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1

Three-dimensional visualization and control of electronic warfare (EW) payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of unmanned vehicles carrying tactical payloads in the battle-space has accelerated the need for user-friendly visualization with graphical interfaces to provide remote command and control. Often these platforms and payloads receive their control functions from command centers located half a world away via satellite communications. Operators require situational awareness tools capable of graphically presenting the remote battlefield asset positions and collected sensor data. Often these systems use 2D software mapping tools in conjunction with video for real time situational awareness. The Special Projects Group (SPG) in the Tactical Electronic Warfare Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has been developing an operator control interface called the Jammer Control Station (JCS) to provide 3D battle-space visualization with built-in, remote EW payload command and control (C2) capabilities. The JCS interface presents the operator with graphic depictions of both the platforms' states and the RF environment. Text based messaging between the JCS and the EW payload reduces the impact of the system on the available bandwidth. This paper will discuss the use of the SIMDIS 3-D visualization tool as a real-time command and control interface for electronic warfare (EW) payloads.

Kirsch, Patricia; Tremper, David; Cortesi, Roger

2008-04-01

2

Introduction to electronic warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad overview of electronic warfare (EW) is given, emphasizing radar-related EW applications. A broad perspective of the EW field is first given, defining EW terms and giving methods of EW threat analysis and simulation. Electronic support measures and electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems are described, stressing their application to radar EW. Radars are comprehensively discussed from a system viewpoint with

D. C. Schleher

1986-01-01

3

Joint warfare system (JWARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a campaign-level model of military operations that is currently being developed under contract by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) for use by OSD, the Joint Staff, the Services, and the War fighting Commands. The behavior of military forces can be simulated from ports of embarkation through to their activities in combat.

A. Simlote

2003-01-01

4

Lumped element filters for electronic warfare systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demands which future generations of electronic warfare (EW) systems are to satisfy include a reduction in the size of the equipment. The present paper is concerned with lumped element filters which can make a significant contribution to the downsizing of advanced EW systems. Lumped element filter design makes it possible to obtain very small package sizes by utilizing classical low frequency inductive and capacitive components which are small compared to the size of a wavelength. Cost-effective, temperature-stable devices can be obtained on the basis of new design techniques. Attention is given to aspects of design flexibility, an interdigital filter equivalent circuit diagram, conditions for which the use of lumped element filters can be recommended, construction techniques, a design example, and questions regarding the application of lumped element filters to EW processing systems.

Morgan, D.; Ragland, R.

1986-02-01

5

Introduction to electronic warfare  

SciTech Connect

A broad overview of electronic warfare (EW) is given, emphasizing radar-related EW applications. A broad perspective of the EW field is first given, defining EW terms and giving methods of EW threat analysis and simulation. Electronic support measures and electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems are described, stressing their application to radar EW. Radars are comprehensively discussed from a system viewpoint with emphasis on their application in weapon systems and their electronic counter-countermeasures capabilities. Some general topics in C/sub 2/ systems are described, stressing communication systems, C/sub 2/I systems, and air defense systems. Performance calculations for EW and radar systems are covered, and modern EW signal processing is described from an airborne ECM perspective. Future trends and technology in the EW world are considered, discussing such topics as millimeter-wave EW, low-observable EW technology, GaAs monolithic circuits, VHSIC, and AI. 419 references.

Schleher, D.C.

1986-01-01

6

Introduction to electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad overview of electronic warfare (EW) is given, emphasizing radar-related EW applications. A broad perspective of the EW field is first given, defining EW terms and giving methods of EW threat analysis and simulation. Electronic support measures and electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems are described, stressing their application to radar EW. Radars are comprehensively discussed from a system viewpoint with emphasis on their application in weapon systems and their electronic counter-countermeasures capabilities. Some general topics in C3 systems are described, stressing communication systems, C3I systems, and air defense systems. Performance calculations for EW and radar systems are covered, and modern EW signal processing is described from an airborne ECM perspective. Future trends and technology in the EW world are considered, discussing such topics as millimeter-wave EW, low-observable EW technology, GaAs monolithic circuits, VHSIC, and AI.

Schleher, D. C.

7

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

8

Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit

F. Lançon

2011-01-01

9

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE Effects of METOC factors on EW systems against low detectable targets in a  

E-print Network

METOC measurement system supporting Naval Operations Sadanaga, Dean A. #11 C715675 1999 Surface#1 ELECTRONIC RESOURCE 2004 Effects of METOC factors on EW systems against low detectable targets in a tropical littoral environment / Jorge V. Vazquez Zarate Zarate, Jorge V. Vazquez. #2 ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

10

Antenna systems meet the diverse requirements of EW applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In meeting the requirements for Electronic Support Measure systems and Electronic Countermeasures (ESM/ECM), the antennas that provide the primary interface between friendly equipment and a potentially hostile external electromagnetic environment characteristically employ extremely broad operating frequency bands and wide polarization ranges. Missions cover the spectrum from omnidirectional acquisition to high resolution direction finding. Attention is presently given to ESM/ECM antenna systems that are representative of the full complement available at the current state of technology development, including cavity-backed planar spirals, omnidirectional biconical horns and conical spirals, and a long-periodic dipole array.

Ettling, L. G.

11

The compressive receiver - A versatile tool for EW systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical performance considerations are presented for the compressive receiver (CR), summarizing important design parameter relationships, and describing the application of the CR as a radar warning receiver, an electronic support measure and electronic intelligence IF processor, and a sensing device for communications intelligence systems. The CR can resolve and process signals with different carrier frequencies that are simultaneously present at the input of the receiver, including pulsed high duty cycle and CW signals. The probability of intercept is nearly 100 percent for CW, pulsed, and frequency agile signals. CRs also have a wide frequency range, up to 1 GHz instantaneous bandwidth, and can detect signals within microseconds.

Breuer, Klaus D.; Levy, Joseph S.; Paczkowski, Henry C.

1989-10-01

12

Electronic warfare testing at the Benefield anechoic facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the test capabilities of the Benefield Anechoic Facility (BAF) and its mission to support avionics and electronic warfare (EW) test and evaluation (T&E) of current and future generation manned and unmanned aerospace vehicles. Testing at the BAF can provide the dense, complex, and realistic signal environment necessary to evaluate integrated systems\\/subsystems to meet both Development Test and

Emad F. Ali; Pat Dubria; Bob Barker

1997-01-01

13

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement

Carlos M. Pereira; J. Rastegar; Clifford E. McLain; T. Alanson; Charles McMullan; H.-L. Nguyen

2007-01-01

14

Digital instantaneous frequency measurement for EW receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that the digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) assembly's ability to instantly measure a single RF pulse has promoted its widespread use for electronic warfare (EW) receivers. Probability of intercept is 100 percent for pulses of 100 nanoseconds or longer. In the present investigation, the DIFM is functionally configured, and key manufacturing support activities are examined. Attention

R. Bauman

1985-01-01

15

System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

2007-04-01

16

Radar electronic warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of radar and electronic warfare is given. Definitions, common terms, and principles of radar and electronic warfare, and simple analyses of interactions between radar systems and electronic countermeasures (ECM) are presented. Electronic counter-countermeasure and electronic support measures are discussed. Background material in mathematics, electromagnetics, and probability necessary for an understanding of radar and electronic warfare is given and

August Golden Jr.

1987-01-01

17

Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS\\/TR-01\\/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from

E. C. Hudson; Gordon Johnson; Delbert C. Summey; Helmut H. Portmann Jr.

2004-01-01

18

Applying Systems Engineering in Tactical Wireless Network Analysis with Bayesian Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering approaches are employed to measure and to analyze vulnerabilities of military tactical RF wireless networks. The goal is to develop smart and innovative performance benchmarks through electronic warfare (EW) modeling and simulation scenarios. Systematic systems engineering approaches with radio frequency (RF) electronic warfare modeling and simulation scenarios are built to support research in vulnerability analysis. RF electronic warfare

Philip Chan; Mo Mansuri; Hong Man

2010-01-01

19

A Cost Effective Solution for Time-Stamping Electronic Warfare System Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic warfare support (ES) systems receive and process RF data real-time and these systems are time critical. Hardware and software updates to existing ES systems are required to properly maintain these systems. Testing the hardware and software updates plays an important role for releasing the update into the field. The majority of this testing takes place in the laboratory. Two

K. Torres

2006-01-01

20

Digital instantaneous frequency measurement for EW receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that the digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) assembly's ability to instantly measure a single RF pulse has promoted its widespread use for electronic warfare (EW) receivers. Probability of intercept is 100 percent for pulses of 100 nanoseconds or longer. In the present investigation, the DIFM is functionally configured, and key manufacturing support activities are examined. Attention is given to typical EW DIFM performance characteristics, a DIFM used in an electronic countermeasures (ECM) receiver, a frequency discriminator network, the quantization of detected outputs, manufacturing error allowances, ion-beam milling, and the organization of DIFM testing.

Bauman, R.

1985-02-01

21

Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

2012-06-01

22

A probabilistic approach of the Flash Flood Early Warning System (FF-EWS) in Catalonia based on radar ensemble generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) are commonly identified as the most efficient tools in order to improve the preparedness and risk management against heavy rains and Flash Floods (FF) with the objective of reducing economical losses and human casualties. In particular, flash floods affecting torrential Mediterranean catchments are a key element to be incorporated within operational EWSs. The characteristic high spatial and temporal variability of the storms requires high-resolution data and methods to monitor/forecast the evolution of rainfall and its hydrological impact in small and medium torrential basins. A first version of an operational FF-EWS has been implemented in Catalonia (NE Spain) under the name of EHIMI system (Integrated Tool for Hydrometeorological Forecasting) with the support of the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC). Flash flood warnings are issued based on radar-rainfall estimates. Rainfall estimation is performed on radar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution (1km2 and 10 minutes) in order to adapt the warning scale to the 1-km grid of the EWS. The method is based on comparing observed accumulated rainfall against rainfall thresholds provided by the regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The so-called "aggregated rainfall warning" at every river cell is obtained as the spatially averaged rainfall over its associated upstream draining area. Regarding the time aggregation of rainfall, the critical duration is thought to be an accumulation period similar to the concentration time of each cachtment. The warning is issued once the forecasted rainfall accumulation exceeds the rainfall thresholds mentioned above, which are associated to certain probability of occurrence. Finally, the hazard warning is provided and shown to the decision-maker in terms of exceeded return periods at every river cell covering the whole area of Catalonia. The objective of the present work includes the probabilistic component to the FF-EWS. As a first step, we have incorporated the uncertainty in rainfall estimates and forecasts based on an ensemble of equiprobable rainfall scenarios. The presented study has focused on a number of rainfall events and the performance of the FF-EWS evaluated in terms of its ability to produce probabilistic hazard warnings for decision-making support.

Velasco, David; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Corral, Carles; Llort, Xavier; Velasco, Enrique

2010-05-01

23

GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.  

PubMed

Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi-layered perceptron (MLP) and the modified cerebellar model articulation controller (MCMAC) [IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern: Part B 30 (2000) 491] in predicting bank failures based on a population of 3635 US banks observed over a 21 years period. Three sets of experiments are performed-bank failure classification based on the last available financial record and prediction using financial records one and two years prior to the last available financial statements. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network as a bank failure classification and EWS is encouraging. PMID:15109685

Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

2004-05-01

24

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

2007-09-01

25

Radar electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of radar and electronic warfare is given. Definitions, common terms, and principles of radar and electronic warfare, and simple analyses of interactions between radar systems and electronic countermeasures (ECM) are presented. Electronic counter-countermeasure and electronic support measures are discussed. Background material in mathematics, electromagnetics, and probability necessary for an understanding of radar and electronic warfare is given and radar tracking models are examined. The effects of various ECM emissions on radar systems are analyzed, including discussion of active ECM and angle scanning systems, angle measurement in monopulse, and automatic gain control.

Golden, August, Jr.

26

Vapor Validation of Monitoring Systems for Detection of Trace Levels of Chemical Warfare Agents in Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Army facilities for elimination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) include instrumentation for monitoring trace-levels\\u000a of CWA in air. Protocols for calibration and quality control assessment of air-monitoring systems use solutions of agent standards\\u000a in solvent; however, agent potentially detected in the facility would be in gaseous form. The Army is conducting vapor validation\\u000a studies in collaboration with the Centers

Joseph Padayhag

27

Kinematics of rotating panels of E-W faults in the San1 Andreas system: what can we tell from geodesy?2  

E-print Network

Under review 1 Kinematics of rotating panels of E-W faults in the San1 Andreas system: what can we-W-trending sinistral and/or reverse faults occur within the San Andreas8 system, commonly associated with paleomagnetic and the western Transverse Ranges as17 examples.18 1. Introduction19 In several areas within the San Andreas

Becker, Thorsten W.

28

ELECTRONIC WARFARE NOVEMBER 2012  

E-print Network

FM 3-36 ELECTRONIC WARFARE NOVEMBER 2012 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release Electronic Warfare Contents Page PREFACE..............................................................................................................iv Chapter 1 ELECTRONIC WARFARE OVERVIEW ............................................................ 1

US Army Corps of Engineers

29

Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS/TR-01/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from a Joint perspective in USJFCOM Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) Report #03-10 (Unmanned Effects (UFX): Taking the Human Out of the Loop). Here, the authors build on this foundation by reviewing the major findings and laying out the roadmap for achieving the vision and truly transforming how we fight wars. The focus is on broad impact across the Fleet - but the implications reach across all Joint forces. The term "Unmanned System" means different things to different people. Most think of vehicles that are remotely teleoperated that perform tasks under remote human control. Actually, unmanned systems are stand-alone systems that can execute missions and tasks without direct physical manned presence under varying levels of human control - from teleoperation to full autonomy. It is important to note that an unmanned system comprises a lot more than just a vehicle - it includes payloads, command and control, and communications and information processing.

Hudson, E. C.; Johnson, Gordon; Summey, Delbert C.; Portmann, Helmut H., Jr.

2004-09-01

30

Sensor fusion with application to electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate, Survivability/Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Division mission is to provide affordable aircraft and ground electronic sensor/systems and signature management technologies which enhance survivability and lethality of US and International Forces. Since 1992, efforts have been undertaken in the area of Situational Awareness and Dominant Battlespace Knowledge. These include the Radar Deception and Jamming Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD), Survivability and Targeting System Integration, Integrated Situation Awareness and Targeting ATD, Combat Identification, Ground Vehicle Situational Awareness, and Combined Electronic Intelligence Target Correlation. This paper will address the Situational Awareness process as it relates to the integration of Electronic Warfare (EW) with targeting and intelligence and information warfare systems. Discussion will be presented on the Sensor Fusion, Situation Assessment and Response Management Strategies. Sensor Fusion includes the association, correlation, and combination of data and information from single and multiple sources to achieve refined position and identity estimates, and complete and timely assessments of situations and threats as well as their significance. Situation Assessment includes the process of interpreting and expressing the environmnet based on situation abstract products and information from technical and doctrinal data bases. Finally, Response Management provides the centralized, adaptable control of all renewable and expendable countermeasure assets resulting in optimization of the response to the threat environment.

Zanzalari, Robert M.; Van Alstine, Edward

1999-03-01

31

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-03-01

32

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

33

Biological Warfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following Web sites offer reliable information resources addressing biological warfare and related issues. The first Web site, from the Mayo Clinic, provides a brief overview of the agents commonly used in biological and chemical warfare -- such as anthrax, tularemia, and ricin (1). Links to related Mayo or CDC Web pages are also provided for further information. The next site contains a collection of articles on bioterrorism and bioweapons from the science news magazine NewScientist, spanning a range of about 4 years (2). Geneticists have determined which genes code for virulence in anthrax bacteria; the online version of Scientific American offers a recent article on this discovery (3). The Genetics Learning Center at the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics (University of Utah) takes a look a common misconceptions about biological warfare and provides and interesting overview of biological warfare programs in the US and beyond (4). The site also introduces Dark Winter, a fictional smallpox attack scenario staged by a collaboration of research organizations in June of 2001. Readers can find out more about Dark Winter in the following Web site from the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at John Hopkins University, one of the participating organizations (5). Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, a recently launched quarterly peer-reviewed journal, may be accessed online for free (6). The journal offers "multidisciplinary analyses and a vigorous exchange of perspectives that are essential to the formulation and implementation of successful strategies to diminish the threat of bioweapons." The last two sites are from MEDLINEplus, offering detailed information and numerous links of biological (7) and chemical (8) warfare.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

34

Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

Lançon, F.

2011-06-01

35

EXTRANETS AND INFORMATION WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extranets can achieve a considerable competitive advantage for companies through increased efficiencies especially combined with the attainment of superior information resources and the development of a dominant battlespace awareness. However, extranets increase the potential of an information warfare or hacking attack. Therefore, companies must implement significant security measures to ensure their information and systems remain secure. In this paper, with

Sarah Boddendyke; Mark C Williams

36

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE  

PubMed Central

The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

Beeston, John

1953-01-01

37

[Difficulty in using RP, PL, and EW factors in the Japanese classification of pancreatic carcinoma].  

PubMed

The classification of pancreatic carcinoma by the Japan Pancreas Society reflects the prognosis of each stage better than does the TMN classification. On the other hand, there are too many factors to examine in the Japanese system, some of which are difficult to use and have low accuracy in pre- and/or intraoperative diagnosis (RP and PL), and their analysis requires various specimen handling procedures (EW). We propose that: 1) a simple, easy decision flow chart be established for ew and 2) EW/ew be designated as (-) or (+) and for EW/ew (+) cases other factors (ly, v, pl, and direct tumor invasion) be added (for example, ew (+)-pl). PMID:10734641

Ogata, Y; Hishinuma, S; Ozawa, I; Tomikawa, M; Tsukioka, T

2000-02-01

38

Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world events and the proliferation of nuclear weapons related technology have increased the kinds of nuclear threats to include intentionally dispersed radiation sources and fallout from tactical nuclear weapons used in the modern AirLand battlefield scenario. Consequently, a DoD area of increasing interest focuses on determining the shielding effectiveness of foreign and US armored vehicles to radiological warfare and fallout radiation threats. To demonstrate the applicability of MASH for analyzing dispersed radiation source problems, calculations have been completed for two distributed sources; a dispersed radiation environment simulated by a uniformly distributed {sup 60}Co source, and a {sup 235}U fission weapon fallout source. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the free-field, the inside of a steel-walled two-meter box, in a phantom standing in the free-field, and in a phantom standing in the two-meter box. The results indicate substantial radiation protection factors for the {sup 60}Co dispersed radiation source and the fallout source compared to the prompt radiation protection factors. The dose protection factors ranged from 40 to 95 for the two-meter box and from 55 to 123 for the mid-gut position of the phantom standing in the box. The results further indicate that a {sup 60}Co source might be a good first order approximation for a tactical fission weapon fallout protection factor analysis.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Smith, M.S.

1994-03-01

39

Chinese Concepts and Capabilities of Information Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese consider Information Warfare (IW) as an assassin's mace which can be used to defeat superior with the inferior. Western concepts of Information Warfare have been suitably modified using traditional Chinese military thought. They place due emphasis on the psychological component of IW in order to shape the perceptions and belief system of the adversary. PLA has been practicing

Vinod Anand

2006-01-01

40

Unconventional Warfare: American and Soviet Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional warfare is a weapons system of hot and cold wars which is utilized for achievement of political and military goals. It is a type of warfare used equally by conventional military forces, paramilitary organizations, and civilian populations. The Sino-Soviet bloc's governments consider it an indispensable weapon of their political and military aggression and for promoting the goals of world

Slavko N. Bjelajac

1962-01-01

41

Role of Radar Cross Section facilities in a Radar and Electronic Warfare Defence Research and Evaluation capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper demonstrates the role of Radar Cross Section (RCS) facilities, consisting of modelling and simulation (M&S), Hardware in the Loop- (HWIL) and field Test and Evaluation (T&E) environments, in a Radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) Defence Research and Evaluation capability. The link between the development and utilisation of radar and EW facilities and the scientific process is illustrated

Ewerlank Pienaar; Thomas Küsel; Pieter Goosen; Christo Cloete; Louis Botha

42

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and evaluation of personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other Published Searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

43

Van-mounted UV-IR active\\/passive remote sensing system for chemical\\/biological warfare (CBW) and environmental applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-of-the-art, dual-use, mobile sensor suite has been developed incorporating both active, multi-wavelength, laser remote sensing technologies, as well as passive multispectral imaging systems. This paper discusses the current status and objectives of work ongoing at Battelle in the field of remote sensing for chemical\\/biological warfare (CBW) agents and environmental applications.

John P. Kurmer; Joseph Leonelli

1995-01-01

44

Positioning Security from electronic warfare  

E-print Network

: Lighthouses: Watchers at Sea, 1995 6 #12;Global positioning systems in future cars GPS receivers features privacy concerns vs substantial insurance discounts 8 #12;Remote attestation of aggregated;Military positioning-security concerns Electronic warfare is primarily about denying or falsifying location

Kuhn, Markus

45

Biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

46

GaAs ICs for new defense systems offer speed and radiation hardness benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with rapid technical growth affecting the world of electronic warfare (EW), it will be necessary to design both electronic support measure and electronic countermeasure systems with improved algorithms and processing techniques. The designs will have to be implemented with higher speed electronic components. It is pointed out that the performance advantages of GaAs integrated circuits, particularly in the

A. Firstenberg; S. Rooslid

1985-01-01

47

Analytic tools for information warfare  

SciTech Connect

Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

1996-05-01

48

Naval Surface Warfare Center Technical Digest. Research and Technology - Shaping Future Naval Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A vision of naval surface force structure in 2030; System challenges of technology transition; Objectives, principles, and attributes: A structured approach to system engineering; Advanced distributed processing technology and ADMRALS; A chemica...

1991-01-01

49

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

50

Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and\\/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting

Ryan S. Mackie; Amanda S. Schilling; Arturo M. Lopez; Alfredo Rayms-Keller

2002-01-01

51

A portable electronic nose system with chemiresistor sensors to detect and distinguish chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic nose has been studied as a means to realize artificial olfaction. Currently there are still only relatively large electronic nose “instruments”, since the signal manipulation and classification are still done by a personal computer or a laptop. A portable electronic nose system based on hand-held machine has been developed by using the vapor detection array made of carbon black-polymer

L. C. Wang; K. T. Tang; C. T. Kuo; C. L. Ho; S. R. Lin; Yuh Sung; C. P. Chang

2009-01-01

52

Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Mainside, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithologic and geophysical logs of boreholes at 29 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the Mainside of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, consists of un-consolidated sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The upper 220 feet of these sediments are divided into five hydrogeologic units, including the (1) Columbia (water-table) aquifer, (2) upper confining unit, (3) upper confined aquifer, (4) Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit, and (5) Aquia aquifer. The Columbia aquifer in the study area is a local system that is not affected by regional pumping. Ground-water recharge occurs at topographic highs in the northern part of the Mainside, and ground-water discharge occurs at topographic lows associated with adjacent surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of ground-water flow in the upper confined and Aquia aquifers is toward the southwest and southeast, respectively. A downward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers in the shallow system, and stresses on the Aquia aquifer are indicated by heads that range between 2 and 12 feet below sea level. The ratio of median horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Columbia aquifer to median vertical hydraulic con-ductivity of the upper confining unit, however, is approximately 2,600:1; therefore, under natural- flow conditions, most water in the Columbia aquifer probably discharges to adjacent surface- water bodies. The composition and distribution of major ions vary in the Columbia aquifer. In general, water samples from wells located along the inland perimeter roads of the study area have chloride or a combination of chloride and sulfate as the dominant anions, and water samples from wells located in the interior of the study area have bicarbonate or a combination of bicarbonate and sulfate as the dominant anions. Sodium and calcium were the dominant cations in most samples. Dissolved solids and four inorganic constituents are present in water from the Columbia aquifer at concentrations that exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL's) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentration of dissolved solids exceed the SMCL of 500 milligrams per liter in 3 of 29 samples from the Columbia aquifer. An elevated concentration of sodium is present in one water sample, and elevated concentrations of chloride are present in two water samples. Concentrations of dissolved iron and manga-nese exceed the SMCL in 10 and 17 of 29 water samples, respectively, and are the most extensive water-quality problem with regard to inorganic constituents in the Columbia aquifer.

Harlow, G. E., Jr.; Bell, C. F.

1996-01-01

53

Marketing Network Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy has created an innovative concept to fight future wars and deal with operations other than war-network centric warfare (NCW) . Unfortunately, NCW remains a Navy premise that is not well recognized or accepted by its own members or those of the ot...

S. E. McCarthy

2001-01-01

54

A review of current and future components for electronic warfare receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the role of conventional and new components in passive electronic warfare (EW) receivers. The various areas of EW are defined before restricting the discussion predominantly to the radar intercept problem at microwave frequencies. The operational parameters of conventional components are then reviewed including the multiplexer; crystal video, instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM), and scanning superheterodyne receivers. The significance of modularity, digital control, and hybrid combinations of components is highlighted. A brief description follows of the operational Cutlass EW equipment. New components based on surface-acoustic waves (SAW) and acoustooptic (AO) Bragg cells are then presented and their particular importance in channelized receivers, IFM's, and microscan receivers noted. Finally, a number of conclusions are drawn covering likely trends in EW receivers and the need for continuing development of large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits for signal sorting and overall digital management.

Collins, J. H.; Grant, P. M.

