follow-up. Despite a 14% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 1 and 2 BCIs cohort, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. The stroke rate was 1% in this low-grade BCIs cohort, which may be an overestimate. The use of ASA or other antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications in these low-grade BCIs did not appear to correlate with radiographic injury stability, nor with a decreased rate of cerebral infarction. Although these data suggest that these Grade 1 and 2 BCIs may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25794340

  11. Use of hyperbaric oxygen in traumatic brain injury: retrospective analysis of data of 20 patients treated at a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Tarun; Jain, Madhur; Prasad, Rajendra; Sogani, Shanti K; Singh, Varindera P

    2012-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) related impact results in a permanent need for help in performing daily activities. Standard treatment consists of removing the cause, restore perfusion, support metabolic requirement and limit inflammatory and oxidative damage. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is one such newer promising treatment that enhances neurological recovery to some extent. HBOT is intermittent inhalation of 100% oxygen at greater than normal atmospheric pressure and is internationally accepted for its role in well-defined indications. It is hypothesised that HBO has a role in reviving 'idling neurons', also called the ischemic penumbra defined as area of reduced cerebral blood flow, abolished synaptic activity but preserved structural integrity. We carried out a retrospective analysis of medical records of 20 patients of TBI who had been treated with HBOT in addition to standard management. These were placed in Group A (test group) and received at least 30 sessions of HBO along with standard treatment. The patients were assessed along the Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS). Another 20 patients of TBI, matched in age and severity of brain injury, who received standard treatment but not HBOT, were selected as the control group (Group B). Assessment on the DRS showed maximum improvement in patients with scores of 22-24 (vegetative state).The percentage of patients in the test group fell from 45% to 5% whereas only 20% patients in Group B had similar progress. After the treatment, a significantly higher proportion of HBOT treated subjects showed a good response in cognitive functions, as measured by RLA. In group A, 90% patients had a score of ? 3 and in Group B 95% had a similar score, which improved to ? 3 in 60% patients versus 30% patients respectively. In both groups maximum patients are in 1-6 months post-injury category and within the groups this category showed the greatest recovery, with a greater improvement in the test group as compared to control group. PMID:22085249

  12. Complications of contralateral C-7 transfer through the modified prespinal route for repairing brachial plexus root avulsion injury: a retrospective study of 425 patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Wang, Shufeng; Zhao, Jianyong; Rahman, M Fazlur; Li, Yucheng; Li, Pengcheng; Xue, Yunhao

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT In this report, the authors review complications related to the modified prespinal route in contralateral C-7 transfer for repairing brachial plexus nerve root avulsion injury and suggest a prevention strategy. METHODS A retrospective, nonselected amalgamation of every case of modified contralateral C-7 transfer through the prespinal route was undertaken. The study population comprised 425 patients treated between February 2002 and August 2009. The patients were managed according to a standardized protocol by one senior professor. The surgical complications were grouped into one of the following categories: those associated with tunnel making through the prespinal route, those related to the dissection and transection of the contralateral C-7 nerve root, and those that occurred in the postoperative period. RESULTS The study population included 379 male and 46 female patients whose average age was 21 years (range 3 months to 56 years). A total of 401 patients were diagnosed with traumatic brachial plexus injury, the leading cause of which was motor vehicle accident, and 24 patients were diagnosed with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. The contralateral C-7 nerve root was cut at the proximal side of the division portion of the middle trunk in 15 cases and sectioned at the distal end of the anterior and posterior divisions in 410 cases. The overall incidence of complications was 5.4% (23 of 425). Complications associated with making a prespinal tunnel occurred in 12 cases, including severe bleeding due to vertebral artery injury during the procedure in 2 cases (0.47%), temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 5 cases (1.18%), pain and numbness in the donor upper extremity during swallowing in 4 cases (0.94%), and dyspnea caused by thrombosis of the brainstem 42 hours postoperatively in 1 case (0.24%); this last patient died 38 days after the operation. Complications related to exploration and transection of the contralateral C-7 nerve root occurred in 11 cases, including deficiency in extensor strength of the fingers and thumb in 4 cases (0.94%) due to injury to the posterior division of the lower trunk, unbearable pain on the donor upper extremity in 3 cases (0.71%), Horner's syndrome in 2 children (0.47%) who suffered birth palsy, a section of C-6 nerve root mistaken as C-7 in l case (0.24%), and atrophy of the sternocostal part of the pectoralis major in 1 case (0.24%). CONCLUSIONS The most serious complications of using the modified prespinal route in contralateral C-7 transfer were vertebral artery laceration and injury to the posterior division of the lower trunk. The prevention of such complications is necessary to popularize this surgical procedure and attain good long-term clinical results. PMID:25495742

  13. Orthopedic managements of skeletal trauma in multiple-injury patients: a retrospective review of 7 years of patients in a Japanese level 1 hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yokoyama; M. Itoman; N. Takahira; R. Wakita; S. Aoki; T. Noumi; M. Uchino

    2002-01-01

    . Multiple-injury patients absorb a large amount of trauma energy in their trunk, resulting in multiple organ injuries and often long-bone and axial skeletal fractures. Severity of these injuries can be quantified using the Trauma Index (TI) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). These systems allow not only a comparison of mortality and morbidity among institutions, but also serve as criteria

  14. A two-center retrospective review of the hematologic evaluation and laboratory abnormalities in suspected victims of non-accidental injury?

    PubMed Central

    Paroskie, Allison; Carpenter, Shannon L.; Lowen, Deborah E.; Anderst, James; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation for bleeding disorders in the context of suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) is inconsistent. We reviewed the hematologic evaluation of children who presented with symptoms of bleeding and/or bruising suspicious for NAI to determine the frequency of hematologic tests, abnormal hematologic laboratory results, and hematologic diagnoses. A retrospective cohort study design was employed at two freestanding academic children’s hospitals. ICD-9 codes for NAI were used to identify 427 evaluable patients. Medical records were queried for the details of clinical and laboratory evaluations at the initial presentation concerning for NAI. The median age for the population was 326 days (range 1 day–14 years), 58% were male. Primary bleeding symptoms included intracranial hemorrhage (31.8%) and bruising (68.2%). Hematologic laboratory tests performed included complete blood cell count in 62.3%, prothrombin time (PT) in 55.0%, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in 53.6%; fibrinogen in 27.6%; factor activity in 17.1%; von Willebrand disease evaluation in 14.5%; and platelet function analyzer in 11.7%. Prolonged laboratory values were seen in 22.5% of PT and 17.4% of aPTT assays; 66.0% of abnormal PTs and 87.5% of abnormal aPTTs were repeated. In our cohort, 0.7% (3 of 427) of the population was diagnosed with a condition predisposing to bleeding. In children with bleeding symptoms concerning for NAI, hemostatic evaluation is inconsistent. Abnormal tests are not routinely repeated, and investigation for the most common bleeding disorder, von Willebrand disease, is rare. Further research into the extent and appropriate timing of the evaluation is warranted. PMID:24928052

  15. War Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online exhibit from the Newseum (last reviewed in the January 26, 2001 Scout Report) explores what it is like to be a war correspondent. The site is composed of three sections. The first contains a number of excerpts from some outstanding video interviews with reporters who have covered armed conflicts from World War Two to the Balkans. These may be browsed by war or by journalist. The second section is a Flash feature that examines war reporting and technology from the US Civil War to the present. Finally, the site offers a thoughtful essay by Harold Evans, the guest curator of the exhibit.

  16. Health Care for Gulf War Veterans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Health Care for Gulf War Veterans VA offers a variety ... Related Illness and Injury Study Center. Eligibility for health care Veterans first must enroll in VA's health care ...

  17. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    E-print Network

    Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

  18. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future. PMID:22214518

  19. Playing war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Graham Ronald Shaw

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that war video games are transitional spaces that connect players to the ‘war on terror’. It explores the pervasive influence of militarism in video games and how the US Army is enlisting play as an active force in blurring the distinctions between civilian and soldier. The paper begins by theorizing what exactly it means to ‘play’, and

  20. Catastrophic Injuries in Wrestlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry P. Boden; Willie Lin; Megan Young; Frederick O. Mueller

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of comprehensive information on catastrophic wrestling injuries.Objective: Our objective was to develop a profile of catastrophic injuries in wrestling and a list of relevant risk factors.Study Design: Retrospective review.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 35 incidents that were reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research over an 18-year period from 1981 until 1999.Results: Except

  1. Venous air embolism, preservation\\/reperfusion injury, and the presence of intravascular air collections in human donor livers: a retrospective clinical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. E. Wolf; W. J. Sluiter; A. Ballast; R. Verwer; R. M. Dam; M. J. H. Slooff

    1995-01-01

    In human liver transplantation, air embolism is seldom encountered after graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, despite adequate flushing and clamping routines, air emboli have been reported in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies performed during the reperfusion phase. We retrospectively investigated whether air in the donor liver — as observed with pretransplant magnetic resonace imaging (MRI) — resulted in clinical air embolism or contributed

  2. Lower jaw reconstruction and dental rehabilitation after war injuries: The experience of Paul Tessier in Iran in the late 1980s.

    PubMed

    Simon, François; Ketoff, Serge; Guichard, Benjamin; Wolfe, S Anthony; Tulasne, Jean-François; Bertolus, Chloé; Khonsari, Roman Hossein

    2015-06-01

    Iraq-Iran war resulted in more than 400,000 people requiring prolonged medical care in Iran. An international team of prominent reconstructive surgeons led by Paul Tessier, the founder of craniofacial surgery, was invited to Iran during the war by official organizations entitled to support war victims. This team provided up-to-date oral and maxillofacial rehabilitation to patients with severe trauma defects in the lower third of the face. We collected the medical notes of 43 patients operated on by the Tessier team in Iran in the 1980s (files property of AFCF). The parameters we collected were: age of the patient, nature of the trauma (when available), previous procedures, number of implants placed (mandibular and maxillary), associated procedures (bone grafts, soft-tissue procedures, orthognathic surgery). A protocol based on soft-tissue rehabilitation using local flaps, parietal or iliac bone grafts and implant placement 6 months later was used in all patients. Paul Tessier's approach emphasizes the importance of keeping high standards of care in difficult situations and maintaining standard protocols. PMID:25887424

  3. War and Video Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Perry

    2009-01-01

    War has been a subject of many different mediums. Through the portrayal of war, great movies have given insights on human conditions in wartime. War has also been the subject of several video games that are incredibly popular in mass culture. The difference between war movies and war games are that war games are interactive, requiring the players to act

  4. AT WAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Rutherford

    2005-01-01

    Technological supremacy means that the West can avoid getting up close and personal to kill. Our legacies of imperial power ensure that our wars are fought ‘over there’, and men in post-industrial societies are disassociated from the death embracing culture of the warrior. However, in the aftermath of September 11, we have entered a new era of global militarization –

  5. Cold War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cold War is a major, 24-part series directed by renowned documentary filmmaker Jeremy Isaacs that recently premiered on CNN and BBC2. Whether or not this series will become "the definitive account of the Cold War" remains to be seen, but the research that has made it possible is quite impressive. This feature-filled, comprehensive site complements the series by offering, among other things, video previews and multimedia recaps of each episode; video, audio, and text excerpts from nearly 100 interviews filmed for the series; text from archival documents and contemporaneous Time and Russian newspaper stories; in-depth sections on Cold War culture; and a Knowledge Bank section containing a glossary, "Cold Warrior" profiles, related links, and a chronology. Additional resources include a classroom guide to the series, online Shockwave quiz games, and an online discussion group. As large as it is now, the site will continue to expand and add new features as the series progresses over the next three months.

  6. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  7. Non-suicidal self-injury as a predictor of active and passive suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Morissette, Sandra B; Meyer, Eric C; DeBeer, Bryann B; Silvia, Paul J; Calhoun, Patrick C; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-06-30

    The present study examined the association between lifetime non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and current suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. NSSI was positively associated with passive, active, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation at the bivariate level. NSSI remained a predictor of active, OR=5.15, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation, OR=7.01, when other risk factors were considered. These findings suggest that NSSI may be a particularly useful marker of active suicidal ideation among veterans. PMID:25858799

  8. Math Wars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    In this article, Alan Schoenfeld presents his insightful commentary on a â??productive, middle-groundâ?ť theory in opposition to the extremist views of the math wars. Schoenfeld reviews the history of Mathematics education in the U.S. and how economic and political difficulties affected the education of Americaâ??s youth. He details the â??reformâ?ť of mathematics from standards-based to new math, and the downfall of that reform. It is a smart, interesting article that offers a tangible solution to a problem that has been looming in American school systems since the days of Sputnik.

  9. Exposure to a First World War blistering agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HQ Le; S J Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Sulfur mustards act as vesicants and alkylating agents. They have been used as chemical warfare since 1917 during the first world war. This brief report illustrates the progression of injury on a primary exposed patient to a first world war blistering agent. This case documents the rapid timeline and progression of symptoms. It emphasises the importance of appropriate personal protective

  10. Trampoline injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline?associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Materials and methods Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. Results A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1–62)?years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children <11?years, 22% had adult supervision when the injury occurred. The most common types of injuries were fractures (36%) and injury to ligaments (36%). Injuries to the extremities predominated (79%), and the lower extremities were the most commonly injured part of the body (44%). A ligament injury in the ankle was the most often reported diagnosis (20%), followed by an overstretching of ligaments in the neck (8%) and a fracture of the elbow (7%). Regarding cervical injuries, two patients had cervical fractures and one patient had an atlantoaxial subluxation. Three patients with fractures in the elbow region reported an ulnar nerve neuropathy. 13% of the patients were hospitalised for a mean of 2.2?days. Conclusion Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high?risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised. PMID:17000711

  11. War Rape's Challenge to Just War Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALLY J. SCHOLZ

    War rape comes in many forms, is perpetrated for many reasons, has multiple victims and multiple culpable perpetrators. This chapter examines war rape, asks whether Just War Theory (JWT) can tackle the specific challenges posed by the reality of sexual violence during wartime, and suggests that it might actually have an important conceptual framework to offer to philosophical analyses of

  12. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  13. Snowboarding injuries in children

    PubMed Central

    Drkulec, John A.; Letts, Mervyn

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study injury patterns of snowboarding trauma in children. Design A retrospective case series. Setting A major pediatric trauma centre. Patients A cohort of 113 children (97 boys, 16 girls), mean age 13.9 years, who sustained 118 injuries secondary to snowboarding. Interventions All fractures were treated by immobilization in a cast; 19 children required a closed reduction. Outcome measures Sex and age of patients, mechanism of injury, injury sustained, treatments and complications. Results Falls on the outstretched hand from a loss of balance accounted for 66 (57%) of the injuries, uncontrolled falls for 42 (36%) and collisions for 5 (4%). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries were to the upper extremity, whereas 7% were to the lower extremity. Conclusions The predominance of snowboarding injuries of the upper extremity seen in children differs significantly from those in adults in whom lower extremity injuries are more common. PMID:11764877

  14. Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, W.; Khan, M. D.; Akbar, M; Khan, M. D.; Malik, A. M.; Durrani, O.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given.?METHODS—It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase.?RESULTS—It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less.?CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.?? PMID:10837390

  15. The Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II): a retrospective cohort study of transfusion-related acute lung injury in recipients of high-plasma-volume human leukocyte antigen antibody–positive or –negative components

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven H.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Carey, Patricia M.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Roback, John D.; Carrick, Danielle; Mathew, Sunitha; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard; Ness, Paul; Gajic, Ognjen; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Looney, Mark R.; Kakaiya, Ram M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND We used a multicenter retrospective cohort study design to evaluate whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody donor screening would reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or possible TRALI. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In the Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II), we evaluated pulmonary outcomes in recipients of 2596 plasma-rich blood components (transfusable plasma and plateletpheresis) sent to participating hospitals; half of the components were collected from anti-HLA–positive donors (study arm) and half from anti-HLA–negative donors (control arm) matched by sex, parity, and blood center. A staged medical record review process was used. Final recipient diagnosis was based on case review by a blinded expert panel of pulmonary or critical care physicians. RESULTS TRALI incidence was 0.59% (seven cases) in study arm recipients versus 0.16% (two cases) in control arm recipients for an odds ratio (OR) of 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–17.4; p = 0.10). For possible TRALI cases (nine study arm, eight control arm), the OR was 1.2 (95% CI, 0.4–3.0; p = 0.81), and for TRALI and possible TRALI aggregated together, it was 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7–3.7; p = 0.24). Transfusion-associated circulatory overload incidence was identical in the two arms (1.17 and 1.22%, respectively; OR, 1.0; p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS TRALI incidence in recipients of anti-HLA–positive components was relatively low for a look-back study (1 in 170) and was higher than in the control arm, but did not reach significance. Based on this trend, the data are consistent with the likelihood that TRALI risk is decreased by selecting high-volume plasma components for transfusion from donors at low risk of having HLA antibodies. PMID:21446938

  16. The unfought chemical war

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, K. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1991-12-01

    In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

  17. An epidemiological investigation of training and injury patterns in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Valladares, Roberto D; Walther, Achim; Beck, Heidrun; Stiehler, Maik; Kirschner, Stephan; Engelhardt, Martin; Kasten, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Associated with the trend towards increased health consciousness and fitness, triathlon has established itself as a sport for masses. The goals of this study were to evaluate injury risk factors of non-professional triathletes and to compare prospective and retrospective evaluation methods. Using an online survey, 212 triathletes retrospectively answered a questionnaire about their training habits and injuries during the past 12 months. Forty-nine of these triathletes participated in a 12-month prospective trial. Injuries were classified with regard to the anatomical location, type of injury, incidence and associated risk factors. Most injuries occurred during running (50%) followed by cycling (43%) and swimming (7%). Fifty-four per cent (retrospective) and 22% (prospective) of the injuries were contusions and abrasions, 38% (retrospective) and 46% (prospective) were ligament and capsular injuries, 7% (retrospective) and 32% (prospective) were muscle and tendon injuries and 1% (retrospective) and 0% (prospective) were fractures. The incidence of an injury per 1000 training hours was 0.69 (retrospective) and 1.39 (prospective) during training and 9.24 (retrospective) and 18.45 (prospective) during competition. The main risk factor for injury in non-professional triathlon is participation in a competitive triathlon event. A retrospective design may underestimate the rate of overuse injuries. PMID:24102132

  18. The profile of head injuries and traumatic brain injury deaths in Kashmir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GH Yattoo; Amin Tabish

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted on patients of head injury admitted through Accident & Emergency Department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences during the year 2004 to determine the number of head injury patients, nature of head injuries, condition at presentation, treatment given in hospital and the outcome of intervention. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) deaths were also studied retrospectively for a

  19. Reshaping the War Experience: Women's War Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susanne

    1992-01-01

    Contends that war fiction published by U.S. women has evolved as a genre of its own in the twentieth century. Asserts that the common element that unites this otherwise diverse body of literature is the constant reminder that women as well as men are participants and victims in war. (CFR)

  20. The War on Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J. Boudreaux

    The first nation-wide shot in the “war on drugs” in the United States was the 1914 Harrison Narcotics Act. This war was escalated\\u000a by the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, which effectively outlawed cannabis and hashish. Since then, this war has waxed and waned repeatedly,\\u000a although for the past thirty years it has largely accelerated.

  1. Injuries in paragliding.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T; Billing, A; Lob, G

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 376 paragliding accidents have been analysed. Leg injuries were most common, but a large number of spinal injuries also occurred. The causes were either misjudgement by the pilot or the influence of weather and terrain. Improvements in the instructor's knowledge and the pilot's training could have prevented most of the accidents. Analysis of the mechanisms of the crashes and the pattern of trauma help to produce an efficient approach to diagnosis and treatment. PMID:1428338

  2. Pre- and/or Intra-Operative Prescription of Diuretics, but Not Renin-Angiotensin-System Inhibitors, Is Significantly Associated with Acute Kidney Injury after Non-Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Miho; Ogata, Ai; Hamano, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) constitutes a potentially modifiable risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). It has been studied whether use of these drugs predicts AKI after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to examine whether administration of these agents was independently associated with AKI after non-cardiac surgery. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements This was a retrospective observational study. Inclusion criteria were adult patients (age ? 18) who underwent non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia from 2007 to 2009 at Kyoto Katsura Hospital. Exclusion criteria were urological surgery, missing creatinine values, and preoperative dialysis. The exposures of interest were pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics or ACE-I/ARB. Outcome variables were postoperative AKI as defined by the AKI Network (increase in creatinine ? 0.3 mg/dL or 150% within 48 hours, or urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/hour for > 6 hours). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for potential confounders. Propensity scores (PS) for receiving diuretics or ACE-I/ARB therapy were estimated and PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting were performed. Results There were 137 AKI cases (5.0%) among 2,725 subjects. After statistical adjustment for patient and surgical characteristics, odds (95% CI) of postoperative AKI were 2.07 (1.10-3.89) (p = 0.02) and 0.89 (0.56-1.42) (p = 0.63) in users of diuretics and ACE-I/ARB, respectively, compared with non-users. PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting yielded similar results. The effect size of diuretics was significantly greater in the patients with lower propensity for diuretic use (p for interaction < 0.1). Conclusions Prescription of diuretics, but not ACE-I/ARB, was independently associated with postoperative AKI after non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with low propensity for diuretic use. It might be reasonable to withhold preoperative diuretics in these patients. PMID:26146836

  3. Trauma from tire and rim explosions: a retrospective analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S Sheperd; Vincent B Ziccardi; David Livingston; Robert Lavery

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review injuries occuring as a result of tire and rim explosions treated at a level I trauma center.Materials and Methods: The retrospective audit evaluated the university hospital trauma database based on ICD-9 code to isolate patients sustaining tire and rim explosion injuries. A total of 12 complete patient records were derived from

  4. Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C; Kang, Han K

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted an extensive search for published works concerning healthcare utilization and mortality among Gulf War veterans of the Coalition forces who served during the1990–1991 Gulf War. Reports concerning the health experience of US, UK, Canadian, Saudi and Australian veterans were reviewed. This report summarizes 15 years of observations and research in four categories: Gulf War veteran healthcare registry studies, hospitalization studies, outpatient studies and mortality studies. A total of 149?728 (19.8%) of 756?373 US, UK, Canadian and Australian Gulf War veterans received health registry evaluations revealing a vast number of symptoms and clinical conditions but no suggestion that a new unique illness was associated with service during the Gulf War. Additionally, no Gulf War exposure was uniquely implicated as a cause for post-war morbidity. Numerous large, controlled studies of US Gulf War veterans' hospitalizations, often involving more than a million veterans, have been conducted. They revealed an increased post-war risk for mental health diagnoses, multi-symptom conditions and musculoskeletal disorders. Again, these data failed to demonstrate that Gulf War veterans suffered from a unique Gulf War-related illness. The sparsely available ambulatory care reports documented that respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints were quite common during deployment. Using perhaps the most reliable data, controlled mortality studies have revealed that Gulf War veterans were at increased risk of injuries, especially those due to vehicular accidents. In general, healthcare utilization data are now exhausted. These findings have now been incorporated into preventive measures in support of current military forces. With a few diagnostic exceptions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mental disorders and cancer, it now seems time to cease examining Gulf War veteran morbidity and to direct future research efforts to preventing illness among current and future military personnel. PMID:16687261

  5. Treatment of War Wounds: A Historical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Manring; Alan Hawk; Jason H. Calhoun; Romney C. Andersen

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of war wounds is an ancient art, constantly refined to reflect improvements in weapons technology, transportation,\\u000a antiseptic practices, and surgical techniques. Throughout most of the history of warfare, more soldiers died from disease\\u000a than combat wounds, and misconceptions regarding the best timing and mode of treatment for injuries often resulted in more\\u000a harm than good. Since the 19th

  6. Penile injuries: A 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, S.V.; Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Sreenivas, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report our 10-year experience with penile injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 cases of male external genitalia injuries between May 2002 and December 2012. Of these, only 26 patients presented without urethral injuries and were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (n = 12) with patients with penile fractures injuries; Group 2 (n = 5) with patients with penile amputation injuries; Group 3 (n = 2) with patients with penile penetrating injuries; and Group 4 (n = 7) with patients with penile soft tissue injuries. Grading of injury was done using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)-Organ injury scale of penile injury. Penile injuries without urethral injuries are urological emergencies which require immediate attention. PMID:25295134

  7. Evaluation of pediatric cervical spine injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Baker; Howard Kadish; Jeff E Schunk

    1999-01-01

    To compare historical features, clinical examination findings, and radiographic results among pediatric patients with cervical spine injury (CSI), a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with CSI was undertaken. Two main groups were identified: radiographically evident cervical spine injury (RESCI), and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). Demographic, historical, clinical, and radiographic information was obtained from patients' charts

  8. Otologic injuries caused by airbag deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM J. MCFEELY; DENNIS I. BOJRAB; KENT G. DAVIS; DOUGLAS F. HEGYI

    1999-01-01

    Airbags are clearly successful at mitigating injury severity during motor vehicle accidents. Deployment unfortunately has introduced new injury-causing mechanisms. A retrospective review of 20 patients who sustained otologic injuries resulting from airbag inflation was conducted. The most common symptoms were hearing loss in 17 (85%) and tinnitus in 17 (85%). Objective hearing loss was documented in 21 of 24 (88%)

  9. France at War: Additions to the War Poster Collection

    E-print Network

    War Poster Collection, which has over 500 French posters from World War I but very few from World War indications of this local context. Of the twenty-five new World War I posters, ten bring new material from a collection of eighty-five French posters from the First and Second World Wars. These add to Yale's extensive

  10. Causes of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoung-Soon; Kang, Min-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed at analyzing the causes of death of prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War (1950-1953) who fought for the Communist side (North Korea and the People's Republic of China). In 1998, the United States Department of Defense released new information about the prisoners including, 7,614 deaths of the POW during the Korean War. The data on the causes of death of the POWs during the Korean War provides valuable information on the both the public health and history of the conflict. Materials and Methods To analyze the causes of death of the POWs, we classified the clinical diagnosis and findings on 7,614 deaths into 22 chapters, as outlined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision (ICD-10). Second, we traced changes in the monthly death totals of POWs as well as deaths caused by common infectious diseases and external causes of death including injury over time from August 1950 to September 1953. Results The most common category of causes of deaths of POWs was infectious disease, 5,013 (65.8%) out of 7,614 deaths, followed by external causes including injury, 817 (10.7%). Overall, tuberculosis and dysentery/diarrhea were the most common causes of death. Deaths caused by acute and chronic infection, or external causes showed different patterns of increases and decline over time during the Korean War. Conclusion The information and data on POWs' deaths during the Korean War reflects the critical impact of the POWs' living conditions and the effect of public health measures implemented in POW camps during the war. PMID:23364985

  11. US Civil War Generals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created using a number of print sources, this index by Kerry Webb is a fine resource for military historians and Civil War buffs. The index lists generals for each army alphabetically. Information provided includes date of birth and death, pre-war profession, war service, post-war career, and notes. Some entries also include suggestions for further reading and links to related sites. The main page of the site offers print references, a few links, and notes on the index entries. This site is a classic example of a "labor of love" resource that should prove useful and interesting to like-minded users.