1981-05-01

55

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and evaluation of personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other Published Searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

56

I.K. Konstantopoulos and P.J. Antsaklis, "Optimal Design of Robust Controllers for Uncertain Discrete-Time Systems," P roc o f 3 rd I EEE M editerranean S ymposium o n N ew D irections i n C ontrol a nd  

E-print Network

Discrete- Time Systems," P roc o f 3 rd I EEE M editerranean S ymposium o n N ew D irections i n C ontrol and P.J. Antsaklis, "Optimal Design of Robust Controllers for Uncertain Discrete- Time Systems," P roc o, "Optimal Design of Robust Controllers for Uncertain Discrete- Time Systems," P roc o f 3 rd I EEE M

Antsaklis, Panos

57

Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.  

PubMed

On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

2014-01-01

58

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

59

Information Warfare: A Philosophical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Information Warfare—the warfare characterised by the use of information and communication technologies.\\u000a This is a fast growing phenomenon, which poses a number of issues ranging from the military use of such technologies to its\\u000a political and ethical implications. The paper presents a conceptual analysis of this phenomenon with the goal of investigating\\u000a its nature. Such an

Mariarosaria Taddeo

60

The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

Francis, Robert A.

2011-11-01

61

Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advent of cyber warfare has sparked a debate amongst theorists as to whether timeless Clausewitzian principles remain true in the 21st century. Violence, uncertainty, and rationality still accurately depict the nature of cyber warfare, however, its ma...

J. B. Dermer

2013-01-01

62

Information warfare: are you at risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information warfare at its simplest level is the use of computers to attack an adversary's information infrastructure while protecting one's own information infrastructure. The significance of information warfare threats has been recognized by both the business and government sectors. However, some governments and organizations have resorted to industrial and economic espionage employing information warfare attacks to gain unfair advantages over

A. J. Elbirt

2003-01-01

63

The Block II Chemical Biological Mass Spectrometer - Point Detection for Both Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Block II Chemical Biological Mass Spectrometer (CBMS) is a new instrument for point detection that integrates the detection and identification of both chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents into a single compact unit. It is based upon a direct-sampling ion trap mass spectrometer interfaced to three sampling systems and is operated in full scan and tandem mass

Wayne H. Griest; Marcus B. Wise; Kevin J. Hart; Stephen A. Lammert; Alexander P. Hryncewich; David W. Sickenberger

64

Identification of target genes for the Ewing's sarcoma EWS/FLI fusion protein by representational difference analysis.  

PubMed Central

The EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene results from the 11;22 chromosomal translocation in Ewing's sarcoma. The product of the gene is one of a growing number of structurally altered transcription factors implicated in oncogenesis. We have employed a subtractive cloning strategy of representational difference analysis in conjunction with a model transformation system to identify genes transcribed in response to EWS/FLI. We have characterized eight transcripts that are dependent on EWS/FLI for expression and two transcripts that are repressed in response to EWS/FLI. Three of the former were identified by sequence analysis as stromelysin 1, a murine homolog of cytochrome P-450 F1 and cytokeratin 15. Stromelysin 1 is induced rapidly after expression of EWS/FLI, suggesting that the stromelysin 1 gene may be a direct target gene of EWS/FLI. These results demonstrate that expression of EWS/FLI leads to significant changes in the transcription of specific genes and that these effects are at least partially distinct from those caused by expression of germ line FLI-1. The representational difference analysis technique can potentially be applied to investigate transformation pathways activated by a broad array of genes in different tumor systems. PMID:7623854

Braun, B S; Frieden, R; Lessnick, S L; May, W A; Denny, C T

1995-01-01

65

Biotechnology: impact on biological warfare and biodefense.  

PubMed

Advances in biological research likely will permit development of a new class of advanced biological warfare (ABW) agents engineered to elicit novel effects. In addition, biotechnology will have applications supporting ABW weaponization, dissemination, and delivery. Such new agents and delivery systems would provide a variety of new use options, expanding the BW paradigm. Although ABW agents will not replace threats posed by traditional biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Variola (smallpox), they will necessitate novel approaches to counterproliferation, detection, medical countermeasures, and attribution. PMID:15040194

Petro, James B; Plasse, Theodore R; McNulty, Jack A

2003-01-01

66

Dr. Juergen E.W. Polle Department of Biology  

E-print Network

stress. #12;Dr. Juergen E.W. Polle Department of Biology Brooklyn College of the City University of New and supervision of undergraduate students in the laboratory Lecturer: Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, USA Spring 2003Dr. Juergen E.W. Polle Department of Biology Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

Polle, Jürgen

67

Environmental assessment, aircraft chemical warfare survivability test program, Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

The proposed project, the Aircraft Chemical Warfare Survivability Test Program at Patuxent River Naval Air Station, involves the testing and development of aircraft systems and operating procedures for use in an environment contaminated with chemical/biological warfare agents. The tests will be performed in accordance with a directive from the chief of Naval Operations to obtain and maintain the capability to operate in a chemically-contaminated environment. These tests will be performed under outdoor, warm-weather conditions on a dredge disposal area and adjacent runways to simulate the conditions under which a real-life threat would be encountered.

NONE

1992-02-01

68

Luca Stanco -Padova EW and NP at HERA, Photon 2009 1 Luca Stanco INFN Padova  

E-print Network

Luca Stanco - Padova EW and NP at HERA, Photon 2009 1 EW at HERA Luca Stanco ­ INFN Padova: - EW constraints - Isolated Leptons - Single TOP #12;Luca Stanco - Padova EW and NP at HERA, Photon;Luca Stanco - Padova EW and NP at HERA, Photon 2009 3 HERA: the QCD machine Gluons and QCD dynamics Q2

69

COLLECTIVE PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND RADIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental principles and criteria are presented for use in the design ; of shelters to provide adequate and equal protection from chemical, biological, ; and radiological warfare agents in both gaseous and particulate form. Design ; criteria, drawings, and layouts are included for shelters, decontamination ; facilities, and ventilation systems. (Ca.);

Leber

1958-01-01

70

Passive millimeter-wave imaging device for naval special warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy Coastal Systems Station (CSS) is currently executing a program to develop a small, lightweight, low power passive millimeter wave imager. The end user will be Naval Special Operations Forces (SOF). The program began by conducting a feasibility assessment of the potential Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) technology that would meet the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) mission requirements. A

Frank Downs; Jody L. Wood; Bradley T. Blume; Roger M. Smith

1998-01-01

71

Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to characterize the hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia, which is located on the Potomac River in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The study provides a description of the hydrogeologic units, directions of ground-water flow, and back-ground water quality in the study area to a depth of about 100 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data were collected from 28 wells drilled for this study, from 3 existing wells, and from outcrops. The shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area consists of two fining-upward sequences of Pleistocene fluvial-estuarine deposits that overlie Paleocene-Eocene marine deposits of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. The surficial hydrogeologic unit is the Columbia aquifer. Horizontal linear flow of water in this aquifer generally responds to the surface topography, discharging to tidal creeks, marshes, and the Potomac River, and rates of flow in this aquifer range from 0.003 to 0.70 foot per day. The Columbia aquifer unconformably overlies the upper confining unit 12-an organic-rich clay that is 0 to 55 feet thick. The upper confining unit conformably overlies the upper confined aquifer, a 0- to 35-feet thick unit that consists of interbedded fine-grained to medium-grained sands and clay. The upper confined aquifer probably receives most of its recharge from the adjacent and underlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. Water in the upper confined aquifer generally flows eastward, northward, and northeastward at about 0.03 foot per day toward the Potomac River and Machodoc Creek. The Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit consists of glauconitic, fossiliferous silty fine-grained sands of the Nanjemoy Formation. Where the upper confined system is absent, the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is directly overlain by the Columbia aquifer. In some parts of the Explosive Experimental Area, horizontal hydraulic conductivities of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit and the Columbia aquifer are similar (from 10-4 to 10-2 foot per day), and these units effectively combine to form a thick (greater than 50 feet) aquifer. The background water quality of the shallow aquifer system is characteristic of ground waters in the Virginia Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Water in the Columbia aquifer is a mixed ionic type, has a median pH of 5.9, and a median total dissolved solids of 106 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper confined aquifer and Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is a sodium- calcium-bicarbonate type, and generally has higher pH, dissolved solids, and alkalinity than water in the Columbia aquifer. Water in the upper confined aquifer and some parts of the Columbia aquifer is anoxic, and it has high concentrations of dissolved iron, manganese, and sulfide.

Bell, C.F.

1996-01-01

72

Information warfare and nuclear conflict termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the possible implications of information warfare for efforts to terminate a nuclear war, or a war between nuclear armed states that is about to go nuclear. Information warfare could interfere with some of the requirements for nuclear conflict termination in at least five ways: by increasing the difficulty of accurate communication between heads of state; by decreasing

Stephen J. Cimbala

1998-01-01

73

Chemical warfare agent detection using MEMS-compatible microsensor arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsensors have been fabricated consisting of TiO2 and SnO2 sensing films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on microelectromechanical systems array platforms. Response measurements from these devices to the chemical warfare (CW) agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and HD (sulfur mustard) at concentrations between 5 nmol\\/mol (ppb) and 200 ppb in dry air, as well as to CW agent simulants

Douglas C. Meier; Charles J. Taylor; Richard E. Cavicchi; Michael W. Ellzy; Kenneth B. Sumpter; Steve Semancik

2005-01-01

74

Human Rights Watch: Chemical Warfare in Bosnia?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

75

Decontamination of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister a- gents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, pro- teinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and bio- logical terrorism, speedy

Yasuo SETO

2009-01-01

76

Pharmacokinetic modeling optimizes inhibition of the 'undruggable' EWS-FLI1 transcription factor in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors have long been deemed ‘undruggable’ targets for therapeutics. Enhanced recognition of protein biochemistry as well as the need to have more targeted approaches to treat cancer has rendered transcription factors approachable for therapeutic development. Since transcription factors lack enzymatic domains, the specific targeting of these proteins has unique challenges. One challenge is the hydrophobic microenvironment that affects small molecules gaining access to block protein interactions. The most attractive transcription factors to target are those formed from tumor specific chromosomal translocations that are validated oncogenic driver proteins. EWS-FLI1 is a fusion protein that results from the pathognomonic translocation of Ewing sarcoma (ES). Our past work created the small molecule YK-4-279 that blocks EWS-FLI1 from interacting with RNA Helicase A (RHA). To fulfill long-standing promise in the field by creating a clinically useful drug, steps are required to allow for in vivo administration. These investigations identify the need for continuous presence of the small molecule protein-protein inhibitor for a period of days. We describe the pharmacokinetics of YK-4-279 and its individual enantiomers. In vivo studies confirm prior in vitro experiments showing (S)-YK-4-279 as the EWS-FLI1 specific enantiomer demonstrating both induction of apoptosis and reduction of EWS-FLI1 regulated caveolin-1 protein. We have created the first rat xenograft model of ES, treated with (S)-YK-4-279 dosing based upon PK modeling leading to a sustained complete response in 2 of 6 ES tumors. Combining laboratory studies, pharmacokinetic measurements, and modeling has allowed us to create a paradigm that can be optimized for in vivo systems using both in vitro data and pharmacokinetic simulations. Thus, (S)-YK-4-279 as a small molecule drug is ready for continued development towards a first-in-human, first-in-class, clinical trial. PMID:24481407

Hong, S. Peter; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Monroe, Phillip; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Houghton, Peter; Uren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

77

Stability of the EW vacuum, Higgs boson, and new physics  

E-print Network

The possibility that the Standard Model (SM) is valid up to the Planck scale $M_P$, i.e. that new physics occurs only around $M_P$, is nowadays largely explored. For a metastable EW vacuum, we show that new physics interactions can have a great impact on its lifetime, and, differently from previous analyses, they cannot be neglected. Therefore, contrary to usual believes, the stability phase diagram of the SM depends on new physics. This has far reaching consequences. Beyond SM theories can be tested against their prediction for the stability of the EW vacuum. Moreover, despite of some recent claims, higher precision measurements of the top and Higgs masses cannot provide any definite answer on the SM stability properties. Finally, doubts on Higgs inflation scenarios, all based on results obtained neglecting new physics interactions, are also cast.

Branchina, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

78

Stability of the EW vacuum, Higgs boson, and new physics  

E-print Network

The possibility that the Standard Model (SM) is valid up to the Planck scale $M_P$, i.e. that new physics occurs only around $M_P$, is nowadays largely explored. For a metastable EW vacuum, we show that new physics interactions can have a great impact on its lifetime, and, differently from previous analyses, they cannot be neglected. Therefore, contrary to usual believes, the stability phase diagram of the SM depends on new physics. This has far reaching consequences. Beyond SM theories can be tested against their prediction for the stability of the EW vacuum. Moreover, despite of some recent claims, higher precision measurements of the top and Higgs masses cannot provide any definite answer on the SM stability properties. Finally, doubts on Higgs inflation scenarios, all based on results obtained neglecting new physics interactions, are also cast.

Vincenzo Branchina

2014-05-30

79

DK And: Reclassification as EW Binary from CCD Observations  

E-print Network

This paper describes the reclassification of DK And, formerly classified as a RRc type star, as EW binary. 1599 CCD unfiltered and filtered (V and R band) observations between 1999 and 2005 show, that the star is actually an eclipsing binary star with a period of P = 0.4892224 +/- 0.0000002 [d] with epoch E0 = 2451435.4353 +/- 0.0010 (if all historic data were taken into account). From our new observations 12 timings of minimum light are given.

F. -J. Hambsch; D. Husar

2006-07-26

80

[Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].  

PubMed

Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

2009-01-01

81

Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

2013-01-01

82

The role of rewards in motivating participation in simple warfare.  

PubMed

In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this "cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis" with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare. PMID:24008817

Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

2013-12-01

83

Biological agents: Weapons of warfare and bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin

Larry A. Broussard

2001-01-01

84

History of chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when

L. Szinicz

2005-01-01

85

Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecause of the increased threat of terrorism, the risk posed by various microorganisms as biological weapons needs to be evaluated and the historical development and use of biological agents better understood. Biological warfare agents may be more potent than conventional and chemical weapons. During the past century, the progress made in biotechnology and biochemistry has simplifi ed the development and

STEFAN RIEDEL

2004-01-01

86

Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

Davies, Philip H. J.

2002-01-01

87

Biological warfare: Implications for antimicrobial use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is intended to incapacitate a large number of individuals at a single exposure, creating epidemictype disease,\\u000a death, and social chaos. The organisms with potential for immediate use as bacteriologic weapons are Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia pestis, and Vibrio cholera, all necessitating antibiotic therapy for a cure. It is reasonable, therefore, to assume that a biological attack, or

Ethan Rubinstein; Itzhak Levi

2002-01-01

88

Conventional analytical methods for chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods that are currently used for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agents are reviewed and classified by the number of dimensions of infor- mation they provide. Single-dimensional sensors target specific compounds or classes of compounds. Although they can be less expensive and more portable than multidimensional sensors, multidimensional sensors detect a broader threat spectrum with greater precision

Herbert H. Hill; Stephen J. Martin

2002-01-01

89

Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid

Sylvia Smith Talmage; Annetta Paule Watson; Veronique Hauschild; Nancy B Munro; J. King

2007-01-01

90

The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry  

SciTech Connect

The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic goal of information warfare is then to destroy or defend the reliability (honesty) of communication networks. The handicap principle that governs the reliability (honesty) of animal communication networks can be considered as the nature s version of information warfare strategy because it is a product of natural selection. What is particularly interesting is to transfer the evolutionary game theory models [e.g., Sir Philip Sydney (SPS) game] for the handicap principle to the study of information warfare. In a broad perspective, we realize that the handicap principle may actually contradict the principle of asymmetry in asymmetric warfare. Anyway, not every species of animals has evolved expensive signaling equipments like male peacocks (whose exaggerated train is an example of handicap). Furthermore, the handicap principle is not only about communication, and it also embodies the spirits of cooperation and competition. In human societies, communication modulates cooperation and competition; so does in animal communication networks. Therefore, to evolve or maintain a sustainable communication network, the proper strategy should be to balance (modulate) the cooperation and competition with communication tools (information warfare tools), which is perhaps in contradiction with the asymmetric strategy. There might be a paradox in the strategy of asymmetric warfare, and whether or not information warfare can be used as an asymmetric tool is still an open question.

Ma, Zhanshan [University of Idaho] [University of Idaho; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL] [ORNL; Krings, Axel [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

91

Chemical and Biological Warfare Should Defenses Be Researched and Deployed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

and and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article ~~n~~~~ ~~~t~~t~~~x~~~ti ~~~~~ discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential Germany.l weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects. EXISTING AND POTENTIAL (~AM~.1989;262:644-648) WEAPONS

Jane M Orient

92

ICHEP08@Philadelphia, 29/7-5/8 1Zhiqing Zhang (LAL, Orsay) Study of Rare Exclusive EW Processes at HERAStudy of Rare Exclusive EW Processes at HERA  

E-print Network

ICHEP08@Philadelphia, 29/7-5/8 1Zhiqing Zhang (LAL, Orsay) Study of Rare Exclusive EW Processes at HERAStudy of Rare Exclusive EW Processes at HERA Z. Zhang LAL, Orsay On behalf of OUTLINE Introduction 1 Summary Covered abstracts: 100, 101, 823, 824 825, 831, 626 and 627 ZEUS H1 H1 & ZEUS #12;ICHEP08

93

A Very Low Temperature Vibration Isolation System* E.W. Hudson, R.W. Simmonds, C.A. Yi Leon, S.H. Pan, and J.C. Davis  

E-print Network

modes which might excite the rather stiff scanner. 2. DESIGN The isolation system consists of three main the matrix equation Ax c X r r = 1 . a Springs b Masses c He actuated bellows d Support (T=0.24K) Figure 1 from the initial stage with magnitude X0. Thus, the transfer function for the isolation is given by: Z

Packard, Richard E.

94

Ewing sarcoma gene EWS is essential for meiosis and B lymphocyte development  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma gene EWS encodes a putative RNA-binding protein with proposed roles in transcription and splicing, but its physiological role in vivo remains undefined. Here, we have generated Ews-deficient mice and demonstrated that EWS is required for the completion of B cell development and meiosis. Analysis of Ews–/– lymphocytes revealed a cell-autonomous defect in precursor B lymphocyte (pre–B lymphocyte) development. During meiosis, Ews-null spermatocytes were deficient in XY bivalent formation and showed reduced meiotic recombination, resulting in massive apoptosis and complete arrest in gamete maturation. Inactivation of Ews in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in premature cellular senescence, and the mutant animals showed hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Finally, we showed that EWS interacts with lamin A/C and that loss of EWS results in a reduced lamin A/C expression. Our findings reveal essential functions for EWS in pre–B cell development and meiosis, with proposed roles in DNA pairing and recombination/repair mechanisms. Furthermore, we demonstrate a novel role of EWS in cellular senescence, possibly through its interaction and modulation of lamin A/C. PMID:17415412

Li, Hongjie; Watford, Wendy; Li, Cuiling; Parmelee, Alissa; Bryant, Mark A.; Deng, Chuxia; O'Shea, John; Lee, Sean Bong

2007-01-01

95

Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

2011-11-01

96

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch

Han S. Uhm; Dong H. Shin; Yong C. Hong

2006-01-01

97

Air purification in chemical and biological warfare environments using gas-phase corona reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare materials create difficulties when designing or retrofitting high value targets such as buildings to withstand terrorist attack. The gas-phase corona reactor (GPCR) is a synergistic combination of plasma (or ionized gas) and catalyst technologies to produce an air purification system. The GPCR has demonstrated both chemical agent decomposition and biological material deactivation creating a universal air

Joseph G. Birmingham; Gautam Pillay

1997-01-01

98

Plasma decontamination of chemical & biological warfare agents by a cold arc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold arc plasma jet was introduced to decontaminate chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents for the application of a portable CBW decontamination system. The cold arc plasma jet is a low temperature, high density plasma that produces highly reactive species such as oxygen atoms and ozone. Moreover, it is possible to maintain stable plasma without He or Ar. The

Man Hyeop Han; Joo Hyun Noh; Ki Wan Park; Hyeon Seok Hwang; Hong Koo Baik

2008-01-01

99

Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991August 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify

Y. C. Yang; J. A. Baker; J. R. Ward

1992-01-01

100

Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

Pickl, William C.

1988-01-01

101

Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

Larsen, R.W.

1997-05-01

102

Further opportunities for applied psychologists in offensive warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today there is urgent need of a radical, even though temporary, change in the basic approach of the applied psychologist in his research––he must determine the factors which are destructive of human well-being and efficiency. Psychological warfare is an effective offensive weapon which should be closely coordinated with all other forms of warfare, military, naval, or economic, in the prosecution

J. G. Watkins

1943-01-01

103

Plasma destruction of battlefield chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Thermal plasmas are being evaluated for use in the destruction of deadly chemical and biological warfare agents. The technology approach consists of employing an electric arc to establish a plasma forming gas plume used to kill the harmful agents. The approach has been demonstrated on surrogate chemical and biological warfare agents. The harmful agents

E. O'Hair; J. Dickens; J. Fralick; L. Farrar

1998-01-01

104

Post Cold War economic and development on warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm of warfare has significantly changed from industrial and intrastate conflict to civil and informal war. This study examines the effect of Cold War and the post-Cold war economic policies and development polices have on the shift in warfare paradigm as well as funding conflict. Along with secondary literature, primary sources from international institutions such as International Monetary Fund,

Tamara Simunovic

2011-01-01

105

The Chinese People's Liberation Army and Space Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space warfare will be an integrated part of battle planning by the Chinese People's Liberation Army in any future conflict with the United States. The People's Liberation Army has carefully absorbed and is reacting to what the American armed forces have published on space warfare and counter-space operations. Chinese strategists and legal scholars are engaged in an internal debate on

Larry M. Wortzel

2008-01-01

106

Chemical Warfare Agents: Emergency Medical and Emergency Public Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of exposure to chemical warfare agents has traditionally been considered a military issue. Several recent events have demonstrated that civilians may also be exposed to these agents. The intentional or unintentional release of a chemical warfare agent in a civilian community has the potential to create thousands of casualties, thereby overwhelming local health and medical resources. The resources

Richard J Brennan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Trueman W Sharp; Scott R Lillibridge

1999-01-01

107

Cyber-Warfare Threatens Corporations: Expansion into Commercial Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a review of information warfare literature from 1990 to mid-2005, this article presents a framework of 12 important trends. These trends demonstrate the transformation of information warfare from primarily a military issue into a major commercial issue as well. Corporate IS managers need to understand the growing cyberwar threats and implement appropriate strategies to mitigate risk.

Kenneth J. Knapp; William R. Boulton

2006-01-01

108

Characterizing warfare in red teaming.  

PubMed

Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments. PMID:16604725

Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

2006-04-01

109

Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

110

Fighting Guerrilla Warfare in the Air By  

E-print Network

The views expressed in this publication are those of the author developed in the freedom of expression, academic environment of Air University. They do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Government, the Department of Defense, the United States Air Force or the Air War College. The US enforces its will on other nations through air dominance. Since a would-be adversary cannot challenge the US in the air by traditional means, that adversary will adopt a non-traditional "guerrilla " style air campaign. The guerrilla believes that "to secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself". 1 The US imposes dominance directly, indirectly, and through the threat of dominance. The guerrilla phases of gathering strength, challenging indirectly, and resorting to direct combat will use any means of electronic, ground and air order of battles. Its purpose is to achieve small victories that will force a reevaluation of political objectives. The threat of guerrilla warfare in the air is real and exists today. The US should prepare and shape the National Military Strategy accordingly. History suggests the kinds of wars the US will face will be conditioned by the very superiority possesses. 2 An indirect strategy of guerrilla warfare in the air is a very real alternative to those with limited means and the will to resist. 1

Gary C. Webb; Lt. Col

111

The system dynamics of future warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the unification of Germany have led to a new world order in which political structures have undergone substantial realingnent. NATO has been at the centre of this process of change which has led to the collapse of Soviet communism and the liberation of eastern Europe. Defence Operational

J. Moffat

1996-01-01

112

The Ews\\/Fli-1 Fusion Gene Changes the Status of p53 in Neuroblastoma Tumor Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hallmark of Ewing's sarcoma\\/peripheral neuroectodermal tumors is the presence of the Ews\\/Fli-1 chimeric oncogene. Interestingly, infection of neuroblastoma tumor cell lines with Ews\\/Fli-1 switches the differenti- ation program of neuroblastomas to Ewing's sarcoma\\/peripheral neuro- ectodermal tumors. Here we examined the status of cytoplasmically se- questered wt-p53 in neuroblastomas after stable expression of Ews\\/Fli-1. Immunofluorescence revealed that in the neuroblastoma-Ews\\/Fli-1

Checo J. Rorie; Bernard E. Weissman

2004-01-01

113

Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.  