  12. Effects of War-Induced Maternal Separation on Children's Adjustment During the Gulf War and Two Years Later1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny F. Pierce; Amiram D. Vinokur; Catherine L. Buck

    1998-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Middle East included an unprecedented number of women, many of whom were mothers. Using a structural equation modeling approach, we examined the predictors of children's adjustment problems in data collected from a representative sample of 263 Air Force mothers 2 years after the Gulf War. Using a retrospective survey, we found that the main predictors

  13. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit: www.burninstitute.org Safety tipS & info Inhalation Injuries Inhalation injuries are among the most devastating types of ... injuries. • Over half of these deaths result from inhalation injuries. • Inhalation injuries increase mortality 30% to 40% ...

  14. Prevalence of dental trauma in 6000 patients with facial injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gassner; Renato Bösch; Tarkan Tuli; Rüdiger Emshoff

    1999-01-01

    Objective. In contrast to epidemiologic studies on facial injuries reporting on dental trauma, facial bone fractures with dentoalveolar injuries, or soft tissue injuries individually, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall place of dental trauma in facial injuries. This was a retrospective investigation of the impact of sport, work, violence, traffic, household, and play accidents in the

  15. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to

  16. PATENTS WARS Deuxime partie

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ( 1 ) PATENTS WARS Deuxičme partie : Les conséquences : la paralysie de l'industrie, le freinage de://pagesperso-orange.fr/lepouillou [ version 1 - juillet 2011 ] Dans le premier livrable sur les patents wars, l'analyse s'est concentrée sur patents américains et le systčme français des brevets d'invention. J'ai montré qu'une représentation

  17. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  18. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  19. Cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lalani; K. M. Bonanthaya

    1997-01-01

    Objective—To find out the incidence of associated facial injuries and injuries to the cervical spine. Design—Retrospective study. Setting—Teaching hospital, India. Subjects-536 patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between January 1992 and November 1993. Interventions—Review of hospital case notes and radiographs. Main outcome measures—Coexisting facial and cervical spine injuries, morbidity and mortality. Results—16 patients (3%) had sustained both facial and cervical spine

  20. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  1. War on Terrorism Debate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Wheeler

    2011-11-07

    With the ten year anniversary of Sept. 11, many have questioned the continuation of the War on Terrorism. Study the links and docmunets below to prepare yourself for a class debate on the question: Should the U.S. continue military action in the War on Terror? Debate Question : Should the U.S. continue military action in the War on Terror? Pro: The U.S. and its allies need to continue military action to disrupt terrorist networks and prevent further attacks. Con: The terrorist threat has been exaggerated and military operations can be scaled back. Debate Information : Use the following links to ...

  2. War Experiences and War-related Distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina Eight Years after War

    PubMed Central

    Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between war experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The survey was performed in the late 2003 on a representative sample of 3313 respondents. The face-to-face interviews included 15 items on war-related distress and 24 items on war experiences. From these items we developed the War-related Distress Scale, the Direct War Experiences Scale, and the Indirect War Experiences Scale. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between war-related distress symptoms and war experiences variables, controlling for a range of other variables. Results Almost half of the respondents did not report any war-related distress symptoms, while about 13% reported 7 or more symptoms. Direct war experiences had a significant effect on war-related distress even eight years after the war, while indirect war experiences showed no significant effect on war-related distress. We found that marital status weakly decreased war-related distress, while household size increased it. Conclusion Direct war experiences seem to have a long-lasting traumatic effect on a substantial number of residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:18293460

  3. Effects of World War I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Kilpatrick

    2012-04-10

    Determine the effects of World War I on countries involved in the war. In this activity, read the links and use the information given to determine the effects of World War I on the major players in the war. Fill out the graphic organizer with the information you find. Organizer Casualties - Use this site to determine how many soldiers each country lost in ...

  4. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  5. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  6. The influence of war on the development of neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, Justin; Pait, T Glenn

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of craniospinal war wounds proved to be a significant driving force in the early growth of neurosurgery as a specialty. This publication explores the historical relationship between the evolution of combat methodology from antiquity through modern conflicts as it dovetails with and drives corresponding advancements in the field of neurosurgery. Whether it's the basic management principles for intracranial projectile wounds derived from World War I experiences, the drastic improvement in the outcomes and management of spinal cord injuries observed in World War II, or the fact that both of these wars played a crucial role in the development of a training system that is the origin of modern residency programs, the influence of wartime experiences is pervasive. PMID:24116730

  7. Treatment of war wounds: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Manring, M M; Hawk, Alan; Calhoun, Jason H; Andersen, Romney C

    2009-08-01

    The treatment of war wounds is an ancient art, constantly refined to reflect improvements in weapons technology, transportation, antiseptic practices, and surgical techniques. Throughout most of the history of warfare, more soldiers died from disease than combat wounds, and misconceptions regarding the best timing and mode of treatment for injuries often resulted in more harm than good. Since the 19th century, mortality from war wounds steadily decreased as surgeons on all sides of conflicts developed systems for rapidly moving the wounded from the battlefield to frontline hospitals where surgical care is delivered. We review the most important trends in US and Western military trauma management over two centuries, including the shift from primary to delayed closure in wound management, refinement of amputation techniques, advances in evacuation philosophy and technology, the development of antiseptic practices, and the use of antibiotics. We also discuss how the lessons of history are reflected in contemporary US practices in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:19219516

  8. Injuries and injury prevention among indigenous children and young people.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence R; Wallace, L J David; Bill, Nancy M

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the world, injuries and violence are a leading cause of mortality and suffering among Indigenous communities. Among American Indian and Alaska Native children aged 1 to 19 years, 71% of deaths are from injuries. Motor-vehicle accidents, attempted suicide, and interpersonal violence are the most common causes of injuries in highly industrialized countries. For Indigenous populations in middle- and low-income countries, trauma caused by motor-vehicle accidents, agricultural injuries, interpersonal violence, child labor, and the ravages of war are priorities for intervention. To be effective, injury-prevention efforts should be based on scientific evidence, be developmentally and culturally appropriate, and draw on the inherent strengths of Indigenous communities. PMID:19962034

  9. U.S. War Costs: Two Parts Temporary, One Part Permanent

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Military spending, fatalities, and the destruction of capital, all of which are immediately felt and are often large, are the most overt costs of war. They are also relatively short-lived. But the costs of war borne by combatants and their caretakers, which includes families, communities, and the modern welfare state, tend instead to be lifelong. In this paper I show that a significant component of the budgetary costs associated with U.S. wars is long-lived. One third to one half of the total present value of historical war costs are benefits distributed over the remaining life spans of veterans and their dependents. Even thirty years after the end of hostilities, typically half of all benefits remain to be paid. Estimates of the costs of injuries and deaths suggest that the private burden of war borne by survivors, namely the uncompensated costs of service-related injuries, are also large and long-lived. PMID:25221367

  10. Civil War Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Accuracy in mapping is crucial, and during the Civil War in the United States this important skill was vital to a successful campaign. In one of its most ambitious digital collections to date, the American Memory project at the Library of Congress has placed approximately 2240 Civil War maps and charts in this archive, along with 200 maps from the Library of Virginia and 400 maps from the Virginia Historical Society. Visitors can jump right in by browsing the entire collection by place, subject, creator, or title. Some real gems include the multitude of maps and views of Vicksburg in Mississippi and those of the infamous Andersonville Prison in Georgia. The site also contains a number of classroom resources for educators, and a very nice essay (divided into seven sections) by Richard W. Stephenson that explores the history of mapping the Civil War.

  11. Diagnosis of Bowel Injuries fromBlunt Abdominal Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dubravka Vidmar; Alojz Pleskovic; Martin Tonin

    2003-01-01

    Background: Patients with bowel injuries resulting from blunt abdominal trauma show no reliable clinical or radiologic signs on initial examination. The mechanism of injury is the only element of some diagnostic value. Intestinal injury may be evaluated by ultrasonography (US), plain abdominal radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and diagnostic laparoscopy. This paper is a retrospective study of diagnostic procedures used in

  12. Acute traumatic cervical cord injury in patients with os odontoideum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengfeng Zhang; Yue Zhou; Jian Wang; Tongwei Chu; Changqing Li; Xianjun Ren; Weidong Wang

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed acute cervical cord injury after minor trauma in 10 patients with os odontoideum. Their clinical history, neurological symptoms, radiological investigations, follow-up period, American Spinal Injury Association impairment classification and motor score were reviewed. Before their traumatic injury, three patients were asymptomatic and seven reported myelopathic symptoms, including four patients with neck pain, two patients with unsteadiness and

  13. Broken faces: reconstructive surgery during and after the Great War.

    PubMed

    Pichel, Beatriz

    2010-03-01

    Amongst the most terrifying injuries experienced by the soldiers during the First World War (1914-1918) were facial wounds. The French Medical Corps took photographic portraits of these wounded men, the so-called gueules cassées, with a view to conducting reconstructive surgery. However, other groups were quick to use the images they produced for their own political, social or artistic purposes. These photographs then, with their many meanings, capture the diversity of attitudes towards the Great War in its aftermath. PMID:20106529

  14. War Planning and the Outbreak of War in 1914

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Keithly

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the origins of the First World War has been rekindled with numerous new articles and books on the subject. Discussion of the war's outbreak remains a strategist's battleground. Fritz Fischer's interpretations of the causes of the war have dominated the debate for nearly two decades. His principal thesis is that economic and societal pressures propelled Germany into

  15. Diamond Wars? Conflict Diamonds and Geographies of Resource Wars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Le Billon

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, natural resources such as oil, diamonds, and timber came under increased scrutiny by conflict analysts and media outlets for their purported role in many contemporary wars. This article discusses some of the limitations of conventional arguments linking wars and resources. Dominated by econometric approaches and rational choice theory interpretations, arguments pertaining to “resource wars” often oversimplify

  16. Marijuana Use and Medically Attended Injury Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L Braun; Irene S Tekawa; Susan G Gerberich; Stephen Sidney

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: This study evaluated the relation between self-reported marijuana use and 3-year incidence of injury. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program members who underwent multiphasic health examinations between 1979 and 1986 (n=4,462). Injury-related outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and fatalities within 3 years of examination were determined. Results: Outpatient injury events totaled 2,524;

  17. Treatment of acromioclavicular separationsA retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Park; James A. Arnold; Tom P. Coker; Walter Duke Harris; David A. Becker

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study of 134 patients with Types I, II, and III acromioclavicular separations was carried out. The average followup was 6.3 years, with the longest being 19 years, and the shortest being 1 year. The mechanism of injury was a direct blow in 92% of the patients. The average age of the patients was 30.1 years, with a range

  18. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  19. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1?000?h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age?19 vs. >?19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  20. Free fluid on abdominal computed tomography without solid organ injury after blunt abdominal injury does not mandate celiotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H Livingston; Robert F Lavery; Marian R Passannante; Joan H Skurnick; Stephen Baker; Timothy C Fabian; Donald E Fry; Mark A Malangoni

    2001-01-01

    Background: Mandatory celiotomy has been proposed for all patients with unexplained free fluid on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning after blunt abdominal injury. This recommendation has been based upon retrospective data and concerns over the potential morbidity from the late diagnosis of blunt intestinal injury. This study examined the rate of intestinal injury in patients with free fluid on abdominal

  1. NERVE INJURY AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC VARICOCELECTOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTIN CHROUSER; DAVID VANDERSTEEN; JULIE CROCKER; YURI REINBERG

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:Laparoscopic varicocelectomy is a minimally invasive option for varicoceles in children. Occasional reports of nerve injury after inguinal laparoscopic procedures have been published. There is anatomical variation in the sensory innervation of the anterior thigh and variable branching patterns of the nerves involved. We report a retrospective analysis of our patients, focusing on the incidence of sensory changes on the

  2. In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of débridement.

    PubMed Central

    Helling, T S; Daon, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The care of traumatic wounds has evolved over hundreds of years, largely as a result of armed conflicts. The lessons learned during World War I in the treatment of extensive soft-tissue injuries proved invaluable in reducing infection and preventing loss of limb and life. Foremost among these was the use of debridement. This report reviews the development of debridement as standard treatment of war wounds and highlights the surgeon largely responsible for its resurgence during one of this century's saddest chapters. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Before World War I, the care of wounds consisted of minimal exploration and liberal use of then-new antiseptics. For limited injuries, this approach appeared adequate. World War I saw the introduction of devastating weapons that produced injuries that caused extensive devitalization of tissue. Standard treatment of these patients proved woefully inadequate to prevent life-threatening infections. METHODS: This is a historical review of the conditions that occurred during World War I that prompted a change in wound management. One of those responsible for this change was the Belgian surgeon Antoine Depage. His life and contributions to the care of war wounds are profiled. Depage reintroduced the discarded French practice of wound incision and exploration (debridement) and combined it with excision of devitalized tissue. RESULTS: Through the use of debridement, excision, and delayed wound closure based on bacteriologic survey, Depage was able to reduce the incidence of infectious complications of soft-tissue injuries, particularly those involving fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Through his experiences in the Great War, Antoine Depage was able to formulate a treatment plan for wounds of war. All such injuries were assumed to be contaminated and, as such, they required early and careful debridement. Depage thought that wound closure should often be delayed and based his decision to close on the bacteriologic status of the wound. To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9712561

  3. Injury Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  4. Crush injury

    MedlinePLUS

    A crush injury occurs when force or pressure is put on a body part. This type of injury most ... squeezed between two heavy objects. Damage related to crush injuries include: Bleeding Bruising Compartment syndrome (increased pressure ...

  5. SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    CITATION TO LIEUTENANT GRAY. Reproduction. 14 ROLL OF THE DEAD, WORLD WAR I . Reproduction. 15 INTRODUCTIONRECORD OF SERVICE SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER #12;IN MEMORIAM #12$,T'r 113a,. #12;#12;RECORD OF SERVICE IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR THEUNIVERSITY OF BRITISHCOLUMBIA A Supplement

  6. The Great War: Online Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  7. The Technological Culture of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  8. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dijk van R

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War – a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the Cold War discusses how this state of perpetual

  9. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  10. End the Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

  11. Education and War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

  12. Grading the War Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the emotional and psychological complexities of responding to personal narratives when the focus is war. The author teaches at a community college and she always begins her semester with a narrative assignment for the usual reasons: students write better when they write what they know; teachers should scaffold writing…

  13. Children and War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 2000, and based in Bergen, Norway, the Children and War group is "dedicated to improve children's lives after wars and disasters." Their homepage has the latest news and results of the group's efforts, and visitors who have relationships with children will find advice on what to tell them about the tsunami and earthquake in Japan. The "Stories" link on the far left-hand side of any page allows visitors to put faces and names to some of the children of war and disaster. There is Luay, a 14-year-old boy from Iraq who was traumatized by helping bring dead bodies out of the ruins of his city after it was bombed. Miriam, an 11-year-old from Somalia, tells of seeing her pregnant mother being stabbed and killed by opposing clan members. Visitors interested in how children are assessed to determine the "effects of war, disaster and trauma" on them will find the "Measures" link helpful. Here they will find information on CRIES, a widely used assessment for post traumatic stress, a depression self-rating scale, and a "Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory". Additionally, many of the tests are available in multiple languages.

  14. War. Peace. Film Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougall, Lucy

    The revised and expanded film guide designed for educators includes annotations of over 200 films, plus a large number of program resources for intelligent film use. Selected from over five hundred films previewed from 1969, up-to-date films were chosen that would help interpret the causes of war, increase awareness of the dehumanizing effects of…

  15. The Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

  16. The Massachusetts Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This article recounts the battle in the "math wars" that took place in Massachusetts, United States in 1999-2000 over the scope, content and teaching of the state's K-12 mathematics curriculum. Harsh controversies arose between the partisans of a "reform-math" movement stressing an undefined "conceptual understanding" and student-created…

  17. Traumatic War Stressors and Psychiatric Symptoms Among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War Veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Fontana; Robert Rosenheck

    1994-01-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans’ age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking

  18. The Epidemiology of Hospital-Referred Head Injury in Northern Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor Ingebrigtsen; Kim Mortensen; Bertil Romner

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective population-based survey describes the epidemiology of head injury in a defined population in Northern Norway. It includes all 247 patients with head injury referred to the University Hospital of Tromsř, Norway, during 1993. Head injury was defined as physical damage to the brain or skull caused by external force. The annual incidence rate of hospital-referred head injury was

  19. Cardiac Tamponade from Slingshot Metal Darts in Chuuk: A Retrospective Review of cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arsenal JC

    We determined the immediate cause of death of patients with penetrating cardiac injuries from slingshot metal darts. This retrospective review of cases focused on those 7 patients with penetrating cardiac injuries from the period July 1999 to July 2005 .There were 6 patients who underwent emergency thoracotomy regardless of the type of operative approach . Five of the 6 patients

  20. Pediatric Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pediatric Injury: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is pediatric injury? Pediatric injuries (or traumas) are quite diverse in their origins, severity, and effects on children. One way to understand injuries is by their ...

  1. Musculoskeletal war wounds during Operation BRAVA in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dana C

    2004-01-01

    Operation BRAVA (Blast Resuscitation and Victim Assistance) was conceived as a means of conducting humanitarian assistance, education, and training in the acute surgical management of land mine and other blast injuries. The first Operation BRAVA mission was carried out in Sri Lanka during 1998 at a time of civil war between government forces and Tamil separatists. Thirty-seven patients with orthopedic war wounds were seen during this mission because of the fighting. Exploding ordnance injured 24 patients (65%), and 13 patients (35%) sustained gunshot wounds. Sixty-seven percent of explosive injuries were from mortar rounds, and the remainder was from a variety of detonating munitions. Twenty-two patients (59%) sustained injuries to one or both lower limbs, and compartment syndrome of the leg developed in two of these patients as a result of multiple fragment injuries. Nine patients (24%) sustained concomitant neurological or vascular injuries. Operation BRAVA provided a novel approach to enhancing the combat medical skills of U.S. military personnel and was successful in developing working relationships with host country medical professionals, facilitating participation in the care of wounded patients, and establishing a framework upon which future BRAVA teams might build. PMID:14964504

  2. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  3. Frontline: Drug Wars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This site is the companion to the outstanding PBS Frontline program which aired in 2000. Simply put, the two-part Frontline film was probably the most balanced and detailed examination of America's war on drugs ever aired on television. In addition, it contained numerous interviews with figures on both sides of the drug war, including people who had never before made themselves available to American journalists. Whether or not you watched the program, the companion site offers some excellent and engaging content. This includes video excerpts, charts and graphs, excerpts and unused portions from interviews featured on the program, as well as numerous features unique to the site, one of the deepest companion sites PBS has ever produced.

  4. Crimes of War Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by American University, this project is a collaborative effort of journalists, lawyers, and scholars "that seeks to raise awareness of the laws of war." Resources at the site include an online magazine, featured essays, analysis, a discussion forum, information on future seminars, and related resources. The essays are concise, cover a range of international topics, and link to related items on the site. This unique project is well worth a visit.

  5. Shared Experience: Art & War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    The use of artistic expression to convey the experience of war and the battlefield has been around since antiquity, and has given rise to glorious poetry, epic stories, and more recently, paintings. This online exhibit created by the people at the Australian War Memorial presents the experiences of Australians, Britons, and Canadians in the Second World War through paintings created during this turbulent period. As the homepage suggests, "The men and women that feature in these works are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating". First-time visitors will want to start by reading the introductory essay by Roger Tolson titled "A Shared Experience". After doing so, they should feel free to browse around the paintings offered here, all of which are grouped into thematic categories that include "Casualties", "Work", and "Battle". There are a number of rather haunting and evocative paintings scattered across these categories, but visitors should be sure to take a look at the work "Battlefield burial of three NCOs" by Ivor Hele and "Airmen In A Village Pub Yorkshire" by Miller Brittain. The site is rounded by brief biographies for each of the artists whose work is included on the site.