PubMed

An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds. PMID:24597942

Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

2014-03-19

114

Acetylation Increases EWS-FLI1 DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activity  

PubMed Central

Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is associated with a balanced chromosomal translocation that in most cases leads to the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 has been shown to be crucial for ES cell survival and tumor growth. However, its regulation is still enigmatic. To date, no functionally significant post-translational modifications of EWS-FLI1 have been shown. Since ES are sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI), and these inhibitors are advancing in clinical trials, we sought to identify if EWS-FLI1 is directly acetylated. We convincingly show acetylation of the C-terminal FLI1 (FLI1-CTD) domain, which is the DNA binding domain of EWS-FLI1. In vitro acetylation studies showed that acetylated FLI1-CTD has higher DNA binding activity than the non-acetylated protein. Over-expression of PCAF or treatment with HDI increased the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, when co-expressed in Cos7 cells. However, our data that evaluates the acetylation of full-length EWS-FLI1 in ES cells remains unclear, despite creating acetylation specific antibodies to four potential acetylation sites. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 may either gain access to chromatin as a result of histone acetylation or undergo regulation by direct acetylation. These data should be considered when patients are treated with HDAC inhibitors. Further investigation of this phenomenon will reveal if this potential acetylation has an impact on tumor response. PMID:22973553

Schlottmann, Silke; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Knights, Chad; Cheema, Amrita; Uren, Aykut; Avantaggiati, Maria L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

115

Biological warfare: A problem waiting to happen. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare poses a significant threat to the United States. After early forays to develop a biological military capability, the US renounced the development, possession, and use of such weapons. Diplomatic initiatives resulted in the Biological Warfare Conventions of 1972 which attempted to establish an agreement to ban the stockpiling of weapons and all research toward offensive capabilities. The treaty was flawed, however, as there were no provisions for verification, inspection, or penalties. The US Dismantled its biological warfare program, while others discreetly continued to explore biological alternatives. Today the US faces a biological warfare threat from regional powers, developing Third World nations and terrorists groups. During Desert Storm, American forces were not prepared to operate in a biological environment.

Brotchie, C.F.

1993-04-15

116

Reconsidering Asymmetric Warfare (Joint Force Quarterly, Issue 36).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new security concept emerged on the American defense-planning scene several years ago. Asymmetric warfare was worked into the 1997 National Security Strategy. Analysts and major defense documents have since described the more vexing and menacing securit...

S. J. Lambakis

2004-01-01

117

Innovation, wargaming, and the development of armored warfare  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the role of simulation in the development of armored warfare doctrine during the interwar period. All the Great Powers faced the challenge of how to integrate new technologies, particularly the tank, ...

Carter, Daniel S. (Daniel Simon)

2005-01-01

118

Identification of a tripartite import signal in the Ewing Sarcoma protein (EWS)  

SciTech Connect

The Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) protein is a ubiquitously expressed RNA processing factor that localises predominantly to the nucleus. However, the mechanism through which EWS enters the nucleus remains unclear, with differing reports identifying three separate import signals within the EWS protein. Here we have utilized a panel of truncated EWS proteins to clarify the reported nuclear localisation signals. We describe three C-terminal domains that are important for efficient EWS nuclear localization: (1) the third RGG-motif; (2) the last 10 amino acids (known as the PY-import motif); and (3) the zinc-finger motif. Although these three domains are involved in nuclear import, they are not independently capable of driving the efficient import of a GFP-moiety. However, collectively they form a complex tripartite signal that efficiently drives GFP-import into the nucleus. This study helps clarify the EWS import signal, and the identification of the involvement of both the RGG- and zinc-finger motifs has wide reaching implications.

Shaw, Debra J.; Morse, Robert; Todd, Adrian G. [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom)] [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); Eggleton, Paul [Inflammation and Musculoskeletal Disease, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom) [Inflammation and Musculoskeletal Disease, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); MRC Immunochemistry Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Lorson, Christian L. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Young, Philip J., E-mail: philip.young@pms.ac.uk [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom)

2009-12-25

119

Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

Denkba?, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

120

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

2006-09-01

121

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5 Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-18

122

The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2007-05-01

123

75 FR 3901 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Warfare Center Panama City Division's (NSWC PCD's) capabilities to conduct new and increased...Andrew Bay, collectively known as the NSWC PCD Study Area. The proposed action is required...test, and evaluate systems within the NSWC PCD Study Area. In its decision, the...

2010-01-25

124

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

125

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 229 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-03-01

126

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

127

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

128

Comparative Analysis of Active and Passive Sensors in Anti-Air Warfare Area Defense Using Discrete Event Simulation Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anti-air warfare (AAW) has been a top priority for the world's navies in developing tactics and choosing the most effective ship defense systems. This thesis develops a model as an analysis tool to measure the effectiveness of radar and IR sensors in AAW ...

O. Kulac

1999-01-01

129

Navy internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) transition strategy in support of network-centric operations and warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-centric warfare is the operational concept that provides information sharing amongst a large array of networked nodes, including mobile platforms, sensors, space systems, weapons, munitions and war fighters. This information sharing enhances battle space situation awareness, which allows war fighters to get the right information at the right time and place, and to make the right decisions ahead of adversaries.

Phuong Nguyen; Robert Ferro; Anh Nguyen; Steven Lam; Tuan Nguyen; Timothy Ho; Roger Ogden; Daniel Greene; Mark Stell; Cam Tran; Albert K. Legaspi

2008-01-01

130

NAVY INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPv6) TRANSITION STRATEGY IN SUPPORT OF NETWORK-CENTRIC OPERATIONS AND WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-centric warfare is the operational concept that provides information sharing amongst a large array of networked nodes, including mobile platforms, sensors, space systems, weapons, munitions and war fighters. This information sharing enhances battle space situation awareness, which allows war fighters to get the right information at the right time and place, and to make the right decisions ahead of adversaries.

Phuong Nguyen; Robert Ferro; Anh Nguyen; Steven Lam; Tuan Nguyen; Timothy Ho; Roger Ogden; Daniel Greene; Mark Stell; Cam Tran; Albert K. Legaspi

2003-01-01

131

?-PADs for detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Conventional methods of detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on chromogenic reactions are time and solvent intensive. The development of cost, time and solvent effective microfluidic paper based analytical devices (?-PADs) for the detection of nerve and vesicant agents is described. The detection of analytes was based upon their reactions with rhodamine hydroxamate and para-nitrobenzyl pyridine, producing red and blue colours respectively. Reactions were optimized on the ?-PADs to produce the limits of detection (LODs) as low as 100 ?M for sulfur mustard in aqueous samples. Results were quantified with the help of a simple desktop scanner and Photoshop software. Sarin achieved a linear response in the two concentration ranges of 20-100 mM and 100-500 mM, whereas the response of sulfur mustard was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 mM. Results were precise enough to establish the ?-PADs as a valuable tool for security personnel fighting against chemical terrorism. PMID:23086107

Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

2012-12-01

132

EW-7197, a novel ALK-5 kinase inhibitor, potently inhibits breast to lung metastasis.  

PubMed

Advanced tumors produce an excessive amount of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?), which promotes tumor progression at late stages of malignancy. The purpose of this study was to develop anti-TGF? therapeutics for cancer. We synthesized a novel small-molecule TGF? receptor I kinase (activin receptor-like kinase 5) inhibitor termed N-[[4-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-6-yl)-5-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]methyl]-2-fluoroaniline (EW-7197), and we investigated its potential antimetastatic efficacy in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)/c-Neu mice and 4T1 orthotopic-grafted mice. EW-7197 inhibited Smad/TGF? signaling, cell migration, invasion, and lung metastasis in MMTV/c-Neu mice and 4T1 orthotopic-grafted mice. EW-7197 also inhibited the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both TGF?-treated breast cancer cells and 4T1 orthotopic-grafted mice. Furthermore, EW-7197 enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in 4T1 orthotopic-grafted mice and increased the survival time of 4T1-Luc and 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice. In summary, EW-7197 showed potent in vivo antimetastatic activity, indicating its potential for use as an anticancer therapy. PMID:24817629

Son, Ji Yeon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Sol-Ji; Lee, Seon Joo; Park, Sang-A; Kim, Min-Jin; Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Dae-Kee; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

2014-07-01

133

GaAs ICs for new defense systems offer speed and radiation hardness benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In connection with rapid technical growth affecting the world of electronic warfare (EW), it will be necessary to design both electronic support measure and electronic countermeasure systems with improved algorithms and processing techniques. The designs will have to be implemented with higher speed electronic components. It is pointed out that the performance advantages of GaAs integrated circuits, particularly in the area of speed, make this technology the prime candidate for satisfying next generation wideband signal and data processing system requirements. GaAs digital integrated circuits offer advantages in speed, power dissipation, radiation hardness, and operating temperature range. Activities to reduce electron transit time for the improvement of device speed are focused on second generation GaAs devices referred to as heterostructures, since they consist of two different material systems, GaAs and AlGaAs. New developments related to the use of GaAs ICs are reviewed.

Firstenberg, A.; Rooslid, S.

1985-03-01

134

Tectonics of the Western Betics: the role of E-W strike slip fault corridors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic origin of the arcuate Betic-Rif orogenic belt that surrounds the Alboran Sea at the western tip of the Mediterranean Sea remains debated. Here, we investigate the tectonic units cropping out in the Western Betics (Malaga region, Southern Spain) with the main goal of reconstructing the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the area. New structural data and geological mapping together with available data allow us to identify the main structural features of the area. Deformation is found to be extremely diffused but two E-W elongated tectonic blocks with different lithological composition are outlined by marked E-W dextral strike-slip corridors ending up in horse-tail splays. These E-W strike slip corridors are responsible for late Miocence tectonics of both the internal and external zones of the Betic Cordillera.

Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Célérier, Bernard

2014-05-01

135

Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.  

PubMed

Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications. PMID:24048279

Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

2013-12-21

136

A small molecule blocking oncogenic protein EWS-FLI1 interaction with RNA helicase A inhibits growth of Ewing's sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sarcomas and leukemias carry nonrandom chromosomal translocations encoding tumor-specific mutant fusion transcription factors that are essential to their molecular pathogenesis. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) contain a characteristic t(11;22) translocation leading to expression of the oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is a disordered protein that precludes standard structure-based small-molecule inhibitor design. EWS-FLI1 binding to RNA helicase A (RHA) is

Hayriye V Erkizan; Yali Kong; Melinda Merchant; Silke Schlottmann; Julie S Barber-Rotenberg; Linshan Yuan; Ogan D Abaan; Tsu-hang Chou; Sivanesan Dakshanamurthy; Milton L Brown; Aykut Üren; Jeffrey A Toretsky

2009-01-01

137

Biological warfare in a historical perspective.  

PubMed

There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse. PMID:12197867

Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

2002-08-01

138

The role of the sand in chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans: Al Eskan disease and "dirty dust".  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between Al Eskan disease and the probable exposure to chemical warfare agents by Persian Gulf War veterans. Al Eskan disease, first reported in 1991, compromises the body's immunological defense and is a result of the pathogenic properties of the extremely fine, dusty sand located in the central and eastern region of the Arabian peninsula. The disease manifests with localized expression of multisystem disorder. Signs and symptoms of Al Eskan disease have been termed by the news media "Persian Gulf syndrome." The dust becomes a warfare agent when toxic chemicals are microimpregnated into inert particles. The "dirty dust" concept, that the toxicity of an agent could be enhanced by absorption into inactive particles, dates from World War I. A growing body of evidence shows that coalition forces have encountered Iraqi chemical warfare in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War to a much greater extent than early U.S. Department of Defense information had indicated. Veterans of that war were exposed to chemical warfare agents in the form of direct (deliberate) attacks by chemical weapons, such as missiles and mines, and indirect (accidental) contamination from demolished munition production plants and storage areas, or otherwise. We conclude that the microimpregnated sand particles in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War depleted the immune system and simultaneously acted as vehicles for low-intensity exposure to chemical warfare agents and had a modifying-intensifying effect on the toxicity of exposed individuals. We recommend recognition of a new term, "dirty sand," as a subcategory of dirty dust/dusty chemical warfare agents. Our ongoing research efforts to investigate the health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans suggest that Al Eskan disease is a plausible and preeminent explanation for the preponderance of Persian Gulf War illnesses. PMID:10826378

Korényi-Both, A L; Svéd, L; Korényi-Both, G E; Juncer, D J; Korényi-Both, A L; Székely, A

2000-05-01

139

Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings. PMID:12704086

Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

2003-01-01

140

Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic

Richard J. Hughbank

2009-01-01

141

Fear as a medium of communication in asymmetric forms of warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear is defined as the distinction between risk and danger, a distinction that operates in communicative forms. War is always also warfare about the form of war. The article describes how fear in warfare becomes a symbolically generalized medium of communication, mainly focusing on how the form of fear evolves in asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric war induces fear in both parties,

Gorm Harste

2011-01-01

142

Chapter 7 Chemical analysis of organoarsenic based chemical warfare agents in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes important features of the environmental hazard, toxicological aspects and the problems of the chemical analysis of organoarsenic based warfare agents. Since most other warfare agents including mustard gas are degraded almost completely to less or even non-toxic products other warfare agents are not considered. The report consists of three different parts: In the beginning some general aspects

F.-A. Pitten; K. Thurow; A. Koch; A. Kramer

2000-01-01

143

Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Web site offers an unclassified document for public review entitled Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War. The introductory paragraph states, "This paper reflects the results of our multifaceted investigation into the Chemical Warfare (CW) issue, examining information on CW agent releases, Gulf war Iraqi CW deployments, and Iraqi chemical agents and weapons." One of the final paragraphs claims that the US still believes that Iraq did not use chemical weapons against Coalition forces. Although perhaps a difficult subject to read about, the one-page site does offer those interested a glimpse into one destructive use of science that humans have developed.

2002-01-01

144

Bubble suspension rheology and implications for conduit flow E.W. Llewellina,T, M. Mangab  

E-print Network

suspension; conduit-flow model; eruption model; capillary number 1. Introduction The region between bubble.llewellin@bris.ac.uk (E.W. Llewellin)8 manga@seismo.berkeley.edu (M. Manga). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 143 (2005) 205­217 www.elsevier.com/locate/jvolgeores #12;simulations (e.g., Manga et al., 1998

Manga, Michael

145

SmartBook: The ew Generation e-Book Meets University 2.0  

E-print Network

SmartBook: The ew Generation e-Book Meets University 2.0 Ivan Koychev*1, Roumen Nikolov* , Darina generation of `smart' books: e-books that are evolving, highly interactive, customisable, adaptable and experiencing called SmartBook. The paper also discusses the opportunities to use SmartBook as a vehicle

Koychev, Ivan

146

www.unh.edu (Search: "Positive Exercise") ew research from the  

E-print Network

CreatingYour PlanB B PositiveMemories Mean More Exercise DarkChocolate Health Benefits MysterySolved UCONNwww.unh.edu (Search: "Positive Exercise") N ew research from the University of New Hampshire shows that a positive memory about exercise increases the likeli- hood that you will repeat the exercise. The new

Kim, Duck O.

147

Vortex Liquid Crystals in Anisotropic Type II Superconductors E.W. Carlson,1,2  

E-print Network

Vortex Liquid Crystals in Anisotropic Type II Superconductors E.W. Carlson,1,2 A. H. Castro Neto,1 constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II super- conductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first

Carlson, Erica

148

Function of EWS-POU5F1 in Sarcomagenesis and Tumor Cell Maintenance  

PubMed Central

POU5F1 is a transcription factor essential for the self-renewal activity and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and germ cells. We have previously reported that POU5F1 is fused to EWSR1 in a case of undifferentiated sarcoma with chromosomal translocation t(6;22)(p21;q12). In addition, the EWS-POU5F1 chimeras have been recently identified in human neoplasms of the skin and salivary glands. To clarify the roles of the EWS-POU5F1 chimera in tumorigenesis and tumor cell maintenance, we used small-interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing. Knockdown of EWS-POU5F1 in the t(6;22) sarcoma-derived GBS6 cell line resulted in a significant decrease of cell proliferation because of G1 cell cycle arrest associated with p27Kip1 up-regulation. Moreover, senescence-like morphological changes accompanied by actin polymerization were observed. In contrast, EWS-POU5F1 down-regulation markedly increased the cell migration and invasion as well as activation of metalloproteinase 2 and metalloproteinase 14. The results indicate that the proliferative activity of cancer cells and cell motility are discrete processes in multistep carcinogenesis. These findings reveal the functional role of the sarcoma-related chimeric protein as well as POU5F1 in the development and progression of human neoplasms. PMID:20203285

Fujino, Takashi; Nomura, Kimie; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Makino, Hatsune; Umezawa, Akihiro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Nagasaki, Koichi; Nakamura, Takuro

2010-01-01

149

Bounce Averaged Electron Fluid N EW FLUID EQUATIONS FOR TRAPPED ELECTRONS are developed  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Bounce Averaged Electron Fluid Equations N EW FLUID EQUATIONS FOR TRAPPED ELECTRONS the dynamics of the toroidal ITG and (somewhat less accurately) trapped ion modes when the electrons are adiabatic, but for re­ alistic tokamak parameters, the nonadiabatic electron response, which primarily comes

Hammett, Greg

150

Binary Lenses in OGLE III EWS Database. Season 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present nine new binary lens candidates from OGLE-III Early Warning System database for the season of 2005. We have also found four events interpreted as single mass lensing of double sources. The candidates have been selected by visual light curves inspection. Examining the models of binary lenses in our previous studies (10 caustic crossing events of OGLE-II seasons 1997-1999 and 34 binary lens events of OGLE-III seasons 2002-2004, including one planetary event), in this work and in three publications concerning planetary events of season 2005, we find four cases of extreme mass ratio binaries (q<=0.01), and almost all other models with mass ratios in the range 0.1systems and binary stars.

Skowron, J.; Jaroszynski, M.; Udalski, A.; Kubiak, M.; Szymanski, M. K.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Szewczyk, O.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Ulaczyk, K.

2007-12-01

151

Detection of chemical warfare agents using nanostructured metal oxide sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of thick-film chemical sensors based on various semiconductor metal oxides to reliably detect chemical warfare agents has been studied. Nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) powders were used as initial materials for the sensors’ fabrication. The thick films were prepared using a simple drop-coating technique accompanied with in situ annealing of the deposited films by a heater that is

Alexey A. Tomchenko; Gregory P. Harmer; Brent T. Marquis

2005-01-01

152

Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: A historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50–80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and

Tien Yin Wong; Major Benjamin Seet; Chong-Lye Ang

1997-01-01

153

INFORMATION WARFARE AND THE FUTURE OF THE SPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of the new ICTs on the collection of covert intelligence and covert political actions undertaken by national intelligence agencies. It is argued that there exist two distinct doctrines in the literatures of intelligence and information warfare concerning the future relative importance of information from human sources ('agents') and technical methods (signal interception, overhead imagery and

Philip H. J. Davies

1999-01-01

154

Chemical and Biological Warfare (I): The Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is the intentional use of living organisms or their toxic products to cause death, disability, or damage in man, animals, or plants. The target is man, either by causing his sickness or death, or through limitation of his food supplies or other agricultural resources. Man must wage a continuous fight to maintain and defend himself, his animals, and

Elinor Langer

1967-01-01

155

BIOMATERIALS FOR MEDIATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and

Alan J. Russell; Jason A. Berberich; G ´ eraldine; F. Drevon

2003-01-01

156

Considering the Consequences of Space Warfare in the Geosynchronous Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today in the United States there is a rejuvenated push for space weapons and the restraint that was exercised regarding the military use of space during the Cold War is notably absent. This talk aims to demonstrate that space is an unacceptable arena for warfare based on the notion that fragment-generating attacks in space could cause irreparable damage to the

Caroline Reilly

2008-01-01

157

Affecting trust: Terrorism, internet and offensive information warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national security consequences of the potential use of the Internet by terrorist organizations have attracted the interest of many academics and government and intelligence officials. The goal of this article is to provide a new explanatory angle concerning the possible targets of terrorists’ offensive information warfare (OIW) operations. It argues that these organizations may prove more valuable and effective

Lorenzo Valeri; Michael Knights

2000-01-01

158

NEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target  

E-print Network

and limitations of NEW concepts. The advantages of linking multiple electronic support measures (ESM support measures (ESM) and electronic attack (EA) assets to achieve improved capabilities acrossNEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target Recognition QILIAN LIANG University of Texas

Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

159

NEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-enabled electronic warfare (NEW) is the development of modeling and simulation efforts that explore the advantages and limitations of NEW concepts. The advantages of linking multiple electronic support measures (ESM) and electronic attack (EA) assets to achieve improved capabilities across a networked battle force have yet to be quantified. In this paper, we utilize radar sensors as ESM and EA

Qilian Liang; Xiuzhen Cheng; Sherwood W. Samn

2010-01-01

160

Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

Cooper, Martha

161

New Media: The Key to Influence in Irregular Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rate at which the 'New Media' global phenomenon is erupting is important to Special Operations Forces because most aspects of irregular warfare involve a focus on populations and the ways in which they are influenced, either as the enemy's Center of G...

D. L. Chancey

2013-01-01

162

Trench warfare on the shore: interclonalaggression in sea anemones  

E-print Network

Trench warfare on the shore: interclonalaggression in sea anemones mpirical research in behavioral surrounded by tentacles. The organism in question is the sea anemoneAnthopleura elegantissima,acon- spicuous- etically distinct groups of anemones are typically separated by an anemone-free zonethat callsto mind

Bermingham, Eldredge

163

Warfare, Demography & Anthropogenic Transformation at Angel Mounds State Historic Site  

E-print Network

Warfare, Demography & Anthropogenic Transformation at Angel Mounds State Historic Site Jeremy J investigations by the Department of Anthropology (IU School of Liberal Arts) and the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology (IU-Bloomington) at Angel Mounds have greatly enhanced our understanding of this Mississippian

Zhou, Yaoqi

164

Complete degradation of Yperite, a chemical warfare agent, by basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete degradation of Yperite (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide), a chemical warfare agent, was achieved by two basidiomycetous cultures. Two distinct metabolic pathways were detected in each fungus during degradation of Yperite. The major path involved a non-enzymatic hydrolysis to generate thiodiglycol. In the minor path, the sulfide bond was cleaved prior to the hydrolytic dechlorination reaction, yielding chloroethanol and chloromercaptoethane, both

Hiroyuki Wariishi; Noriyuki Itoh; Michiko Yoshida; Hiroo Tanaka

2002-01-01

165

EWS-FLI1 inhibits TNF{alpha}-induced NF{kappa}B-dependent transcription in Ewing sarcoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} EWS-FLI1 interferes with TNF-induced activation of NF{kappa}B in Ewing sarcoma cells. {yields} EWS-FLI1 knockdown in Ewing sarcoma cells increases TNF-induced NF{kappa}B binding to DNA. {yields} EWS-FLI1 reduces TNF-stimulated NF{kappa}B-dependent transcriptional activation. {yields} Constitutive NF{kappa}B activity is not affected by EWS-FLI1. {yields} EWS-FLI1 physically interacts with NF{kappa}B p65 in vivo. -- Abstract: Ewing sarcoma is primarily caused by a t(11;22) chromosomal translocation encoding the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. To exert its oncogenic function, EWS-FLI1 acts as an aberrant transcription factor, broadly altering the gene expression profile of tumor cells. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF{kappa}B) is a tightly regulated transcription factor controlling cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, as well as tumorigenesis. NF{kappa}B activity is very low in unstimulated Ewing sarcoma cells, but can be induced in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We wondered whether NF{kappa}B activity could be modulated by EWS-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma. Using a knockdown approach in Ewing sarcoma cells, we demonstrated that EWS-FLI1 has no influence on NF{kappa}B basal activity, but impairs TNF-induced NF{kappa}B-driven transcription, at least in part through inhibition of NF{kappa}B binding to DNA. We detected an in vivo physical interaction between the fusion protein and NF{kappa}B p65, which could mediate these effects. Our findings suggest that, besides directly controlling the activity of its primary target promoters, EWS-FLI1 can also indirectly influence gene expression in tumor cells by modulating the activity of key transcription factors such as NF{kappa}B.

Lagirand-Cantaloube, Julie, E-mail: julie.cantaloube@crbm.cnrs.fr [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)] [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France); Laud, Karine, E-mail: karine.laud@curie.fr [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France) [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Institut Curie, Genetique et biologie des cancers, Paris (France); Lilienbaum, Alain, E-mail: alain.lilienbaum@univ-paris-diderot.fr [EA300 Universite Paris 7, Stress et pathologies du cytosquelette, Paris (France)] [EA300 Universite Paris 7, Stress et pathologies du cytosquelette, Paris (France); Tirode, Franck, E-mail: franck.tirode@curie.fr [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France) [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Institut Curie, Genetique et biologie des cancers, Paris (France); Delattre, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.delattre@curie.fr [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France) [U830 INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Institut Curie, Genetique et biologie des cancers, Paris (France); Auclair, Christian, E-mail: auclair@lbpa.ens-cachan.fr [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)] [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France); Kryszke, Marie-Helene, E-mail: kryszke@lbpa.ens-cachan.fr [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)] [UMR8113 CNRS, LBPA, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)

2010-09-03

166

Feasibility of a multipurpose transceiver module for phased array radar and EW applications using RFIC technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array antennas have a large number of civilian and military applications. In this paper we briefly review common approaches to an integrated implementation of radar and electronic warfare digital phase array module and highlight features that are common to both of these applications. Then we discuss how the promising features of the radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC)-based technology can be utilized in building a transceiver module that meets the requirements of both radar and electronic warfare applications with minimum number of external components. This is achieved by researching the pros and cons of the different receiver architectures and their performance from the targeted applications point of view. Then, we survey current RFIC technologies and highlight the pros and cons of these technologies and how they impact the performance of the discussed receiver architectures.

Al-Sarawi, Said; Hansen, Hedley; Zhu, Yingbo

2007-12-01

167

The history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism.  