  6. Neurologic injury in snowmobiling

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling. PMID:25024887

  7. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: crash characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zulkipli, Zarir Hafiz; Abdul Rahmat, Abdul Manap; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Atiqah; Paiman, Noor Faradila; Wong, Shaw Voon; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p<0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury. PMID:23036400

  8. Review Article: War and War Plans in the Far East

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lowe

    1999-01-01

    ONG CHIT CHUNG. Operation Matador: Britain's War Plans against the Japanese, 1918–1941. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1997; dist. Portland, Oreg.: ISBS.Pp. xiv, 314. $25.00 (US), paper; PETER ELPHICK. Far Eastern File: The Intelligence War in the Far East, 1930–1945. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1997. Pp. xvii, 510. Ł20.00; GÜNTER BISCHOF and ROBERT L. DUPONT, eds. The Pacific War Revisited. Baton

  9. Sharps injuries in ophthalmic practice

    PubMed Central

    Ghauri, A-J; Amissah-Arthur, K N; Rashid, A; Mushtaq, B; Nessim, M; Elsherbiny, S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Accidental sharps injuries are a potential route for transmission of blood-borne infection to healthcare workers. Ophthalmic staff in particular are at risk of sustaining such injuries due to the microsurgical nature of the speciality. Forthcoming European Union legislation aimed at reducing sharps injuries requires the development of risk-based sharps policy. The authors believe that this is the first study to assess the risks of sharps injuries and their management specific to ophthalmic practice within the European Union. Methods A retrospective review of all reported sharps injuries across three eye units in the UK over a period of 6 years was undertaken. Data were analysed to determine the circumstances surrounding the injury, occupation of the injured person, and whether appropriate actions were taken following incidents. Results A total of 68 sharps injuries were reported over the 6-year period. Nurses sustained 54.4% (n=37) of needlestick injuries, doctors 39.7% (n=27), and allied healthcare staff 5.9% (n=4). In all 51.5% (n=35) of sharps injuries occurred in the operating theatre, 30.9% (n=21) in the outpatient clinic, 13.2% (n=9) on the ophthalmic ward, and 4.4% (n=3) in unspecified locations. There was a median rate of 1.3 sharps injuries per 1000 surgical procedures per year and a range of 0.4–3.5 per 1000. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need to raise awareness of the unique risks of sharps injuries in ophthalmic practice. This is necessary in order to develop speciality-specific policy that promotes strategies to reduce such injuries, enhances the accuracy of reporting of such events, and provides guidance for appropriate management. PMID:21336251

  10. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys. PMID:15520121

  11. Lisfranc injuries.

    PubMed

    Welck, M J; Zinchenko, R; Rudge, B

    2015-04-01

    Lisfranc injuries are commonly asked about in FRCS Orthopaedic trauma vivas. The term "Lisfranc injury" strictly refers to an injury where one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot centred on the 2nd tarsometatarsal joint. The injury is named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon and gynaecologist who first described the injury in 1815. 'Lisfranc injury' encompasses a broad spectrum of injuries, which can be purely ligamentous or involve the osseous and articular structures. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if not detected and appropriately managed they can cause long-term disability. This review outlines the anatomy, epidemiology, classification, investigation and current evidence on management of this injury. PMID:25543185

  12. Physicists in times of war

    E-print Network

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  13. On the Economic Consequences of Civil War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Collier

    1998-01-01

    A model of the economic effects of civil war and the post-war period is developed. A key feature is the adjustment of the capital stock through capital flight. Post-war this flight can either be reversed or continue, depending partly upon how far the capital stock has adjusted to the war. The model is tested on data for all civil wars

  14. Whither the "signature wounds of the war" after the war: estimates of incidence rates and proportions of TBI and PTSD diagnoses attributable to background risk, enhanced ascertainment, and active war zone service, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Brundage, John F; Taubman, Stephen B; Hunt, Devin J; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are "signature wounds" of the Afghanistan/Iraq wars; however, many TBI/PTSD cases are not war related. During the wars, diagnoses of TBI/PTSD among military members increased because risks of TBI/PTSD, and capabilities to detect cases, increased. This report summarizes TBI/PTSD diagnosis experiences of three cohorts of overseas deployers in relation to the natures of their exposures to active war service and enhanced case ascertainment efforts. The findings suggest that, during the war, the proportions of PTSD diagnoses attributable to war zone service decreased from approximately 80% to less than 50%, while the proportions attributable to enhanced case ascertainment increased from less than 10% to nearly 50%. The proportions of TBI diagnoses attributable to war zone service more than tripled from 2003-2005 (13.1%) through 2007-2009 (44.8%); the proportions attributable to enhanced ascertainment also markedly increased, but not until after 2007. By the end of the war, war zone service and enhanced ascertainment accounted for similar proportions of all PTSD and TBI diagnoses. If programs and resources currently focused on TBI and PTSD continue, rates of diagnoses post-war will greatly exceed those pre-war. PMID:25734618

  15. How Much War Will we see?Explaining the Prevalence of Civil War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IBRAHIM ELBADAWI; NICHOLAS SAMBANIS

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative studies of civil war have focused on war initiation (onset) or war duration and termination and produced important insights into these processes. An empirical analysis of civil war prevalence is used to show that the prevalence or amount of war observed at any given time is important. Civil war prevalence is defined as the probability of observing either a

  16. Nonscaphoid carpal injuries – Incidence and associated injuries

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Anantha Krishnan; Kumar, Prathap

    2014-01-01

    Aims Nonscaphoid fractures comprise approximately 40% of all carpal fractures. But the exact incidence of these rare injuries is still not clear. Missed or late diagnosis can lead to serious ligamentous disruption and permanent wrist dysfunction. Methods A retrospective analysis of wrist X-rays and CT scans were carried out for a period of 3 years. Incidence and associated injuries from this study was compared with literature. A total of 33 patients were included in our study. Both wrist X-rays and CT scans were reviewed individually by two authors. DASH scores were recorded for each patient. Results There were 26 male and 7 female patients. Out of 33 patients 13 (35%) were Triquetral fractures, 10 (27%) were Hamate fractures, 5 (14%) were Capitate fractures, 4 (11%) were Lunate fractures, 3 (8%) were Trapezium fractures and 2 (5%) were Pisiform fractures. There were no Trapezoid fractures in our study. Conclusion Incidence of nonscaphoid carpal fractures in our study is considerably higher when compared to literature. We propose that high index of suspicion should always be borne in mind when dealing with carpal fractures and detailed examination of wrist should be conducted even when X-rays does not show any obvious bony injuries. CT scans and other specialized images should be judiciously used in areas of suspicion for early diagnosis, to initiate immediate treatment, for early mobilisation and good functional recovery. PMID:25104893

  17. WWII: Supporting the War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Murray

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this IA is to make comparison/contrasts between the advertising and propaganda efforts of the U.S. government and Nazi government during WWII. Also racial issues are addressed. It works with core curriculum Standard 7, Objective 2 and 2a Please use these sites to view posters produced during the World War II Era and follow the instructions below to complete the assignment. German Propaganda Posters from WWII Pick three of the posters listed on this website and compare them with the three U.S. produced posters that you will ...

  18. Men, Women and War: Gender Differences in Attitudes towards War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zur, O.; And Others

    This study showed that war does have an appeal to both men and women, but that appeal is different and is related to the set of moral concerns that are unique to each gender. To assess the different aspects of men's and women's attitudes towards war, a 48-item Likert-type scale was constructed and administered to 148 students. Results showed that…

  19. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    There are a variety of substances you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in ... heart and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy ...

  20. Trampolining injuries.

    PubMed

    Sukeik, Mohamed; Haddad, Fares S

    2011-01-01

    Trampoline-related injuries have increased dramatically over the last few years. This article presents a review of the literature summarizing the different types and mechanisms of sustaining such injuries and looks at current recommendations to prevent them. PMID:21240113

  1. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some bleeding in the brain, causing swelling. A skull fracture is when the skull cracks. Sometimes the edges ... of head injuries include bicycle or motorcycle wrecks, sports injuries, falls from windows (especially among children who ...

  2. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases

    PubMed Central

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey’s southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries. Consequently, reducing the mortality and complication rates from firearm injuries is still a serious problem. Despite all of these efforts, there is still a need to determine the optimum treatment strategy to achieve this end goal. PMID:26131219

  3. A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2010-12-31

    We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. The interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of limited commitment ...

  4. On Teaching Vietnam War Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, Perry

    1986-01-01

    Describes teaching a course, "Vietnam Literature," to high school seniors and reviews some books about the war, including Philip Caputo's "A Rumor of War," James Webb's "Fields of Fire," Tim O'Brien's "Going After Caciato," Michael Herr's "Dispatches," and Al Santoli's "Everything We Had." (EL)

  5. Posthuman Soldiers in Postmodern War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Hables Gray

    2003-01-01

    The centrality of human-machine weapon systems is a key aspect of postmodern war. Since 1939 such systems have proliferated while improved interfaces have led to several types of actual cyborg soldiers. As the crisis of postmodern war deepens it is producing a series of quite different militarized bodies. Cyborgs proliferate in type so it is no surprise that we have

  6. World War II And Convergence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Cook

    2002-01-01

    Proxies that measure the effect of World War II on a country's capital stock are used as instruments for estimating standard cross-country growth regressions. The war's destruction should offer a natural experiment that allows us to consistently estimate the speed at which productivity growth converges to its long-run path. This paper presents evidence that convergence rates are approximately 4% to

  7. War, Peace, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie, Ed.

    Written for editors, reporters, and researchers, this publication contains background information on war and peace. Included are newspaper articles, essays, and excerpts from radio commentaries. The information is intended to help journalists provide more accurate coverage of war-and-peace issues, in particular more accurate coverage of the Soviet…

  8. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  9. Clinical features, patterns of referral and out of hospital transport events for patients with suspected isolated spinal injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthas Flabouris

    2001-01-01

    Background: Prehospital diagnostic accuracy and risks of transportation associated neurological deterioration for patients with spinal injury remain imprecise.Methods: Retrospective review of medical records for patients with suspected spinal injury assessed and escorted by medically staffed team.Results: One hundred and ninety six patients had follow up for spinal injury, 61% with actual injury. Of the 196 patients, 93% involved helicopter transport,

  10. Traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Risdall, Jane E.; Menon, David K.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad. PMID:21149359

  11. Brief Report: Parental Report of Sleep Behaviors Following Moderate or Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean W. Beebe; Lauren Krivitzky; Carolyn T. Wells; Shari L. Wade; H. Gerry Taylor; Keith Owen Yeates

    2007-01-01

    Objective Determine the effect of moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) on the sleep of school-aged children. Methods A concurrent cohort-prospective design compared children aged 6-12 years who sustained moderate TBI (baseline n Ľ56), severe TBI (n Ľ53), or only orthopedic injuries (n Ľ80). Retrospective parental report of pre-injury sleep was collected about 3 weeks post-injury. Post-injury assessments occurred

  12. A three-phase analysis of the prevention of recreational softball injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Janda; Edward M. Wojtys; Fred M. Hankin; Milbry E. Benedict; Robert N. Hensinger

    1990-01-01

    Recreational sports injuries are expensive to society. Prevention of such injuries must be a major public health goal.In a previous retrospective study, base sliding was found to be responsible for 71 % of recreational softball injuries. Because most injuries occurred during rapid deceleration against stationary bases, quick-release (break-away) bases were evaluated as a means to modify this mechanism of injury.

  13. A retrospective analysis of 1083 Turkish patients with serious burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Anlat?c?; Ö. R Özerdem; C Dalay; E Kesikta?; S Acartürk; G Seydao?lu

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1083 burn cases hospitalised at a burn center between August 1988 and the end of 1997 were studied retrospectively to determine the factors and demographic features associated with burn injury in Turkey. The means for patient age and percent total body surface area (TBSA) burned were 18.1 years and 31.2%, respectively (medians were 14.0 years and 25.0%,

  14. American prisoner of war policy and practice from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror

    E-print Network

    Springer, Paul Joseph

    2006-08-16

    , 1977). 10 Richard Garrett?s P. O. W. examined the treatment of POWs from the Hundred Years War to the Vietnam War, drawing conclusions about the experiences of POWs over the centuries. Organized... of the battlefield victors. Prehistoric societies almost always executed captured foes, rather than spend their meager resources maintaining 8 Richard Garrett, P. O. W. (London: David & Charles, 1981). 11...

  15. Stress and coping in male and female health care providers during the Persian Gulf War: the USNS Comfort hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Slusarcick, A L; Ursano, R J; Fullerton, C S; Dinneen, M P

    1999-03-01

    The development of the USNS Comfort hospital ship during the Persian Gulf War provided an opportunity to examine the relationship of gender to stress and coping in health care providers exposed to wartime stressors. Just before the outbreak of Operation Desert Storm, medical personnel (N = 250) rated the stressfulness of current wartime experiences and the helpfulness of stress-reducing resources onboard ship in a combat theater. The responses of men and women were compared; to identify the dimensions of these responses, a principal factor analysis (orthogonal rotation) was performed. Generally, men and women ranked stressors and stress reducers similarly; women scored higher on the stress ratings. Two factors, similar for men and women, were identified in the stress ratings: fear of injury and trauma-related work demands. The dimensions of the stress reducers, however, were different for men and women. The findings support retrospective studies and suggest that different mechanisms of stress reduction may be operative even though men and women are performing the same activity. PMID:10091488

  16. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  17. Illinois Civil War Newspapers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created as part of an ambitious effort to digitize a wide range of documents related to the Civil War in Illinois, this site is a great resource for historians and the curious public. It's quite a trove, as it offers visitors access to over 1,900 documents including commentaries from Senator Stephen Douglas, letters from soldiers back home, the draft, and much more. The site also has a nice search engine that gives visitors the ability to perform a full-text search across all of the articles. Accounts of well known battles in places such as Richmond and Gettysburg can be read through the lenses of small town newspapers in Illinois. Finally, the site also has great links to the rest of the digitization projects at Northern Illinois University.

  18. Women and War

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Maureen; Bradley, Arlene; Mather, Susan H; Klein, Robert E; Turner, Carole L; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's 1.7 million women veterans obtain all or most of their medical care outside the VA health care system, where their veteran status is rarely recognized or acknowledged. Several aspects of women's military service have been associated with adverse psychologic and physical outcomes, and failure to assess women's veteran status, their deployment status, and military trauma history could delay identifying or treating such conditions. Yet few clinicians know of women's military history—or of military service's impact on women's subsequent health and well being. Because an individual's military service may be best understood within the historical context in which it occurred, we provide a focused historical overview of women's military contributions and their steady integration into the Armed Forces since the War for Independence. We then describe some of the medical and psychiatric conditions associated with military service. PMID:16637946

  19. Give War a Chance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, an online complement to a PBS Frontline program aired earlier this week, explores how US diplomats and the military differ on the use of forceful interventions in the post-Vietnam era. The difference is explored through the experiences of US Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, UN Ambassador-nominee, and Admiral Leighton "Snuffy" Smith (ret.), a Vietnam war hero who commanded NATO forces in Bosnia. The site features biographies and interviews with Holbrooke and Smith, and also includes a report on American use of military might, an analysis of US foreign policy in regard to the nations of the former Yugoslavia, an interview with Major H.R. McMaster about the lessons learned from Vietnam, and a chronology of US military interventions in the last 30 years.

  20. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee E Ohanian

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War

  1. Late Sequelae of Whiplash Injury with Dissection of Cervical Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vital Hauser; Peter Zangger; Yaroslav Winter; Wolfgang Oertel; Jürg Kesselring

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The objective of our study was to estimate the incidence of posttraumatic dissections of cervical arteries in patients with whiplash injury acquired in a car accident. Methods and Patients: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of 500 patients with whiplash injury acquired in car accidents between 1996 and 2005 and searched for dissections of cervical arteries occurring

  2. Changing trends in the management of splenic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Morrell; Frederic C. Chang; Stephen D. Helmer

    1995-01-01

    Background: A gradual change in the management of splenic injuries has occurred at our institution. This study was therefore undertaken to determine whether changes in management of splenic injury influenced outcomes during the past 30 years.Patients and methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted with splenic trauma between 1965 and 1994 was performed. Two hundred seven patients were identified and

  3. Epidemiology of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Soccer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan M. Bjordal; Frode Arnřy; Birte Hannestad; Torbjřrn Strand

    1997-01-01

    We did a retrospective study of all anterior cruciate ligament injuries (972) verified by arthroscopic evalu ation at hospitals in the Hordaland region of Norway from 1982 to 1991. Our final study group comprised 176 patients who had participated in organized soccer and answered a questionnaire. The overall incidence rate was 0.063 injuries per 1000 game hours. Men incurred 75.6%

  4. The Colyer Collection of First World War dental radiographs and casts at the Hunterian Museum.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Kristin

    2014-07-01

    The Colyer Collection of First World War dental radiographs and casts is a unique teaching resource with a fascinating history. The story of the radiographs illuminates the role of dental surgery and Sir J. Frank Colyer (1866-1954) in the treatment of maxillofacial injuries during this period. PMID:25668926

  5. Shots of War: Photojournalism During the Spanish Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Spanish Civil War was documented quite well by a range of photographers, and some of the images have become icons of 20th century photojournalism. This particular collection contains 99 photographs that are part of the Spanish Civil War Collection held at Mandeville Special Collections Library at the University of California, San Diego. The photos were taken by photographers attached to various news photography agencies, and they can be browsed chronologically, geographically, or thematically by people or war damage. First-time visitors should read the extended introductory essay by Matt Crawford, as it provides some nice background on the war, the place of photographers during the conflict, and an emerging "photojournalism" sensibility. There are a number of compelling images here, and visitors might want to check out the photographs of political demonstrators to start their journey.

  6. Association of Posterior Tibial Tendon Injury with Spring Ligament Injury, Sinus Tarsi Abnormality, and Plantar Fasciitis on MR Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Balen; Clyde A. Helms

    OBJECTIVE . The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of abnormalities of the spring ligament, sinus tarsi, and plantar fascia revealed on MR imaging in a group of patients with advanced injury of the posterior tibial tendon. MATERIALS AND METHODS . MR images from 25 patients with advanced posterior tibial tendon injury were retrospectively examined for spring

  7. Spanish Civil War Memory Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of California, San Diego in collaboration with several Spanish civic associations, including the Federacion Estatal de Foros por La Memoria and others, have put together this remarkable digital archive of the Spanish Civil War and the Francoist Dictatorship. Since 2007, several teams of graduate students have been recording audiovisual testimonies of militants, witnesses, and victims of the Spanish Civil War and Francoist repression. On this site, visitors can listen to dozens of recorded testimonies in English and Spanish and also read about the interview protocol and methods. The Video Catalog area contains some helpful resources, including information about each participant and their specific involvement in the war.

  8. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'. PMID:25273498

  9. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life. PMID:23771940

  10. American Women and the Great War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  11. Cyber War Will Not Take Place

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Rid

    2012-01-01

    For almost two decades, experts and defense establishments the world over have been predicting that cyber war is coming. But is it? This article argues in three steps that cyber war has never happened in the past, that cyber war does not take place in the present, and that it is unlikely that cyber war will occur in the future.

  12. Cyber War Will Not Take Place

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Rid

    2011-01-01

    For almost two decades, experts and defense establishments the world over have been predicting that cyber war is coming. But is it? This article argues in three steps that cyber war has never happened in the past, that cyber war does not take place in the present, and that it is unlikely that cyber war will occur in the future.

  13. Modeling Civil War Gerard Padr i Miquel

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Modeling Civil War Gerard Padró i Miquel LSE March 2009 Padró i Miquel (LSE) Civil War March 2009 1 half of countries have experienced some episode of civil war since 1960 If one is willing to consider violent communal and ethnic conict it is even more prevalent Civil war has killed more than 16.2 million

  14. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  15. Breaking New Ground on War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The American Catholic Church, which has historically supported America's involvement in wars through the concept of just wars, has broken new ground with its Pastoral Letter on War, Armaments, and Peace, which challenges the morality of present defense policy and nuclear war. Reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. (IS)

  16. War Rape: New Conceptualizations and Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Farwell

    2004-01-01

    This article presents new conceptualizations of war rape in international law and defines rape as a weapon and strategy of war. It also outlines the intersections of gender, patriarchy, militarism, and ethnic, religious, and political identities that fuel war rape as part of a continuum of violence against women. Local and transnational examples of women’s responses to war rape demonstrate

  17. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  18. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  19. Retrospective Memories of Racialized Experiences 

    E-print Network

    Price, Hannah M.

    2010-07-14

    RETROSPECTIVE MEMORIES OF RACIALIZED EXPERIENCES A Senior Scholars Thesis by HANNAH MARGARET PRICE Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR April 2010 Major: Sociology RETROSPECTIVE MEMORIES OF RACIALIZED EXPERIENCES A Senior Scholars Thesis by HANNAH MARGARET PRICE Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research...

  20. Outcome After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. KUO; N. C. TEJWANI; C. W. DIGIOVANNI; S. K. HOLT; S. K. BENIRSCHKE; S. T. HANSEN; B. J. SANGEORZAN

    2000-01-01

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended as the treatment for most un- stable injuries of the Lisfranc (tarsometatarsal) joint. It has been thought that purely ligamentous injuries have a poor outcome despite such surgical management. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent open reduction and screw fixa- tion of a Lisfranc injury in a

  1. Gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, J; Betz, S

    1995-05-01

    If current trends for this nation continue, by the year 2003 the number of people killed by firearms will exceed the number of people killed in motor vehicle accidents. Critical care practitioners must understand the mechanism of injury associated with firearm injuries to provide optimal care. This article reviews internal, exterior, and terminal ballistics, bullet design, wound classification, and initial assessment and treatment of firearm injuries. PMID:7743422

  2. Splenic Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selman Uranues; Abe Fingerhut

    \\u000a The treatment of splenic injury has changed over the past decade from prompt splenectomy in all cases to splenic salvage when\\u000a possible. The most important factor influencing this change is the recognition of the risk of infection after splenectomy.\\u000a As patients with severe splenic injury generally have other organ injuries, have lost a lot of blood, and are usually in

  3. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries. Images p99-a p100-a p100-b p100-c PMID:1751899

  4. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries. PMID:1751899

  5. Snowboarding injuries.

    PubMed

    Young, C C; Niedfeldt, M W

    1999-01-01

    Snowboarding is a popular winter sport that involves riding a single board down a ski slope or on a half-pipe snow ramp. Compared with injuries resulting from traditional alpine skiing, snowboarding injuries occur more frequently in the upper extremities and ankles and less frequently in the knees. Different types of snowboard equipment, rider stance and snowboarding activity tend to result in different types of injury. Snowboarder's ankle, a fracture of the lateral talus, must be considered in a snowboarder with a "severe ankle sprain" that has not responded to treatment. Risk of injury may be lowered by using protective equipment, such as a helmet and wrist guards. PMID:9917579

  6. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  7. Blood transfusion between the wars.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William H

    2003-04-01

    This article examines the introduction of blood transfusion into general practice from the end of the First World War to the Second World War. Developments during most of this period were not the result of new discoveries but rather the spread of ideas and the establishment of donor organizations to secure an adequate blood supply. The identification, testing, and organization of potential donors were done in a wide variety of settings that reflected differences in political and cultural experiences. At the end of the 1930s, with war approaching, the resolution of problems with storage of blood and the discovery of new techniques for separating and storing plasma dramatically changed transfusion practice. Thus, the innovations of the Second World War were very much based on the development of broad donor organizations plus the new technical discoveries that had occurred during the interwar period. PMID:12776438

  8. Pregnancy following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, L. L.; Meythaler, J. M.; Tuel, S. M.; Cross, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Each year about 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States have a spinal cord injury. Only a few mostly anecdotal reports describe pregnancy after such an injury. In a retrospective study of 16 women with a spinal cord injury, half of whom have a complete injury and about half quadriplegia, 25 pregnancies occurred, with 21 carried to full term. The women delayed pregnancy an average of 6.5 years after their injury, with an average age at first pregnancy of 26.8 years. Cesarean section was necessary in 4 patients because of inadequate progress of labor. In 5 deliveries an episiotomy and local anesthesia were required, 7 required epidural anesthesia, including all cesarean sections, and 10 did not require anesthesia. Several complications have been identified in the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods including autonomic hyperreflexia, premature labor, pressure sores, urinary tract infections, abnormal presentation, and failure to progress. Ultrasonography and amniocentesis were used selectively. Women with spinal cord injuries can have healthy children, although there are significant risks and these women have special needs. PMID:1866960

  9. Injury In The Elderly: A Hospital Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. O. A. Thanni

    Summary Background Hospital and community survey reports from Nigeria, on the epidemiology of injuries in the elderly are lacking. This data is useful for planning effective treatment and prevention strategies. Patients and methods A retrospective case analysis is done, of patients attending the Accident & Emergency unit. Results Out of 3839 patients, 32 injured patients were 65 years and older,

  10. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Haum; W. Perbix; H. J. Häck; G. B. Stark; G. Spilker; M. Doehn

    1995-01-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU

  11. Psychological aspects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

  12. First World War.Com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Michael Duffy, this site amasses an impressive amount of valuable cultural, historical, and social documentation of "the Great War." The site begins with some highlighted collections, such as Peace and Truce on the Western Front, Photo Reconnaissance, and Keeping 'em on The Farm. While the Web site is a work-in-progress, visitors will enjoy browsing through different sections that offer a broad portrait of the causes of the war (How it Began), the different political and military leaders involved in the conflict (Who's Who), and the war's technological innovations (such as flamethrowers and machine guns) that made this first modern war possible. Persons looking for first-hand accounts of the war should go to the Memoirs and Diaries section, which contains dozens of documents recounting the personal experiences. Historians will appreciate the primary documents that lead up to the beginning of the war itself and continue to 1919. Overall, it is a well-thought out site, and one that is both engaging and quite informative.

  13. American prisoner of war policy and practice from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror 

    E-print Network

    Springer, Paul Joseph

    2006-08-16

    .S. military has often sought the most expedient methods of maintaining prisoners, a practice that has led to accusations of neglect. In the nineteenth century, American wars were typically fought upon the North American continent and were limited in scope...

  14. Athletic Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Tuggy; Cora Collette Breuner

    Family physicians routinely treat many athletic injuries in their clinical practice. The benefits of long-term exercise in the prevention of common illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and falls in the elderly are well established. With the increased interest in fitness in the general population, the number of people resuming more active exercise as they age is increasing. Injuries sustained

  15. Perinatal and Maternal Outcomes in Tuzla Canton during 1992-1995 War in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Skoki?, Fahrija; Muratovi?, Selma; Radoja, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Aim To compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in Tuzla Canton during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina with those before (1988-1991) and after (2000-2003) the war. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a total of 59?707 liveborn infants and their mothers from the databases of Tuzla University Department for Gynecology and Obstetrics and Tuzla Institute for Public Health. Data on the number of live births, stillbirths, early neonatal deaths, causes of death, gestational age, and birth weights were collected. We also collected data on the number of medically unattended deliveries, examinations during pregnancy, preterm deliveries, and causes of maternal deaths. Perinatal and maternal outcomes were determined for each study period. Results There were 23?194 live births in the prewar, 18?302 in the war, and 18?211 in the postwar period. Prewar perinatal mortality of 23.3 per 1000 live births increased to 25.8 per 1000 live births during the war (P<0.001), due to a significant increase in early neonatal mortality (10.3‰ before vs 15.1‰ after the war, P<0.001). After the war, both perinatal mortality (14.4‰) and early neonatal mortality (6.6‰) decreased (P<0.001 for both). The most frequent cause of early neonatal death during the war was prematurity (55.7%), with newborns most often dying within the first 24 hours after birth. During the war, there were more newborns with low birth weight (<2500 g), while term newborns had lower average body weight. Women underwent 2.4 examinations during pregnancy (5.4 before and 6.3 after the war, P<0.001 for both) and 75.9% had delivery attended by a health care professional (99.1% before and 99.8% after the war; P<0.001 for both). Maternal mortality rate of 65 per 100?000 deliveries during the war was significantly higher than that before (39 per 100?000 deliveries) and after (12 per 100?000 deliveries) the war (P<0.001 for both). Conclusion Perinatal and maternal mortality in Tuzla Canton were significantly higher during the war, mainly due to lower adequacy and accessibility of perinatal and maternal health care. PMID:17042063

  16. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. PMID:24961713

  17. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

  18. Boarding injuries: the long and the short of it.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Leslie A; Thygerson, Steven M; Merrill, Ray M

    2014-01-01

    As the popularity of longboarding increases, trauma centers are treating an increased number of high severity injuries. Current literature lacks descriptions of the types of injuries experienced by longboarders, a distinct subset of the skateboarding culture. A retrospective review of longboarding and skateboarding injury cases was conducted at a level II trauma center from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2011. Specific injuries in addition to high injury severity factors (hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), patient treatment options, disposition, and outcome) were calculated to compare longboarder to skateboarder injuries. A total of 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. Skull fractures, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were significantly more common among longboard patients than skateboarders (P < 0.0001). All patients with an ISS above 15 were longboarders. Hospital and ICU LOS in days was also significantly greater for longboarders compared with skateboarders (P < 0.0001). Of the three patients that died, each was a longboarder and each experienced a head injury. Longboard injuries account for a higher incidence rate of severe head injuries compared to skateboard injuries. Our data show that further, prospective investigation into the longboarding population demographics and injury patterns is necessary to contribute to effective injury prevention in this population. PMID:24660063

  19. Boarding Injuries: The Long and the Short of It

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Leslie A.; Thygerson, Steven M.; Merrill, Ray M.

    2014-01-01

    As the popularity of longboarding increases, trauma centers are treating an increased number of high severity injuries. Current literature lacks descriptions of the types of injuries experienced by longboarders, a distinct subset of the skateboarding culture. A retrospective review of longboarding and skateboarding injury cases was conducted at a level II trauma center from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2011. Specific injuries in addition to high injury severity factors (hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), patient treatment options, disposition, and outcome) were calculated to compare longboarder to skateboarder injuries. A total of 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. Skull fractures, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were significantly more common among longboard patients than skateboarders (P < 0.0001). All patients with an ISS above 15 were longboarders. Hospital and ICU LOS in days was also significantly greater for longboarders compared with skateboarders (P < 0.0001). Of the three patients that died, each was a longboarder and each experienced a head injury. Longboard injuries account for a higher incidence rate of severe head injuries compared to skateboard injuries. Our data show that further, prospective investigation into the longboarding population demographics and injury patterns is necessary to contribute to effective injury prevention in this population. PMID:24660063

  20. RETROSPECTIVE MONITORING OF INORGANIC MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of chronological reference points to which present levels of inorganic pollutants can be compared is increasingly needed. The requirements for retrospective monitoring methods are discussed in relation to their attainability. The literature has been reviewed for b...

  1. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  2. Spinal cord injury after electrical trauma treated in a burn unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M Arévalo; José A Lorente; José Balseiro-Gómez

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To analyse the incidence, diagnosis and outcome of spinal cord injury in patients with electrical injuries.Patients and methods. Retrospective analysis of patients with electrical injuries admitted to our Intensive Care Burn Unit over a 5 year period. Among 435 admissions, 57 (13.1% of all admissions) were electrical injuries, due to either electrical flash (n=34) or high voltage (n=23). Two

  3. BBC: WW2 People's War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the passing of another Veteran's Day here in the United States, many persons may be interested to learn about the everyday experiences of persons around the world during various military conflicts. The BBC has created this website in an attempt to allow people to share their reminisces of World War II, and quite a few stories and tales have been contributed thus far. Visitors to the site can browse stories by date, location, or type; additionally, stories are organized into thematic categories such as Childhood and Evacuation, Family Life, The Blitz, and Home Front. For each story, visitors have the option of commenting on each narrative, or offering their own remembrances as well. The site also offers some links to other online features offered by the BBC, such as QuickTime movies dealing with various facets of World War II and another quirky site that details how the war affected British children.

  4. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  5. Rethinking the war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanahan, Douglas

    2014-02-01

    Some 40 years ago a metaphor was posed that cancer was such an insidious adversary that a declaration of war on the disease was justified. Although this statement was a useful inspiration for enlistment of resources, despite extraordinary progress in our understanding of disease pathogenesis, in most cases and for most forms of cancer this war has not been won. A second metaphor was about magic bullets--targeted therapies based on knowledge of mechanisms that were envisaged to strike with devastating consequences for the disease. The reality, however, is that targeted therapies are generally not curative or even enduringly effective, because of the adaptive and evasive resistance strategies developed by cancers under attack. In this Series paper, I suggest that, much like in modern warfare, the war on cancer needs to have a battlespace vision. PMID:24351321

  6. Physical Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention Families with Kids Alcohol and Drugs ... Resilience Satisfaction with Life Sexual Truama Sleep Spirituality Stigma Stress Work Adjustment Worry Videos Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  7. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion recover completely with little or no intervention. After ... cause symptoms to recur or worsen. Why does concussion affect returning to duty? Symptoms after a concussion ...

  8. Gaps in injury statistics: multiple injury profiles reveal them and provide a comprehensive account

    PubMed Central

    Aharonson-Daniel, L; Giveon, A; Peleg, K

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of national trauma registry data in Israel between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2002. Multiple diagnoses per patient were recorded. A primary diagnosis was selected for each patient and data were presented twice: first by selecting a primary diagnosis and then using multiple injury profiles. Results: 23 909 transport casualties were included. Findings show that MIP enable the identification of all patients with a specific injury, even where secondary. The proportion of additional injuries recorded when using MIP ranged from 12% in head injuries to 270% for facial injuries. Based on the primary diagnosis patients with head, chest, and abdominal injuries had a 5–6% inpatient death rate each. Multiple injury profiles of the same population reveal that an isolated head injury has a 3% inpatient death rate, isolated chest and isolated abdomen have a 1% inpatient death rate, while combined head and chest casualties have a 21% inpatient death rate. Conclusions: Multiple injury profiles are a new approach that enables presenting an improved picture of injury in a population. PMID:16081744

  9. Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training. PMID:25344715

  10. Glut, war slow Mideast activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-20

    Oilpatch activity in the Middle East has been on the slow side recently, and with a heated-up war between Iran and Iraq throwing off violent sparks around the Arabian Gulf, it's difficult to keep one's mind on business-as-usual. The article deals with the rising cost of insurance for shipping because of the war and the effects on drilling, production and the environment (oil spills). The development and production of offshore oil and gas in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates is also discussed.

  11. 17.582 Civil War, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Petersen, Roger

    This course surveys the social science literature on civil war. It studies the origins of civil war, discusses variables affecting duration, and examines termination of conflict. This subject is highly interdisciplinary ...

  12. War--Student Unit. War--Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto. Dept. of Educational Administration.

    The guide contains six episodes, suitable for the secondary level, designed to focus attention on the moral issues involved in war. It is presented in two sections. Section I discusses four objectives of values education and how the suggested activities contribute to their attainment. These objectives are: (1) differentiating value judgments,…

  13. Do families want to be present during CPR? A retrospective survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa A. Meyers; Dezra J. Eichhorn; Cathie E. Guzzetta

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to interview families who had experienced the death of a loved one to determine their desires, beliefs, and concerns about family presence during CPR. Methods A retrospective, descriptive telephone survey of families of patients who had died because of traumatic injuries while in an emergency department was used. A family presence survey was

  14. Lunate and Perilunate Dislocations in Professional Football PlayersA Five-year Retrospective Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Raab; David A. Fischer; Donald C. Quick

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to review the treatment and prognosis of lunate and perilunate carpal dislocations in professional football players in the National Football League over a 5-year period. There were 7 lunate and 3 perilunate dislocations in 10 play ers. The mechanism of injury was hyperextension in 9 of 10 players. Five players were subsequently treated

  15. Epidemiology of injuries in adventure racing athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fordham, S; Garbutt, G; Lopes, P

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the demographics and training characteristics of adventure racing athletes in the United Kingdom, the prevalence and anatomical distribution of hazardous encounter, and overuse injury in this population, and the effects these injuries have on training. Methods: A retrospective training and injury questionnaire for the previous 18 months was distributed to 300 adventure racing athletes at two national race meetings. The definition of an injury was "any musculoskeletal problem causing a stop in training for at least one day, reduction in training mileage, taking of medicine, or seeking of medical aid." Results: The data were derived from the responses of 223 athletes. Advanced level athletes did 11 (4) sessions and 17 (8) hours of training a week (mean (SD)). An injury was reported in the previous 18 months by 73% of the respondents. The most common site of acute injury was the ankle (23%) and of chronic/overuse injury, the knee (30%), followed by the lower back, shin, and Achilles tendon (12% each). There were significant correlations (p<0.01) between the hours spent cycling per week and number of acute injuries, and between the number of days off per week and number of chronic/overuse injuries. Injuries resulted in an average of 23 days training cessation or reduction. Conclusions: Acute injuries were sustained mainly as a result of the nature of the terrain over which athletes train and compete. In overuse injuries lack of adequate rest days was a significant contributing factor. Only a small proportion of training time was spent developing flexibility and core stability. PMID:15155432

  16. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. (Western Washington Univ. (US))

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  17. Low Paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War Veterans Self-Reporting Gulf War Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bharti Mackness; Paul N. Durrington; Michael I. Mackness

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphate (OP's) insecticides and nerve gases during the Persian Gulf War has been implicated in the development of Gulf War Syndrome. Paraoxonase (PON1) present in human serum detoxifies OP's. We determined the levels of PON1 in the serum of Gulf War Veterans and compared these to those found in a control population. One hundred fifty-two Gulf War Veterans

  18. CHROMOSOME ABERRATION ANALYSIS IN PERIPHERAL LYMPHOCYTES OF GULF WAR AND BALKANS WAR VETERANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schroder; A. Heimers; R. Frentzel-Beyme; A. Schott; W. Hoffmann

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium (DU) while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The

  19. Without a Hangman, Without a Rope: Navy War Crimes Trials After World War II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanie M. Welch

    Little has been written about the trials of accused Japanese war criminals that were conducted by the U. S. Navy after World War II. Trials were held on Guam and Kwajalein by the War Crimes Branch of the Pacific Fleet from 1945 through 1949. These trials were part of over 2,000 war crimes trials held under the aegis of SCAP--the

  20. Space technologies and the war in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getsov, Petar

    The paper presents a description of the application of aerospace technologies during the war in Iraq. The specific instrumentation used by the USA and its allies in the field of communication, navigation, and control of weapons and ammunition to schedule war activities is presented. Conclusions are made on the ever growing application of space technologies in modern wars and their impact on the efficiency of decision-making at war times.

  1. Children Exposed to War\\/Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon A. Shaw

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related

  2. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests...1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of...

  3. Fighting the War on Academic Terrorism. Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2005-01-01

    While the attention of the country is focused on the global and national war on terrorism, the war on academic terrorism is being waged in classrooms, infiltrating the gifted programs, and altering the outcomes derived for students participating in gifted programs. The war on academic terrorism is related to the broad areas of curriculum and…

  4. Ethnicity, Political Systems, and Civil Wars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTA REYNAL-QUEROL

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ethnic division on civil war and the role of political systems in preventing these conflicts are analyzed, using the importance of religious polarization and animist diversity to explain the incidence of ethnic civil war. Findings show that religious differences are a social cleavage more important than linguistic differences in the development of civil war, and being a

  5. CIVIL WARS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE Philippe Martin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CIVIL WARS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE Philippe Martin Paris School of Economics (Université Paris 1 empirically the relationship between civil wars and international trade. We first show that trade destruction due to civil wars is very large and persistent and increases with the severity of the conflict. We

  6. Civil Wars and International Trade Philippe Martin

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Civil Wars and International Trade Philippe Martin Thierry Mayer Mathias Thoenig§ November 18, 2007 Abstract This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between civil wars and international trade. We first show that trade destruction due to civil wars is very large and persistent and increases

  7. The Civil War in Literature: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Dave

    The Civil War in Literature is a course in which investigation is made into the legacy that this war left to humanity. Through the reading and discussion of literary works written during or about the Civil War, including "Jubilee,""Gone with the Wind,""Red Badge of Courage," poetry by Walt Whitman, and the essays of Frederick Douglass, students…

  8. Gulf War syndrome - has it gone away?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Tarn; Neil Greenberg; Simon Wessely

    2008-01-01

    In 1991 a coalition of Allied Nations, including British and US troops, deployed to the Persian Gulf region. Although the war-fighting phase of the 1991 conflict was short and resulted in minimal casualties, few can have failed to notice the saga of 'Gulf War syndrome' which followed the conflict. The nature, and indeed existence, of Gulf War syndrome has been

  9. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June 1940";…

  10. 2012 Cigital Cyber War, Cyber Peace,

    E-print Network

    to be secure #12;© 2012 Cigital War, espionage, and crime n Cyber espionage n Much more common than war n will address the cyber crime problem just as well as it will address cyber espionage and cyber war. We can kill

  11. Battlefield euthanasia - courageous compassion or war crime?

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Susan J

    2011-03-21

    Issues relating to voluntary euthanasia that are currently being debated by Australian society are distinctly different from those encountered by battlefield doctors. Doctors in war undertake to treat those affected by conflict; their participation in euthanasia challenges the profession's definition of "duty of care". Euthanasia must be distinguished from "triage" and medical withdrawal of care (which are decided within a medical facility where, although resources may be limited, comfort care can be provided in the face of treatment futility). Battlefield euthanasia is a decision made, often immediately after hostile action, in the face of apparently overwhelming injuries; there is often limited availability of pain relief, support systems or palliation that would be available in a civilian environment. The battlefield situation is further complicated by issues of personal danger, the immediacy of decision making and difficulties with distinguishing civilians from combatants. Regardless of the circumstances on a battlefield, doctors, whether they are civilians or members of a defence force, are subject to the laws of armed conflict, the special provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the ethical codes of the medical profession. PMID:21426286

  12. The Revolutionary War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's novel "My Brother Sam Is Dead," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that one way to learn about the past is to read historical novels; and that some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict, and some find themselves caught in the…

  13. Gulf War: The maritime campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C J S Craig CB DSC RN

    1992-01-01

    Commodore Craig focuses on the organisation and planning behind the maritime war in the Gulf; preparing the maritime campaign plan and ensuring the Task Group was ready and briefed. He attributes the success of the campaign to superior logistics, international cooperation and efficient execution.

  14. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  15. War, peace and private portfolios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Willem Gunning

    1995-01-01

    During civil wars trading is profitable as markets fragment. Profits may be saved in liquid form, because investment is too risky. In a successful economic transition to peace these liquid assets are switched into investment. Continuing fears of insecurity, however, may keep portfolios liquid. We consider three policy consequences. The unpredictable return of confidence causes erratic changes in the demand

  16. TORTURE: A JUST WAR PERSPECTIVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Turner Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Modern terrorism can never be just, by classic just war standards, because the terrorists do not have the moral right to authorize attacks, and because the intended objects are noncombatants. A response to a terrorist attack, even if undertaken in the name of responsibility for the common good, can never morally involve an attack on populations of persons among whom

  17. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  18. The Generalized War of Attrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Klemperer

    1999-01-01

    The authors model a war of attrition with N+K firms competing for N prizes. In a 'natural oligopoly' context, the K - 1 lowest-value firms drop out instantaneously, even though each firm's value is private information to itself. In a 'standard setting' context, in which every competitor suffers losses until a standard is chosen, even after giving up on its

  19. The Korean War: A Bibliography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robinson, Ken.

    This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

  20. Redefining America's "War on Drugs"

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Redefining America's "War on Drugs" FSU Center for the Advancement of Human Rights presents Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Director Kerlikowske was nominated by President Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. In his position

  1. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  2. Should blunt segmental vascular renal injuries be considered an AAST grade 4 renal injury?

    PubMed Central

    Malaeb, Bahaa; Figler, Brad; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal segmental vascular injury (SVI) following blunt abdominal trauma is not part of the original AAST renal injury grading system. Recent recommendations support classifying SVI as an AAST grade 4 injury. Our primary aim was to compare outcomes following blunt renal SVI and blunt renal collecting system lacerations (CSL). We hypothesize that renal SVI fare well with conservative management alone and should be relegated a less severe renal AAST grade. Methods We retrospectively identified patients with SVI and G4 CSL admitted to a Level 1 trauma center between 2003–2010. Penetrating trauma was excluded. Need for surgical intervention, length of stay, kidney salvage (>25% renal preservation on renography 6–12 weeks after injury), and delayed complication rates were compared between the SVI and CSL injuries. Statistical analysis utilized chi squared, Fisher exact, and t-test. Results 56 patients with SVI and 88 patients with G4 CSL sustained blunt trauma. Age, injury severity score, and length of stay were similar for the two groups. Five patients in each group died of concomitant, non-renal injuries. In the G4 CSL group, 15 patients underwent major interventions and 32 patients underwent minor interventions. Only one patient in the SVI group underwent a major intervention. The renal salvage rate was 85.7% following SVI versus 62.5% following CSL (p=0.107). Conclusions Overall surgical interventions are significantly lower among the SVI cohort than G4 CSL cohort. Further analysis using a larger cohort of patients is recommended before revising the current renal grading system. Adding SVI as a grade 4 injury could potentially increase the heterogeneity of grade 4 injuries and decrease the ability of the AAST renal injury grading system to predict outcomes, such as nephrectomy rate. Level of Evidence IV (retrospective, cohort study) PMID:24458054

  3. Dr. Seuss Went to War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Between 1941 and 1943, Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss) was the chief editorial cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM (1940-1948), penning over 400 editorial cartoons that commented first on American neutrality and then involvement in the Second World War. The entire collection of these cartoons (original drawings and/or newspaper clippings) is held by the Mandeville Special Collections Library at the University of California, San Diego. While the 1999 book Dr. Seuss Went to War reproduced 200 of these cartoons, the remaining half have not been published or studied since their original appearance. This amazing collection has now been placed online and is browseable by year, month, and day. Subject term browsing will be available in the future. The cartoons are presented as large thumbnails which link to a full-sized image presented in an unfortunately cramped frame. The cartoons comment on a wide variety of topics, including war preparedness, domestic politics, and isolationism, with particular criticism for the US Congress and Americans not prepared to sacrifice for the war effort. Caricatures of the Axis nations, especially the Japanese, reflect contemporaneous stereotypes. Drawn in characteristic Seuss style, with many creatures familiar to fans of his best-known work, these cartoons are both an excellent look into wartime US domestic politics and public opinion and clever, visually interesting cartoons in their own right. As an added bonus, the site also features some even rarer cartoons that Geisel drew for other publications and for war bond drives. This is simply an excellent resource for students, researchers, and any fan of Horton, the Grinch, the Lorax, and Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose.

  4. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  5. Blast injury.

    PubMed

    de Candole, C A

    1967-01-28

    The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  6. CRANIOCEREBRAL INJURIES

    PubMed Central

    Seletz, Emil

    1956-01-01

    The postconcussion syndrome is a definite entity, and the patient's complaints are due to legitimate injury. The following three factors contribute to the symptomatology: 1. Headaches, caused by the associated sprain of the cervical spine with resultant radiculitis—giving rise to muscle spasm and suboccipital headaches. 2. Vertigo, due to trauma of the vestibular and labyrinthine apparatus. 3. A vasomotor imbalance and instability resulting from the reaction to “stress.” In treatment of an unconscious patient great care must be taken to prevent anoxia and to balance the fluids and electrolytes. If coma develops following brain injury, hemorrhage into the cerebellar fossa as well as above the tentorium must be considered. PMID:13304695

  7. World War I and II Poster Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    War posters from World War I and II encouraged the people of the nations at war to buy war bonds, plant gardens, ration, enlist, or work extra hard for the sake of the war effort. A collection of these posters can be found in abundance on the library website of the University of North Texas. The library has over 600 war posters, and fortunately, 493 of them are digitized. Some are quaint by today's standards, but some, like the fifth record on the homepage, entitled "Deliver Us From Evil: Buy War Bonds," has an eerie haunting quality to it. In the search box underneath the introduction to the poster collection, type in Geisel to see a poster by a familiar artist and author, encouraging Americans to "Starve the Squander Bug." Visitors should click on the thumbnail to see those "squander bugs" in full detail.

  8. Wisconsin Goes To War: Our Civil War Experience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the Civil War, over 12,000 men from Wisconsin were killed. Their stories, along with the stories of other Wisconsin residents, is told through first person narrative accounts which form part of this important digital collection created by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections group. These documents were originally selected for digitization for use by Civil War history courses taught at University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh. The first phase of the collection consists of over 630 pages of materials from the years 1861 to 1866, and when the entire project is complete visitors will be able to search through approximately 2,600 pages of materials. Visitors may wish to start their journey by looking at some of the 42 sub collections here, which include the diary of William Ault who served in the 14th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment and the papers of the Ladies' Union League, which handled claims for money for Wisconsin soldiers and their families.