PubMed

The inevitable conclusion is that the availability of biological warfare agents and supporting technologic infrastructure, coupled with the fact that there are many people motivated to do harm to the United States, means that America must be prepared to defend her homeland against biological agents. Some have argued to the contrary, that the threat and risks from a biological weapon attack are not to be considered serious, because [39]: They've not been used yet on a large scale so they probably won't be in the near future. Their use is so morally repugnant that they probably won't be used at all. The technologic hurdles associated with isolating, growing, purifying, weaponizing, and disseminating adequate quantities of pathologic agents are so high that only the most advanced laboratories could attempt the process. Similar to a 'nuclear winter,' the aftermath of a biological attack is so unthinkable that none would attempt it. Unfortunately, the trends associated with biotechnology globalization, terrorist group dynamics, and global/regional politics render these beliefs untenable and inappropriate, as recent events have underscored. To that end, the United States has accelerated its program of defense against biological weapons, as it must. Biological weapons are such dreadful weapons of uniqueness and complexity that a specific defense strategy is paramount. Elements of this program include pharmaceutical stockpiles, heightened surveillance systems, energized vaccine development programs, and comprehensive training initiatives. Although the depth and breadth of these efforts are unprecedented, above all these efforts is the absolute necessity for medical and public health care professionals to be educated and actively involved. These professionals are the sine qua non of future defensive readiness. This is just the start; unfortunately, there is no end yet in sight. PMID:12120479

Noah, Donald L; Huebner, Kermit D; Darling, Robert G; Waeckerle, Joseph F

2002-05-01

168

APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

1993-02-01

169

Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended\\u000a for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic\\u000a Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser\\u000a detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m

William Ortiz-Rivera; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2010-01-01

170

High-sensitivity determination of the degradation products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis–indirect UV absorbance detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary electrophoresis coupled with indirect UV absorbance detection was employed for the determination of the chemical warfare agent degradation products: methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonate, isopropyl methylphosphonate, and pinacolyl methylphosphonate. Glutamic acid was used as a buffering agent at its isoelectric point (pH 3.22). In its zwitterionic form, glutamic acid does not act as a competing co-anion in the system, thus

Jeremy E. Melanson; Brian L.-Y. Wong; Camille A. Boulet; Charles A. Lucy

2001-01-01

171

[Case of intractable hemoptysis controlled by bronchial occlusion with an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot (EWS)].  

PubMed

A man in his eighties with massive hemoptysis was referred to our hospital in order to control the bleeding. Chest computed tomography (CT) indicated that the hemoptysis originated from the right upper lobe. We performed arterial embolization twice, but failed to stop it. A surgical lobectomy was considered to be very difficult to perform because of his poor general condition and the strong adhesions between the right upper lobe and parietal pleura. We therefore performed fiberoptic bronchoscopy and plugged 4 EWS (Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot) into his right B1b, B1, B2, B3, and this procedure was able to successfully and completely control the hemoptysis. Bronchial occlusion with EWS has been developed in order to treat patients with intractable pneumothorax, pyothorax with bronchial fistula and similar problems. Our findings suggest that this method is also highly effective in controlling hemoptysis in cases in which arterial embolization is unable to stop the bleeding or surgery is difficult to perform. PMID:18517020

Fujii, Akiko; Misumi, Yukihiro; Hiyama, Junichiro; Koshizuka, Hiromasa; Miyakawa, Yosuke; Hayashi, Akihiro

2008-05-01

172

Current algebra based effective chiral theory of mesons and a new EW theory  

E-print Network

A current algebra based effective chiral theory of pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector mesons is reviewed. A new mechanism generating the masses and guage fixing terms of gauge boson is revealed from this effective theory. A EW theory without Higgs is proposed. The masses and gauge fixing terms of W and Z are dynamically generated. Three heavy scalar fields are dynamically generated too. They are ghosts.

Bing An Li

2005-09-08

173

EWS-Fli1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits proliferation of human Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells.  

PubMed Central

The translocation t(11;22) is a common chromosomal abnormality detected both in Ewing's sarcoma and in primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells. The translocation results in an EWS-Fli1 fusion gene, made up of the 5' half of the EWS gene on chromosome 22 fused to the 3' half of the Fli1 gene on chromosome 11. Recent studies have evaluated possible roles of the fusion gene products. However, the biological significance of EWS-Fli1 is still unknown. Using a competitive polymerase chain reaction technique, we show here that there might be a correlation between the expression levels of the EWS-Fli1 fusion gene and the proliferative activities of Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells. When the EWS-Fli1 expression is inhibited by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against the fusion RNA, the growth of the tumor cells is significantly reduced both in vitro and in vivo. The data further indicate the growth inhibition of the cells by the antisense sequence might be mediated by G0/G1 block in the cell cycle progression. These results suggest that EWS-Fli1 may play an important role in the proliferation of the tumor cells, and the EWS-Fli1 fusion RNA could be used as a target to inhibit the growth of Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor with the specific antisense oligonucleotide. PMID:9005992

Tanaka, K; Iwakuma, T; Harimaya, K; Sato, H; Iwamoto, Y

1997-01-01

174

Rapid screening of precursor and degradation products of chemical warfare agents in soil by solid-phase microextraction ion mobility spectrometry (SPME–IMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to detect precursor and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as soil contaminants was investigated. The development and characterization of a system to interface a thermal desorption solid-phase microextraction inlet with a hand held ion mobility spectrometer was demonstrated. The analytes used in this study were diisopropyl

Preshious Rearden; Peter B. Harrington

2005-01-01

175

In-line respeciation: an ion-exchange ion chromatographic method applied to the separation of degradation products of chemical warfare nerve agents in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural background of anions encountered when analyzing soil samples by ion chromatography (IC) present significant problems in the separation, detection and quantification of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA), the degradation products of sarin, a chemical warfare nerve agent. Using chemically-suppressed IC with conductivity detection, a commercially available ion-exchange column, and an isocratic binary eluent system, IMPA

W. David Vermillion; Michael D. Crenshaw

1997-01-01

176

Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil\\u000a and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can\\u000a be detected with GC\\/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds\\u000a can be determined with GC\\/ECD.\\u000a \\u000a The comparison of the

Rainer Haas; Alfred Krippendorf

1997-01-01

177

Surface detection of chemical warfare agent simulants and degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants as well as their degradation and hydrolysis products were detected from surfaces using thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS). CWA simulant materials that closely mimic the chemical structures of real CWA G\\/V-type nerve and S-type vesicant simulants were used in this study. Reduced mobility constants (K0) in air were reported for 20 compounds studied. Spectra

Abu B. Kanu; Paul E. Haigh; Herbert H. Hill

2005-01-01

178

Decomposition of hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents using photoactivated periodate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanism of periodate and photoactivated periodate oxidation of the hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents (HCWAs), thiodiglycol (TDG), 3,3-dithiopropanol (TDP), and 1,4-thioxane (TX), were investigated at pH 3, pH 7, and pH 10 under dark (in the absence of light) and monochromatic UV light irradiation. Dark reactions occurred by oxygen addition to sulfur atoms in HCWAs at pH

Xueming Tang; Linda K. Weavers

2007-01-01

179

Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

2008-05-01

180

Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

Fish, Janet D.

2014-05-01

181

Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces.  

PubMed

A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications. PMID:24517783

Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Gordon, Wesley O; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A; Morris, John R

2014-01-01

182

Bronchial leiomyoma in a chemical warfare victim--a causative agent or an incidental finding: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Bronchial leiomyoma is one of the rarest benign tumors of the lower respiratory system, compromising less than 2% of reported benign pulmonary tumors. Chemical warfare is a known cause of chronic pulmonary diseases in soldiers who survives of the chemical wars. Most of these patients are chronically under treatment by respiratory drugs and acute exacerbations of their symptoms prompt for investigations for diagnosis of a new complication in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report we present a 43 y/o male chemical warfare victim who was under treatment for his respiratory disease for near 20 years but at last bronchial leiomyoma was diagnosed as the cause of exacerbation of his symptoms. He was undergone right thoracotomy and sleeve resection of left main bronchus. Severe adhesions plus lymphadenitis in the mediastinum might be due to the effects of prior inflammatory process. DISCUSSION Because of rarity of this tumor, bronchial leiomyoma in this patient may be the result of previous exposure to nitrogen mustard but the exact relationship remained to be confirmed. CONCLUSION Although the association between chemical warfare and lung neoplasias has not been well understood, it is the first time that a bronchial leiomyoma is reported in a nitrogen mustard survivor. PMID:22705579

Behesthirouy, Samad; Kakaei, Farzad; Azhough, Ramin; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

2012-01-01

183

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

184

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

185

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

186

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

187

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

188

Use of neutral electrolysed water (EW) for quality maintenance and shelf-life extension of minimally processed lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aExperiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of different treatments based on the use of neutral electrolysed water (EW) on fresh-cut lettuce. EW was diluted to obtain different free chlorine concentrations (120, 60 and 12?ppm) and to compare with standard washing treatment of 120?ppm chlorine solution. Shelf-life quality and safety markers were studied at the beginning and at the end

Daniel Rico; Catherine Barry-Ryan; Jesus M. Frias; Gary T. M. Henehan; Jose M. Barat

2008-01-01

189

Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

2002-12-01

190

Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E. [and others

1995-07-01

191

Portable Raman device for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a compact, self-contained, cost effective, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTs) for screening a wide variety of chemical and biological agents for homeland defense applications. The instrument is a fully-integrated, tunable, "point-and-shoot" Raman monitor based on solid-state acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. It also consists of a 830-nm diode laser for excitation, and an avalanche photodiode for detection. Evaluation of this instrument has been performed by analyzing several standard samples and comparing the results those obtained using a conventional Raman system. In addition to system evaluation, this paper will also discuss potential applications of the RAMiTs for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents.

Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Martin, Matthew E.; Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Mobley, Joel; Cullum, Brian M.; Wintenberg, Alan; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

2005-04-01

192

Gulf legacy: warfare in the information age  

Microsoft Academic Search

How a worldwide network of satellites, spy planes, computers, and databases united in support of some revolutionary weapons in the Persian Gulf War is described. The nature of and role played by the coalition's information architecture, and its growth and operation, are examined. The system, which loosely fit under what the Pentagon calls command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I),

J. A. Adam

1991-01-01

193

Molecular analysis of the fusion of EWS to an orphan nuclear receptor gene in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of myxoid chondrosarcoma (CS) is poorly understood. A recurrent translocation, t(9;22) (q22;q12), has been recognized in CS, specifically in extraskeletal myxoid CS. Recently, this translocation has been shown to represent a rearrangement of the EWS gene at 22q12 with a novel gene at 9q22 designated CHN (or TEC). Sequence analysis suggests that CHN encodes a novel orphan nuclear receptor with a zinc finger DNA-binding domain. The structure of this gene fusion has been characterized in only a limited number of extraskeletal myxoid CSs and its presence in other types of CS has not been extensively examined. We studied 46 cases of CS (8 extraskeletal myxoid, 4 skeletal myxoid, 4 mesenchymal, and 30 other) for the EWS/CHN gene fusion by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and long-range DNA polymerase chain reaction. The EWS/CHN gene fusion was present in 6 of 8 extraskeletal myxoid CSs and was not detected in any of the remaining cases, including the 4 skeletal myxoid CSs. The negative findings in the latter cases suggest that skeletal myxoid CS is pathogenetically distinct from its extraskeletal counterpart. Notably, 2 cases of extraskeletal myxoid CS showed neither an EWS/CHN fusion transcript nor EWS/CHN genomic fusion nor EWS or CHN genomic rearrangement, suggesting genetic heterogeneity within extraskeletal myxoid CS. Finally, we also provide evidence for alternative splicing of the 3' end of the fusion transcript. Extraskeletal myxoid CS thus represents yet another sarcoma type containing a gene fusion involving EWS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9060841

Brody, R. I.; Ueda, T.; Hamelin, A.; Jhanwar, S. C.; Bridge, J. A.; Healey, J. H.; Huvos, A. G.; Gerald, W. L.; Ladanyi, M.

1997-01-01

194

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current

F. G. Trummer; B. L. Twining

1991-01-01

195

Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including

Albert T. Lebedev

2005-01-01

196

NEW-CATR: Network-enabled Electronic Warfare for Collaborative Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-enabled Electronic Warfare (NEW) is to develop modeling and simulation efforts to explore the advantages and limitations of network-enabled electronic warfare concepts. The advantages of linking multiple electronic support measures (ESM) and electronic attack (EA) assets to achieve improved capabilities across a networked battleforce have yet to be quantified. In this paper, we will use radar sensors as ESM and

Qilian Liang; Sherwood W. Samn

2007-01-01

197

Women in Warfare: From Troy to the Trenches Conference Papers and Speakers  

E-print Network

Women in Warfare: From Troy to the Trenches Conference Papers and Speakers Women in Warfare: From `Tis of Thee Iain Macintyre The Remarkable Elsie Inglis and the Scottish Women's Hospital Peter Grant Sister Susie's Sisters: Women in Charity, Philanthropy and Humanitarianism in the First World War

Maizels, Rick

198

Qualification operational test and evaluation (qotande). test plan for chemical warfare defense ensemble gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Communications Command (AFCC) Chemical Warfare Defense Task Evaluation Program was initiated on 8 July 1980 to determine the effects of AFCC mission performance while performing duties in chemical\\/biological full cover protective clothing. During this program, problems were encountered while using the butyl rubber Chemical Warfare (CW) gloves. Specifically, loss of manual dexterity and factility affected the performance

J. B. Michels; W. J. Jr Rush

1982-01-01

199

CCMR: Alcoholysis of Chemical Warfare Agents: Progress Toward Microencapsulated Catalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This summer I investigated catalysts for the alcoholysis of chemical warfare agent simulates. I successfully synthesized and crystallized a catalyst, and using 31P-NMR spectroscopy I showed that the catalyst increases the rate of reaction. I fabricated a Ag/AgCl ion-selective electrode and assembled the necessary instrumentation to monitor the evolution of chloride ion using a pH meter connected to a personal computer. This is an effort to create a high through put screening process. Using this set up, I quantitatively showed that the catalyst is effective for this reaction.

Danek, Jacquelynn

2004-08-17

200

Warfare as an Agent of Culture Change: The Archaeology of Guerrilla Warfare on the 19th Century Missouri/Kansas Border  

E-print Network

Within the last decade, anthropologists have begun to re-evaluate warfare as an influence on social organization and cultural change. Once considered relatively inconsequential in pre- and non-state societies, key studies in archaeology suggest...

Raab, Ann M.

2012-05-31

201

Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1/15Deg and 1/30/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and 3.7 km, respectively). The model grid covers the Baltic from 9.3 to 24.6E and from 53.0 to 60.2N. The Transport module of the model takes the predetermined velocity field and uses the random walk technique to predict the motion of individual particles, the sum of which constitutes a consid- ered chemical agent. Several different approaches for modeling are used for different kind of chemical agents. Basic processes affecting the chemicals to be modeled are hydrolysis, solubility, and microbiological destruction. All available toxicity data re- garding the chemical warfare agents of primary concern and the expected degradation products in the Baltic environment were gathered and summarized. This information was used to compare the toxicities of the different agents and their degradation prod- ucts and to decide which chemicals may represent a toxic threat to the environment. The model was adapted to be used for chemical agents with various characteristics and behavior (as Sarin, Lewsite, Musturd, etc.) in seawaters. Special algorithms are developed to describe nonlinear reactions producing toxic and nontoxic products in result of the warfare agent destruction. Sources of chemical pollution in the sea are considered as steady state (chronic) point and/or distributed releases because princi- pally different two methods were used in dumping CW: 1) concentrated dumping of containers, shells, and bombs together with ships; 2) dispersed dumping of individual containers, shells and aircraft bombs from moving vessels. The model was run with four most recurrent climatic wind fields for the Bornholm and Gotland damping sites. The results are compared with estimations obtained before by other researchers. Ways to implement the model in real-time forecasting system are discussed. The system will allow the prediction of concentrations and scales of possible pollution zone in resulting from real leakages might happen in locations of dumping.

Korotenko, K. A.

202

Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents

Yong C. Hong; Jeong H. Kim; Han S. Uhm

2004-01-01

203

Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.  

PubMed

It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans. PMID:12943034

Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

2003-08-01

204

Measuring the sustainability of tsunami early warning systems: an interdisciplinary research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the sustainability of any hazard early warning system (EWS) requires interdisciplinary frameworks. What has often been termed as an EWS was not a system approach, but one of six models: chain, single cycle, multiple cycle, network, isolated, and combinations of them. This paper offers a more comprehensive framework with quantitative measurements for incentive structures of EWS such as governance

J. A. Lassa

2008-01-01

205

Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

2014-01-01

206

The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

Lenz, D.E. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

207

Considering the Consequences of Space Warfare in the Geosynchronous Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today in the United States there is a rejuvenated push for space weapons and the restraint that was exercised regarding the military use of space during the Cold War is notably absent. This talk aims to demonstrate that space is an unacceptable arena for warfare based on the notion that fragment-generating attacks in space could cause irreparable damage to the hundreds of satellites orbiting the Earth, particularly in the invaluable geosynchronous region. In an effort to highlight the drawbacks of space weapons, a simulation entitled GeoPell modelled the consequences of a kinetic energy ``pellet cluster'' attack initiated at the geostationary altitude. The worst-case estimate predicted by GeoPell indicated that within two years of placing the cluster of one million pellets into a retrograde geostationary orbit and subsequently dispersing the pellets with a bursting charge, almost every geosynchronous satellite would be destroyed. Thus, the technical consequences of this hypothetical space attack suggest space weapons and warfare should be avoided due to the detrimental effects such weapons would have on the orbital environment. Cooperative restraint-based measures, possibly in the form of a ban on space weapons testing and deployment, are necessary to salvage the final frontier.

Reilly, Caroline

2008-04-01

208

The relative timing of N-S and E-W extension at the Tibet-to-Himalaya transition: Insights from NW Bhutan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is generally regarded as the type example of a collisional mountain belt despite contractional structures being limited to just the northern and southern margins of the system, with strike-slip and normal faulting accommodating E-W extension across most of the Tibetan Plateau. At the southern margin of the plateau, the transition between the contractional structures of the Himalaya and the extensional structures of Tibet is poorly constrained. The boundary is often coincident with a family of E-W trending, gently north-dipping extensional structures - the South Tibetan fault system (STFS) - that is thought by some to accommodate southward extrusion of the metamorphic core of the orogen. The relationship between N-S extension across the STFS and E-W extension on the Tibetan Plateau is uncertain. Age constraints on the STFS suggest that it was active from ca. 23 to 12 Ma, while E-W extensional faulting on the Tibetan Plateau lasted from ca. 17 to possibly 4 Ma, indicating a considerable period of overlap between the two. In order to place tighter constraints on the relative timing of these two systems, we studied an area where the two intersect. In NW Bhutan, a NE-SW trending extensional graben, the Yadong cross structure (YCS), intersects the STFS in the vicinity of Mount Jomolhari. Recent mapping shows that the primary STFS detachment in this region can be traced for ca. 65 km in the direction of fault motion, and is cut by a series of high-angle normal faults of the Jomolhari fault system (JFS), which bound the eastern margin of the YCS. Leucogranite intrusions are pervasive in the footwall, occurring as a large pluton (the Chung La granite) and networks of smaller sills and dikes. U-Pb zircon rim analyses from both the Chung La granite and a leucogranite dike give crystallization ages of ca. 21 Ma, consistent with Miocene ages elsewhere in the Himalaya. Rim ages from multiple zircons in a deformed leucogranite collected within the Lingshi fault zone, a high-angle normal fault of the JFS, show a more complicated U-Pb history, with a spread from ca. 22 to 14 Ma. In-situ monazite and xenotime U-Th-Pb ages from three pelitic samples within the STFS footwall give similar ages to the leucogranites. Two samples collected close to the trace of the Lingshi fault give age ranges of ca. 25 to 14 Ma and ca. 18 to 14 Ma, comparable to the sheared Lingshi fault zone granite. A third sample collected ~15 km from the Lingshi fault gives a slightly shorter age span from ca. 22 to 17 Ma. Based on our geochronologic data, we suggest that the STFS footwall experienced a major prograde metamorphic event in the Middle Miocene (ca. 25-21 Ma) coeval with early movement on the STFS. The younger, post-21 Ma dates on leucogranites associated with the Lingshi shear zone imply that granite intrusion outlasted regional metamorphism. The ca. 14 Ma age for a deformed leucogranite within the Lingshi fault zone implies that E-W extension in the area commenced sometime after 14 Ma, but a minimum age for the onset of slip on the YCS remains unconstrained. Research ca. 100 km to the northeast in southern Tibet (Edwards and Harrison, 1997) suggested the continuation of STFS slip in the region to more recently than 12.5 Ma, an interpretation consistent with our work if the YCS initiated more recently.

Cooper, F. J.; Hodges, K.; Parrish, R. R.

2012-12-01

209

EWS and ATF-1 gene fusion induced by t(12;22) translocation in malignant melanoma of soft parts.  

PubMed

The genes involved in the t(12;22)(q13;q12) translocation found recurrently in malignant melanoma of soft parts have been characterized and shown to form, in four cases studied, hybrid transcripts. The deduced chimaeric protein encoded by the der(22) chromosome consists of the N-terminal domain of EWS linked to the bZIP domain of ATF-1, a transcription factor which may normally be regulated by cAMP. ATF-1 has not previously been implicated in oncogenesis. EWS was first identified as forming a hybrid transcript in Ewing's sarcoma, which links its N-terminal domain to the DNA binding domain of the FLI-1 gene. Thus the oncogenic conversion of EWS follows a common scheme of activation, exchanging its putative RNA binding domain with different DNA binding domains that appear to be tumour-specific. PMID:8401579

Zucman, J; Delattre, O; Desmaze, C; Epstein, A L; Stenman, G; Speleman, F; Fletchers, C D; Aurias, A; Thomas, G

1993-08-01

210

[Acute Empyema with Fistula Successfully Treated by Curettage and Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot (EWS)].  

PubMed

A 49-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of empyema. A chest drainage tube inserted and lavage performed. Her general condition improved but the infection and a major air leakage remained. On the 10th day after chest drainage, we performed thoracoscopic debridement and occlusion of bronchopleural fistulas using cellulose oxidized( Surgicel) and fibrin glue. Expansion of the lung and the improvement of inflammation were observed. but a major air leakage remained. On 29th postoperative day, we performed bronchial embolization using endobronchial Watanabe spigot (EWS). The leakage stopped the 7 days after bronchial embolization, we removed chest tube and 10 days after bronchial embolization she was discharged. PMID:24743536

Tamaki, Masafumi; Miura, Kazumasa; Norimura, Shoko; Kenzaki, Koichirou; Yoshizawa, Kiyoshi

2014-03-01

211

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

1991-02-11

212

Methodology and biological monitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

In the past few years, our institute has developed several GC/MS methods for the detection of the breakdown products of toxic organophosphonates (soman, sarin, GF) and vesicant sulfur mustard in biological samples. Recently we developed a modified GC/MS method for VX and are continually working on the methodology for lewisite and tabun. The purpose is to have an analytical tool to verify the exposure of chemical warfare agents in humans. Analytical procedures for quantitating the hydrolyzed phosphonic acids from nerve agents in environmental samples have been reported by many analysts. For more complex matrices such as biological samples, there is not yet a method reported. To make these polar acids amenable to gas chromatographic analysis a prior derivatization is needed. We found the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives of the phosphonates are suitable for verification and pharmacokinetic studies in biological samples. This method may also serve as an alternative method for confirmation purposes in environmental samples.

Shih, M.L.; Smith, J.R.; McMonagle, J.D. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

213

Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach  

PubMed Central

As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side. PMID:21240320

2010-01-01

214

Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

2005-02-01

215

[Dermatological aspects in the risk of biological warfare].  

PubMed

The possible cutaneous manifestations of infectious biological warfare are multiple and vary depending on the agent used. An ulcerous and/or necrotic syndrome and/or regional lymphadenitis syndrome are possible with anthrax, tularaemia, bubonic plague and emission of trichotecene mycotoxins. A vesiculo-pustular syndrome with fever is provoked by smallpox, melioidosis and glanders. A purpural and/or haemorrhagic syndrome is seen during haemorrhagic fever viruses and septicaemic plague. These cutaneous manifestations are excellent markers that orient and alert when they occur in a context of a situation at risk, when several cases are observed in a usually non-exposed population and with extra-dermatological syndromes. They permit the early initiation of treatment. PMID:15687970

Carsuzaa, F; Boyé, T; Debord, T; Guennoc, B; Fournier, B; Cavallo, J-D

2005-01-29

216

Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.  

PubMed Central

Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

1999-01-01

217

Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.  

PubMed

Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

1999-12-01

218

Summary of the psychological effects of tactical nuclear warfare  

SciTech Connect

The psychological component of the response of combat troops to tactical nuclear warfare is a troublesome variable which plagues military planners and commanders responsible for the preparation of the armed forces for the eventuality that nuclear weapons might one day be used in armed conflict. The devastating physical effects of nuclear weapons have been extensively documented and the biological response of animals and humans to radiation has also been well studied, but very little is known concerning the probable effects of experiencing a nuclear attack, upon the emotional stability, morale, and motivation of soldiers to perform their assigned duties. The literature addressing this topic has been reviewed and evaluated as part of the Defense Nuclear Agency's Intermediate Dose Program. A summary of the report resulting from this effort is presented herein. The full literature review and accompanying bibliography are available from the author upon request.

Sessions, G.R.