  9. Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan

    E-print Network

    Cherniack, Mitch

    Retrospective on Aurora Hari Balakrishnan± , Magdalena Balazinska± , Don Carney§ , Uur Çetintemel the key lessons we learned throughout the design and implementation of the Aurora stream processing engine. For the past two years, we have built five stream-based applications using Aurora. We first describe in detail

  10. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

  11. Specific characteristics of the group psychotherapy of neurotic patients who survived war traumatization.

    PubMed

    Popovi?, Sabina; Hadziabdi?, Vedad; Kucukali?, Abdulah; Bravo-Mehmedbasi?, Alma

    2004-06-01

    The paper will show specific characteristics of the psychodynamic group psychotherapy in the small group of patients. Primary indications for the psychotherapy were expressed neurotic disorders. All patients have survived war traumatization, and some survived trauma of being refugee and separation from the other family members. Therapeutic atmosphere suitable for exploration of the neurotic conflicts has been created. At the same time traumatic contents that were asking for cognitive and emotional elaboration were emerging from time to time. We have supported that with the continuous effort to bring the patient closer to the identified clear connection between neurotic symptoms, early infantile traumatization and stronger sensibility to the experience of the war traumatization related to it. By better awareness and understanding the patient has been increasing the ability to deal with the neurotic conflict as well as with the psychological injuries created during the war traumatization. PMID:19114945

  12. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    PubMed Central

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks per square centimeter per hour) is proportional to the surface alpha-activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha-emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha-activity should be proportional to the accumulated (210)Po, and hence to the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to a) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, b) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass-implanted polonium activities, and c) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted (210)Po activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type. Preliminary comparisons of the models used to translate track rate densities to average long-term radon concentrations differ between the two studies. Further calibration of the retrospective detectors' models for interpretation of track rate density may allow the pooling of studies that use glass-based retrospective radon detectors to determine historic residential radon exposures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10545336

  13. Upper limb reconstructive surgery uptake for persons with tetraplegia in New Zealand: a retrospective case review 2001–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Dunn; E J C Hay-Smith; L C Whitehead; S Keeling; A G Rothwell

    2010-01-01

    Study design:Retrospective case series.Objective:To describe the uptake of upper limb surgery by individuals with tetraplegia in New Zealand (NZ).Setting:New Zealand.Methods:The clinical notes of all individuals who sustained a cervical spinal cord injury between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed for those who met the clinical criteria to undergo upper limb surgery. Cases were cross-referenced to the

  14. Finger Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  15. Foot Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  16. Nose Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  17. Hand Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  18. Elbow Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  19. Ankle Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  20. Eye Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  1. Back Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  2. Ear Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  3. Coccygeal Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  4. Leg Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  5. Shoulder Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  6. Knee Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  7. Cold Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  8. Wrist Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  9. Fingernail Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  10. Chest Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  11. Hawaii War Records Depository Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Life in Hawaii after World War II was documented in part due to a joint resolution passed by the Hawaii Territorial Legislature which stated that the University of Hawaii would be the official depository of material related to Hawaii's part in this global conflict. Over a five-year period, individuals and agencies donated personal accounts, reports, photographs, scrapbooks, newspapers, and maps to the collection. Parts of the collection have been digitized, and visitors can look through those revealing items here. The sections here include "Veterans' Essays", "Japanese American Veterans Timeline", and "Digitized Photographs". The "Veterans' Essays" is a good place to start, and visitors shouldn't miss the "Digitized Photographs", which contains hundreds of images related to life on the islands during the period. The site also contains links to other World War II collections online and contact information.

  12. Hawaii War Records Depository Photos

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hawaii War Records Depository was established in 1943, and it contains over 880 photographs taken by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Navy during the Second World War. The Depository also holds around 1000 newspaper photographs from the Honolulu Star Bulletin and 330 photographs identified as being from the Honolulu Advertiser. These unique items depict various Army and Navy activities throughout Hawaii during this period. The University of Hawaii was able to digitize these items via a grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and they are now available for perusal by the web-browsing public. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, and they can do so by photo number, agency, category, or date. Browsing by category is a good way to start, and some of the headings include "Boy Scouts", "Civic Events", and "Religion". Additionally, visitors can use the "Search" section to explore the collection via keywords.

  13. Global environment after nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Crutzen, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    In 1982, the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), concluded that the risks of nuclear war overshadowed all other hazards to humanity and its habitat. They initiated a study on the environmental consequences of nuclear (ENEWAR) which stressed the meteorological, climatic, and environmental changes that would be an indirect product of a nuclear exchange. This paper closely examines the SCOPE report. 17 references, 1 figure.

  14. Ocular air-gun injury: 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Shuttleworth, G N; Galloway, P H

    2001-01-01

    There have been many calls for preventive action against injuries caused by air-guns. Eye injuries are particularly serious, and we conducted a retrospective study to review their characteristics. Ophthalmic consultants in the south-west region of England and South Wales were asked to recollect any injuries that had resulted from air weapons. Information was recorded on the nature and circumstances of the injury, subsequent management, and long-term effects. 19 cases of ocular injury were identified, sustained at mean age 19.7 years, all in the past decade. 15 of the victims were male. At least 12 shootings were accidental but 2 were deliberate. The injury was self-inflicted in 5 cases, and in 6 the assailant was known to the victim. 9 sustained ruptured globes and 8 had severe contusions. Ultimately 4 individuals required enucleation and 2 evisceration. At last review, visual acuity was no perception of light in 10 (53%) and ‘counting fingers’ or worse in 16. Victims spent an average of nearly 10 days as an inpatient. The characteristics of the incidents that lead to ocular air-weapon injuries are unchanged. Reform of the firearms laws is probably the best way to prevention. PMID:11461983

  15. Relationship between Hippocampal Volume changes and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Traumatic Brain Injury in US Military Personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the most common, and serious injuries suffered by United States servicemen in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Compared to roughly 2% of the civilian population, nearly 20% of military personnel returning from current military operations in the Middle East have been diagnosed with TBI. Additionally, an increasing number of military personnel returning

  16. Cervical spinal injury in elderly: report of 20 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hanci; B. E. Gençosmanoglu; M. Uzan; C. Kuday

    2000-01-01

    Summary  According to epidemiological studies; spinal injuries seem to be a disease of younger population. However it is not uncommon\\u000a in elderly. In this retrospective study we analysed twenty patients with cervical spinal injury, aged from 65 to 90 years\\u000a with respect to age, gender, trauma admission interval, bony lesions, neurological status and treatment modalities. In this\\u000a series the major etiological

  17. Maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist bomb attack in Nairobi, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Odhiambo; S. W. Guthua; F. G. Macigo; M. K. Akama

    2002-01-01

    Abstract.Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors

  18. Injury rates and risk-factors associated with eventing: a total cohort study of injury events among adult Swedish eventing athletes.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas; Ramel, Henrik; Valter, Lars

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine injury events and risk-factors among Swedish adult eventing athletes. A cross-sectional study design with retrospective recording of 1-year sports-specific exposure and injury data was used. The invited study population consisted of all members of the Swedish Equestrian Federation with eventing as their primary discipline (n = 513). The participation rate was 70.0%. The total 1-year injury prevalence was 26.6%; the specific 1-year prevalence of traumatic injury was 19.3% and of overuse injury 10.9%. The incidence of traumatic injury events was 0.54 injury events/1000 eventing hours (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.73 injury events/1000 eventing hours) for novices and 0.35 injury events/1000 eventing hours for qualified riders (95% CI, 0.21-0.49 injury events/1000 eventing hours). A total of 27.9% of the traumatic injury events led to severe injuries (causing more than 3 weeks absence from riding). Attitude to risk-taking was the only factor predicting an athlete becoming injured (p = 0.023), and qualification level was the only risk factor for additional injuries among injured riders (p = 0.003). Our results suggest that injury prevention programs in eventing should also give attention to overuse injuries and that care should be taken when eventing athletes are licensed into higher qualification groups. PMID:21512929

  19. Comparison of Minitrampoline- and Full-Sized Trampoline-Related Injuries in the United States, 1990-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J. Shields; Soledad A. Fernandez; Gary A. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To compare mini- and full- sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States. Methods. A retrospective analysis of data was con- ducted for all ages from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Prod- uct Safety Commission from 1990 to 2002. We compared 137 minitrampoline-related injuries with 143 full-sized trampoline-related injuries, randomly selected from all full-sized

  20. The profile of head injuries and traumatic brain injury deaths in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Yattoo, GH; Tabish, Amin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted on patients of head injury admitted through Accident & Emergency Department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences during the year 2004 to determine the number of head injury patients, nature of head injuries, condition at presentation, treatment given in hospital and the outcome of intervention. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) deaths were also studied retrospectively for a period of eight years (1996 to 2003). The traumatic brain injury deaths showed a steady increase in number from year 1996 to 2003 except for 1999 that showed decline in TBI deaths. TBI deaths were highest in age group of 21–30 years (18.8%), followed by 11–20 years age group (17.8%) and 31–40 years (14.3%). The TBI death was more common in males. Maximum number of traumatic brain injury deaths was from rural areas as compared to urban areas. To minimize the morbidity and mortality resulting from head injury there is a need for better maintenance of roads, improvement of road visibility and lighting, proper mechanical maintenance of automobile and other vehicles, rigid enforcement of traffic rules, compulsory wearing of crash helmets by motor cyclist and scooterists and shoulder belt in cars and imparting compulsory road safety education to school children from primary education level. Moreover, appropriate medical care facilities (including trauma centres) need to be established at district level, sub-divisional and block levels to provide prompt and quality care to head injury patients PMID:18570674

  1. Neurologic running injuries.

    PubMed

    McKean, Kelly A

    2009-02-01

    Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:19084775

  2. Neurologic running injuries.

    PubMed

    McKean, Kelly A

    2008-02-01

    Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:18295096

  3. Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Anthony

    1971-01-01

    A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

  4. PREDICTIVE FACTORS FOR SELF-REPORTED OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AT 3 MANUFACTURING PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent J. Nielsen

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the predictive validity of the Danish Safety Culture Questionnaire on retrospective and prospective self-reported occupational injuries in a sample of workers in the manufacturing industry. A total of 765 workers at 3 different manufacturing plants completed the questionnaire comprised of leadership, organizational and worker factors. The occurrence of self-reported injuries was

  5. A 10-year survey of penetrating eye injuries in Gwent, 1976-85.

    PubMed Central

    Wykes, W N

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective survey was performed of all penetrating eye injuries in Gwent from 1976 to 1985. It included 171 eyes. The results showed a gradual decline in all penetrating injuries and not just those due to road traffic accidents. An analysis of the cause and prognosis is given. PMID:3415956

  6. Significant Pediatric Morbidity and Mortality from Intracranial Ballistic Injuries Caused by Nonpowder Gunshot Wounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. O’Neill; Mary Foster Lumpkin; Benjamin Clapp; Tammy R. Kopelman; Marc R. Matthews; Jordy C. Cox; Daniel M. Caruso; Iman Feiz-Erfan

    2009-01-01

    Nonpowder (ball-bearing and pellet) weapons derive their source of energy from compressed air or carbon dioxide. Such weapons are dangerous toys that cause serious injuries and even death to children and adolescents. A retrospective chart review study was undertaken to describe nonpowder gun injuries at a southwestern US urban level I adult and pediatric trauma center. Specific emphasis was placed

  7. Maxillofacial injuries in a group of South Africans under 18 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Bamjee; J. F. Lownie; P. E. Cleaton-Jones; M. A. Lownie

    1996-01-01

    Objective — To find out the incidence of maxillofacial injuries in South African children aged 18 years or less. Design — Retrospective study of casenotes. Setting —Six teaching hospitals affiliated to the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, serving a population of about 5 million people. Subjects — All 326 children treated for facial injuries in the maxillofacial and oral departments of

  8. Motor vehicle injuries in childhood: a hospital-based study in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicles are a major cause of injury-related deaths in children and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of children aged 12 years and younger, who were involved in motor vehicle injuries during a 10-year period, was undertaken. All children who were admitted and treated at King Fahad National Guard Hospital, Riyadh

  9. Tibial fractures associated with crush injuries to the soft tissues of the dorsal foot in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Fujita; Kazuhiko Yokoyama; Koushin Nakamura; Masataka Uchino; Ryuji Wakita; Moritoshi Itoman

    2004-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 15 children with tibial fractures associated with crush injuries to the soft tissues of the dorsal foot. The fractures, including six open fractures, were united with no complications within an average of 11.1 weeks. Wound closure to treat crush injuries of the dorsal foot was achieved using split- or full-thickness skin grafts in most patients. The outcomes

  10. 10 year experience of splenic injury: an increasing place for conservative management after blunt trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Bain; R. M. Kirby

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that over 30 per cent of splenic injuries are suitable for conservative management by non-operative treatment and splenorrhaphy; splenic conservation avoids the risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection. In this study, injuries of the spleen have been retrospectively analysed for a 10 year period. In the first 5 years the spleen was conserved in only 645 (15

  11. Optimizing the management of blunt splenic injury in adults and children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasios K. Konstantakos; Anita L. Barnoski; Brian R. Plaisier; Charles J. Yowler; William F. Fallon; Mark A. Malangoni

    1999-01-01

    Background: The treatment for splenic injury is evolving to an increased use of nonoperative management. We studied patients with blunt injury to the spleen to determine the overall success with splenic salvage and the reason that adults and children have different outcomes. Methods: Patient records were reviewed retrospectively for information and parameters that may influence outcome. Patients were categorized by

  12. Attempt to identify selection criteria for surgical management of splenic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Al-Qahtani

    Outcome of the management of blunt splenic injuries over a 9-year period was exam- ined in the present study. A retrospective chart review of 61 patients above the age of twelve admitted into the hospital with splenic injuries from May 1994 to May 2003 in Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A level II regional trauma centre). The

  13. Proportionality, Just War Theory and Weapons Innovation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Forge

    2009-01-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding\\u000a ‘interpretation problem’: what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a ‘measurement problem’:\\u000a how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about

  14. The long-term consequences of war: The experience of World War II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hunt; I. Robbins

    2001-01-01

    Seven hundred and thirty-one World War II and Korean War veterans completed a questionnaire about their experiences and their current psychological reactions to the war. Nineteen percent scored above the cut-off points for both the General Health Questionnaire and the (war-related) Impact of Event Scale, demonstrating that, even over 50 years after the event, many veterans still experience problems relating

  15. Media, War, and Propaganda: Strategies of Information Management During the 2003 Iraq War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepa Kumar

    2006-01-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that the Bush administration used faulty and false information to justify the 2003 war on Iraq, and that the mainstream media, by not adequately investigating the case for war, assisted with the project. In this paper, I outline the particular strategies employed by the media–military industrial complex to ensure a dominance of pro-war arguments in

  16. Keynes and the Non-neutrality of Russian War Finance during World War One

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Barnett

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the particular methods of war finance that were used by Russia during World War One in relation to the total cost of the war, and evaluates them against a theoretical ideal that was outlined by the Cambridge economist J. M. Keynes. It then asks whether there were any consequences of two particular chosen means of financing the

  17. War Without a Center of Gravity: Reflections on Terrorism and PostModern War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. J. OLSON

    2007-01-01

    This essay argues that the United States is engaged in the first post-modern conflict, a form of warfare for which it is not ready. It advances the argument that the nature of war has changed because the sociology of war has changed, but, the United States readies itself to fight those wars it understands and knows how to fight. The

  18. Contract or war? On the rules of the game in civil wars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Korf

    2007-01-01

    Economists have developed a number of theories based on warlord or bandit models to explain intra-state conflict or civil war. Ethnographic studies from civil wars, however, suggest that livelihoods and institutions in the context of a war economy are very complex, more complex than those models suggest. This paper reviews concepts that are discussed in the literature on institutions and

  19. "Doomed to go in company with miserable pain": surgical recognition and treatment of amputation-related pain on the Western Front during World War 1.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Mayhew, Emily R; Rice, Andrew S C

    2014-11-01

    The principal feature of injuries from World War 1 was musculoskeletal trauma and injury to peripheral nerves as a result of damage to the upper and lower limbs caused by gunshot wounds and fragments of artillery munitions. Amputation was used as a treatment in field hospitals to save lives; limb conservation was a secondary consideration. A century later, the principal feature of injuries to soldiers in today's wars in Iraq and Afghanistan is also musculoskeletal trauma and injury to the peripheral nerves caused by improvised explosive devices. Common to both types of injury is postamputation pain. We searched The Lancet's archives in this Series paper to show the efforts of surgeons in World War 1 to understand and treat postamputation pain in its own right both during and immediately after the war. Despite unprecedented patient numbers and levels of civilian medical expertise, little progress was made in providing relief from this type of pain, a grave concern to the surgeons treating these soldiers. Today postamputation pain is understood beyond a surgical context but remains a complex and poorly understood condition with few effective treatments. PMID:25441202

  20. Martial Arts Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Pieter

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. Data sources: The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. Main results: In general, the absolute

  1. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF WOUND CHARACTERISTICS AND TETANUS DEVELOPMENT IN CAPTIVE MACAQUES

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Danielle A.; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine; Smith, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and access to outdoor enclosures containing soil contribute to development of tetanus in non-human primates. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted at a primate center to evaluate these factors by analysis of medical records of animals sustaining traumatic injuries during a three year study period: 31 macaques with traumatic injuries and a clinical diagnosis of tetanus were selected as cases and 62 macaques with traumatic injuries and no diagnosis of tetanus were selected as controls. For an animal with injuries to the digits, the odds of developing tetanus were 9.6 times those of a similar animal without injuries to the digits (OR = 9.55, 95% CI = 1.56 – 58.59); with injuries to the tail, the odds of developing tetanus were 8.0 times those of a similar animal without injuries to the tail (OR = 7.95, 95% CI = 0.82 – 77.04); and with injuries in more than one location, the odds of developing tetanus were 8.5 times those for a similar animal with injuries in just one location (OR = 8.45, 95% CI = 1.01 – 70.46). A non-human primate with injuries to the leg was less likely to develop tetanus than a similar non-human primate without injuries to the leg (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.03 – 1.2). Results indicated that wound location is associated with development of tetanus infection in rhesus macaques. Identification of high risk trauma cases will allow better allocation of wound management and tetanus prophylaxis in institutions, especially those housing non-human primates outdoors. PMID:19368246

  2. Democracy at War: Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Until quite recently, many organizations (such as libraries and newspapers) kept extensive clipping files, thematically organized, and ready at a minute's notice for use by a columnist, researcher, or those who were just plain curious. One such organization was the Hamilton Spectator, a Canadian newspaper which kept a collection of 144,000 newspaper articles (culled from various Canadian newspapers) during the Second World War. With the cooperation and assistance of the Canadian War Museum, this rather amazing collection of articles is now available online, and is fully searchable as well. For those who may be overwhelmed by this material, the Museum has also created fifty-five short historical articles on some of the primary subjects covered here, such as the Battle of the Atlantic, the Royal Canadian Navy, and Axis Prisoners in Canada. Just perusing the various articles and examining their interpretations of events both in Canada and overseas is quite engaging, and visitors will also want to look at the brief article that tells how the digitization project unfolded.

  3. [Patterns and causes of injuries in a contemporary combat environment].

    PubMed

    Lechner, R; Achatz, G; Hauer, T; Palm, H-G; Lieber, A; Willy, C

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological analyses of injury patterns and mechanisms help to identify the expertise military surgeons need in a combat setting and accordingly help to adjust infrastructure and training requirements. Therefore, a MEDLINE search (1949-2009), World Wide Web search (keywords "combat, casualties, war, military, wounded and neurosurgery") and an analysis of deaths among allied war casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq were performed. Up to 10th December 2009 there had been 4,688 allied military deaths in Iraq and 1,538 in Afghanistan. Of these 22% died in non-hostile action, 33% in direct combat situations and the majority of 45% in indirect combat actions. The leading causes of injury were explosive devices (70%) and gunshot wounds. Chest or abdominal injuries (40%) and traumatic brain injuries (35%) were the main causes of death for soldiers killed in action. The case fatality rate in Iraq is approximately half that of the Vietnam War, whereas the killed-in-action rate in Afghanistan (18.7%) is similar to the Vietnam War (20%); however, the amputation rate is twice as high in modern conflicts. Approximately 8-15% of the fatal injuries seem to be potentially survivable.Military surgeons must have an excellent expertise in a wide variety of surgical specialties. Life saving emergency care, especially in the fields of thoracic, visceral and vascular surgery as well as practical skills in the fields of neurosurgery and oral and maxillofacial surgery are required. Additionally, it is of vital importance to ensure the availability of sufficient tactical and strategic medical evacuation capabilities for the wounded. PMID:20101383

  4. The World At War 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This concise and sobering page from the Center for Defense Information (CDI) (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report) offers an overview of the 38 major (those with over 1,000 casualties, both military and civilian) conflicts in the world at the start of 2000. After an introduction and a list of major events of the past year, users can view a chart of ongoing conflicts which lists the main warring parties, year began, cause(s), and other foreign involvement. A chart of potential hot spots is also included.

  5. Indonesia the War in Aceh

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This 41-page report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) covers the conflict in Aceh, on the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. The war has been marked by human rights violations on both the part of the Indonesian security forces and GAM (an acronym for the Free Aceh Movement), and HRW here reports on both sides' infractions. To gather information for the report, HRW met with and interviewed military and civilian Indonesian government officials, GAM leaders, NGO representatives, and villagers. The report contains a series of recommendations for the Indonesian government and GAM as well as recommendations for the International community.

  6. Causes of fatal childhood accidents involving head injury in northern region, 1979-86

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P M Sharples; A Storey; A Aynsley-Green; J A Eyre

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the causes and circumstances surrounding fatal accidents involving head injuries in children in the Northern region. DESIGN--Retrospective review of the hospital case notes, necropsy reports, and records of the coroners' inquests. SETTING--Northern Regional Health Authority. PATIENTS--All 255 children aged less than 16 years who died with a head injury during 1979-86. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cause of injury and circumstances

  7. Hyponatremia-induced transient visual disturbances in acute spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A-K Karlsson; A V Krassioukov

    2004-01-01

    Study design: Case report and literature review.Objective: To report an unusual case of prolonged hyponatremia in acute cervical spinal cord injury complicated by visual disturbances and to review the literature regarding the issue.Settings: Spinal Cord Injury Unit in Göteborg, Sweden.Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical charts of an individual with traumatic spinal cord injury.Results: A previously healthy 28-year-old man sustained a

  8. Spinal injury in motor vehicle crashes: elevated risk persists up to 12 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Brown; L E Bilston

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To determine whether age is associated with serious spinal injury in paediatric motor vehicle occupants, after controlling for crash-related factors.Design and Setting:Retrospective record review.Patients and Outcome Measures:All motor vehicle passengers aged 0–16 years treated at two major children’s hospitals from 1999 to 2004 with ICD-10 codes for spinal trauma. Injury outcomes were categorised as minor and serious. Minor injuries were

  9. Retrospective clinical study of mandible fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hai-Won; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Jun; Lee, Jung-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Moon, Chang-Sig

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to analyze the incidence, demographic distribution, type, and etiology of mandible fractures that were treated by the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital from January 2002 to December 2012. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive and analytic retrospective study that evaluated 735 patients that were treated for mandible fracture. Results This study included 1,172 fractures in 735 patients. The ratio of male to female patients was 5.45 : 1; the maximum value was in patients between 20 and 29 years (38.1%) and the minimum in patients over 70 years old. The monthly distribution of facial fractures peaked in the fall and was lower during winter. No specific correlation was identified based on the annual fracture distribution. Among the 735 fracture patients, 1.59 fracture lines were observed per patient. The most frequent site was the symphysis, which accounted for a total of 431 fractures, followed by the angle (348), condyle (279), and body (95). The symphysis with angle was the most common site identified in combination with fracture and accounted for 22.4%, followed by symphysis with condyle (19.8%). The angle was the most frequent site of single fractures (20.8%). The major cause of injury was accidental trauma (43.4%), which was followed by other causes such as violence (33.9%), sports-related accidents (10.5%), and traffic accidents (10.1%). Fracture incidents correlated with alcohol consumption were reported between 10.0%-26.9% annually. Conclusion Although mandible fracture pattern is similar to the previous researches, there is some changes in the etiologic factors. PMID:24627839

  10. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  11. 17.423 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2001

    E-print Network

    Van Evera, Stephen

    Examines the causes of war, with a focus on practical measures to prevent and control war. Topics covered include: causes and consequences of national misperception; military strategy and policy as cause of war; US foreign ...

  12. 17.42 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Van Evera, Stephen

    The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. ...

  13. What Did Peel County Do In the Great War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Desmond

    1987-01-01

    Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the Canadian War effort during World War I. Specifically focuses on Peel County, Ontario and the particular problems its inhabitants experienced during the war. (BSR)

  14. Lew Wallace and the civil war: politics and generalship 

    E-print Network

    Mortenson, Christopher Ryan

    2009-05-15

    A rising politician from Indiana, Lew Wallace became a Civil War general through political connections. As the war developed, political generals contributed to the Union war effort in multiple ways. This dissertation ...

  15. Iatrogenic Gastrointestinal Injuries During Obstetrical and Gynecological Operation

    PubMed Central

    Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Hedayati, Mehrdad; Moussavi-Bioki, Nushin

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal Injuries (GI) during gynecological operation are uncommon but proper management of these injuries is very important. Objectives The aim of this study was to review the causes and management of gastrointestinal injuries during gynecological and obstetrical operations. Patients and Methods In this descriptive retrospective study, 25 patients with gastrointestinal injuries during gynecological and obstetrical operation at Shabihkhani Maternity Hospital in Kashan city were reviewed. Demographic data such as age, gravid, parity, type of surgery or procedure, history of laparotomy, the surgical operation, injury site, time of diagnosis and method of treatment were extracted from medical records. Results The mean age of women was 33.2 ± 7.57 years. Fourty-four percent of the patients had a history of abdominal scar. Thirty-two percent of all GI injuries occurred during total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). The small bowel was injured in 36% of cases. Fifty-two percent of injuries were diagnosed during the operation and the mean time of injury diagnosis was 2.8 ± 0.9 days. Conclusions All of the gynecologic surgeons must be aware of gastrointestinal injuries and should anticipate injury to these organs especially in high-risk patients for decreasing patient morbidity. PMID:24396799

  16. Injuries among World Cup ski and snowboard athletes.

    PubMed

    Flřrenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

    2012-02-01

    There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports. PMID:20561277

  17. Laparoscopic Ureteroneocystostomy for Ureteral Injuries After Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pompeo, Alexandre; Molina, Wilson R.; Sehrt, David; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Mariano Costa, Renato M.; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the feasibility of early laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral obstruction due to hysterectomy injury. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a 10-y experience from 2 institutions in patients who underwent early (<30 d) or late (>30 d) laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral injury after hysterectomy. Evaluation of the surgery included the cause of the stricture and intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Results: A total of 9 patients with distal ureteral injury after hysterectomy were identified. All injuries were identified and treated as early as 21 d after hysterectomy. Seven of 9 patients underwent open hysterectomy, and the remaining patients had vaginal and laparoscopic radical hysterectomy. All ureteroneocystostomy cases were managed laparoscopically without conversion to open surgery and without any intraoperative complications. The Lich-Gregoir reimplantation technique was applied in all patients, and 2 patients required a psoas hitch. The mean operative time was 206.6 min (range, 120–280 min), the mean estimated blood loss was 122.2 cc (range, 25–350 cc), and the mean admission time was 3.3 d (range, 1–7 d). Cystography showed no urine leak when the ureteral stent was removed at 4 to 6 wk after the procedure. Ureteroneocystostomy patency was followed up with cystography at 6 mo and at least 10 y after ureteroneocystostomy. Conclusion: Early laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation may offer an alternative surgical approach to open surgery for the management of distal ureteral injuries, with favorable cosmetic results and recovery time from ureteral obstruction due to hysterectomy injury. PMID:23743383

  18. Nursing and en route care: history in time of war.

    PubMed

    Davis, R Scott; Connelly, Linda K

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the en route caregiver is to provide critical care in military helicopters for wounded Warriors. This care minimizes the effects of the wounds and injuries, and improves morbidity and mortality. This article will focus on the history of Army Nursing en route care. From World War II through Vietnam, and continuing through the War on Terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan, Army nurses served in providing en route care in military airplanes and helicopters for patients being transported to higher echelons of care. From aid stations on the battlefield to forward surgical teams which provide life, limb, and eyesight saving care, to the next higher level of care in combat support hospitals, these missions require specialized nursing skills to safely care for the high acuity patients. Before the en route care concept existed, there was not a program to train nurses in these critical skills. There was also a void of information about patient outcomes associated with the nursing assessment and care provided during helicopter medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of such unstable patients, and the consequent impact on the patient's condition after transport. The role of critical care nurses has proven to be essential and irreplaceable in providing full-spectrum care to casualties of war, in particular, the postsurgical patients transferred from one surgical facility to another in theatre. However, we have only recently developed the concepts over the required skill set, training, equipment, functionality, evidenced-based care, and sustainability of nursing in the en route care role. Much of the work to quantify and qualify nursing care has been done by individuals and individual units whose lessons-learned have only recently been captured. PMID:22124872

  19. Potential risk factors for prolonged recovery following whiplash injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orso L. Osti; Richard T. Gun; George Abraham; Nicole L. Pratt; Goran Eckerwall; Hiroaki Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of insurance data was made of 600 individuals claiming compensation for whiplash following motor vehicle accidents. Three hundred randomly selected claimants who had settled their injury claims within 9 months of the accident were compared with 300 who had settled more than 24 months after the accident. We compared the two groups to identify possible risk factors for prolonged

  20. Predictors of Intracranial Injury in Patients With Mild Head Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Borczuk

    1995-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the prevalence of abnormal computed tomography (CT) scans and define high-risk clinical variables in patients with mild head injury. Design: Retrospective descriptive study of patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 13 or greater who presented to the emergency department with blunt head trauma and who underwent cranial CT. Setting: Level I trauma center, university

  1. Marijuana Use and Injury Events Resulting in Hospitalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Goodwin Gerberich; Stephen Sidney; Barbara L Braun; Irene S Tekawa; Kimberly K Tolan; Charles P Quesenberry

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Information on the potential relation between marijuana use and the incidence of hospitalized injury is extremely limited. The purpose of this effort was to investigate the potential for this association.METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in a large prepaid Northern California health care program cohort (n = 64,657) that completed baseline questionnaires about health behaviors, including marijuana use, and

  2. The evacuation of British children during World War II: A preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Foster; S. Davies; H. Steele

    2003-01-01

    The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former

  3. Carnosine Treatment for Gulf War Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James Nicholas; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib; Timbol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

  4. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury Association - ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  6. Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

  7. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

  8. Women at the Heart of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explores the experiences and the role of women during World War II. The unit can serve as an introduction or supplement to commonly taught topics such as Nazism in Germany, the Holocaust, the "home front," the USSR's Great Patriotic War, and the struggle between Nationalists and Communists in China. It begins with an overview…

  9. War, terrorism and the public's health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor W. Sidel

    2008-01-01

    War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights,

  10. The consequences of the great war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Correlli Barnett

    1998-01-01

    The immediate consequence of the end of the First World War was the defeat of a militaristic and expansionist Germany, a cause in which the majority of those taking part actually believed. But beyond that, the end of the war had farther reaching effects, not least of which was the demise of Tsarist Russia and break?up of the Austro?Hungarian Empire,

  11. The trauma of war in Sierra Leone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaz de Jong; Maureen Mulhern; Nathan Ford; Saskia van der Kam; Rolf Kleber

    2000-01-01

    Civilians are increasingly targeted in today's wars. To reduce military casualties, civilians are used as protective shields; to facilitate guerrilla warfare, they are abducted or enslaved; torture, rape, and executions are carried out to undermine morale and to eradicate the cultural links and self-esteem of the population. Most civilians in zones of conflict witness war-related traumatic events such as shootings,

  12. On Economic Causes of Civil War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Collier; Anke Hoefflert

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigate whether civil wars have economic causes. The model is based on utility theory, rebels will conduct a civil war if the perceived benefits outweigh the costs of rebellion. Using probit and tobit models, the propositions are tested empirically. Four variables, initial income, ethno-linguistic fractionalization, the amount of natural resources, and initial population size are significant and strong

  13. Greed and grievance in civil wars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the causes of civil war, using a new data set of wars during 1960-99. We test a `greed’ theory focusing on the ability to finance rebellion, against a `grievance’ theory focusing on ethnic and religious divisions, political repression and inequality. We find that greed considerably outperforms grievance. Consistent with the greed theory, both dependence upon primary commodity exports

  14. Greed and Grievance in Civil War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the causes of civil war, using a new data set of wars during 1960-99. Rebellion may be explained by atypically severe grievances, such as high inequality, a lack of political rights, or ethnic and religious divisions in society. Alternatively, it might be explained by atypical opportunities for building a rebel organization. Opportunity may be determined by access to

  15. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  16. Negotiating Peace in Ethnic Wars&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sahadevan

    2006-01-01

    Ethnic war is an asymmetrical military contest for power in which vital interests of the groups are clearly at stake. Wining the war is, therefore, the fundamental objective of the com-batants. Compromise is hard to arrive at in negotiations, so long as the asymmetry of power between the ethnic parties is not altered. Thus, power assumes an important factor in

  17. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

  18. Preserving Alaska's early Cold War legacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hoffecker; M. Whorton

    1999-01-01

    The US Air Force owns and operates numerous facilities that were constructed during the Cold War era. The end of the Cold War prompted many changes in the operation of these properties: missions changed, facilities were modified, and entire bases were closed or realigned. The widespread downsizing of the US military stimulated concern over the potential loss of properties that

  19. Vestibular dysfunction in Gulf War syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER S. ROLAND; ROBERT W. HALEY; WENDY YELLIN; KRIS OWENS; ANGELA G. SHOUP

    2000-01-01

    Methods : Vestibular complaints of Gulf War veterans were characterized by a nested case-control study of 23 veterans with 3 different Gulf War syndromes and 20 matched control subjects. All subjects completed a standardized symptom questionnaire and underwent standard audiovestibular tests administered by audiologists blinded to group identities. Results : The prevalence of reported dizzy spells was higher in veterans

  20. Impaired immune function in Gulf War Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toni Whistler; Mary Ann Fletcher; William Lonergan; Xiao-R Zeng; Jin-Mann Lin; Arthur LaPerriere; Suzanne D Vernon; Nancy G Klimas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) remains a serious health consequence for at least 11,000 veterans of the first Gulf War in the early 1990s. Our understanding of the health consequences that resulted remains inadequate, and this is of great concern with another deployment to the same theater of operations occurring now. Chronic immune cell dysfunction and activation have been demonstrated

  1. Epidemiology of pediatric facial trauma in Chile: A retrospective study of 7,617 cases in 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Sung-Hsieh, Hsiao H.; Cortés-Araya, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of facial trauma injuries in a group of Chilean children aged 15 years or less. Study Design: Retrospective study of case series. Between 2006 and 2009, clinical records of 293,090 patients were reviewed. Data of patients with trauma injuries to the face were collected and evaluated for: age, sex, day and month of hospital admission, cause of injury, anatomical location, type of injury and presence of associated injuries. Results: A total of 7,617 patients with 8,944 injuries were found. Boy to girl ratio was 1,7:1. Preschool age children were most frequently affected. Main cause of injury were falls, soft tissue injuries the most common type of injury. Associated injuries occurred in 11% of cases. Conclusions: Facial trauma presents a significant frequency in the group of Chilean children studied. Preeschool age boys were prone to present facial trauma of mild severity associated to falls. Key words:Facial trauma, pediatric trauma, epidemiology, pediatrics. PMID:23986019

  2. Use of Multiple-Site Performance-Contingent SEMG Reward Programming in Pediatric Rehabilitation: A Retrospective Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey E. Bolek

    2006-01-01

    We completed a retrospective review of the effectiveness of multi-site, performance-contingent reward programming on functional change in motor performance of 16 treatment resistant children. Patients were previously treated in physical or occupational therapy for head control, standing balance training, sitting and upper extremity use (brachial plexus injury). They then participated in a program that utilized multiple surface electromyography sites the

  3. Britain and the American Civil War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the Civil War, both the Confederacy and the Union tried to curry favor with Britain in order to support their respective causes. This online exhibition explores these relationships through original period maps, photographs, diplomatic documents, and much more. The Highlights area is a great place to start, as it showcases great finds from the collection including Civil War songs, silk cords from Abraham Lincoln's cortege, and Confederate banknotes. The Anglo-American Relations area provides a brief summary of the relationship and mentions various activities that took places between the United States and Britain during this conflict. Mapping the Civil War is another great feature on the site. Selected by curator, Matthew Shaw, the collection illustrates the terrain, history, and progress of the war. These items include a "Bird's-eye view of the Seat of War" and a fascinating composite portrait of Union Army generals titled, "The Field of Battle.â?ť

  4. World War II: The Home Front

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Murray

    2010-06-01

    World War II brought great changes to America here at home. Great sacrifices were asked by all citizens in order to support the war effort. Advertising campaigns publicized various things civilian citizens were asked to do. U.S. History II Standard 7, Objective 2:Examine the impact of World War II on the American home front. Also, Standard 7 Objective 2 Examine the role women played in the wartime workforce. Brief History of World War Two Advertising Campaigns This website shows the advertising campaigns of World War II. You will see six links to six different campaigns. Look at each of them and answer the following questions for EACH campaign on your worksheet. 1. Briefly explain what each campaign was for. 2. Describe one graphic for ...

  5. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple Jr., David F.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses reasons for the increase in basketball-related injuries, describes common injuries, outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment, and offers recovery and prevention strategies. (IAH)

  6. Description of Missouri children who suffer burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Quayle, K; Wick, N; Gnauck, K; Schootman, M; Jaffe, D

    2000-01-01

    Objective—This study uses Missouri's inpatient and outpatient E code data system to describe the demographic characteristics of Missouri children who suffered burn injuries during 1994 and 1995. Methods—Retrospective review of Missouri E code data. Results—Altogether 8404 children aged 0–14 years were treated for burn injuries in Missouri hospitals during 1994 and 1995. The rate of burn injury in Missouri children was 339 per 100 000/year. African-American boys 0–4 years living in urban counties were at increased risk. In addition, African-American girls ages 0–4 years living in counties with a high poverty rate had raised burn injury rates. Burns from hot objects and scalds from hot liquids caused more than half of the burns. Conclusions—Hospital based E coding has proven an invaluable tool for the study of burns and will, no doubt, prove equally useful for other injuries. PMID:11144622

  7. The safety of functional analyses of self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed

    Kahng, SungWoo; Hausman, Nicole L; Fisher, Alyssa B; Donaldson, Jeanne M; Cox, Jessica R; Lugo, Monica; Wiskow, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Functional analysis is the most precise method of identifying variables that maintain self-injurious behavior (SIB), and its use may lead to more effective treatment. One criticism and potential limitation of a functional analysis is that it may unnecessarily expose individuals to a higher risk of injury (Betz & Fisher, 2011). The purpose of this study was to determine if there were higher levels and severity of injury during the functional analysis than outside the functional analysis. We conducted a retrospective records review of 99 participants admitted to an inpatient unit for the treatment of SIB. The results showed that injury rates were relatively low across all situations and that when injuries occurred, they were usually not severe. These findings suggest that the functional analysis of SIB is relatively safe when appropriate precautions are taken. PMID:25293835

  8. Differing injury patterns in snowboarding and alpine skiing.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, A G; Holmes, J D; Myers, S

    1996-07-01

    This is a study of all people presenting to ski patrollers with ski and snowboard injuries during the 1995 season. There were 476 casualties of whom 396 were skiers and 57 were snowboarders. Information was collected retrospectively on the mechanism, region and injury, and also personal details of the casualties. The information was compared with the numbers of ski and snowboard injuries for the 1994 season. Injuries due to snowboarding increased in frequency, from 4 per cent in 1994 to 11 per cent in 1995. Snowboarders were younger, predominantly male, and were more often beginners than were skiers. They most commonly sustained ligament strains, dislocations and fractures, with the hand and forearm and shoulder most affected. Skiers sustained more ligament strains and soft tissue bruising, particularly of the knee and thumb. Snowboarders sustain a different pattern of injuries compared with skiers, and this has important implications for preventing accidents in the instruction of novices. PMID:8881140

  9. Injuries among elite snowboarders (FIS Snowboard World Cup)

    PubMed Central

    Torjussen, J; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Background Although snowboarding is already established as an Olympic sport, it is still a developing sport, with new disciplines, more demanding snow installations, and spectacular tricks. A recent study on subjects at Norwegian national elite level showed that injury risk is high and that injuries among competitive snowboarders differ from those seen in recreational snowboarders, with fewer wrist injuries and more knee and back injuries. Objective To describe the incidence and type of injuries among female and male snowboarders at international elite level. Method At the last race of the Fédération Internationale de Ski Snowboard World Cup, acute injuries resulting in missed participation and overuse injuries influencing performance, were recorded during a retrospective interview (91% response rate). The registration period was from April 2002 (end of season) until March 2003. Exposure was recorded as the number of runs in all disciplines, and the incidence was calculated as number of injuries per 1000 runs. Results The 258 athletes interviewed reported 3193 competition days (n?=?46?879 runs) in all disciplines. In total, 135 acute injuries were recorded; 62 (46%) during competition in the official disciplines. Of the 135 acute injuries, the most common injury locations were knee (n?=?24; 18%), shoulder (n?=?18; 13%), back (n?=?17; 13%), and wrist (n?=?11; 8%). The overall incidence during competition was 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.7) injuries per 1000 runs; 2.3 (0.9 to 3.8) for big air (n?=?10), 1.9 (1.1 to 2.8) for halfpipe (n?=?21), 2.1 (1.2 to 3.0) for snowboard cross (n?=?20), 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0) for parallel giant slalom (n?=?8), and 0.3 (0.0 to 0.7) for parallel slalom (n?=?3). The severity of injuries was graded based on time loss (27% lost >21?days) and score on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (38% AIS 1, 61% AIS 2 and 1% AIS 3). There were 122 overuse injuries, 38 (31%) of these to the knee. Conclusion The injury risk for big air, snowboard cross, and halfpipe disciplines is high, while that for the snowboard slalom disciplines is lower. The injury pattern is different from recreational athletes, with a greater share of knee injuries and fewer wrist injuries. Compared with national level, the injury risk appears to be lower at World Cup level. PMID:16505079

  10. A computational model of retrospective time estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeronimo Dzaack; Sandra Trösterer; Nele Pape; Leon Urbas

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective time estimation is an important aspect in dynamic systems and needs to be integrated in cognitive architectures. In this article a short overview of theoretical accounts of retrospective time estimation is given and assumptions based on an experiment conducted in our research group are presented. Regarding both aspects we introduce a retrospective timer-module for ACT-R 6.0 and the corresponding

  11. The Incidence, Management, and Outcome of Penetrating Bladder Injuries in Civilians Resultant from Armed Conflict in Baghdad 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Firas G.; Santucci, Richard A.; Al-Saigh, Naimet K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of penetrating bladder injuries suffered by civilians in the Iraqi war zone. Materials and Methods. All civilian trauma cases received alive at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to August 2006 were reviewed for the presence of bladder injury. Results. 533 cases of penetrating abdominal trauma were identified, of which 177 (33%) involved the genitourinary (GU) system and 64 (12%) involved the bladder. Most (70%) were young males, and most (55%) had grade IV injuries. Associated injuries occurred in 63/64 (98%) of patients. 3 patients had missed bladder injuries, and all of these had complications related to their missed injury. Bladder-related complications occurred in 11% of cases, and mortality in 13%, all due to extravesical injuries. Conclusions. Penetrating bladder injury among civilians in Baghdad war zone resulted in 64 cases in 18 months. The initial detection rate is very high (98%), and after primary repair, lasting complications are rare. Morbidities from missed injuries were severe hematuria and vesicorectal fistula. However, (3%) of vesicorectal fistulae healed spontaneously with prolonged bladder drainage. Associated injuries are the rule in penetrating bladder injury patients, and must be diligently investigated and treated. PMID:19360111

  12. The incidence, management, and outcome of penetrating bladder injuries in civilians resultant from armed conflict in Baghdad 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Petros, Firas G; Santucci, Richard A; Al-Saigh, Naimet K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of penetrating bladder injuries suffered by civilians in the Iraqi war zone. Materials and Methods. All civilian trauma cases received alive at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to August 2006 were reviewed for the presence of bladder injury. Results. 533 cases of penetrating abdominal trauma were identified, of which 177 (33%) involved the genitourinary (GU) system and 64 (12%) involved the bladder. Most (70%) were young males, and most (55%) had grade IV injuries. Associated injuries occurred in 63/64 (98%) of patients. 3 patients had missed bladder injuries, and all of these had complications related to their missed injury. Bladder-related complications occurred in 11% of cases, and mortality in 13%, all due to extravesical injuries. Conclusions. Penetrating bladder injury among civilians in Baghdad war zone resulted in 64 cases in 18 months. The initial detection rate is very high (98%), and after primary repair, lasting complications are rare. Morbidities from missed injuries were severe hematuria and vesicorectal fistula. However, (3%) of vesicorectal fistulae healed spontaneously with prolonged bladder drainage. Associated injuries are the rule in penetrating bladder injury patients, and must be diligently investigated and treated. PMID:19360111

  13. World War II Poster Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Government Publications Department of the Northwestern University Library provides this browsable and searchable image base of over 200 posters related to World War II. Several powerful search options are available (especially in the advanced search mode, which supports numerous Boolean, truncation, and proximity operators, as well as field searching on ten separate fields). In addition, posters can be browsed by date, title, or topic (unfortunately, topics are not separately delineated at this time). Each retrieved poster is accompanied by a full cataloged record that includes artist, title, publisher, date, format, and a short caption, among other items. Clicking on the thumbnail image enlarges the image. The Library intends to make all of its over 300 posters available at this site.

  14. Atomic Platters: Cold War Music

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Along with ushering in a new age of global unrest and high anxiety, the emergence of the atomic bomb had a curious and not totally unpredictable effect on the world of popular (and not-so-popular) music. This site brings together these various subgenres of "atomic" music in a way that's rather fun, intriguing, and at times, a bit scary. Visitors can look through such subgenres as "Atomic", "Cold War", "Flying Saucer", and so on. While most of the songs are not available in their full form, visitors can read all of the lyrics and interpretive essays. Of course, visitors can find plenty of audio joy at the "CONELRAD Audio Archives" area. Herein are contained such gems as the positively odd "The Complacent Americans" and the equally lovable novelty album "The Goldwaters Sing Folk Songs to Bug the Liberals".

  15. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  16. Newfoundland and the Great War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Project, this site is a good example of how to use the Web to showcase primary source materials that document the participation of a region or group in a major historical event, in this case, Newfoundland's participation in World War I. The site has four major sections based on material type, so that users can read articles, look at pictures or videos, or listen to audio clips. Some highlights are a virtual scrapbook of images, marches and ballads played by the Royal Newfoundland Regiment Band, and video clips from the film "For the Folks Back Home" featuring archival footage from the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador.

  17. World War I Sheet Music

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Digital Initiatives at Brown University has created a number of fine collections since its inception in 2001, and this latest offering is no exception to that trend. The site is focused on providing access to hundreds of instances of sheet music that addresses various aspects of World War I. In this area, it is a definite success as the material is perfect for historians, musicians, or others who may be studying material and visual culture in the early 20th century. Users may browse through the sheet music by title, publisher, subject, and creator. Additionally, a historical essay and general introduction should be forthcoming on the site in the near future. Visitors would do well to check out such fine titles as "America He's for You", "Salvation Sal", and of course, "The Girl Behind the Man Behind the Gun," with lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse.

  18. Long-term clinical outcomes of war-related bilateral lower extremities amputations.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Moradi, Ali; Khorasani, Mohammad Reza; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-02-01

    In a cross-sectional study, 291 out of 500 veterans with war-related bilateral lower limb amputations from Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) accepted to participate in our study. Information related to amputees and amputated limbs were gathered and a Persian version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) was filled. To evaluate the effect of amputation level on health related quality of life, we classified patients to seven types according to the functional remainder of major joints (ankles, knees, hips). 97% of patients were male and the average age at the time of injury was 20 years. The major cause of war injury was shells in 50. 54% of amputees were involved in sport activities. The most common amputation level was transtibial (48%).The major stump complaint was muscle spasm. History of being hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder was reported in 5.6%. The average SF-36 score in type 2 to type 6 were 68, 60, 60, 56, and 62, respectively. Except Energy/Fatigue domain, all the other domains were different from normal population. There was not any significant statistical correlation between amputation type and any domain of the SF-36. Type 6 amputees showed an increase in physical health domains compared with former types. PMID:25530410

  19. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    SciTech Connect

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. British athletics muscle injury classification: a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Noel; James, Steven L J; Lee, Justin C; Chakraverty, Robin

    2014-09-01

    The commonly used muscle injury grading systems based on three grades of injury, representing minor, moderate and complete injuries to the muscle, are lacking in diagnostic accuracy and provide limited prognostic information to the clinician. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals for alternative grading systems. While there is recent evidence regarding the prognostic features of muscle injuries, this evidence has not often been incorporated into the grading proposals. The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification proposes a new system, based on the available evidence, which should provide a sound diagnostic base for therapeutic decision-making and prognostication. Injuries are graded 0-4 based on MRI features, with Grades 1-4 including an additional suffix 'a', 'b' or 'c' if the injury is 'myofascial', 'musculo-tendinous' or 'intratendinous'. Retrospective and prospective studies in elite track and field athletes are underway to validate the classification for use in hamstring muscle injury management. It is intended that this grading system can provide a suitable diagnostic framework for enhanced clinical decision-making in the management of muscle injuries and assist with future research to inform the development of improved prevention and management strategies. PMID:25031367

  1. Airbags and Eye Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel A Pearlman; K. G. Au Eong; Ferenc Kuhn; Dante J Pieramici

    2001-01-01

    Although airbags measurably reduce the overall risk of injury to adults (including eye injury), and death from motor vehicle accidents, injuries attributed to airbag deployment have been reported. To identify reported cases of ocular trauma related to airbag deployment, a MEDLINE search from 1991 to 2000 was performed. A total of 263 injuries in 101 patients were identified. Patient demographics,

  2. Head injuries in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R C Cantu

    1996-01-01

    Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common

  3. Prevalence of Gulf war veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome: questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Chalder, T; Hotopf, M; Unwin, C; Hull, L; Ismail, K; David, A; Wessely, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine how many veterans in a random sample of British veterans who served in the Gulf war believe they have “Gulf war syndrome,” to examine factors associated with the presence of this belief, and to compare the health status of those who believe they have Gulf war syndrome with those who do not. Design Questionnaire study asking British Gulf war veterans whether they believe they have Gulf war syndrome and about symptoms, fatigue, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, physical functioning, and their perception of health. Participants 2961 respondents to questionnaires sent out to a random sample of 4250 Gulf war veterans (69.7%). Main outcome measure The proportion of veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome. Results Overall, 17.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9 to 18.7) of the respondents believed they had Gulf war syndrome. The belief was associated with the veteran having poor health, not serving in the army when responding to the questionnaire, and having received a high number of vaccinations before deployment to the Gulf. The strongest association was knowing another person who also thought they had Gulf war syndrome. Conclusions Substantial numbers of British Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndrome, which is associated with psychological distress, a high number of symptoms, and some reduction in activity levels. A combination of biological, psychological, and sociological factors are associated with the belief, and these factors should be addressed in clinical practice. What is already known on this topicThe term Gulf war syndrome has been used to describe illnesses and symptoms experienced by veterans of the 1991 Gulf warConcerns exist over the validity of Gulf war syndrome as a unique entityWhat this study adds17% of Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndromeHolding the belief is associated with worse health outcomesKnowing someone else who believes they have Gulf war syndrome and receiving more vaccinations were associated with holding the belief PMID:11532836

  4. War casualties on the home front

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  5. Toward understanding the effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.; White, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    The authors discuss the scientific justifications for studying the consequences of nuclear war. The consequences of nuclear war and nuclear winter - biotic impoverishment, climate change, pollution of the air, water, and soil - recapitulate in compressed time the patterns of ecological change humankind is even now imposing on the planet. By studying the biological consequences of nuclear war, important discoveries about the intricate nature of the global ecosystem may be made. Wiser management practices and more thorough appreciation of alterations in the physical and biological environment could results.