1984-04-01

219

Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

2012-06-01

220

The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

221

Millennial-scale variability during the last glacial: The ice core record E.W. Wolff a,*, J. Chappellaz b  

E-print Network

Millennial-scale variability during the last glacial: The ice core record E.W. Wolff a,*, J Interstadials (GI) and cold Greenland Stadials (GS) at millennial- scale during the last glacial period. Here we is the millennial variability that is particularly noticeable in the last glacial (Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4, 3

Chappellaz, Jérôme

222

cmu's nEWs sourcE for faculty & staff 5/13 issuE Elite Distinction  

E-print Network

o n e cmu's nEWs sourcE for faculty & staff 5/13 issuE Elite Distinction Cohon, Epple, Just professors, Dennis Epple, Marcel Just and Steven E. Shreve, have received the elite distinction of University Mellon through their expertise and accomplishments in their respective fields of study. Jared l. cohon

223

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 IRAn `Islam in the Modern World' on 8 August 2007. Participating in the discussion were a number of leading scholars of Islam. CAIS staff and postgraduate students participated in the event. The discussion

224

Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an ongoing debate within the Special Forces community whether unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense are applicable in the contemporary and future Special Operations environments, based on current doctrinal definitions and operationa...

D. Jones

2006-01-01

225

Chemical and biological warfare agent and explosives detection based on femtosecond pulse-shaping technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breakthrough technology in remote femtosecond pulse characterization and accurate delivery of ultrashort shaped pulses to distances greater than 30 meters is being used to develop remote detection of explosives as well as biological warfare agents.

Marcos Dantus; Igor Pastirk

2007-01-01

226

78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...generally described as: Portions of Sections 13, 23, and 24, Township 6 North, Range 22 East, Mount Diablo Meridian, lying within the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center and the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest and more particularly...

2013-05-21

227

INFORMATION AGE WARFARE INTELLIGENT AGENTS IN THE CLASSROOM AND THE STRATEGIC ANALYSIS CENTER  

E-print Network

and practitioners from Sun Tzu, to Carl Von Clausewitz, and now modern writers like Robert R. Leonard, have documented and examined the critical importance of information in warfare. Sun Tzu wrote 2500 years ago

Bowman, Michael

228

Health Assessment for Naval Undersea Warfare Station, Keyport, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WA1170023419.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Undersea Warfare Station Site (NUW) has been proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List. Preliminary on-site sampling results from the Keyport Landfill have identified chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury, and phthalates. Shellfish sampl...

1988-01-01

229

Suppression of FOXO1 is responsible for a growth regulatory repressive transcriptional sub-signature of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The Ewing sarcoma (ES) EWS-FLI1 chimeric oncoprotein is a prototypic aberrant ETS transcription factor with activating and repressive regulatory functions. We report that EWS-FLI1-repressed promoters are enriched in forkhead box (FOX) recognition motifs, and identify FOXO1 as a EWS-FLI1-suppressed regulator orchestrating a major subset of EWS-FLI1-repressed genes. In addition to FOXO1 regulation by direct promoter binding of EWS-FLI1, its subcellular localization and activity is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2- and AKT-mediated phosphorylation downstream of EWS-FLI1. Restoration of nuclear FOXO1 expression in ES cells impaired proliferation and significantly reduced clonogenicity. Gene-expression profiling revealed a significant overlap between EWS-FLI1-repressed and FOXO1-activated genes. As a proof of principle for a potential therapeutic application of our findings, the treatment of ES cell lines with methylseleninic acid (MSA) reactivated endogenous FOXO1 in the presence of EWS-FLI1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced massive cell death dependent on FOXO1. In an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, MSA increased FOXO1 expression in the tumor paralleled by a significant decrease in ES tumor growth. FOXO1 reactivation by small molecules may therefore serve as a promising strategy for a future ES-specific therapy. PMID:23995784

Niedan, S; Kauer, M; Aryee, D N T; Kofler, R; Schwentner, R; Meier, A; Potschger, U; Kontny, U; Kovar, H

2014-01-01

230

Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) induction by the EWS/NOR1(NR4A3) fusion protein  

SciTech Connect

The NR4A3 nuclear receptor (also known as NOR1) is involved in tumorigenesis by the t(9;22) chromosome translocation encoding the EWS/NOR1 fusion protein found in approximately 75% of all cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC). Several observations suggest that one role of EWS/NOR1 in tumorigenesis may be to deregulate the expression of specific target genes. We have shown previously that constitutive expression of EWS/NOR1 in CFK2 fetal rat chondrogenic cells induces their transformation as measured by growth beyond confluency and growth in soft agar. To identify genes regulated by the fusion protein in this model, we have generated a CFK2 cell line in which the expression of EWS/NOR1 is controlled by tetracycline. Using the differential display technique, we have identified the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) mRNA as being up-regulated in the presence of EWS/NOR1. Co-immunocytochemistry confirmed over-expression of the SGK1 protein in cells expressing EWS/NOR1. Significantly, immunohistochemistry of 10 EMC tumors positive for EWS/NOR1 showed that all of them over-express the SGK1 protein in contrast to non-neoplastic cells in the same biopsies and various other sarcoma types. These results strongly suggest that SGK1 may be a genuine in vivo target of EWS/NOR1 in EMC.

Poulin, Hugo [Human and Molecular Genetic Research Unit, Saint-Francois d'Assise Hospital, CHUQ, Que., G1L 3L5 (Canada); Laval University Faculty of Medicine, Que., G1K 7P4 (Canada); Filion, Christine [Human and Molecular Genetic Research Unit, Saint-Francois d'Assise Hospital, CHUQ, Que., G1L 3L5 (Canada); Ladanyi, Marc [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 10021 (United States); Labelle, Yves [Human and Molecular Genetic Research Unit, Saint-Francois d'Assise Hospital, CHUQ, Que., G1L 3L5 (Canada) and Laval University Faculty of Medicine, Que., G1K 7P4 (Canada)]. E-mail: yves.labelle@bcx.ulaval.ca

2006-07-21

231

Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, “L-Gel”, consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone™, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of

Ellen Raber; Raymond McGuire

2002-01-01

232

An Essay on the Relationship of Warfare Ecology to General Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Warfare represents not only tragedies for societies and casualties and suffering for people, but also a great menace to environmental\\u000a health and most living organisms. In a short time, warfare mobilizes a massive amount of energy, matter and information without\\u000a a transparent and shared control of actions usually adopted by societies during peace-time. It comprises a very special “extreme”\\u000a tool

Almo Farina

233

Limiting National Interventionism in the United States: The Warfare-Welfare State as Restrictive Governance Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to business fears about growing national interventionism during the 1930s and 1940s, the United States channelled national state power into an indiosyncratic strong warfare\\/weak welfare governance paradigm. By making the welfare state a weak adjunct to a powerful warfare state and a subordinate and controversial part of postwar U.S. governance this paradigm has delimited, skewed, and distorted postwar

Brian Waddell

2001-01-01

234

Using photoactivated periodate to decompose TOC from hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoactivated periodate was investigated for the disposal of hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents (HCWAs) when hydrolysis is used as the first step in disposal of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The kinetics and mechanisms of total organic carbon (TOC) loss by photoactivated periodate oxidation of the HCWAs, thiodiglycol (TDG), 3,3-dithiopropanol (TDP), and 1,4-thioxane (TX), were investigated at pH 3, 7, and

Xueming Tang; Linda K. Weavers

2008-01-01

235

The EWS/FLI1 oncogenic protein inhibits expression of the Wnt inhibitor DICKKOPF-1 gene and antagonizes beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription.  

PubMed

Tumours of the Ewing family, which comprise Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours, are highly aggressive and mostly affect children and adolescents. They are characterized by chromosomal translocations leading to the generation of fusion proteins between EWS (or very rarely FUS) and members of the E-twenty-six (ETS) family of transcription factors that are capable of transforming cells. EWS/FLI1, the most frequent fusion, is thought to cause transformation through activation or repression of specific target genes. We present evidence demonstrating that the Wnt inhibitor and beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive gene DICKKOPF-1 (DKK-1) is a transcriptional target of EWS/FLI1, which can inhibit both basal and beta-catenin-induced transactivation of the DKK-1 promoter. Moreover, our data indicate that EWS/FLI1 has a more general effect on beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription since it can block transactivation of a consensus beta-catenin/TCF reporter construct. Consistently, Ewing tumour cells expressing different EWS/ETS translocations cannot engage beta-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription, whereas silencing of EWS/FLI1 restores beta-catenin responsiveness in A673 and RD-ES Ewing tumour cells. Accordingly, gene set enrichment analysis shows that beta-catenin/TCF target genes are significantly enriched among genes downregulated by EWS/FLI1 in the Ewing cell line A673. Mechanistically, the inhibitory effect of EWS/FLI1 can be overcome by a constitutively active TCF4 protein (TCF4-VP16). Moreover, EWS/FLI1 binds lymphoid enhancer factor 1, a TCF family member, and interferes with its binding to beta-catenin, which could explain its negative effect on beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription. Our results show that EWS/FLI1 inhibits both DKK-1 expression as well as beta-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription, which could contribute to progression of tumours of the Ewing family. PMID:20019092

Navarro, Diego; Agra, Noelia; Pestaña, Angel; Alonso, Javier; González-Sancho, José M

2010-03-01

236

DNA-binding and transcriptional activation properties of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein resulting from the t(11;22) translocation in Ewing sarcoma.  

PubMed Central

The 5' half of the EWS gene has recently been described to be fused to the 3' regions of genes encoding the DNA-binding domain of several transcriptional regulators, including ATF1, FLI-1, and ERG, in several human tumors. The most frequent occurrence of this situation results from the t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosome translocation specific for Ewing sarcoma (ES) and related tumors which joins EWS sequences to the 3' half of FLI-1, which encodes a member of the Ets family of transcriptional regulators. We show here that this chimeric gene encodes an EWS-FLI-1 nuclear protein which binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as the wild-type parental FLI-1 protein. We further show that EWS-FLI-1 is an efficient sequence-specific transcriptional activator of model promoters containing FLI-1 (Ets)-binding sites, a property which is strictly dependent on the presence of its EWS domain. Comparison of the properties of the N-terminal activation domain of FLI-1 to those of the EWS domain of the fusion protein indicates that EWS-FLI-1 has altered transcriptional activation properties compared with FLI-1. These results suggest that EWS-FLI-1 contributes to the transformed phenotype of ES tumor cells by inducing the deregulated and/or unscheduled activation of genes normally responsive to FLI-1 or to other close members of the Ets family. ES and related tumors are characterized by an elevated level of c-myc expression. We show that EWS-FLI-1 is a transactivator of the c-myc promoter, suggesting that upregulation of c-myc expression is under control of EWS-FLI-1. Images PMID:8164678

Bailly, R A; Bosselut, R; Zucman, J; Cormier, F; Delattre, O; Roussel, M; Thomas, G; Ghysdael, J

1994-01-01

237

Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction.  

PubMed

Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable after 40 days, storage and they can be launched or dropped into suspected danger zones. Commercially available hand-held fluorometric detector systems were used to measure Photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency of green algae and cyanobacteria entrapped on filter paper disks. Toxic agents flowing in the gas stream through the sensors can alter the characteristic fluorescence induction curves with resultant changes in photochemical yields. Tabun (GA), sarin (GB), mustard agent, tributylamine (TBA) (a sarin stabilizer), and dibutyl sulfide (DBS) (a mustard agent analog) were tested. Upper threshold limits of detectability for GA, TBA, and DBS are reported. With additional research and development, these biosensors may find application in stand-off detection of chemical and perhaps biological warfare agents under real-world conditions. PMID:11544038

Sanders, C A; Rodriguez, M; Greenbaum, E

2001-09-01

238

Lysyl Oxidase Is Downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 Oncoprotein and Its Propeptide Domain Displays Tumor Supressor Activities in Ewing Sarcoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by oncogenic fusion proteins (i.e. EWS/FLI1) acting as aberrant transcription factors that upregulate and downregulate target genes, leading to cellular transformation. Thus, identificating these target genes and understanding their contribution to Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis are key for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study we show that lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme involved in maintaining structural integrity of the extracellular matrix, is downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein and in consequence it is not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cells and primary tumors. Using a doxycycline inducible system to restore LOX expression in an Ewing sarcoma derived cell line, we showed that LOX displays tumor suppressor activities. Interestingly, we showed that the tumor suppressor activity resides in the propeptide domain of LOX (LOX-PP), an N-terminal domain produced by proteolytic cleavage during the physiological processing of LOX. Expression of LOX-PP reduced cell proliferation, cell migration, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and formation of tumors in immunodeficient mice. By contrast, the C-terminal domain of LOX, which contains the enzymatic activity, had the opposite effects, corroborating that the tumor suppressor activity of LOX is mediated exclusively by its propeptide domain. Finally, we showed that LOX-PP inhibits ERK/MAPK signalling pathway, and that many pathways involved in cell cycle progression were significantly deregulated by LOX-PP, providing a mechanistic explanation to the cell proliferation inhibition observed upon LOX-PP expression. In summary, our observations indicate that deregulation of the LOX gene participates in Ewing sarcoma development and identify LOX-PP as a new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive paediatric malignancies. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies based on the administration of LOX propeptide or functional analogues could be useful for the treatment of this devastating paediatric cancer. PMID:23750284

Garcia-Garcia, Laura; de la Parra, Juan; Alonso, Javier

2013-01-01

239

QCD NLO and EW NLO corrections to ttbarH production with top quark decays at hadron collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higgs boson production associated with a top quark pair is an important process in studying the nature of the newly discovered Higgs boson at the LHC. In this letter, we report on our calculations including the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD and NLO electroweak corrections to the pp?ttbarH process in the standard model. We present the integrated cross sections at the 14 TeV LHC and even at the future proton-proton colliders with ?{s}=33 and 100 TeV. Our calculation includes the top quark subsequent decays by adopting the narrow width approximation. The kinematic distributions of Higgs boson and top quark decay products at the LHC are provided. We find that the O(?s2?ew2) corrections are quantitatively comparable with the O(?s3?ew) corrections in some kinematic region.

Zhang, Yu; Ma, Wen-Gan; Zhang, Ren-You; Chen, Chong; Guo, Lei

2014-11-01

240

Blocks rotations revealed by paleomagnetic investigations: Transpressive tectonics along a major E-W crustal structure on the northern Algeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paleomagnetic study was conducted on volcanic rocks of Miocene age outcropping on the northern border of the seismogenic Neogene Chelif basin in northern Algeria. The results evidenced that several tectonic blocks underwent clockwise rotations within a narrow E-W area. The magnitude of these dextral rotations is often important and of different strengths according to the studied sites. This E-W area corresponds to a major structure suggested by geophysical data. It is comparable with that previously evidenced on the southern side of the same basin. The present paleomagnetic results therefore agree with a model of relative convergence motion between the Africa and Eurasia plates yielding a transpressional tectonic deformation with block rotations within the African continental margin.

El-M. Derder, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Maouche, Said; Bayou, Boualem; Amenna, Mohamed; Besse, Jean; Bessedik, Mostefa; Belhai, Djelloul; Ayache, Mohamed

2014-05-01

241

Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

1999-07-01

242

Passive standoff detection of chemical warfare agents on surfaces.  

PubMed

Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible. PMID:15540446

Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O

2004-11-01

243

Simulation-based planning for theater air warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning for Theatre Air Warfare can be represented as a hierarchy of decisions. At the top level, surviving airframes must be assigned to roles (e.g., Air Defense, Counter Air, Close Air Support, and AAF Suppression) in each time period in response to changing enemy air defense capabilities, remaining targets, and roles of opposing aircraft. At the middle level, aircraft are allocated to specific targets to support their assigned roles. At the lowest level, routing and engagement decisions are made for individual missions. The decisions at each level form a set of time-sequenced Courses of Action taken by opposing forces. This paper introduces a set of simulation-based optimization heuristics operating within this planning hierarchy to optimize allocations of aircraft. The algorithms estimate distributions for stochastic outcomes of the pairs of Red/Blue decisions. Rather than using traditional stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal strategies, we use an innovative combination of heuristics, simulation-optimization, and mathematical programming. Blue decisions are guided by a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm while Red decisions are found by optimizing over a continuous representation of the decision space. Stochastic outcomes are then provided by fast, Lanchester-type attrition simulations. This paper summarizes preliminary results from top and middle level models.

Popken, Douglas A.; Cox, Louis A., Jr.

2004-08-01

244

Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.  

PubMed

The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX. PMID:21762776

Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

2011-12-01

245

BACTERIAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE--The Current Status  

PubMed Central

For fourteen years public attention has been focused so sharply on atomic weapons as to lose sight of other, less spectacular but equally significant advances in the art of warfare. In the shadows cast by brilliant research in nuclear physics are hidden startling advances in the field of chemical and biological weapons. These weapons, as now developed, are not only capable of producing mass casualties quite comparable with those of atomic bombs, but they also possess certain advantages which may make them the weapons of choice for an unscrupulous enemy. If war should come, it is the medical profession which will have the sole responsibility for protecting the citizens of California against these weapons, and we can therefore delay no longer in acquainting ourselves with their potentialities and characteristics. In this task, we are working under two serious handicaps. The first is that our classical medical training affords little appreciation of the real danger, and the second is the cloak of secrecy surrounding the entire subject. PMID:18732324

Coggins, Cecil H.

1960-01-01

246

Performance effects of chemical warfare antidotes: A perspective  

SciTech Connect

The threat that enemy forces may use chemical warfare against United States military troops has caused the medical research and development community to find effective antidotes. Particularly in the case of nerve agent poisoning, the timely use of antidote therapies represents the key to survival in contaminated environments. Current training doctrine instructs soldiers how to recognize the symptoms of nerve agent exposure, and then how to counteract the life-threatening effects with the administration of atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride. However, these compounds can produce performance degrading effects on their own even when no chemical agent is present. Particularly in the case of the aviator, who is expected to exercise very precise control over an inherently complex vehicle such as a helicopter, the impact of self-administered antidotes should be fully appreciated. The present review briefly summarizes what is known about the actions and performance effects of both atropine and pralidoxime chloride, and recommendations are made concerning the need for additional research.

Caldwell, J.A.

1992-07-01

247

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 RE-buIldIng A STRong STATE AMIdST A STRong SoCIETy 4 ChInA'S EnTRy InTo CEnTRAl ASIA'S SouThERn TIER 5 SECuRITy All and Islamic Studies and the Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy conducted a training program for Afghan

248

Age calibration of piston core EW9709-07 (equatorial central Pacific) using fish teeth Sr isotope stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution age-depth profile is presented for a 16-m deep-sea piston core (EW9709-PC07) using three different methods: magnetostratigraphy, fish-teeth strontium isotope stratigraphy, and radiolarian biostratigraphy. Fish teeth are abundant throughout the core, allowing for precise age determinations by Sr isotope stratigraphy. Magnetostratigraphic ages, though not available for this core, were determined by correlation with the drill core record from adjacent

J. D. Gleason; T. C. Moore Jr.; T. M. Johnson; D. K. Rea; R. M. Owen; J. D. Blum; J. Pares; S. A. Hovan

2004-01-01

249

EWS/FLI and its Downstream Target NR0B1 Interact Directly to Modulate Transcription and Oncogenesis in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Most Ewing's sarcomas harbor chromosomal translocations that encode fusions between EWS and ETS family members. The most common fusion, EWS/FLI, consists of an EWSR1-derived strong transcriptional activation domain fused, in frame, to the DNA binding domain-containing portion of FLI1. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant transcription factor to regulate genes that mediate the oncogenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. One of these regulated genes, NR0B1, encodes a co-repressor protein, and likely plays a transcriptional role in tumorigenesis. However, the genes that NR0B1 regulates and the transcription factors it interacts with in Ewing's sarcoma are largely unknown. We used transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify genes that are regulated by NR0B1, and compared these data to similar data for EWS/FLI. While the transcriptional profile overlapped as expected, we also found that the genome-wide localization of NR0B1and EWS/FLI overlapped as well, suggesting that they regulate some genes coordinately. Further analysis revealed that NR0B1 and EWS/FLI physically interact. This protein-protein interaction is likely to be relevant for Ewing's sarcoma development because mutations in NR0B1 that disrupt the interaction have transcriptional consequences and also abrogate oncogenic transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that EWS/FLI and NR0B1 physically interact, coordinately modulate gene expression, and mediate the transformed phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:19920188

Kinsey, Michelle; Smith, Richard; Iyer, Anita K.; McCabe, Edward R.B.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2009-01-01

250

High ALDH Activity Identifies Chemotherapy-Resistant Ewing's Sarcoma Stem Cells That Retain Sensitivity to EWS-FLI1 Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer stem cells are a chemotherapy-resistant population capable of self-renewal and of regenerating the bulk tumor, thereby causing relapse and patient death. Ewing's sarcoma, the second most common form of bone tumor in adolescents and young adults, follows a clinical pattern consistent with the Cancer Stem Cell model – remission is easily achieved, even for patients with metastatic disease, but relapse remains frequent and is usually fatal. Methodology/Principal Findings We have isolated a subpopulation of Ewing's sarcoma cells, from both human cell lines and human xenografts grown in immune deficient mice, which express high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHhigh) activity and are enriched for clonogenicity, sphere-formation, and tumor initiation. The ALDHhigh cells are resistant to chemotherapy in vitro, but this can be overcome by the ATP binding cassette transport protein inhibitor, verapamil. Importantly, these cells are not resistant to YK-4-279, a small molecule inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 that is selectively toxic to Ewing's sarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/Significance Ewing's sarcoma contains an ALDHhigh stem-like population of chemotherapy-resistant cells that retain sensitivity to EWS-FLI1 inhibition. Inhibiting the EWS-FLI1 oncoprotein may prove to be an effective means of improving patient outcomes by targeting Ewing's sarcoma stem cells that survive standard chemotherapy. PMID:21085683

Gul, Naheed; Katuri, Varalakshmi; O'Neill, Alison; Kong, Yali; Brown, Milton L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Loeb, David M.

2010-01-01

251

Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia.  

PubMed

In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic. PMID:25045182

Nord, Catharina

2014-07-01

252

Toxicogenomic studies of human neural cells following exposure to organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent VX.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds represent an important group of chemical warfare nerve agents that remains a significant and constant military and civilian threat. OP compounds are considered acting primarily via cholinergic pathways by binding irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase, an important regulator of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Many studies over the past years have suggested that other mechanisms of OP toxicity exist, which need to be unraveled by a comprehensive and systematic approach such as genome-wide gene expression analysis. Here we performed a microarray study in which cultured human neural cells were exposed to 0.1 or 10 ?M of VX for 1 h. Global gene expression changes were analyzed 6, 24, and 72 h post exposure. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes has revealed many genes, networks and canonical pathways that are related to nervous system development and function, or to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In particular, the neuregulin pathway impacted by VX exposure has important implications in many nervous system diseases including schizophrenia. These results provide useful information valuable in developing suitable antidotes for more effective prevention and treatment of, as well as in developing biomarkers for, VX-induced chronic neurotoxicity. PMID:23440544

Gao, Xiugong; Lin, Hsiuling; Ray, Radharaman; Ray, Prabhati

2013-05-01

253

The epidemiology of Critical Care Air Transport Team operations in contemporary warfare.  

PubMed

Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) have evolved as a vital component of the U.S. Air Force's aeromedical evacuation system. Previous epidemiological research in this area is limited. The objective of this commentary is to highlight the importance of obtaining robust epidemiological data regarding patients transported by CCATTs. A limited epidemiological analysis was performed to describe CCATT patients transported during Operation Enduring Freedom and the waning months of Operation Iraqi Freedom. CCATT transports for the calendar year 2011 were examined as recorded in the U.S. Transportation Command Regulating and Command and Control (C2) Evacuation System database. As many as 290 CCATT primary patient transport records were reviewed. Of these, 58.6% of patients had multiple injuries, 15.9% of patients had traumatic brain injury, 7% had acute coronary syndromes, and 24.8% of all transports were for nonbattle-related injuries. The most common International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification coded injury was bilateral lower extremity amputation (40%). Explosive blasts were the top mechanism of injury for patients requiring CCAT. The distribution of injuries and illnesses requiring CCAT appear to have changed compared to previous conventional conflicts. Understanding the epidemiology of casualties evacuated by CCATT during modern warfare is a prerequisite for the development of effective predeployment training to ensure optimal outcomes for critically ill and injured warriors. PMID:24902127

Galvagno, Samuel M; Dubose, Joseph J; Grissom, Thomas E; Fang, Raymond; Smith, Richard; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shackelford, Stacy; Scalea, Thomas M

2014-06-01

254

Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991-August 1992  

SciTech Connect

Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify as well as remove the agents. In nonaqueous media, a strong base reacts rapidly with the four major chemical agents; mustard, VX, GB, and GD. In aqueous mixtures, H and VX are detoxified with an oxidant; whereas, the G agents are hydrolyzed with an excess of hydroxide ion. Current research efforts are aimed at developing effective decontaminants that are noncorrosive, nontoxic, and environmentally safe. Both catalytic and enzymatic approaches using solid or heterogeneous liquid media are being pursued. A fundamental understanding of the chemical nature of the agents is essential in the success of these approaches.... Decontamination, Sarin, VX, Chemical agents, Soman, Hydrolysis, Review, Mustard gas.

Yang, Y.C.; Baker, J.A.; Ward, J.R.