  6. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and credibility: now involving organizations with 145,000 members in 41 countries, IPPNW has become the international voice of medicine's concern about nuclear war. PMID:21274253

  7. Triage and Management of the Injured in World War I: The Diuturnity of Antoine De Page and a Belgian Colleague

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    A system of orderly triage of the injured in World War I and a protocol for early wound management of war injuries were introduced by Antoine De Page in 1914 at the beginning of World War I. The five steps of the De Page protocol (coined by the author as Ordre de Triage) were to be followed in detail by the French and Belgian armies. A younger Belgian colleague, Robert Danis, was recruited to aid in the management of the ambulance corps to transport the injured from dressing (“clearing”) stations to centers of more advanced care, away from the Franco-Belgian front. Danis, also from Brussels, introduced the principles of osteosynthesis of bone a little over a decade later. De Page and Danis, both surgeons, tendered immense carry-forwards for future generations. PMID:22110790

  8. BOUNDING THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM Jeffrey Record

    E-print Network

    Kimbrough, Steven Orla

    BOUNDING THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM Jeffrey Record December 2003 #12;ii ***** The views expressed FOREWORD The United States is now in the third year of the global war on terrorism. That war began of Iraq. As part of the war on terrorism, the United States has committed not only to ridding the world

  9. A REMF's View of Viet Nam War Literature Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, David A.

    An academic librarian who is a Vietnam War veteran was inspired by the exemplary collection of Vietnam War literature at the Colorado State University Library to begin his own personal collection of mass market paperbacks dealing with the Vietnam War. Although Vietnam War fiction was common on the mass market racks in the mid 1980s, it has been…

  10. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war

  11. THE ECONOMICS OF WORLD WAR I: A COMPARATIVE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Broadberry; Mark Harrison

    We draw on the experience of the major combatant countries in World War I to analyse the role of economic factors in determining the outcome of the war and the effects of the war on subsequent economic performance. We demonstrate that the degree of mobilisation for war can be explained largely by differences in the level of development of each

  12. Reversing Globalization: Trade Policy Consequences of World War I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shale Horowitz

    2004-01-01

    How did World War I reverse decades of apparently irresistible economic globalization? Why, in particular, did World War I produce a worldwide surge in international trade protection? Three mechanisms are investigated: (1) The War diverted production and international trade in a way that strengthened protectionist coalitions of industries relative to free-trading coalitions. (2) The War reduced financial interdependence and altered

  13. Closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2013-04-01

    Closed head injuries vary from the very minor to the catastrophic. It is often difficult to differentiate the severity at initial presentation. Serial assessment is very valuable. Awareness of facial injuries is aided by familiarity with facial bone anatomy and the clinical presentation of orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular fracture. Functional injury such as concussion may coexist with other injuries. This article will discuss closed head trauma and outline specific injuries to the face, brain, skull, and its surroundings. PMID:23522509

  14. Structural Classification for Retrospective Conversion of Documents

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structural Classification for Retrospective Conversion of Documents Pierre H´eroux, ´Eric Trupin the structural classification method used in a strategy for retrospective conversion of documents. This stra- tegy consists in an cycle in which document analysis and document un- derstanding interact. This cycle

  15. Measuring Program Outcomes: Using Retrospective Pretest Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; McGuigan, William M.; Katsev, Aphra R.

    2000-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 307 mothers of firstborn infants participating in a home-visitation, child abuse prevention program in a retrospective pretest methodology. Results shows that when response shift bias was present, the retrospective pretest methodology produced a more legitimate assessment of program outcomes than did the traditional…

  16. Shoulder Range of Motion Measures as Risk Factors for Shoulder and Elbow Injuries in High School Softball and Baseball Players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Shanley; Mitchell J. Rauh; Lori A. Michener; Todd S. Ellenbecker; J. Craig Garrison; Charles A. Thigpen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Range of motion deficits in shoulder external rotation (ER), internal rotation (IR), total rotation range of motion (ER + IR), and horizontal adduction (HA) have been retrospectively associated with overhand athletes’ arm injuries.Hypothesis: The authors expected the incidence of upper extremity injury in high school softball and baseball players with side-to-side shoulder range of motion deficits to be greater

  17. Student attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war: Friends as influential reference persons

    SciTech Connect

    Marasch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    A renewed interest in research into the psychology of the threat of nuclear war occurred in the past decade as national attention focused increasingly on the arms race between the US and the USSR. Some of this research began the task of exploring the social influences upon attitudes and responses to the nuclear threat. Research on friends as potential influences upon nuclear attitudes was minimal. The present study investigated the role of college friends as potential reference persons in the formation of nuclear attitudes. A battery of questionnaires addressing various nuclear war and non-nuclear war attitudes was completed by 200 student-friend dyads from introductory psychology and sociology courses at the University of North Dakota. Three hypotheses were presented in this study. One hypothesis was that students would perceive their friends as having similar attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war. A second hypothesis was that the actual attitudes between pairs of students and friends would be similar. The third hypothesis was that the attitudes would have become more similar over the course of the development of the friendship (as measured retrospectively). The first hypothesis was borne out by the data. The second and third hypotheses were not supported. There are several implications of the findings. One implication is that the nuclear issue may not be as salient to college students as other, more immediate, issues. Another implication is that a relative lack of communication between college students on political issues precludes more effective mutual influence upon the development and change of such attitudes. A false consensus bias appeared to be operative when the students perceived that their attitudes were similar. Further discussion is presented in regard to past and future psychological research upon nuclear war attitudes.

  18. Identification of Serum MicroRNA Signatures for Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in a Closed Head Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Erin S.; Bhomia, Manish; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Balakathiresan, Nagaraja S.; Grunberg, Neil E.; Maheshwari, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have highlighted the problems of diagnosis and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). MTBI is a heterogeneous injury that may lead to the development of neurological and behavioral disorders. In the absence of specific diagnostic markers, mTBI is often unnoticed or misdiagnosed. In this study, mice were induced with increasing levels of mTBI and microRNA (miRNA) changes in the serum were determined. MTBI was induced by varying weight and fall height of the impactor rod resulting in four different severity grades of the mTBI. Injuries were characterized as mild by assessing with the neurobehavioral severity scale-revised (NSS-R) at day 1 post injury. Open field locomotion and acoustic startle response showed behavioral and sensory motor deficits in 3 of the 4 injury groups at day 1 post injury. All of the animals recovered after day 1 with no significant neurobehavioral alteration by day 30 post injury. Serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles clearly differentiated injured from uninjured animals. Overall, the number of miRNAs that were significantly modulated in injured animals over the sham controls increased with the severity of the injury. Thirteen miRNAs were found to identify mTBI regardless of its severity within the mild spectrum of injury. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that the more severe brain injuries were associated with a greater number of miRNAs involved in brain related functions. The evaluation of serum miRNA may help to identify the severity of brain injury and the risk of developing adverse effects after TBI. PMID:25379886

  19. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased awareness in the community. Aggressive awareness campaigns by government and non-government organisations was the cause. We can minimise the number and severity of accidents by raising awareness regarding safety precautions, encouraging professional displays and motivating manufacturers to adhere to strict quality control. PMID:18603491

  20. World War II Fire Safety Propaganda Posters 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous

    1943-01-01

    This document contains scanned copies of seven different World War II fire safety propaganda posters currently kept at the FRS/BRE Fire Research Archives at The University of Edinburgh. These posters were design and first printed by the National...

  1. Masters in War Studies Politics, Strategy & Operations

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    and British imperial policy Theory of small arms control Schlieffen and the short war myth The interwar period of Louis XIV Chivalry and warfare in late medieval Europe. It is also possible for you to take optional

  2. The Portable War Room Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govers, Francis X., III; Fry, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The Portable War Room is an internal TASC project to research and develop a visualization and simulation environment to provide for decision makers the power to review the past, understand the present, and peer into the future.

  3. The Cold War: A Yearbook Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graebner, William

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the photographs, valedictorian addresses, nicknames, cartoons and other material contained in high school yearbook can yield information regarding the world views of Americans at the start of the Cold War. (JDH)

  4. The nuclear reader: Strategy, weapons, war

    SciTech Connect

    Kegley, C.W.; Wittkopf, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections, each consisting of several chapters. The section headings are Strategy, Weapons, and War. The book is designed to show the range of opinion and prescription regarding these matters.

  5. The Great War: 80 Years On: BBC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    November 11 marks the 80th anniversary of the armistice that ended "the war to end all wars," a conflict which took as many as ten million lives, wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, and helped to spark a revolution in Russia. This new site from the BBC commemorates the war and offers users a number of interesting resources. Multimedia offerings include a ten-minute video collage of photos and newsreel footage produced by the Imperial War Museum and a selection of fascinating and poignant audio interviews of veterans, including one man who was just fourteen when he left to fight in France. The site also contains a selection of soldiers' letters home, overviews of four major battles (Gallipoli, Verdun, the Somme, and Passchendaele), and a number of topical articles.

  6. Changed by War Five stories from the

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Changed by War Five stories from the University of Toronto's most testing time Cyberbullying is Everywhere The Internet makes it easy to be mean. No wonder cyberbully- ing among teens has everyone worried

  7. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  8. Reporting Dissent in WartimeBritish Press, the Anti-War Movement and the 2003 Iraq War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Murray; Katy Parry; Piers Robinson; Peter Goddard

    2008-01-01

    A B S T R A C T ? The 2003 Iraq War was highly controversial in the UK, generating domestic opposition and a widely supported anti-war movement, the Stop the War Coalition. This article assesses the extent to which anti-war protesters were successful at securing positive coverage in the British press immediately before and during the invasion of Iraq.

  9. Remembering the future: Rhetorical echoes of World War II and Vietnam in George bush's public speech on the Gulf War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E. Stuckey

    1992-01-01

    This essay provides an exegesis of George Bush's Gulf War rhetoric in terms of the World War II and Vietnam Wars and the presidential rhetoric in which they were embedded. The essay argues that Bush's rhetoric embraced and supported the orientational metaphor of the World War II paradigm, while simultaneously rejecting the Vietnam paradigm, through his use of specific language

  10. Terror Attacks Increase the Risk of Vascular Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT), as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented VT (N?=?1,545) was analyzed and further subdivided into those suffering from terror-related vascular trauma (TVT) and non-terror-related vascular trauma (NTVT). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment. Results: Out of 2,446 terror-related trauma admissions, 243 sustained TVT (9.9%) compared to 1302 VT patients from non-terror trauma (1.1%). TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. Intensive care unit admissions and hospital length of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS???16) and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly much lower extremity injuries. Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care. PMID:24910849

  11. Economic Growth, Civil Wars, and Spatial Spillovers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. MURDOCH; TODD SANDLER

    2002-01-01

    A neoclassical growth model is used to empirically test for the influences of a civil war on steady-state income per capita both at home and in neighboring countries. This model provides the basis for measuring long-run and short-run effects of civil wars on income per capita growth in the host country and its neighbors. Evidence of significant collateral damage on

  12. Just war theory in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.D.; Griesbach, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include the morality of war, the normative alternatives to war, national defense in the nuclear age, the environment of nuclear deterrence (empirical factors and moral judgments), morality and nuclear weaponry, the morality of nuclear deterrence and national defense in a changing strategic environment, alternatives to nuclear deterrence, and strengthening broadcasting capabilities into the USSR (e.g., Radio Liberty and Voice of America).

  13. An economic approach to analyzing civil wars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stergios Skaperdas

    2008-01-01

    Civil wars and conflict can be understood from an economic point of view only if there is incomplete contracting. I examine\\u000a such settings and first discuss sources of incomplete contracting, from geography and ethnic and social distance to external\\u000a interventions due to geopolitics or the presence of rents. Yet, since war is destructive, the contending parties might normally\\u000a be expected

  14. Bosnia's Civil War Origins and Violence Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STATHIS N. KALYVAS; NICHOLAS SAMBANIS

    he civil war in Bosnia has received heavy coverage in the popular press and in scholarly writings.The fact that the war took place in Europe,the extent of ethnic cleansing and killing, the investigations of the ICTY (the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia),the deployment of sev- eral large United Nations (UN) peace operations, and the use of an assortment

  15. The mirror effect: Virginia Woolf's war writings 

    E-print Network

    Murchison, Marcia Wilkens

    2013-02-22

    . As Septimus responds to the questions of Sir William Bradshaw, the second doctor the couple has visited, the shocking extent of his alienation becomes apparent: "You served with great distinction in the War?" [asked Sir William] The patient [Septimus... husband, and his overpowering sense of guilt prevents him from resuming the structure of his former life. 17 Dr. Holmes, Sir William Bradshaw, and even Septimus's wife, Lucrezia, each preserve an idealized notion of war. Each fails to accept Septimus...

  16. Major Vascular Injury in Laparoscopic Urology

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Ziaee, Seyed-Amir-Mohsen; Tabibi, Ali; Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Sarhangnejad, Reza; Mirsadeghi, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Major vascular injury is the most devastating complication of laparoscopy, occurring most commonly during the laparoscopic entry phase. Our goal is to report our experience with major vascular injury during laparoscopic entry with closed- and open-access techniques in urologic procedures. Methods: All 5347 patients who underwent laparoscopic urologic procedures from 1996 to 2011 at our hospital were included in the study. Laparoscopic entry was carried out by either the closed Veress needle technique or the modified open Hasson technique. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to investigate for access-related major vascular injuries. Results: The closed technique was used in the first 474 operations and the open technique in the remaining 4873 cases. Three cases of major vascular injury were identified among our patients. They were 3 men scheduled for nephrectomy without any history of surgery. All injuries occurred in the closed-access group during the setup phase with insertion of the first trocar. The injury location was the abdominal aorta in 2 patients and the external iliac vein in 1 patient. Management was performed after conversion to open surgery, control of bleeding, and repair of the injured vessel. Conclusions: Given the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with major vascular injury, its clinically higher incidence in laparoscopic urologic procedures with the closed-access technique leads us to suggest using the open technique for the entry phase of laparoscopy. Using the open-access technique may decrease laparophobia and encourage a higher number of urologists to enter the laparoscopy field. PMID:25392667

  17. Rotator cuff injuries in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jennifer M; Arkader, Alexandre; Wells, Lawrence M; Ganley, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    The cause of rotator cuff injuries in the young athlete has been described as an overuse injury related to internal impingement. Abduction coupled with external rotation is believed to impinge on the rotator cuff, specifically the supraspinatus, and lead to undersurface tears that can progress to full-thickness tears. This impingement is believed to be worsened with increased range of motion and instability in overhead athletes. A retrospective review of seven patients diagnosed with rotator cuff injuries was performed to better understand this shoulder injury pattern. The type of sport played, a history of trauma, diagnosis, treatment method, and outcome were noted. Six patients were male and one was a female. Baseball was the primary sport for four patients, basketball for one, gymnastics for one, and wrestling for one. The following injury patterns were observed: two patients tore their subscapularis tendon, two sustained avulsion fractures of their lesser tuberosity, one tore his rotator interval, one tore his supraspinatus, and one avulsed his greater tuberosity. Only four patients recalled a specific traumatic event. Three patients were treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, three with miniopen repair, and one was treated with rehabilitation. Six of the seven patients returned to their preinjury level of sport after treatment. Rotator cuff tears are rare in the adolescent age group. The injury patterns suggest that acute trauma likely accounts for many rotator cuff tears and their equivalents in the young patient. Adolescents with rotator cuff tears reliably return to sports after treatment. The possibility of rotator cuff tears in skeletally immature athletes should be considered. The prognosis is very good once this injury is identified and treated. PMID:22668571

  18. INVITED REVIEW KEEPING PROMISES: TRANSLATING BASIC RESEARCH INTO NEW SPINAL CORD INJURY THERAPIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Kleitman

    Summary: Centuries of medical wisdom—namely that spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment was limited to caretaking until the patients inevitably succumbed to complications—has given way to tremendous medical and research advancements. The prognosis for survival after SCI improved significantly after World War II, leading to the largest population of people aging with chronic SCI in history. Despite the general lack of

  19. Pressure sensing system for the study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Meng; D. K. Cullen; M. R. Tofighi; A. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Due to extensive use of explosive weaponry, wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have led to a significant increase in blast-induced injuries, which manifest as complicated neural cellular damage. This research is serving two purposes: 1. verifying a methodology to measure the physical characteristics of the blast waves by using a MEMS capacitor pressure sensor and 2. performing In-Vivo study for

  20. Dermabrasion — a novel concept in the surgical management of sulphur mustard injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Rice; R. F. R Brown; D. G. K Lam; R. P Chilcott; N. J Bennett

    2000-01-01

    Since its first use on the battlefields of Northern France during the First World War (1914–1918), sulphur mustard has remained a significant chemical threat to military forces around the world. Progress towards an effective treatment for these injuries has been slow due to the lack of suitable animal models upon which to study the toxicology and pathology. However, porcine and

  1. A retrospective of VAWT technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Sutherland, Herbert J. (HJS Consulting, Albuquerque, NM); Berg, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) technology at Sandia National Laboratories started in the 1970's and concluded in the 1990's. These studies concentrated on the Darrieus configurations because of their high inherent efficiency, but other configurations (e.g., the Savonius turbine) were also examined. The Sandia VAWT program culminated with the design of the 34-m 'Test Bed' Darrieus VAWT. This turbine was designed and built to test various VAWT design concepts and to provide the necessary databases to validate analytical design codes and algorithms. Using the Test Bed as their starting point, FloWind Corp. developed a commercial VAWT product line with composite blades and an extended height-to-diameter ratio. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design process and results of the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed program and the FloWind prototype development program with an eye toward future offshore designs. This paper is our retrospective of the design, analysis, testing and commercial process. Special emphasis is given to those lessons learned that will aid in the development of an off-shore VAWT.

  2. INJURY & ILLNESS PREVENTION PLAN (IIPP)

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    INJURY & ILLNESS PREVENTION PLAN (IIPP) University of California Riverside (UCR) Injury & Illness Prevention Plan (IIPP) describes specific 2. Written Documents Document Location Injury and Illness Prevention Plan

  3. Complex posterior urethral injury

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay B.; Joshi, Pankaj M.; Hunter, Craig; Surana, Sandesh; Shahrour, Walid; Alhajeri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess treatment strategies for seven different scenarios for treating complex pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), categorised as repeat surgery for PFUI, ischaemic bulbar urethral necrosis (BUN), repair in boys and girls aged ?12 years, in patients with a recto-urethral fistula, or bladder neck incontinence, or with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and bladder neck/prostate region. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the success rates and surgical procedures of these seven complex scenarios in the repair of PFUI at our institution from 2000 to 2013. Results In all, >550 PFUI procedures were performed at our centre, and 308 of these patients were classified as having a complex PFUI, with 225 patients available for follow-up. The overall success rates were 81% and 77% for primary and repeat procedures respectively. The overall success rate of those with BUN was 76%, using various methods of novel surgical techniques. Boys aged ?12 years with PFUI required a transpubic/abdominal approach 31% of the time, compared to 9% in adults. Young girls with PFUI also required a transpubic/abdominal urethroplasty, with a success rate of 66%. In patients with a recto-urethral fistula the success rate was 90% with attention to proper surgical principles, including a three-stage procedure and appropriate interposition. The treatment of bladder neck incontinence associated with the tear-drop deformity gave a continence rate of 66%. Children with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and at the bladder neck-prostate junction were all continent after a one-stage transpubic/abdominal procedure. Conclusion An understanding of complex pelvic fractures and their appropriate management can provide successful outcomes. PMID:26019978

  4. Vietnam War Era Ephemera Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The traumatic and unsettled backdrop of social and cultural change throughout the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s will not soon be forgotten by any of those persons who lived through that period. Some groups of people came together under the banner of the women's liberation movement, and still others surrounded themselves in the unifying guise of ethnic solidarity and pride, such as those who participated in the American Indian Movement. No one ongoing event garnered as much attention, however, as the Vietnam War did. That particular event inspired a host of posters, handouts, and other printed ephemera that may have quickly disappeared, as do many pieces of material culture often do. Fortunately, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections division has created this online archive which brings many of these documents together in one place. The documents are divided into thematic categories, such as racism, socialism, farm workers, gay rights, and religion. There are some real compelling documents on the site, and those with a penchant for social and cultural history will enjoy this fine collection.

  5. The diagnostic accuracy of ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament comparing the Lachman test, the anterior drawer sign, and the pivot shift test in acute and chronic knee injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerald W. Katz; Richard J. Fingeroth

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-five patients with knee injuries were included in a 4 month retrospective study that compared the rela tive accuracy of the Lachman test, the anterior drawer sign, and the pivot shift test. All examinations were performed under anesthesia and followed by arthros copy, which confirmed 22 injuries. Of all ACL injuries occurring within 2 weeks of arthroscopy (N = 9),

  6. Intestinal injuries in childhood: analysis of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, H; Jagdish, S

    1992-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 32 cases of intestinal injuries sustained among 135 children admitted from cases of abdominal trauma in 1976 till 1989. Falls from height or bullock cart and bull-gore injury formed the majority of the cases (21/32; 65%). Clinical thermometer accounted for perforating injuries in 2 neonates. Penetrating injury accounted for 10 cases and blunt trauma was responsible in 19. The site of injury was duodenum 1, jejunum 8, ileum 17, colon 3, rectum 4, and multiple sites 1. Associated injuries included diaphragmatic rupture 1, liver 1, mesentery 4, retroperitoneal hematoma 4, head injury 2, and loss of hand due to blast 1. Diagnosis was made on history, physical examination, pneumoperitoneum in plain x-ray, and diagnostic four-quadrant peritoneal tap. Closure of perforations was done in 21 cases, wedge resection in 3, and resection anastomosis in 5. Protective colostomy had to be done in 5 cases. Four patients died of septicemia (2) and head injury (2). PMID:1625126

  7. Maxillofacial and ocular injuries in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Christopher Noel

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injuries from motor vehicle crashes constitute a leading cause of death in the young and a high degree of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Facial trauma has been consistently shown to be the single most common injury to the occupants of vehicles involved in crashes. This has been confirmed by more recent studies which have demonstrated a continuing high incidence of facial fractures amongst belted drivers. Airbags have been advocated as a supplemental restraint system. However, their deployment can cause injury particularly if the driver is of short stature, unrestrained or out of position within the vehicle. METHODS: The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) project aims to correlate the injuries received by occupants in vehicle crashes with the biomechanics of vehicle deformation. All cases of facial injury which presented to the University of Michigan Medical Center, USA in 1999 were retrospectively evaluated with reference to the methods of occupant restraint and to the correlation between the injuries sustained and vehicle deformation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The case analysis confirmed the value of airbags to the safety of vehicle occupants but reinforced the conclusion that they must still be considered supplemental restraint systems. New generation airbags will minimise the risk of injury even to small stature or out of position occupants as they will prevent deployment in situations where they may have an adverse effect. PMID:15140296

  8. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  9. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  10. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future directions for the important discipline of technology readiness assessments.