1992-12-01

255

Chemical warfare agent detection in complex environments with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is an emerging technology for chemical separation that provides an order-of-magnitude increase in separation capacity over traditional gas chromatography. GCxGC separates chemical species with two capillary columns interfaced by two-stage thermal desorption. Because GCxGC is comprehensive and has high separation capacity, it can perform multiple traditional analytical methods with a single analysis. GCxGC has great potential for a wide variety of environmental sensing applications, including detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other harmful chemicals. This paper demonstrates separation of nerve agents sarin and soman from a matrix of gasoline and diesel fuel. Using a combination of an initial column separating on the basis of boiling point and a second column separating on the basis of polarity, GCxGC clearly separates the nerve agents from the thousands of other chemicals in the sample. The GCxGC data is visualized, processed, and analyzed as a two-dimensional digital image using a software system for GCxGC image processing developed at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Ni, Mingtian; Kottapalli, Visweswara; Visvanathan, Arvind; Ledford, Edward B., Jr.; Oostdijk, John; Trap, Henk C.

2003-08-01

256

Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 ?m diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-?m microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

2005-11-01

257

Nucleic acid approaches for detection and identification of biological warfare and infectious disease agents.  

PubMed

Biological warfare agents are the most problematic of the weapons of mass destruction and terror. Both civilian and military sources predict that over the next decade the threat from proliferation of these agents will increase significantly. In this review we summarize the state of the art in detection and identification of biological threat agents based on PCR technology with emphasis on the new technology of microarrays. The advantages and limitations of real-time PCR technology and a review of the literature as it applies to pathogen and virus detection are presented. The paper covers a number of issues related to the challenges facing biological threat agent detection technologies and identifies critical components that must be overcome for the emergence of reliable PCR-based DNA technologies as bioterrorism countermeasures and for environmental applications. The review evaluates various system components developed for an integrated DNA microchip and the potential applications of the next generation of fully automated DNA analyzers with integrated sample preparation and biosensing elements. The article also reviews promising devices and technologies that are near to being, or have been, commercialized. PMID:14579752

Ivnitski, Dmitri; O'Neil, Daniel J; Gattuso, Anthony; Schlicht, Roger; Calidonna, Michael; Fisher, Rodney

2003-10-01

258

Cuba: A Case Study of a Successful Attempt to Seize Political Power by the Application of Unconventional Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The form of violence resorted to by Fidel Castro and his followers was guerrilla warfare. In contrast with the traditional coup d'état of Latin-American politics, the Cuban revolution led by Castro involved protracted military warfare and sweeping social, economic, and political changes. Among the factors which appear to correlate with Castro's successful seizure of political power are the undermining of

Merle Kling

1962-01-01

259

Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

J. R. Pugh; J. H. Grinstead; J. A. Farley; P. D. Enlow; D. A. Kelly

1996-01-01

260

EWS-FLI1 Fusion Protein Up-regulates Critical Genes in Neural Crest Development and Is Responsible for the Observed Phenotype of Ewing's Family of Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-specific translocations are common in tumors of mesenchymal origin. Whether the translocation determines the phenotype, or vice versa, is debatable. Ewing's family tumors (EFT) are consistently associated with an EWS-FLI1 translocation and a primitive neural phenotype. Histogenesis and classification are therefore uncertain. To test whether EWS-FLI1 fusion gene expression is responsible for the primitive neuroectodermal phenotype of EFT, we established

Siwen Hu-Lieskovan; Jingsong Zhang; Lingtao Wu; Hiroyuki Shimada; Deborah E. Schofield; Timothy J. Triche

2005-01-01

261

ArulU. Rev. Phys. Chern. 2013. 64:101-27 First published online as a Re,;ew in Advance on  

E-print Network

so _ ArulU. Rev. Phys. Chern. 2013. 64:101-27 First published online as a Re,;ew in Advance.org This article's doi: 10.1146/alU1urev-physchem-040412-110021 Copyright © 2013 by Annual Re,;ews. Ail rights of vibrational motions using femtosecond techniques in the visible regime. 101 #12;)'A.l'Ii'ES: X-ray absorption

Mukamel, Shaul

262

Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents  

DOEpatents

A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN); Sanders, Charlene A. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-05-27

263

Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991  

SciTech Connect

The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

Mann, B.J.

1992-09-01

264

Further development of a future ESM channeliser with high temperature superconducting filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important function of an Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM) receiver is the acquisition and identification of signals in the Electronic Warfare (EW) environment. Ideally the receiver requires a high probability of intercept. Current receiver types include wide open systems, which suffer from signal overlap, and scanning superheterodyne receivers, which have a low probability of intercept against some signals. The

R. F. Jeffries; R. B. Greed; D. C. Voyce; G. Nudd; R. G. Humphreys; S. W. Goodyear

2001-01-01

265

Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 ?g/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 ?g/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

2008-12-01

266

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

IAloguE: ThE WAy To pEACE 4 A pAlESTInIAn pEACE dIvIdEnd 6 ISlAMIC fInAnCE & BAnkIng 8 Anu puBlIC lECTuRES 9 SEMInCentre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 d to Australia was sponsored by the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, ANU and the Centre for Dialouge, Monash

267

Metal Oxide Nanowire and Thin-Film-Based Gas Sensors for Chemical Warfare Simulants Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns with metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors based on nanowires and thin films. We focus on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) detection to compare these materials from the functional point-of-view. We work with different chemicals including simulants for Sarin nerve agents, vescicant gases, cyanide agents, and analytes such as ethanol, acetone, ammonia, and carbon monoxide that can be produced

Andrea Ponzoni; Camilla Baratto; Sebastiano Bianchi; Elisabetta Comini; Matteo Ferroni; Matteo Pardo; Marco Vezzoli; Alberto Vomiero; Guido Faglia; Giorgio Sberveglieri

2008-01-01

268

Quantitative detection of a simulant of organophosphonate chemical warfare agents using liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of liquid crystal (LC)-based sensors for detection of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP), a representative organophosphonate compound and simulant of chemical warfare agent sarin, are presented. The equilibration coordination interaction among the aluminum ions on a surface, the cyano group in LCs, and the phosphoryl group in DMMP have been exploited to achieve sensitive, fast, and reversible sensor responses. Measurement

Heidi J. VanTreeck; Darrin R. Most; Bart A. Grinwald; Kurt A. Kupcho; Avijit Sen; Michael D. Bonds; Bharat R. Acharya

2011-01-01

269

Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment.

C. K. N. Patel

2008-01-01

270

Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Presence of Interfering Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two portable chemical warfare agent (CWA) alarm units, AP2CV (Proengin France) and M90 (Environics, Finland), challenged with CWA and interfering materials, was evaluated in the laboratory. This study focuses on the effect of fuel vapors and carbon dioxide on the detectors' responses to sulfur mustard (HD) and sarin (GB) vapors. The interfering materials were chosen to simulate

Shai Kendler; Amalia Zaltsman; Gad Frishman

2003-01-01

271

An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

2013-01-01

272

China as peer competitor. Trends in nuclear weapons, space, and information warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, Lt. Col Kathryn L. Gauthier analyzes the potential for China to emerge as a peer competitor of the US in the coming decades. First, she examines two traditional pillars of national strength--China's status as a nuclear weapons state and as a space power. Second, she then explores China's growing focus on information warfare (IW) as a means to wage

1999-01-01

273

Multivariate statistical classification of surface enhanced Raman spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial results which demonstrate the ability to classify surface enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants are presented. The spectra of 2 endospores (B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus); 2 chemical agent simulants (Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), Diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP)); and 2 toxin simulants (Ovalbumin, Horseradish peroxidase) were collected on multiple substrates fabricated from colloidal gold adsorbed onto a

Augustus W. Fountain III; William F. Pearman

2005-01-01

274

Utilizing a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma for chemical\\/biological warfare agent decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. An innovative approach to the decontamination of chemical and\\/or biological warfare agents is described. This recently developed technology involves utilizing a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) as the decontaminant\\/sterilant. The plasma provides a very powerful but environmentally safe oxidizing and disinfecting technique without the use of strong chemicals (chlorine bleach) or high

M. R. McLean; J. R. Roth

1998-01-01

275

Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: Is everything set and clear?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation

Alex Sabelnikov; Vladimir Zhukov; C. Ruth Kempf

2006-01-01

276

Mission over Mechanism: Reorganizing the Intelligence Community to Meet the Challenge of Asymmetric Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the age of asymmetric warfare, intelligence is tantamount to national defense. Our terrorist adversaries are too dispersed to destroy and too fanatical to deter. Our best hope of security is accurate, timely, accessible information and actionable analysis. We need to organize the Intelligence Community (IC) by mission—not collection mechanism—to take full advantage of our technical proficiency and analytic expertise.

Diana Raschke

277

WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

278

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

279

Long?Lasting T Cell Responses to Biological Warfare Vaccines in Human Vaccinees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Medical countermeasures against biological warfare include the use of vaccines for anthrax and plague, which require repeated dosing and adjuvant to achieve adequate protection from threats such as inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. Despite the widespread use of these measures in preparation for recent military deployments, little is known about the cell-mediated immune response that is induced by these

Jennifer S. Allen; Ania Skowera; G. James Rubin; Simon Wessely; Mark Peakman

2006-01-01

280

Laser-based instrumentation for detection of chemical-warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

Several laser-based techniques are being developed for remote, point, and surface contamination detection of chemical warfare agents. These techniques include optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. Detection limits in the part-per-million to part-per-billion regime have been demonstrated.

Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Sander, R.K.; Hartford, A. Jr.

1981-01-01

281

Electronic protection and routing optimization of MANETs operating in an electronic warfare environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domination of the electromagnetic spectrum is a crucial component of the 21st century warfare. In the harsh electromagnetic environment of the modern battlefield, it is of the utmost importance to deny the opposing force the opportunity to attack or exploit the detection\\/interception of friendly communications assets through the deployment of electronic protection (EP) measures in order to attain low probability

António Grilo; Mário Macedo; Mario S. Nunes

2007-01-01

282

Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM) Subsystem Model in a Simulated Tactical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an airborne electronic warfare support measures (ESM) subsystem model in a simulated tactical environment and the used algorithms and techniques in this model are described. The software is developed as a subcomponent of an extensively simulated tactical environment. The simulation includes the modeling of the motion of the air, land and maritime vehicles and modeling of the

E. H. Kok; L. E. Turkmen; S. Unsal

2006-01-01

283

Structuring Naval Special Warfare's Lead Chief Petty Officer's Combat Leadership Course.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Naval Special Warfare (NSW) does not currently have a professional military education program for the enlisted community. There have been courses developed by the U.S. Navy, which all NSW enlisted members are required to attend in order to progress in ran...

D. F. Nash

2010-01-01

284

DESI-MS\\/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A \\

Paul A. D'Agostino

2011-01-01

285

Molecular modeling studies on nucleoside hydrolase from the biological warfare agent Brucella suis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brucella suis is a dangerous biological warfare agent already used for military purposes. This bacteria cause brucellosis, a zoonosis highly infective and difficult to fight. An important selective target for chemotherapy against this disease is nucleoside hydrolase (NH), an enzyme still not found in mammals. We present here the first three-dimensional structure of B. suis NH (BsNH) and propose this

Daiana T. Mancini; Karina S. Matos; Elaine F. F. da Cunha; Tamiris M. Assis; Ana P. Guimarães; Tanos C. C. França; Teodorico C. Ramalho

2012-01-01

286

History and perspectives of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare agent detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a short historical overview of the development of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare (CW) agents and their biological markers of exposure, with a more detailed overview of methods for organophosphorus nerve agents. Bioanalytical methods for unchanged CW agents are used primarily for toxicokinetic\\/toxicodynamic studies. An important aspect of nerve agent toxicokinetics is the different biological activity and

Robin M. Black

2010-01-01

287

A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants for the Study of Environmental Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in the environmental fate of chemical warfare agents attributable to the intensified threat of chemical weapons use in a terrorist attack. Knowledge of processes that influence the fate of agents such as distilled mustard, lewisite, tabun, sarin, soman, and VX in the environment is important for development of disposal strategies and for risk and exposure assessments.

Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt; Detlef R. U. Knappe; Morton A. Barlaz

2008-01-01

288

The Five Ds in Martial Arts are Directly Applicable to Information Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the surface it may appear a stretch to relate martial arts to information warfare (IW), but the similarities are striking (no pun intended). There are physical, spiritual, and metaphysical aspects to martial arts that are directly and indirectly analogous to the physical, virtual, and perception management aspects of IW.

Perry Luzwick

2000-01-01

289

Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy is an established is an established technique for observing the rotational spectra of molecules and complexes in molecular beams. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are adapting this measurement technology for applications in analytical chemistry. Presently, FTMW spectroscopy is being used to investigate chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors. A FTMW spectroscopy facility has been established at a surety laboratory at the Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, where the capabilities exist for handling these deadly warfare agents. Here, the rotational spectra of Sarin, Soman and DF have been observed and assigned. Also, microwave spectroscopic studies of less toxic precursors such as pinacolyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and thiodiglycol have been carried out at NIST. Tests will be undertaken to assess the potential of using FTMW spectroscopy for detecting trace amounts of chemical-warfare agents and precursors in air. A database of rotational transition frequencies is being compiled for use in conjunction with a FTMW spectrometer to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical weapons. The sensitivity and resolution of FTMW spectroscopy of FTMW spectroscopy suggest that the technique may offer real-time, unequivocal identification of chemical-warfare agents at trace vapor concentrations in air.

Hight Walker, Angela R.; Suenram, Richard D.; Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Woolard, Dwight L.; Wiebach, W.

1999-01-01

290

Chemistry of destroying chemical warfare agents in flame. Technical project report, April 1994May 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the research is to increase our understanding of flame chemistry of organophosphorus compounds (OPC). This class of chemicals includes chemical warfare agents. (CWAs) such as the nerve agents GB GD and VX, stockpiles of which in the United States and Former Soviet Union are scheduled for destruction by incineration or other technologies. Although high CWA destruction efficiency

O. P. Korobeinichev; A. A. Chernov; V. M. Shvartsberg; V. V. Mokrushin

1995-01-01

291

Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectroscopy for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Simulants  

E-print Network

Remote Sensing 1. Introduction The threat posed by nerve agents in chemical warfare to soldiers-infrared wavelengths which probe fundamental molecular vibrations of most molecules. However, requirement of a gas cell signatures of the target gas using slow light enhanced absorption of light in a photonic crystal slot

Chen, Ray

292

In vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diphenylarsinic acid [DPAs(V)], a degradation product of diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, both of which were developed as chemical warfare agents, was investigated in terms of its capacity to induce cytotoxic effects, numerical and structural changes of chromosomes, and abnormalities of centrosome integrity and spindle organizations in conjunction with the effects of glutathione (GSH) depletion. DPAs(V) had toxic effects on cultured human

Takafumi Ochi; Toshihide Suzuki; Hideo Isono; Toshikazu Kaise

2004-01-01

293

Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and\\/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present

Khordagui

1997-01-01

294

Analytical methods for environmental sampling of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first technical conference promoted the standardization of analytical procotols to reliably detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in soil, water, and other complex environmental media. This supports the various chemical weapons disposal and emergency preparedness programs, Chemical Weapons Convention treaty compliance, installation restoration and base closure decisions. Five major topics were addressed: Implementation for treaty compliance, installation,

A. P. Watson; S. Kistner

1995-01-01

295

Derivatisation reactions in the chromatographic analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products is an important component of verification of compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention. Gas and liquid chromatography, particularly combined with mass spectrometry, are the major techniques used to detect and identify chemicals of concern to the Convention. The more polar analytes, and some of the more reactive or highly volatile

Robin M Black; Bob Muir

2003-01-01

296

Use of SolidPhase Extraction in Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a comprehensive evaluation of the solid-phase extraction technique for isolation of chemical warfare agents and related compounds from aqueous solutions. Several factors which may affect the amounts recovered by this method were investigated. These included sorbent type, amount of sorbent, pretreatment of the sorbent, type of eluting solvent, amount of eluting solvent and washing procedures. In addition,

John Aasulf Tørnes; Aase Mari Opstad; Bjørn Arne Johnsen

1991-01-01

297

Potential fate of blistering chemical warfare agents on Kuwait's arid soil and related research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iran–Iraq war, followed by the Iraqi aggression against Kuwait, and the unverified use of certain chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the Arabian Gulf region, triggered the interest of environmental scientists in the probable fate of these chemical agents within the unique arid environment of the Arabian Gulf region. These efforts were hampered by the scarcity of information and the

Hosny Khordagui

1996-01-01

298

Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait's desalination industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and\\/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present

Hosny K. KhordaguiO

1997-01-01

299

Bacterial release of arsenic ions and organoarsenic compounds from soil contaminated by chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to investigate possible participation of microorganisms in the release of soluble arsenical compounds from organoarsenic warfare agents in contaminated soil.A number of bacterial strains were isolated with high resistance against As3+ and As5+ ions which are able to degrade the water insoluble compounds triphenylarsine (TP) and triphenylarsineoxide (TPO). These strains belong to different genera

Manfred Köhler; Klaus Hofmann; Fernando Völsgen; Kerstin Thurow; Andreas Koch

2001-01-01

300

Destruction of simulated chemical warfare agents in non-thermal atmospheric-pressure air plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in air was investigated. Stainles s steel samples inoculated with malathion (a surrogate for nerve agent VX) were placed on the ca thode, where they were treated by the chemical active species produced in the streamers. An effect ive decontamination (>99.7 %) was achieved after 10

J. Jarrige; P. Vervisch

301

The destruction of chemical warfare surrogates and subsequent phosphorus distribution during gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ChemChar process enables gasification of a wide variety of liquid and sludge wastes on a readily handled macroporous granular char. The process produces combustible gas products, largely retains metals and halides on the char matrix, and effectively destroys organohalides without producing SOX, NOX, chlorinated dibenzodioxins or chlorinated dibenzoflirans (which can occur with incineration). To study chemical warfare agent wastes

R. Scott Martin; Stanley E. Manahan; J. Steven Morris; David W. Larsen

1999-01-01

302

Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

2004-02-01

303

The Weapons of the "True Warfaring Christian": Right Reason and Free Will in Seventeenth-Century Literature  

E-print Network

Christians. A quick search for books on ?spiritual warfare? on amazon.com revealed 10,922 items on 21 June 2009, including such titles as T. D. Jakes? Overcoming the Enemy: The Spiritual Warfare of the Believer (2003), Beth Moore?s Praying God?s Word... not be evil per se, but are still inferior to the eternal good of God. 4 Milton?s argument about the warfaring Christian also points to his understanding of the fundamental importance of using reason, and more particularly right reason, in undertaking...

Bradley, Nancy R.

2010-01-14

304

Locus-specific microemulsion catalysts for sulfur mustard (HD) chemical warfare agent decontamination.  

PubMed

The rates of catalytic oxidative decontamination of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) and a range (chloroethyl) sulfide simulants of variable lipophilicity have been examined using a hydrogen peroxide-based microemulsion system. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), PGSE-NMR (pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR), fluorescence quenching, and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) were implemented to examine the distribution of HD, its simulants, and their oxidation/hydrolysis products in a model oil-in-water microemulsion. These measurements not only present a means of interpreting decontamination rates but also a rationale for the design of oxidation catalysts for these toxic materials. Here we show that by localizing manganese-Schiff base catalysts at the oil droplet-water interface or within the droplet core, a range of (chloroethyl) sulfides, including HD, spanning some 7 orders of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), may be oxidized with equal efficacy using dilute (5 wt. % of aqueous phase) hydrogen peroxide as a noncorrosive, environmentally benign oxidant (e.g., t(1/2) (HD) approximately 18 s, (2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide, C(6)H(5)SCH(2)CH(2)Cl) approximately 15 s, (thiodiglycol, S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)) approximately 19 s {20 degrees C}). Our observations demonstrate that by programming catalyst lipophilicity to colocalize catalyst and substrate, the inherent compartmentalization of the microemulsion can be exploited to achieve enhanced rates of reaction or to exert control over product selectivity. A combination of SANS, ESI-MS and fluorescence quenching measurements indicate that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the locus of the catalyst and not a result of partial hydrolysis of the substrate. PMID:19555102

Fallis, Ian A; Griffiths, Peter C; Cosgrove, Terence; Dreiss, Cecile A; Govan, Norman; Heenan, Richard K; Holden, Ian; Jenkins, Robert L; Mitchell, Stephen J; Notman, Stuart; Platts, Jamie A; Riches, James; Tatchell, Thomas

2009-07-22

305

Escherichia coli biosensors for environmental, food industry and biological warfare agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has the objective to research and develop a plastic optical fiber biosensor based taper and mPOF LPG techniques to detect Escherichia coli by measurements of index of refraction. Generally, cell detection is crucial in microbiological analysis of clinical, food, water or environmental samples. However, methods current employed are time consuming, taking at least 72 hours in order to produce reliable responses as they depend on sample collection and cell culture in controlled conditions. The delay in obtaining the results of the analysis can result in contamination of a great number of consumers. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) biosensors consist in a viable alternative for rapid and inexpensive scheme for cells detection. A study the sensitivity of these sensors for microbiological detection, fiber Tapers and Long Period Grating (LPG) both in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) were realized as possible candidates to take part of a biosensor system to detect Escherichia coli in water samples. In this work we adopted the immunocapture technique, which consists of quantifying bacteria in a liquid sample, attract-ing and fixing the bacteria on the surface of the polymer optical fiber, by the antigen-antibody reaction. The results were obtained by optical setup that consists in a side of the fiber a LED coupled to a photodetector through a POF with the taper in the middle of it. On the other side of the POF a photodetector receives this light producting a photocurrent. The output voltage is fed into the microcontroller A/D input port and its output data is sent via USB to a LabView software running in a microcomputer. The results showed the possibility of the POF in biosensor application capable to detect E. coli for environmental and food industry and for detecting and identifying biological-warfare agents using a very rapid response sensor, applicable to field detection prototypes.

Allil, R. C. S. B.; Werneck, M. M.; da Silva-Neto, J. L.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; Wandermur, G. L.; Rambauske, D. C.

2013-06-01

306

Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.  

PubMed

Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

2012-01-01

307

Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Chemical warfare agents are potential threats to military personnel and civilians. The potential for associated traumatic injuries is significant. Damage control surgery could expose medical personnel to agents contaminating the wounds. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate efficacy of surgical decontamination and assess exposure risk to attending personnel. Methods: Weanling pigs were randomly assigned to 2 of 4 debridement tools (scalpel, Bovie® knife, Fugo Blade®, and Versajet™ Hydrosurgery System). Penetrating traumatic wounds were created over the shoulder and thigh and then exposed to liquid sulfur mustard (HD) for 60 minutes. Excisional debridement of the injuries was performed while vapors over each site were collected. Gas chromatography was used to measure HD in samples of collected vapors. Unbound HD was quantified in presurgical wound swabs, excised tissues, and peripheral tissue biopsies following solvent extraction. Results: Excisional debridement produced agent-free wound beds (surgical decontamination). A significant amount of HD vapor was detected above the surgical fields with each tool. Apart from the Versajet™ producing significantly lower levels of HD detected over thigh wounds compared with those treated using the scalpel, there were no differences in the amount of agent detected among the tools. All measured levels significantly exceeded established safety limits. Vesicating levels of unbound HD were extracted from excised tissue. There was no measured lateral spreading of HD beyond the surgical margins. Conclusions: There is significant occupational exposure risk to HD during surgical procedures designed to stabilize agent-contaminated wounds. If appropriate protective measures are taken, surgical decontamination is both effective and safe. PMID:18716652

Graham, John S.; Gerlach, Travis W.; Logan, Thomas P.; Bonar, James P.; Fugo, Richard J.; Lee, Robyn B.; Coatsworth, Matthew A.

2008-01-01

308

Characterization of the genomic breakpoint and chimeric transcripts in the EWS-WT1 gene fusion of desmoplastic small round cell tumor.  

PubMed Central

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a recently recognized distinctive tumor shown to be associated with a recurrent translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), and rearrangement of the genes for Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and Wilms tumor (WT1). A genomic DNA fragment containing the EWS-WT1 gene fusion has been isolated from a desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and the breakpoint has been characterized. The breakpoints involve the intron between EWS exons 7 and 8 and the intron between WT1 exons 7 and 8. Chimeric transcripts corresponding to the fusion gene were detected in four of six cases studied. Analysis of these transcripts show an in-frame fusion of RNA encoding the amino-terminal domain of EWS to both alternatively spliced forms of the last three zinc fingers of the DNA-binding domain of WT1. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor represents the third tumor type associated with translocation of EWS and the first tumor associated with consistent translocation of WT1. The chimeric products are predicted to modulate transcription at WT1 target sites and contribute to development of this unique tumor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7862627

Gerald, W L; Rosai, J; Ladanyi, M

1995-01-01

309

Field-portable gas chromatography with transmission quadrupole and cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometric detection: Chromatographic retention index data and ion\\/molecule interactions for chemical warfare agent identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-portable gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is well-suited for the reliable identification of dangerous chemicals. The chemical warfare agent (CWA) O-ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) and many VX degradation products are challenging GC–MS analytes for a transmission quadrupole detector, as resulting 70eV electron ionization mass spectra contain little high mass information. Approaches were explored to detect these analytes using two field-portable GC–MS systems

Philip A. Smith; Carmela Jackson Lepage; Michael Lukacs; Nicholas Martin; Anton Shufutinsky; Paul B. Savage

2010-01-01

310

Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): Effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller’s earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper1 the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller’s earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to

L. Taysse; F. Dorandeu; S. Daulon; A. Foquin; N. Perrier; G. Lallement; P. Breton

2011-01-01

311

Stochastic design of an early warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning systems (EWS) are monitoring devices designed to avoid or to mitigate the impact posed by a threat. Since EWS are time-sensitive or stochastic, it is necessary to develop a design methodology that defines the integration of the participating monitoring information sources, the identification of potential warning thresholds, and the assessment of the associated risk within an explicit causal

Zenon Medina-Cetina; Farrokh Nadim

2008-01-01

312

Impact of Matrix Structure and Self-Managed Teams at the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Indianapolis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis evaluates the impact of the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Indianapolis (NAWC-ADI) efforts in restructuring itself using a matrix structure and self-managed teams. The thesis provides background information describing the organiz...

G. D. Houglan

1993-01-01

313

Potential Usage of Aqueous Alum for Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents. Part 2: Reactions with VX and QL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The destruction of chemical warfare agents (CWA's), particularly 0- ethyl- S- 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methyiphosponothiolate (VX), has been the focus of many articles in the popular media and in professional news journals such as Chemical and Engineerin...

D. J. Williams, V. L. Bevilacqua, W. R. Creasy, D. J. McGarvey, J. S. Rice

2006-01-01

314

How clean is clean enough? Recent developments in response to threats posed by chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent terrorist events underscore the urgent need to develop a comprehensive set of health-protective cleanup standards and effective decontamination technologies for use in the restoration of civilian facilities. Accurate scientific information remains limited in the area of biological warfare agents. However, new guidelines and calculated cleanup values are emerging for initial re-entry and long-term reoccupation following use of chemical warfare

Ellen Raber; Tina M Carlsen; Karen J Folks; Robert D Kirvel; Jeffrey I Daniels; Kenneth T Bogen

2004-01-01

315

Counter-Intelligence for counter-revolutionary warfare: The South African police security branch 1979–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In counter-revolutionary warfare strategy, political action forms the overwhelming part; however, also central as an off-shoot of the tenets of counter-revolutionary warfare is the elimination of insurgent structures – generally a euphemism for assassination. In reality, assassination is a subset of covert paramilitary action, implemented as a consequence of counter-intelligence or even counter-terrorism. South Africa's Security Branch presents one of

Kevin OBrien

2001-01-01

316

A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio.  

PubMed

Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and shortly after periods of war the human secondary sex ratio is higher has received little statistical treatment. In this paper we evaluate the war hypothesis using 3 statistical methods: linear regression, randomization, and time-series analysis. Live birth data from 10 different countries were included. Although we cannot speak of a general phenomenon, statistical evidence for an association between warfare and live birth sex ratio was found for several countries. Regression and randomization test results were in agreement. Time-series analysis showed that most human sex-ratio time series can be described by a common model. The results obtained using intervention models differed somewhat from results obtained by regression methods. PMID:10885189

Graffelman, J; Hoekstra, R F

2000-06-01

317

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

318

High-sensitivity, high-selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report high-sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agents (nerve gases) with very low probability of false positives (PFP). We demonstrate a detection threshold of 1.2 ppb (7.7 mug\\/m3 equivalent of Sarin) with a PFP of <1:106 in the presence of many interfering gases present in an urban environment through the detection of diisopropyl methylphosphonate, an accepted relatively harmless surrogate for

Michael B. Pushkarsky; Michael E. Webber; Tyson MacDonald; C. Kumar N. Patel

2006-01-01

319

Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing \\u000a rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning \\u000a problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts \\u000a against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The \\u000a first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the \\u000a nerve agents, in a crowded

C. K. N. Patel

2008-01-01

320

High-sensitivity, high-selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report high-sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agents (nerve gases) with very low probability of false positives (PFP). We demonstrate a detection threshold of 1.2 ppb (7.7 ?g?m3 equivalent of Sarin) with a PFP of <1:106 in the presence of many interfering gases present in an urban environment through the detection of diisopropyl methylphosphonate, an accepted relatively harmless surrogate for

Michael B. Pushkarsky; Michael E. Webber; Tyson Macdonald; C. Kumar N. Patel

2006-01-01

321

Coalition Warfare: Australia & the United States in the beach head battles, November 1942 - January 1943  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of warfare involving coalitions is always fraught with difficulties. The competing strategic interests of each partner and the complications arising from two foreign armies working together inevitably leads to tension. The relationship between the United States and Australian during 1942\\/1943 is no exception.\\u000aOne of the dominating images of this partnership centres on the relationship between the two

Peter J Dean

2009-01-01

322

On the Suitability of NetLogo for the Modelling of Civilian Assistance and Guerrilla Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a pilot study of the suitability of NetLogo, an agent-based software tool, in modelling guerilla warfare. In this study, a local civilian populace reports observed insurgent activity to peacekeepers with varying levels of enthusiasm depending on the reputation of the peacekeepers with those local populaces. A simulation model is developed in NetLogo to assess the suitability of

Scott Wheeler

323

The Moral Identity of Europe: From Warfare and Civil Strife to “ In Varietate Concordia ”  

Microsoft Academic Search

It will be argued that the values of liberalism and peace are essential elements of the moral identity of Europe, as well\\u000a as universal moral values. They will be contrasted to Europe’s history of warfare. An essential point of reference for the\\u000a moral identity of Europe is going to be sought in Kant’s notions of the “ethical commonwealth” and “perpetual

Vojin Raki?

324

DESI-MS\\/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products\\u000a from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface\\u000a of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass\\u000a spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A “dip

Paul A. D’Agostino

325

Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: An Essential Tool to Counteract Chemical Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed\\u000a over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed.\\u000a Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agents is useful for various applications. It can be envisaged that rapid diagnosis\\u000a will play a pivotal role in the management

D. Noort; M. J. Schans; F. J. Bikker; H. P. Benschop

326

Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate\\/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure

Annetta Paule Watson; Fredrick G Dolislager

2007-01-01

327

Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg\\/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty

Frederick Dolislager; Donald Bansleben; Annetta Paule Watson

2010-01-01

328

Detection of simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents by vibrational spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was focused in the measurement of spectroscopic signatures of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants (CWAS) and degradation products of chemical agents using vibrational spectroscopy for the generation of spectroscopic libraries. The chemicals studied were: DMMP, DIMP, 2-CEES, 2-BAET, 1,4-thioxane, thiodiglycol sulfoxide, dihexylamine, cyclohexylamine, among others. Raman microscopy experiments were performed at different excitation wavelengths that spanned from NIR at

Orlando Ruiz-Pesante; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Oliva M. Primera-Pedrozo; William Ortiz; Yadira M. Soto-Feliciano; Deborah E. Nieves; Michael L. Ramirez; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2007-01-01

329

Ecological Risk Assessment for Ascontaining Chemical Warfare Agents — Status and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1992 does not regulate contaminations of soil and water by starting, by-products and degradation\\u000a products of chemical warfare agents that do not pose an acute danger but have harmful long-term effects. The financial means\\u000a for removing these risks are often missing. A solution for this problem could be the application of adapted microorganisms\\u000a that are

Tina Vollerthun; Wolfgang Spyra

330

Development of an Analytical Protocol for Forensic Identification of Chemical Warfare Agent Surrogates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical protocol for forensic identification of chemical warfare agent surrogates in various sample media is developed. This protocol can be implemented on site or in a mobile laboratory, based on a quick sample extraction procedure and a subsequent gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) analysis. The surrogates in this work include 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), 2-(butylamino) ethanethiol

Wenxing Kuang; Merv Fingas; Ken Li

2007-01-01

331

A comparison of {sup 252}Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA  

SciTech Connect

Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a {sup 252}Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-{micro}g {sup 252}Cf source emitting 10{sup 7} n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source.

Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.

2000-07-01

332

Miniaturized low-cost ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a well-known method for detecting hazardous compounds in air. Typical applications are the detection of chemical warfare agents, highly toxic industrial compounds, explosives, and drugs of abuse. Detection limits in the low part per billion range, fast response times, and simple instrumentation make this technique more and more popular. In particular, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized low-cost IMS for hand-held devices and air monitoring of public areas by sensor networks. In this paper, we present a miniaturized aspiration condenser type ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents. The device is easy to manufacture and allows single substance identification down to low part per billion-level concentrations within seconds. The improved separation power results from ion focusing by means of geometric constraints and fluid dynamics. A simple pattern recognition algorithm is used for the identification of trained substances in air. The device was tested at the German Armed Forces Scientific Institute for Protection Technologies-NBC-Protection. Different chemical warfare agents, such as sarin, tabun, soman, US-VX, sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard, and lewisite were tested. The results are presented here. PMID:18665610

Zimmermann, Stefan; Barth, Sebastian; Baether, Wolfgang K M; Ringer, Joachim

2008-09-01

333

Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial demonstration of this technology in a 'stand alone' environment was undertaken at the NIFC in November 2011 using a data set comprised of 140,000 documents. Recently the system has been modified to include a secure authentication mechanism based on a Kerberos ticketing framework and this has now been integrated onto the NIFC Battlefield Information, Collection, and Exploitation System (BICES) network. In summary, the paper discusses the CWP project; the two key technologies (i.e., Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms) developed within the US UK ITA research program; how these have been integrated into the NIFC BICES; and future plans for the program.

Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

2013-05-01

334

Period changes of EA, EB and EW-types binaries (Liao+, 2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study includes the stars listed in Kreiner, Kim & Nha (2001, An Altas of O-C Diagrams of Eclipsing Binary Stars. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Cracow, Poland), the 101 Algol systems in Giuricin et al. (1983ApJS...52...35G) and the Algol-type binaries listed in Ibanoglu et al. (2006, Cat. J\\/MNRAS\\/373\\/435). As selection criteria we considered stars either that show cyclic period changes

W.-P. Liao; S.-B. Qian

2010-01-01

335

Development of electrochemical sensors for trace detection of explosives and for the detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A huge number of chemical sensors are based on electrochemical measurement methods. Particularly amperometric sensorsystems are employed for the fast detection of pollutants in industry and environment as well as for analytic systems in the medical diagnosis. The large number of different applications of electrochemical sensors is based on the high sensitivity of electrochemical methods and on the wide of possibilities to enhance the selectivity by variation of electrochemical and chemical parameters. Besides this, electrochemical sensorsystems are frequently simple to operate, transportable and cheap. Up to now the electrochemical method of cyclic voltammetry is used only seldom for sensors. Clearly the efficiency of cyclic voltammetry can be seen at the sensorsystem for the detection of nitro- and aminotoluenes in solids and waters as presented here. The potentiodynamic sensors system can be employed for the fast and easy risk estimation of contaminated areas. Because of the high sensitivity of electrochemical methods the detection of chemical substances with a low vapor pressure is possible also. The vapor pressure of TNT at room temperature is 7 ppb for instances. With a special electrochemical set-up we were able to measure TNT approximately 10 cm above a TNT-sample. In addition we were able to estimate TNT in the gaseous phase approximately 10 cm above a real plastic mine. Therefore it seems to be possible to develop an electrochemical mien detection. Moreover, we present that the electrochemical detection of RDX, HMX and chemical warfare agents is also possible.

Berger, T.; Ziegler, H.; Krausa, Michael

2000-08-01

336

A Simple Extension of EW Gauge Boson Mixing and Mass of the 125 GeV Higgs Boson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple extension of EW gauge theory found within the framework of the SM mixes the Yang-Mills (Y-M) field with the vector (Weak and EM), scalar (Higgs), and tensor gauge fields resulting in a model prediction of a Higgs mass spectrum that includes the recently discovered 125 GeV particle. The key feature is the use of coupled Y-M gauge fields (B?) whose quanta are spin J?=0,1,2 and isotopic spin I3=0 mixing off-diagonally with the neutral Higgs, Z, photon and tensor gauge fields. The tensor algebra is associated with a unimodular 4x4 integral matrix with even (vector) and odd (scalar and tensor) 2x2 matrix subspace components. The predicted Higgs spectrum consists of neutral scalar (J?^? =0^+,I3=0) and pseudoscalar (J?^? =0^-,I3=0) particles whose QCD quark-antiquark (ut,ct,tt) wavefunctions are combinations of a scalar Higgs color magnetic triplet (sp quarks) and a pseudoscalar Higgs color magnetic singlet (ss quarks). The two lowest lying Higgs scalar particles are predicted to be 124.05 GeV (ut) and 125.30 GeV(ct). The predicted Higgs scalar and pseudoscalar mass spectra will be presented and discussed.

Ward, Thomas

2013-04-01

337

HealthViEWS: mortality study of female US Vietnam era veterans, 1965-2010.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective study among 4,734 women who served in the US military in Vietnam (Vietnam cohort), 2,062 women who served in countries near Vietnam (near-Vietnam cohort), and 5,313 nondeployed US military women (US cohort) to evaluate the associations of mortality outcomes with Vietnam War service. Veterans were identified from military records and followed for 40 years through December 31, 2010. Information on underlying causes of death was obtained from death certificates and the National Death Index. Based on 2,743 deaths, all 3 veteran cohorts had lower mortality risk from all causes combined and from several major causes, such as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and nervous system disease relative to comparable US women. However, excess deaths from motor vehicle accidents were observed in the Vietnam cohort (standardized mortality ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30, 5.56) and in the US cohort (standardized mortality ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.27). More than two-thirds of women in the study were military nurses. Nurses in the Vietnam cohort had a 2-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer death (adjusted relative risk = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 4.25) and an almost 5-fold higher risk of brain cancer death compared with nurses in the US cohort (adjusted relative risk = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.27, 16.83). Findings of all-cause and motor vehicle accident deaths among female Vietnam veterans were consistent with patterns of postwar mortality risk among other war veterans. PMID:24488510

Kang, Han K; Cypel, Yasmin; Kilbourne, Amy M; Magruder, Kathy M; Serpi, Tracey; Collins, Joseph F; Frayne, Susan M; Furey, Joan; Huang, Grant D; Kimerling, Rachel; Reinhard, Matthew J; Schumacher, Karen; Spiro, Avron

2014-03-15

338

IRLooK: an advanced mobile infrared signature measurement, data reduction, and analysis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared signature measurement capability has a key role in the electronic warfare (EW) self protection systems' development activities. In this article, the IRLooK System and its capabilities will be introduced. IRLooK is a truly innovative mobile infrared signature measurement system with all its design, manufacturing and integration accomplished by an engineering philosophy peculiar to ASELSAN. IRLooK measures the infrared signatures of military and civil platforms such as fixed/rotary wing aircrafts, tracked/wheeled vehicles and navy vessels. IRLooK has the capabilities of data acquisition, pre-processing, post-processing, analysis, storing and archiving over shortwave, mid-wave and long wave infrared spectrum by means of its high resolution radiometric sensors and highly sophisticated software analysis tools. The sensor suite of IRLooK System includes imaging and non-imaging radiometers and a spectroradiometer. Single or simultaneous multiple in-band measurements as well as high radiant intensity measurements can be performed. The system provides detailed information on the spectral, spatial and temporal infrared signature characteristics of the targets. It also determines IR Decoy characteristics. The system is equipped with a high quality field proven two-axes tracking mount to facilitate target tracking. Manual or automatic tracking is achieved by using a passive imaging tracker. The system also includes a high quality weather station and field-calibration equipment including cavity and extended area blackbodies. The units composing the system are mounted on flat-bed trailers and the complete system is designed to be transportable by large body aircraft.

Cukur, Tamer; Altug, Yelda; Uzunoglu, Cihan; Kilic, Kayhan; Emir, Erdem

2007-04-01

339

THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

SciTech Connect

Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

Martin, A

2006-10-23

340

Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations. PMID:23532782

Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

2013-06-01

341

Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

Watson, A.P.

2003-07-24

342

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

1995-01-01

343

Smallpox and biological warfare: the case for abandoning vaccination of military personnel.  

PubMed Central

Smallpox was officially declared eradicated from the world in 1980. Earlier, in 1972, over 50 nations signed the Biological Weapons Convention renouncing this entire category of weapons. Despite this international agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union continue to vaccinate their military troops against smallpox, thus implying that each fears the other might still use it in biological warfare. Vaccination is not a harmless procedure, and vaccinia infections continue to be reported in troops and their contacts. Negotiating an end to the vaccination of troops would be a final step in ending the fear of smallpox. PMID:2944401

Capps, L; Vermund, S H; Johnsen, C

1986-01-01

344

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

345

Nanodispersive mixed oxides for destruction of warfare agents prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis with urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline mixed oxides of Ti, Zn, Al and Fe were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphates with urea at temperature of 100 °C in an aqueous solution. The prepared samples were characterized by BET and BJH measurements, an X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with yperite (2,2?-dichloroethyl sulphide), soman (3,3-dimethyl-2-butyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and matter VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothionate). An excellent activity in decomposition of chemical warfare agents was observed in these materials (conversion degree higher then 96%/h).

Dan?k, Ond?ej; Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Kalendová, Andrea; Opluštil, Frantisek

2007-05-01

346

Low-power microsensors for explosives and nerve warfare agents using silicon nanodots and nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline porous silicon films (nanodots) and polymeric silicon wires (nanowires) have been used to detect chemicals in gas and liquid phase. Transduction mechanisms using quantum confinement derived photoluminescence and optical reflectivity have been used. Photoluminescence intensity is modulated by energy or electron transfer induced quenching, and a shift of the Fabry-Perot reflectivity fringes from thin nanocrystalline films occurs upon molecular absorption. Examples of irreversible detection and reversible sensing modes for explosives, nerve warfare agents, and various odors of commercial interest will be provided. A catalyst can be incorporated into the nanomaterials to provide specificity for the analyte of interest.

Sailor, Michael J.; Trogler, William C.; Letant, Sonia; Sohn, Honglae; Content, Stephane; Schmedake, Thomas A.; Gao, Jun; Zmolek, Peter; Link, Jamie R.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Xu, Fang; Shames, Paul E.

2001-09-01

347

Soil phytoremediation from the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent, yperite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant-based bioremediation (phytoremediation) strategy has been developed and shown to be effective for the clean-up of\\u000a soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent (CWA), yperite. The method involves exploiting the\\u000a plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to intensify the phytoremediation. For determination of the yperite breakdown\\u000a products, gas chromatography is used.\\u000a \\u000a Soil and plant samples

Elena A. Zakharova; Paul V. Kosterin; Vitaly V. Brudnik; Alexander A. Shcherbakov; Alexander A. Ponomaryov; Lubov F. Shcherbakova; Vladimir G. Mandich; Eugenii E. Fedorov; Vladimir V. Ignatov

2000-01-01

348

Integrating botnet simulations with network centric warfare simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Botnets," or "bot armies," are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software designed and operated in order to conduct attacks against government and civilian targets. Bot armies are one of the most serious security threats to networks and computer systems in operation today. Botnets are remotely operated by botmasters who can launch large-scale malicious network activity. While bot army activity has, to date, been largely limited to fraud, blackmail, and other criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet and launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers, networks, and data gathering operations has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but instead discuss ways to use simulation to address the threats they pose. This paper suggests means for addressing the need to provide botnet defense training based upon existing simulation environments and discusses the capabilities needed for training systems for botnet activities. In this paper we discuss botnet technologies and review the capabilities that underlie this threat to network, information, and computer security. The second section of the paper contains background information about bot armies and their foundational technologies. The third section contains a discussion of the techniques we developed for estimating botnet bandwidth consumption and our approach for simulating botnet activities. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for additional research.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2010-04-01

349

Northeast Pacific Geomagnetic And Environmental Change During The Last 140 Kyr Recorded By Deep-Sea Sediment Core EW9504-17PC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent paleo-geomagnetic observations as well as modeling studies highlighted the role of regional structures in organizing the geomagnetic field, and quest for better global coverage of quality magnetic records. Continuous high-fidelity paleomagnetic records covering the past few hundred thousand years are rare in the northeast Pacific region. Progressive alternating field demagnetization of natural remanence and laboratory-induced magnetization on u-channel samples from a 15-m piston core EW9504-17PC (42.24°N, 125.89°W, 2671 m water depth) yielded continuous paleointensity and paleo-secular variation, as well as environmental change record of the past ~140 kyr in the northeast Pacific region. Magnetic concentration parameters (magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic and isothermal remanences) and the ratios between them that are indicative of magnetic grain sizes, apparently correlate with glacial/interglacial variations, with higher concentration and finer magnetic grains occur during the glacial intervals. These observations are consistent with previous Ar and Nd isotopes based provenance study result that glacial intervals in this core might be associated with an enhanced contribution from the Cascade volcanic arc. Despite the potential changes in sediment sources, relative paleointensity (RPI) estimates of EW9504-17PC, on age model constrained by benthic oxygen isotope as well as correlation to nearby radiocarbon-dated sediment core, agree well with other worldwide RPI records including the GLOPIS-75 and the PISO-1500 global RPI stacks. Component inclinations of EW9504-17PC also show features that can be correlated to inclination record from the Fish Lake in Oregon. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path estimated using EW9504-17PC data of the last ~25 kyr (on transferred radiocarbon ages) averaged using a one thousand year time window appears to have longitudinal preferential. This nonsymmetrical distribution of VGPs has also been observed from records elsewhere during younger time intervals, and is consistent with the existence of competing geomagnetic flux lobes at recurrent locations.

Xuan, C.; Stoner, J. S.; Mix, A. C.; VanLaningham, S.

2012-12-01

350

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTrE nEwS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTrE nEwS 2 Conf) ISSn 1322 0462 ThE AfghAnISTAn ConflICT: AuSTrAlIA'S rolE The Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies held of critical concern for the future of the Afghan state and Australia's commitment. The difficulties of both

351

Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions  

E-print Network

Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonise new area, as well as the importance of inter-species interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin producing, sensitive, and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates, and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled...

Weber, Markus F; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

2014-01-01

352

Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions.  

PubMed

Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonize new areas, as well as the importance of interspecies interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin-producing, sensitive and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled us to extrapolate these intricate interdependencies in terms of phenomenological biodiversity laws. Our mathematical analysis also suggested that cyclic dominance between strains is not a prerequisite for coexistence in competitive range expansions. Instead, robust three-strain coexistence required a balance between growth rates and either a reduced initial ratio of the toxin-producing strain, or a sufficiently short toxin range. PMID:24806706

Weber, Markus F; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

2014-07-01

353

An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

2013-08-01

354

Integrated nuclear and conventional theater warfare simulation (inwars) documentation. Part I. Synopsis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume constitutes the Synopsis Component of the Integrated Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) documentation. It provides an overview of the simulation in terms of unique features, inputs and outputs, and modes of application. The INWARS representation of theater warfare and its software implementation are then synopsized. INWARS has been developed to provide a tool for investigating interactions among conventional, nuclear, and chemical operations in the context of a theater-level conflict situation. INWARS is also distinguished by its focus on upper-echelon command, control, and intelligence (C22I) processes. In particular, INWARS contains explicit, fully-automated representation of the C2I activities involved in: (1) developing, and executing operations to achieve assigned objectives; (2) considering the employment of conventional, nuclear, or chemical weapons in support of those operations; and, (3) adapting ongoing activities to the perceived threat of enemy nuclear or chemical attacks. Since these activities are driven by generalized doctrines and policies supplied as user-inputs, INWARS can support investigations of alternative doctrinal approaches.

Aldrich, J.R.; Gilmer, J.B.

1980-02-08

355

Fiber-optic microsphere-based arrays for multiplexed biological warfare agent detection.  

PubMed

We report a multiplexed high-density DNA array capable of rapid, sensitive, and reliable identification of potential biological warfare agents. An optical fiber bundle containing 6000 individual 3.1-mum-diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield microwells and used as the substrate for the array. Eighteen different 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes were covalently attached to 3.1-mum microspheres. Probe sequences were designed for Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella melitensis, Clostridium botulinum, Vaccinia virus, and one biological warfare agent (BWA) simulant, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. The microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized multiplexed high-density DNA array. A detection limit of 10 fM in a 50-microL sample volume was achieved within 30 min of hybridization for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, Vaccinia virus, and B. thuringiensis kurstaki. We used both specific responses of probes upon hybridization to complementary targets as well as response patterns of the multiplexed array to identify BWAs with high accuracy. We demonstrated the application of this multiplexed high-density DNA array for parallel identification of target BWAs in spiked sewage samples after PCR amplification. The array's miniaturized feature size, fabrication flexibility, reusability, and high reproducibility may enable this array platform to be integrated into a highly sensitive, specific, and reliable portable instrument for in situ BWA detection. PMID:16478092

Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

2006-02-15

356

The challenges experienced by Iranian war veterans living with chemical warfare poisoning: a descriptive, exploratory study.  

PubMed

This exploratory, descriptive study investigates the experiences of Iranian war veterans living with chronic disease acquired as a result of chemical warfare. Sulphur mustard (SM) is considered one of the most important agents of chemical warfare and was widely used during the Iran-Iraq conflict in 1980-1988. There are approximately 100 000 Iranian SM casualties who suffer from serious long-term progressive health problems involving their respiratory organs, eyes and skin. Seventeen male Iranian war veterans aged between 30 and 59 years and four victims' family members participated in the study. Data was generated during individual in-depth interviews that used open-ended questions. Grounded theory techniques, including the constant comparative method of concurrent data generation and analysis, were employed in the analysis of data. Preliminary results indicate two main thematic categories: social isolation and physical disability. It is argued that a lack of knowledge about the outcomes of SM poisoning, physical restrictions and difficulty in adjusting socially decreases war veterans' functional capacity and levels of independence. PMID:20230514

Hassankhani, Hadi; Taleghani, Fariba; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

2010-06-01

357

Perspectives on using remotely-sensed imagery in predictive veterinary epidemiology and global early warning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent disease epidemics and their spread around the world have illustrated the weaknesses of disease sur- veillance and early warning systems (EWS), both at national and international levels. These diseases continuously threaten the livestock sector on a worldwide basis, some with major public health impact. EWS and accurate forecast- ing of new outbreaks of epidemic livestock diseases that may also

Vincent Martin; Lorenzo De Simone; Juan Lubroth; Pietro Ceccato; Véronique Chevalier

2007-01-01

358

Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

2007-05-01

359

Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06

360

Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Road to Effective Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the global campaign against terrorism continues, the contributions of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) have reached unprecedented levels. Some claim that these assets are essential to the armed forces ability to conduct modern warfare. Due to these syst...