  11. Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.

    The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

  12. The Neglected War: The Memory of World War I in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Joseph Kranjc

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the remembrance of World War I in Slovenia during three distinct periods of the nation's history: 1918–1941, 1941–1991 and 1991 to the present. The work argues that the memory and remembrance of World War I has been categorically underrepresented in the official histories of the last ninety years for a number of political and ideological reasons. Having

  13. Beyond the War on Terror: Into the Fifth Generation of War and Conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J. Reed

    2008-01-01

    Fifth generation warfare has arrived and is irreversibly changing the character and nature of human conflict. It confronts the United States with the evolving strategic dilemma of not only dealing with the War on Terror, but of simultaneously crafting strategies that look beyond military preparedness for past wars and embrace the perspective of national preparedness for the spectrum of future

  14. Picturing the Iraq WarConstructing the Image of War in the British and US Press

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahira Fahmy; Daekyung Kim

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a visual content analysis of 1305 Iraq War-related photographs appearing in the US press, represented by The New York Times, and the British press, represented by The Guardian . Overall, the two newspapers visually portrayed the Iraq War differently. Further, the more spontaneous or direct coverage of actually ongoing events were rare at best,

  15. A U.S. Holy War? The Effects of Religion on Iraq War Policy Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Froese; F. Carson Mencken

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the course of the Iraq War, the Bush Administration has consistently framed its war policy in religious language. Therefore, we investigate the extent to which public religiosity predicts neoconservative foreign policy attitudes. Copyright (c) 2009 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

  16. War mobilization and the life course: A cohort of World War II veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Men experience historical events, such as wars, at different times in their lives and are thereby influenced in different ways. Using data on a cohort of veterans from World War II, this study investigates the proposition that entry into the armed forces at a relatively early age maximized discontinuity and facilitated a redirection of the life course through psychological development,

  17. Dialectical Disorientation in Vietnam War Films: Subversion of the Mythology of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Karen; Downey, Sharon D.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of "dialectical disorientation," a rhetorical form that creates ambiguity through confrontation between competitive but complementary orientations. Applies the form to the Vietnam War movies "The Deer Hunter,""Apocalypse Now,""Platoon," and "Full Metal Jacket." Observes that the films portray the war as destructive and…

  18. Health Effects of War Stress on Norwegian World War II Resistance Groups: A Comparative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellinor F. Major

    2003-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which adverse long-term health effects of World War II stress exposure were present in 3 groups of resistance veterans. The groups had been exposed to different types of war stressors: concentration camp incarceration, resistance participation within the illegal press, and a secret military organization. With the differences in

  19. Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadas, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

  20. Is War a Zero-Sum Game? Evidence from the U.S. Civil War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc D. Weidenmier

    A new daily data set of Confederate cotton bonds trading in Liverpool is analyzed in conjunction with Union Greenback prices to asses the impact of war news on Civil War asset prices. The empirical analysis indicates the presence of a cointegrating relationship between Union Greenback prices and cotton bond prices after controlling for innovations in the cotton and bond markets.

  1. Iraq and afghanistan war veterans with reintegration problems: differences by veterans affairs healthcare user status.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Orazem, Robert J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Gravely, Amy; Frazier, Patricia; Carlson, Kathleen F; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather

    2015-07-01

    We studied 1,292 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who participated in a clinical trial of expressive writing to estimate the prevalence of perceived reintegration difficulty and compare Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare users to nonusers in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. About half of participants perceived reintegration difficulty. VA users and nonusers differed in age and military background. Levels of mental and physical problems were higher in VA users. In multivariate analysis, military service variables and probable traumatic brain injury independently predicted VA use. Findings demonstrate the importance of research comparing VA users to nonusers to understand veteran healthcare needs. PMID:24913102

  2. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips Preventing SCI Biking prevention tips While many cycling injuries are head injuries, the ... NeurosurgeryToday.org Every year, an estimated 11,000 spinal cord injury (SCI) accidents occur in the United States. ...

  3. Injury Free Coalition for Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Free Sites Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News Injury Free Celebrates Criticized Super Bowl Ad ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

  4. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...

  5. Coping with a New Injury

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ... Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury What ...

  6. Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ... Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury What's ...

  7. Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals: United Nations War Crimes Commission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Library of Congress' Military Legal Resources has a section on its website that highlights war criminal trials from World War II that offer "major points of municipal and international law that were raised and settled during the trials as well as the potential for the greatest legal interest." The trials cover the time period of 1947-1949, and comprise 15 volumes, each with an introduction by the chairman of the United Nations War Crimes Commission. Visitors will find that each volume's table of contents contains the breakdown of each case, including "Outline of the Proceedings" which is typically comprised of facts and evidence, defense of the accused, and the findings and resulting sentences. The "Notes on the Case" name and discuss the appropriateness of the laws or statutes applied to the case. Visitors interested in World War II history will find these cases provide an interesting perspective by which to view the war.

  8. Abdominal injury patterns in patients with seatbelt signs requiring laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Seema; Adileh, Mohamed; Almogy, Gidon; Bala, Miklosh

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We analyzed our series of patients with seatbelt signs (bruising) that underwent laparotomy in order to correlate injury pattern with clinical course and outcome. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with seatbelt signs presenting to the level 1 Trauma Unit between 2005 and 2010 was performed. We evaluated the nature of injuries during laparotomy associated with seatbelt signs and their treatment and complications. Results: There were 41 patients, 25 (61%) male, with a median age of 26 years. Median injury severity score (ISS) was 25 (range 6–66) and overall mortality was 10% (four patients). Patients were classified into three groups according to time from injury to surgery. Median time to surgery for the immediate group (n = 12) was 1.05 h, early group (n = 22) was 2.7 h, and delayed group (n = 7) was 19.5 h. Patients in the immediate group tended to have solid organ injuries; whereas, patients in the delayed group had bowel injury. Patients with solid organ injuries were found to be more seriously injured and had higher mortality (P < 0.01) and morbidity compared with patients with the “classic” bowel injury pattern associated with a typical seatbelt sign. Conclusion: Our data suggest that there is a cohort of patients with seatbelt injury who have solid organ injury requiring urgent intervention. Solid organ injuries associated with malpositioned seatbelts lying higher on the abdomen tend to result in hemodynamic instability necessitating immediate surgery. They have more postoperative complications and a greater mortality. Seatbelt signs should be accurately documented after any car crash. PMID:25400391

  9. Spinal cord injury in Manitoba: a provincial epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, James R.; Ethans, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the epidemiological trends and identify populations at risk of traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NTSCI) for the province of Manitoba, Canada. Methods We reviewed records retrospectively for subjects in three cohorts (1981–1985, 1998–2002, and 2003–2007). A total of 553 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) were studied for variables such as age, level of injury, severity of injury, First Nations (FN) status, and etiology of injury. Results Incidence of overall SCI has increased from 22.0 to 46.5 per million (P < 0.001). Incidence of NTSCI increased from 3.12 per million to 16.7 per million (P < 0.001). Incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) has increased from the 17.1 per million to 25.6 per million (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the mean age at injury from 30.23 to 45.768 years of age (P < 0.0001). Female and NTSCI have a higher mean and median age at injury. There was a significant (P = 0.0008) increase in the proportion of females with a most recent male/female ratio of 3.4:1. A temporal increase in incomplete injuries was observed (P < 0.0001). Incomplete and thoracic level injuries are more common with NTSCI. Conclusion The results demonstrate that there are significant differences between NTSCI and TSCI in Manitoba, and that Manitoba trends in SCI are in keeping with those seen on a national and an international level. There is a high risk of SCI in Manitoba FN, for which preventive strategies need to be put in place, and higher resource structure geared towards. Additionally, the trend of older age at injury has significant implications for structuring acute care and rehabilitation programs for these individuals, enhancing the need for treating older and more medically complicated individuals with SCI. PMID:21528620

  10. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Job Fireworks Eye Safety The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ... if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision loss or blindness. ...

  11. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, speech, breathing and your ... facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For example, nerve diseases like trigeminal neuralgia or ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the nervous system and ... given within the first 8 hours after injury. Rehabilitation programs combine physical therapies with skill-building activities ...

  13. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Eye Injuries KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Emergencies > Eye ... do not delay flushing the eye first. Black Eyes and Blunt Injuries A black eye is often ...

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Anand Veeravagu More Videos New Initiative to Map Human Brain Physicians at Wiesbaden Army Health Clinic are using vision therapy to treat traumatic brain injury Traumatic Brain Injury Pentagon Roundtable Blogs DARPA's Memory Restoration Program

  15. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  16. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Brachial ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of ...

  17. Retrospective Interference Alignment over Interference Networks

    E-print Network

    Jafar, Syed A.

    Retrospective Interference Alignment over Interference Networks Hamed Maleki, Syed A. Jafar interference alignment, i.e., achieving interference alignment with only outdated (stale) channel state on the centralized transmit- ter's ability to reconstruct all the interference seen in previous symbols

  18. AIR QUALITY MODEL EVALUATION - FORECASTING AND RETROSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation discusses the CMAQ model evaluation framework, and presents results of evaluation of CMAQ's particulate matter estimates for PM2.5, and its components for 2005 air quality forecast predictions as well as retrospective modeling for 2001....

  19. Disaster nursing: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Stangeland, Paula A

    2010-12-01

    A plethora of information exists in the literature regarding emergencies and disasters. Nevertheless, significant gaps in the science related to nurses working during disasters are revealed. Few studies have addressed the perspective of nurses and their intent to respond to future disasters. Because nurses are invaluable to disaster response efforts, more research is essential to validate current findings and elucidate the needs of nurses who respond to disasters and other health emergencies. There is a paucity of research in the literature describing nurses' lived experiences of working during hurricanes. Natural disasters inevitably inflict human suffering, and nurses are expected to respond and provide services during these catastrophic times. Lost within this expectation are the experiences and concerns of the nurses who are called upon and intend to respond to the disaster, and yet are themselves affected by the disaster. Understanding the experiences and needs of nurses who decide to respond to the call of duty and work during disasters remains unclear in the literature. Research in the area of disaster response intentions by nurses becomes the initial step in understanding the phenomenon of working during a disaster and creating innovative approaches that address working during disasters. Disaster policies have been developed and implemented at the international, national, state, local, and hospital level. Nevertheless, disasters continue to adversely impact communities and hospitals at all levels causing injuries, death, and destruction of infrastructure. To reduce the impact of disasters, continued research is needed to inform and strengthen future disaster policies. Knowledge gained from future research has great potential to inform nursing education, research, and practice, as well as health policy related to the care of individuals and responders before, during, and after disasters. PMID:21095551

  20. Smoke inhalation injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, M.

    The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

  1. Impact Injury in Sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew S. McIntosh

    Impacts in sport can cause severe and fatal head, spinal and thoracic injuries. As sports have developed during the last half\\u000a century, methods have been developed to control injury risks, such as rule modifications, helmets, padded clothing and training.\\u000a The biomechanics of severe injury is well understood through investigations of motor vehicle accident trauma. Research into\\u000a sports injury can assist

  2. The retrospective chart review: important methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Vassar, Matt; Holzmann, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review and discuss ten common methodological mistakes found in retrospective chart reviews. The retrospective chart review is a widely applicable research methodology that can be used by healthcare disciplines as a means to direct subsequent prospective investigations. In many cases in this review, we have also provided suggestions or accessible resources that researchers can apply as a "best practices" guide when planning, conducting, or reviewing this investigative method. PMID:24324853

  3. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    PubMed

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

  4. [Clinical implications of the "war against cancer"].

    PubMed

    Rojas Miranda, Daniela; Fernández González, Loreto

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the origin and implications of the "war on cancer" metaphor. Commonly present in mass media, the "war on cancer" notion circulates also among patients, their loved ones, their support networks, and oncological multidisciplinary teams. In our view when cancer is uprooted of its illness status, and conceptualized as an "enemy", myths about disease and those who suffer it (especially the idea of psychogenesis) are strengthened. Two topics in which the war metaphor is particularly problematic in the clinical context, are analyzed in depth. The first one is the relationship between the oncologic patient and his or her loved ones and support networks. When patients are insistently prompted to fight the disease and think positive, the expression of emotions associated to the adaptive process of receiving a diagnosis of cancer may be inhibited. Secondly, the war metaphor promotes an authoritarian view among the health teams and on the physician-patient relationship, undermining the patent's autonomy in the decision-making process, which may affect his global quality of life. Also, it encourages emotional isolation, concealment of psychiatric symptoms and conspiracies of silence. It is concluded that public policies to avoid the "war on" notion are required. Instead, education of the general population about wrong beliefs about cancer should be encouraged. PMID:26005822

  5. Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages (GWVRP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beer, Jeff.

    The Gulf War Veteran Resource Pages provides a single resource for information on Gulf War Syndrome. Included is information on the syndrome and how to obtain benefits; hyperlinked versions of reports and studies of Gulf War syndrome and its possible causes and treatments; information about and newsletters from Gulf War veteran activist organizations; direct links to the Department of Veteran Affairs Home Page and other online resources of interest to veterans, their families and others concerned. The site is fully searchable by keyword. A new feature is "Tracings in the Sand," a section where veterans can share their experiences of their Gulf War service, and how it has affected their lives. Also included are weekly news flashes, such as the following: "Jan Williams of Sen. Rockefeller's office has indicated an interest in how PL 103-446 is being administered. If you are a Persian Gulf veteran and have been turned down for VA disability, please call Jan Williams at 202 224-2074. She is looking for records and the reasons stated on the decision letter."

  6. Spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Winter; Hina Pattani

    2008-01-01

    The annual incidence of acute spinal cord injury in the UK is 15–40 cases per million. More than half these injuries are the result of road traffic accidents, with falls, industrial accidents, sports or violence making up most of the remainder. Violent injury accounts for only a small percentage of cases in this country. The typical patient is male (male

  7. Spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Winter; Hina Pattani

    2011-01-01

    The annual incidence of acute spinal cord injury in the UK is 15–40 cases per million. More than half of these injuries are the result of road traffic accidents, with falls, industrial accidents, sports or violence making up most of the remainder. Violent injury accounts for only a small percentage of cases in the UK. The typical patient is male

  8. Blunt Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Yuk Sang Ting; Sang Ting

    2003-01-01

    Background: Blunt traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is clinically difficult to diagnose, as signs and symptoms are unreliable and variable. The identification of TAI may be obscured by other injuries that are more apparent. Furthermore, radiologic evaluation of the mediastinum for this injury is not well defined. Most patients with TAI die immediately. Survivors have a contained rupture which requires crucial

  9. Blunt Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Yuk; Sang Ting

    Background: Blunt traumatic aortic injury (TAI) is clini- cally difficult to diagnose, as signs and symptoms are unreliable and variable. The identification of TAI may be obscured by other injuries that are more apparent. Furthermore, radiologic evaluation of the mediastinum for this injury is not well defined. Most patients with TAI die immediately. Survivors have a contained rupture which requires

  10. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    2000-02-01

    Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

  12. Traumatic diaphragmatic injury: a review of CT signs and the difference between blunt and penetrating injury

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Kumar, Atin; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Patil, Aruna; Kumar, Subodh; Gupta, Amit

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to present the frequency of computed tomography (CT) signs of diaphragmatic rupture and the differences between blunt and penetrating trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS The CT scans of 23 patients with surgically proven diaphragmatic tears (both blunt and penetrating) were retrospectively reviewed for previously described CT signs of diaphragmatic injuries. The overall frequency of CT signs was reported; frequency of signs in right- and left-sided injuries and blunt and penetrating trauma were separately tabulated and statistically compared. RESULTS The discontinuous diaphragm sign was the most common sign, observed in 95.7% of patients, followed by diaphragmatic thickening (69.6%). While the dependent viscera sign and collar sign were exclusively observed in blunt-trauma patients, organ herniation (P = 0.05) and dangling diaphragm (P = 0.0086) signs were observed significantly more often in blunt trauma than in penetrating trauma. Contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm was observed more often in penetrating trauma (83.3%) than in blunt trauma (17.7%). CONCLUSION Knowledge of the mechanism of injury and familiarity with all CT signs of diaphragmatic injury are necessary to avoid a missed diagnosis because there is variability in the overall occurrence of these signs, with significant differences between blunt and penetrating trauma. PMID:24412818

  13. Physical and Mental Health Costs of Traumatic War Experiences Among Civil War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Judith; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Prause, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    Context Hundreds of thousands of soldiers face exposure to combat during wars across the globe. The health impact of traumatic war experiences has not been adequately assessed across the lifetime of these veterans. Objective Identify the role of traumatic war experiences in predicting post-war nervous and physical disease and mortality using archival data from military and medical records of veterans from the Civil War. Design An archival examination of military and medical records of Civil War veterans was conducted. Degree of trauma experienced (POW experience, percentage of company killed, being wounded, early age at enlistment), signs of lifetime physician-diagnosed disease, and age at death were recorded. Setting and Participants US Pension board surgeons conducted standardized medical examinations of Civil War veterans over their post-war lifetimes. Military records of 17,700 Civil War veterans were matched to post-war medical records. Main Outcome Measures Signs of physician-diagnosed disease including cardiac, gastrointestinal (GI), and nervous disease, and number of unique ailments within each disease; mortality. Results Military trauma was related to signs of disease and mortality. Greater percentage of company killed was associated with signs of post-war cardiac and GI disease (IRR=1.34, p<.02), co-morbid nervous and physical disease (IRR=1.51, p<.005), and greater number of unique ailments within each disease (IRR=1.14, p<.01). Younger soldiers (?18 years old), compared to older enlistees (> 30 years old), showed higher mortality risk (HR=1.52, p<.005), signs of co-morbid nervous and physical disease (IRR=1.93, p<.005), and a greater number of unique ailments within each disease (IRR=1.32, p<.005), controlling for length of time lived and other covariates. Conclusions Greater exposure to death of military comrades and younger exposure to war trauma was related to signs of physician-diagnosed cardiac, GI and nervous disease, and a greater number of unique disease ailments across the life of Civil War veterans. Physiological mechanisms by which trauma might result in disease are discussed. PMID:16461863

  14. Moral dilemmas faced by hospitals in time of war: the Rambam Medical Center during the second Lebanon war.

    PubMed

    Bar-El, Yaron; Reisner, Shimon; Beyar, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    Rambam Medical Center, the only tertiary care center and largest hospital in northern Israel, was subjected to continuous rocket attacks in 2006. This extreme situation posed serious and unprecedented ethical dilemmas to the hospital management. An ambiguous situation arose that required routine patient care in a tertiary modern hospital together with implementation of emergency measures while under direct fire. The physicians responsible for hospital management at that time share some of the moral dilemmas faced, the policy they chose to follow, and offer a retrospective critical reflection in this paper. The hospital's first priority was defined as delivery of emergency surgical and medical services to the wounded from the battlefields and home front, while concomitantly providing the civilian population with all elective medical and surgical services. The need for acute medical service was even more apparent as the situation of conflict led to closure of many ambulatory clinics, while urgent or planned medical care such as open heart surgery and chemotherapy continued. The hospital management took actions to minimize risks to patients, staff, and visitors during the ongoing attacks. Wards were relocated to unused underground spaces and corridors. However due to the shortage of shielded spaces, not all wards and patients could be relocated to safer areas. Modern warfare will most likely continue to involve civilian populations and institutes, blurring the division between peaceful high-tech medicine and the rough battlefront. Hospitals in high war-risk areas must be prepared to function and deliver treatment while under fire or facing similar threats. PMID:24129409

  15. Imperial War Museums: Google Cultural Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many institutions, such as the Imperial War Museums in Britain, are choosing to partner up with the Google Cultural Institute to host digital exhibitions online. On this corner of its site, visitors can explore different collections, artists, and artworks related to World War One. Currently, there are 78 items in total, including wonderful paintings by John Singer Sargent and Henry Tonks depicting the privations and trials of war. Visitors can view a map of the artworks' geographical locations and also use the site to create personalized galleries. Also, the Sort Function allows users to examine these items in the order that they have been added. This is an especially great feature for returning visitors.

  16. Art of the First World War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While many of the literary accomplishments that arose out of the trauma and desolation wrought by the experiences of World War I remain at the forefront of literary and philosophical explorations, the paintings from this period are at times overlooked. This thoughtful exhibit, supported by UNESCO (working in tandem with partner museums throughout Europe) brings to the Web approximately 110 paintings from 54 painters. The exhibit begins with an introductory essay by art historian and exhibition curator Philippe Dagen. Visitors can elect to continue through the exhibit thematically through areas devoted to the declaration of war, the use of artillery, the battlefield, and suffering. Some of the works profiled here including William Roberts' "The First German Gas Attack at Ypres" (which gives dramatic representation to the use of toxic gases by the German artillery) and Felix Vallotton's "Le plateau de Bolante", which depicts the war-swept landscape of the Artois region of France.

  17. National Park Service: War of 1812 Bicentennial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-14

    Hundreds of organizations have found creative and unique ways to celebrate the bicentennial of the War of 1812. The National Park Service has crafted this dynamic site to bring together a range of historical, educational, and programming resources related to this military conflict. After reading the helpful introductory essay here, visitors will want to delve into sections such as People, Stories, Preservation, and For Teachers. The Stories area is a real find, as it includes wonderful explorations of the temporary White House (the Octagon House) and African American sailors. Curious travelers looking to learn more about visiting War of 1812 sites should look through the Find a Park interactive map. The For Teachers area includes a range of instructional resources and lesson plans, including "Baltimore and the War of 1812" and "Twisted Strands: Rope Making." [KMG

  18. Head and facial injuries due to cluster munitions.

    PubMed

    Fares, Youssef; Fares, Jawad; Gebeily, Souheil

    2014-06-01

    Cluster munitions are weapons that scatter smaller sub-munitions intended to kill or mutilate on impact. They have been used by the Israeli army in the south of Lebanon and are now scattered over wide rural areas affecting its inhabitants. Because of their easily "pickable" nature, sub-munitions can inflict injuries to the head and face regions. In this study, we aimed to explore the head and face injuries along with their clinical features in a group of Lebanese patients who suffered from such injuries due to a sub-munition's detonation. The study included all the cases reported between 14 August 2006 and 15 February 2013, with head and face injuries related to cluster bombs. Injuries were classified into brain, eye, otologic and auditory impairments, oral and maxillofacial, and skin and soft-tissue injuries. Psychological effects of these patients were also examined as for post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and acute stress syndrome. During the study period, there were 417 casualties as a result of cluster munitions' blasts. Out of the total number of victims, 29 (7 %) were injured in the head and the face region. The convention on cluster munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these inhumane weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm innocent civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict and war today. PMID:24389857

  19. Genu of corpus callosum in diffuse axonal injury induces a worse 1-year outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetoshi Matsukawa; Masaki Shinoda; Motoharu Fujii; Osamu Takahashi; Daisuke Yamamoto; Atsushi Murakata; Ryoichi Ishikawa

    Background  Previous studies have shown a relationship between diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and unfavorable clinical outcome in patients\\u000a with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but it remains unclear whether the type of DAI lesion influences outcome after TBI. The\\u000a aim of the present study was to investigate whether 1-year outcome after TBI differed between patients with different types\\u000a of lesions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective,

  20. Traumatic brain injuries in illustrated literature: experience from a series of over 700 head injuries in the Asterix comic books

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel A. Kamp; Philipp Slotty; Sevgi Sarikaya-Seiwert; Hans-Jakob Steiger; Daniel Hänggi

    2011-01-01

    Background  The goal of the present study was to analyze the epidemiology and specific risk factors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in\\u000a the Asterix illustrated comic books. Among the illustrated literature, TBI is a predominating injury pattern.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective analysis of TBI in all 34 Asterix comic books was performed by examining the initial neurological status and\\u000a signs of TBI. Clinical