C. T. Petrock, T. D. Huizenga

2006-01-01

361

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

362

Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.  

PubMed

Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons. PMID:11577702

Madsen, J M

2001-09-01

363

Integrated nuclear and conventional theater warfare simulation (INWARS) documentation. Part IV. User's manual component. Volume I. Introduction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume I of the User's Manual Component of the Interpreted Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) documentation. It introduces the User's Manual Component by reviewing the utilization of INWARS and surveying the inputs and outputs of the simulation.

Aldrich, J.R.; Gilmer, J.B.

1980-02-08

364

Speed of adaptation and genomic footprints of host-parasite coevolution under arms race and trench warfare dynamics.  

PubMed

Coevolution between hosts and their parasites is expected to follow a range of possible dynamics, the two extreme cases being called trench warfare (or Red Queen) and arms races. Long-term stable polymorphism at the host and parasite coevolving loci is characteristic of trench warfare, and is expected to promote molecular signatures of balancing selection, while the recurrent allele fixation in arms races should generate selective sweeps. We compare these two scenarios using a finite size haploid gene-for-gene model that includes both mutation and genetic drift. We first show that trench warfare do not necessarily display larger numbers of coevolutionary cycles per unit of time than arms races. We subsequently perform coalescent simulations under these dynamics to generate sequences at both host and parasite loci. Genomic footprints of recurrent selective sweeps are often found, whereas trench warfare yield signatures of balancing selection only in parasite sequences, and only in a limited parameter space. Our results suggest that deterministic models of coevolution with infinite population sizes do not predict reliably the observed genomic signatures, and it may be best to study parasite rather than host populations to find genomic signatures of coevolution, such as selective sweeps or balancing selection. PMID:24749791

Tellier, Aurélien; Moreno-Gámez, Stefany; Stephan, Wolfgang

2014-08-01

365

The Generals and the Germs: The Army Leadership's Response to Nixon's Review of Chemical and Biological Warfare Policies in 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1969 President Richard Nixon took the unprecedented step of unilaterally eliminating an entire class of weapons, biological warfare agents, and retaining only a defensive research program. He also limited the nation's chemical weapons efforts to retaliation. Little research has been done into the policy review that led to the decisions, particularly the role of the Army, which oversaw the

David I. Goldman

2009-01-01

366

Neuropsychological Performance in Gulf War Era Veterans: Traumatic Stress Symptomatology and Exposure to Chemical–Biological Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because complaints of diminished concentration and memory are among the most common health symptoms reported by Gulf War (GW) veterans with unexplained illnesses, this study investigated neuropsychological functions among GW veterans and controls. Relationships between neuropsychological performance, severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, and exposure to chemical–biological warfare agents (CBW) were assessed. Participants were 225 veterans recruited from three

Karen Lindem; Timothy Heeren; Roberta F. White; Susan P. Proctor; Maxine Krengel; Jennifer Vasterling; Patricia B. Sutker; Jessica Wolfe; Terence M. Keane

2003-01-01

367

Germ Warfare in a Microbial Mat Community: CRISPRs Provide Insights into the Co-Evolution of Host and Viral  

E-print Network

Germ Warfare in a Microbial Mat Community: CRISPRs Provide Insights into the Co-Evolution of Host Institution for Science, Stanford, California, United States of America Abstract CRISPR arrays and associated CRISPR types, distinguished by the repeat sequence, are found in both the Syn OS-A and Syn OS-B9 genomes

368

The first non-state use of a chemical weapon in warfare: the Tamil Tigers' assault on East Kiran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research conducted by the author in Sri Lanka to verify the first non-state use of a chemical weapon in warfare. This 1990 incident involved a primitive chemical attack perpetrated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE or Tamil Tigers) on a Sri Lankan Armed Forces (SLAF) encampment in East Kiran, in the Batticaloa district of

Bruce Hoffman

2009-01-01

369

Gulf war syndrome: could it be triggered by biological warfare-vaccines using pertussis as an adjuvant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that vaccinations against biological warfare using pertussis as an adjuvant were associated with the Gulf war syndrome. If such epidemiological findings are confirmed, we propose that the use of pertussis as an adjuvant could trigger neurodegeneration through induction of interleukin-1? secretion in the brain. In turn, neuronal lesions may be sustained by stress or

J.-N. Tournier; A. Jouan; J. Mathieu; E. Drouet

2002-01-01

370

Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs.

Annetta Paule Watson; Dennis M Opresko; Robert A Young; Veronique Hauschild

2006-01-01

371

Fate and control of nerve chemical warfare agents in the desalination industry of the Arabian-Persian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the impact of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on drinking water. The study is focussed on the Arabian-Persian Gulf (APG) and the desalination process. Contamination of seawater with nerve CWAs can be naturally alleviated by degradation mainly through hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a relatively fast pathway as compared to other processes such as biodegradation and photooxidation. From the review

Hosny K. Khordagui

1995-01-01

372

Potential fate of G-nerve chemical warfare agents in the coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wars, and the use of certain nerve chemical warfare agents in the Arabian Gulf region triggered the interest of environmental scientists on the probable fate of these chemical agents. In case of a massive release, the main potential target might be the intakes of power desalination plants located along the Gulf shorelines. In the present work, information derived from the

Hosny Khordagui

1996-01-01

373

Chemical warfare  

PubMed Central

Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

2013-01-01

374

Health-Related Quality of Life of Chemical Warfare Victims: An Assessment with the Use of a Specific Tool  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. Objective: This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL. PMID:24719824

Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

2014-01-01

375

Chemistry of destroying chemical warfare agents in flame. Technical project report, April 1994-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to increase our understanding of flame chemistry of organophosphorus compounds (OPC). This class of chemicals includes chemical warfare agents. (CWAs) such as the nerve agents GB GD and VX, stockpiles of which in the United States and Former Soviet Union are scheduled for destruction by incineration or other technologies. Although high CWA destruction efficiency has been demonstrated in incinerator tests in the U.S. it is necessary to improve technology for achievement higher efficiency and lower level of pollutants. The knowledge of detailed destruction chemistry of the CWA and simulants can be obtained by studying the structure of flames, doped with simulants and CWA and by the development of the combustion model which will include the chemical mechanism of destroying CWA in flame. Alkyl phosphates and alkyl phosphonates are typical organophosphorus compounds, that are simulants of sarin.

Korobeinichev, O.P.; Chernov, A.A.; Shvartsberg, V.M.; Il`in, S.B.; Mokrushin, V.V.

1995-05-01

376

Chemical warfare agent and high explosive identification by spectroscopy of neutron-induced gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a non-destructive assay method to identify chemical warfare (CW) agents and high explosive (HE) munitions which was tested with actual chemical agents and explosives at the Tooele Army Depot, Tooele, Utah, from 22 April 1991 through 3 May 1991. The assay method exploits the gamma radiation produced by neutron interactions inside a container or munition to identify the elemental composition of its contents. The characteristic gamma-ray signatures of the chemical elements chlorine, phosphorus, and sulfur were observed form the CW agent containers and munitions, in sufficient detail to enable us to reliably discern agents GB (sarin), HD (mustard gas), and VX from one another, and from HE-filled munitions. By detecting of the presence of nitrogen, the key indictor of explosive compounds, and the absence of elements Cl, P, and S, HE shells were also clearly identified.

Caffrey, A.J.; Cole, J.D.; Gehrke, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-10-01

377

Determination of trace amounts of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Decontamination solutions are used for an efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As these solutions can be composed of strong alkaline chemicals with hydrolyzing and oxidizing properties, the analysis of CWA degradation products in trace levels from these solutions imposes a challenge for any analytical technique. Here, we present results of application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of trace amounts of CWA degradation products in several untreated decontamination solutions. Degradation products of the nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX were selectively monitored with substantially reduced interference of background signals by 1D 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry. The detection limit of the chemicals was at the low part-per-million level (2-10 microg/mL) in all studied solutions. In addition, the concentration of the degradation products was obtained with sufficient confidence with external standards. PMID:17973498

Koskela, Harri; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Kuitunen, Marja-Leena; Vanninen, Paula

2007-12-01

378

Design and evaluation of hyperspectral algorithms for chemical warfare agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of chemical warfare agents (CWA) with stand-off hyperspectral imaging sensors has a wide range of civilian and military applications. These sensors exploit the spectral changes in the ambient photon flux produced by either sunlight or the thermal emission of the earth after passage through a region containing the CWA cloud. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to discuss a simple phenomenological model for the radiance measured by the sensor in the case of optically thin clouds. This model provides the mathematical framework for the development of optimum algorithms and their analytical evaluation. Second, we identify the fundamental aspects of the data exploitation problem and we develop detection algorithms that can be used by different sensors as long as they can provide the required measurements. Finally, we discuss performance metrics for detection, identification, and quantification and we investigate their dependance on CWA spectral signatures, sensor noise, and background spectral variability.

Manolakis, Dimitris; D'Amico, Francis M.

2005-11-01

379

Surface-enhanced Raman as a water monitor for warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of chemical warfare agents being released upon civilian and military personnel continues to escalate. One aspect of chemical preparedness is to analyze and protect the portable water supply for the military. Chemical nerve, blister, and choking agents, as well as biological threats must all be analyzed and low limits of detection must be verified. For chemical agents, this generally means detection down to the low ppb levels. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique that can detect trace levels of contaminants directly in the aqueous environment. In this paper, results are presented on the use of SERS to detect chemical and biological agent simulants with an end goal of creating a Joint Service Agent Water Monitor. Detection of cyanide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, phosphonates, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using SERS has been performed and is discussed herein. Aspects of transferring laboratory results to an unattended field instrument are also discussed.

Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Janni, James A.

2002-02-01

380

Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries. PMID:23293972

Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

2013-01-01

381

Anti-environmental warfare: protecting the environment during wartime. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the operational impact resulting from the growing legal and political concerns over the environment during wartime. Current international law and national policies are examined to determine their potential effect on Rules of Engagement, and the resulting operational impact on means and methods of warfare. As illustrated during the recent Persian Gulf War, coalition leaders will be operationally constrained by political demands to protect the environment, and to mitigate ecological destruction caused by an opposing force. These constraints will effect how offensive action is conducted against environmentally sensitive industries including nuclear, chemical and petroleum. Commanders must adhere to the current environmental policies and place more emphasis on the principles of discrimination and military necessity in selecting and striking targets. Concurrently, commanders must balance protecting the environment and the requisite minimum casualties to obtain the objectives and preserve public support.

Gamble, R.O.

1992-06-19

382

Multivariate statistical classification of surface enhanced Raman spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial results which demonstrate the ability to classify surface enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants are presented. The spectra of 2 endospores (B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus); 2 chemical agent simulants (Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), Diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP)); and 2 toxin simulants (Ovalbumin, Horseradish peroxidase) were collected on multiple substrates fabricated from colloidal gold adsorbed onto a silanized quartz surface. The use of principle component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering was used as a method of determining the reproducibility of the individual spectra collected from a single substrate. Additionally, the use of partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) on a compilation of data from separate substrates, fabricated under identical conditions, demonstrates the feasibility of this technique for the identification of known but previously unclassified spectra.

Fountain, Augustus W., III; Pearman, William F.

2005-11-01

383

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

1997-12-01

384

Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry  

SciTech Connect

Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

Khordagui, H.K. [United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia, Amman (Jordan)

1997-01-01

385

Integrated nuclear and conventional theater warfare simulation (INWARS) documentation. Part IV. User's manual component. Volume II. Combat interactions input. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume II of the User's Manual Component of the Integrated Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) documentation. It presents the content and format of user inputs to the INWARS treatment of combat interactions.

Aldrich, J.R.; Gilmer, J.B.

1980-02-08

386

In-situ derivatisation of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical procedure was developed for the extraction of degradation products of chemical warfare agents from water and for in-situ derivatisation prior to analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). With this new procedure, degradation products of the chemical warfare agents can be analysed and identified without going through laborious sample preparation. Parameters such as fiber selection, pH, salt content,

Mui Tiang Sng; Wei Fang Ng

1999-01-01

387

EZH2 is a mediator of EWS/FLI1 driven tumor growth and metastasis blocking endothelial and neuro-ectodermal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Ewing tumors (ET) are highly malignant, localized in bone or soft tissue, and are molecularly defined by ews/ets translocations. DNA microarray analysis revealed a relationship of ET to both endothelium and fetal neural crest. We identified expression of histone methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste, Drosophila, Homolog 2 (EZH2) to be increased in ET. Suppressive activity of EZH2 maintains stemness in normal and malignant cells. Here, we found EWS/FLI1 bound to the EZH2 promoter in vivo, and induced EZH2 expression in ET and mesenchymal stem cells. Down-regulation of EZH2 by RNA interference in ET suppressed oncogenic transformation by inhibiting clonogenicity in vitro. Similarly, tumor development and metastasis was suppressed in immunodeficient Rag2?/??C?/? mice. EZH2-mediated gene silencing was shown to be dependent on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Subsequent microarray analysis of EZH2 knock down, HDAC-inhibitor treatment and confirmation in independent assays revealed an undifferentiated phenotype maintained by EZH2 in ET. EZH2 regulated stemness genes such as nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), as well as genes involved in neuroectodermal and endothelial differentiation (EMP1, EPHB2, GFAP, and GAP43). These data suggest that EZH2 might have a central role in ET pathology by shaping the oncogenicity and stem cell phenotype of this tumor. PMID:19289832

Richter, Gunther H. S.; Plehm, Stephanie; Fasan, Annette; Rossler, Sabine; Unland, Rebekka; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M.; Hotfilder, Marc; Lowel, Diana; von Luettichau, Irene; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kovar, Heinrich; Staege, Martin S.; Muller-Tidow, Carsten; Burdach, Stefan

2009-01-01

388

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

389

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

390

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

391

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

392

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-07-01

393

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

394

Trends in detection of warfare agents. Detection methods for ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and T-2 toxin.  

PubMed

An overview of the different detection methods available for ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and T-2 toxin is presented here. These toxins are potential biological warfare agents (BWA). The aim of this review is not to cover all the papers that had been published but rather to give an overall picture of the trend in the detection methodologies for potential biological warfare agents as we do see the emerging threats from these three toxins. The advantages and disadvantages of each methodology as well as the detection limit will be reviewed. It seems that mass spectrometry has created a niche for analysis of proteinaceous toxins, ricin and SEB as well as molecular toxin, T-2 toxin given its high sensitivity, high selectivity, high specificity and capability to identify and quantify unknown agents simultaneously in a short time frame. But its main drawbacks are its sophisticated instrumentation and its high cost. Improvised immunoassay may be an alternative. PMID:16996531

Ler, Siok Ghee; Lee, Fook Kay; Gopalakrishnakone, P

2006-11-10

395

Development of a new electronic neutron imaging system 1 This SBIR Phase II program is supported by the Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, under Contract No. N00244-95-C-0436. 1 2 Distribution statement – approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic neutron imaging camera system was developed for use with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons in applications that include nondestructive inspection of explosives, corrosion, turbine blades, electronics, low Z components, etc. The neutron images are expected to provide information to supplement that available from X-ray tests. The primary camera image area was a 30×30cm field-of-view with a spatial resolution

J. S Brenizer; H. Berger; K. M Gibbs; P. Mengers; C. T Stebbings; D. Polansky; D. J Rogerson

1999-01-01

396

Wide-open and scanning ESM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is conducted between open and scanning Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM) systems. Wide open ESM systems are generally known as high probability of intercept systems, while scanning systems have a higher sensitivity. The interception capability of the RF part of both types of systems is discussed. Two fundamentally different antenna types are currently employed in ESM systems, including

E. van Nieuwenhuizen

1981-01-01

397

Detection performance of a portable ion mobility spectrometer with 63 Ni radioactive ionization for chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection performance of a portable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) (SABRE 4000, Smiths Detection) with 63Ni ionization, air purification, and reduced ion mobility measurements using calibrants was investigated for vapors of chemical\\u000a warfare agents. In a matter of several seconds, the SABRE 4000 enabled tentative identification of sarin, soman, cyclohexylsarin,\\u000a tabun, and nitrogen mustard 3, each with a limit of

Shintaro Yamaguchi; Ryuji Asada; Shintaro Kishi; Ryoji Sekioka; Nobuyoshi Kitagawa; Kenichi Tokita; Soichiro Yamamoto; Yasuo Seto

2010-01-01

398

Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable

Charlene A. Sanders; Miguel Rodriguez; Elias Greenbaum

2001-01-01

399

Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin

Karolina-Petkovic Duran; Yonggang Zhu; Chuanpin Chen; Anthony Swallow; Robert Stewart; Pam Hoobin; Patrick Leech; Simon Ovenden

2008-01-01

400

The 9\\/11 Commission Report and the reframing of the ‘war on terror’ as a new type of warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we approach the tenth anniversary of 9\\/11, it is vital to explore how the ‘war on terror’ initiated in late 2001 has been reframed as a new type of warfare, especially in light of The 9\\/11 Commission Report (9\\/11CR) recommendations released in mid-2004. Conceptualising the war on terror as a form of biopolitics, it is considered a new kind

Robyn Torok

2011-01-01

401

Mortality Follow-up of Veterans who Participated in Military Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Testing Between 1962 and 1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1962 and 1972, several thousand U.S. Navy personnel participated in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). These tests potentially exposed participants to either active chemical or biological warfare agents or their simulants. This study examined mortality risk associated with participating in SHAD tests by comparing the cause-specific mortality of 4927 SHAD veterans to that of 10,927 other Navy veterans.

Han K. Kang; Tim Bullman

2009-01-01

402

DRDE-07 and its analogues as promising cytoprotectants to nitrogen mustard (HN-2)—An alkylating anticancer and chemical warfare agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen mustard (HN-2), also known as mechlorethamine, is an alkylating anticancer agent as well as blister inducing chemical warfare agent. We evaluated the cytoprotective efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07 and their analogues, and other antidotes of mustard agents against HN-2. Administration of 1 LD50 of HN-2 (20mg\\/kg) percutaneously, decreased WBC count from 24h onwards. Liver glutathione (GSH) level decreased prominently and

Manoj Sharma; R. Vijayaraghavan; Anshoo Gautam

2009-01-01

403

The use of thermospray-liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry for the verification of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermospray-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (TSP-LC-MS) is a relatively new analytical technique which proved to be useful for the verification of chemical warfare agents and their polar degradation products in aqueous solutions. The principles of the technique are described and comparisons are made with other forms of mass spectrometric analysis. A survey is presented of the results obtained so far at

E. R. J. Wils; A. G. Hulst

1992-01-01

404

Fate of the Chemical Warfare Agent VX in Asphalt: A Novel Approach for the Quantitation of VX in Organic Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

VX is one of the most toxic chemical warfare agents. Its low volatility and its persistence in the environment raise the issue\\u000a of long-term exposure risks, either by inhalation or by transdermal penetration. Therefore, a topic of acute interest is the\\u000a fate of VX in preservative environmental surfaces. In this work, the fate of VX in asphalt pavement, a suspected

S. Gura; N. Tzanani; M. Hershkovitz; R. Barak; S. Dagan

2006-01-01

405

Microwave emitter position location: present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Position location (determination) of enemy microwave emitters (radars and jammers) is one of the most important tasks of electronic warfare (EW) systems, particularly for electronic intelligence (ELINT) and electronic support measures (ESM) systems. Correctly performed location of those emitters yields data allowing one to deduce an allocation of enemy radar-controlled weapon systems, to detect associated threats and makes possible the

Leslaw R. Paradowski; S. Kaliski

1998-01-01

406

Technical support for recovery phase decision-making in the event of a chemical warfare agent release  

SciTech Connect

Persistent chemical warfare agents such as the nerve agent VX and sulfur mustard were originally designed as terrain denial materials on the chemical battlefield. As a consequence, they do not rapidly degrade. In the course of preparedness planning for disposal of the US unitary stockpile of chemical warfare agents, communities have raised the issue of determining environmental concentrations and the potential health consequences of persistent agents following any agent event. This issue is common to several chemical warfare munition and materiel disposal activities in the United States, as well as for developing verification and compliance monitoring programs integral to the international Chemical Weapons Convention. Experimental research supporting the development of environmental monitoring protocols are summarized. They include the development of blood cholinesterase activity as a biomonitor of nerve agent exposure in domestic beef and dairy cattle, horses and sheep; measuring the permeation rates of construction materials such as unpainted wood and gypsum wall board to agent simulants; and developing an experimental monitoring protocol for agents in meat and grain.

Watson, A.; Shugart, L.; Buchanan, M.; Jenkins, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kistner, S.; Halbrook, R.

1995-12-31

407

Probability models for theater nuclear warfare. Final report, June 1988-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes specific probabilistic approaches to address several major problems associated with the representation of tactical nuclear warfare at the theater level. The first problem is identifying the locations of small units (potential nuclear targets) such as companies or battalions within theater-level conventional scenarios or model outputs. Current approaches to identifying these small unit locations fail to take into account the variability that might be realized in any specific battle. A two-dimensional multivariate model is proposed to describe uncertainty about the precise location of the potential targets. The second major problem lies in the interface between theater-level nuclear analyses and conventional battle expected value simulations. An expected value model demands a single input to represent the effect of a nuclear exchange. However, a theater-level nuclear exchange may generate many different outcomes which will have significantly different effects. The probability models described in this paper may be used as a research tool to estimate the sensitivity of exchange outcomes to various data and assumptions, as a surrogate for detailed, complex simulation models; or as an estimator of the sample space of all possible outcomes of a theater nuclear exchange.

Youngren, M.A.

1989-09-01

408

Identification of chemical warfare agents using a portable microchip-based detection device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. A portable microchip electrophoresis (ME) device with contactless conductivity (CCD) detection was developed for the in situ identification of CWA and their degradation products. A 10mM MES/His, 0.4mM CTAB - based separation electrolyte accomplished the analysis of Sarin (GB), Tabun( GA) and Soman (GD) in less than 1 min, which is the fastest screening of nerve agents achieved with portable ME and CCD based detection methods to date. Reproducibility of detection was successfully demonstrated on simultaneous detection of GB (200ppm) and GA (278ppm). Reasonable agreement for the four consecutive runs was achieved with the mean peak time for Sarin of 29.15s, and the standard error of 0.58s or 2%. GD and GA were simultaneously detected with their degradation products methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) and O-Ethyl Phosphorocyanidate (GAHP and GAHP1) respectively. The detection limit for Sarin was around 35ppb. To the best of our knowledge this is the best result achieved in microchip electrophoresis and contactless conductivity based detection to date.

Petkovic-Duran, K.; Swallow, A.; Sexton, B. A.; Glenn, F.; Zhu, Y.

2011-12-01

409

History and perspectives of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare agent detection.  

PubMed

This paper provides a short historical overview of the development of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare (CW) agents and their biological markers of exposure, with a more detailed overview of methods for organophosphorus nerve agents. Bioanalytical methods for unchanged CW agents are used primarily for toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic studies. An important aspect of nerve agent toxicokinetics is the different biological activity and detoxification pathways for enantiomers. CW agents have a relatively short lifetime in the human body, and are hydrolysed, metabolised, or adducted to nucleophilic sites on macromolecules such as proteins and DNA. These provide biological markers of exposure. In the past two decades, metabolites, protein adducts of nerve agents, vesicants and phosgene, and DNA adducts of sulfur and nitrogen mustards, have been identified and characterized. Sensitive analytical methods have been developed for their detection, based mainly on mass spectrometry combined with gas or liquid chromatography. Biological markers for sarin, VX and sulfur mustard have been validated in cases of accidental and deliberate human exposures. The concern for terrorist use of CW agents has stimulated the development of higher throughput analytical methods in support of homeland security. PMID:20018570

Black, Robin M

2010-05-15

410

Impact of chemical warfare with agent orange on women's reproductive lives in Vietnam: a pilot study.  

PubMed

During the American war in Vietnam, huge quantities of the highly toxic herbicide dioxin ('Agent Orange'), were sprayed over large areas of central and south Vietnam. In addition to polluting the environment and causing cancers and other diseases in those directly exposed to it, dioxin has caused high rates of pregnancy loss, congenital birth defects and other health problems in their children. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study in the year 2000 among 30 Vietnamese women whose husbands and/or who themselves were exposed to Agent Orange. The aim was to develop research in order to explore the impact of chemical warfare on people's lives. Using the reproductive lifeline and semi-structured interviews, information was gathered on both partners' periods of exposure to Agent Orange, pregnancy outcomes, perceived health problems of children and experiences of living with handicapped children. The women had had a high number of miscarriages and premature births. About two-thirds of their children had congenital malformations or developed disabilities within the first years of life. Most of the families were poor, aggravated by impaired health in the men, the burden of caring for disabled children, and feelings of guilt and inferiority. The plight of 'Agent Orange families' is special and should be placed in its historical and political context. PMID:11765392

Le, T N; Johansson, A

2001-11-01

411

Standoff lidar simulation for biological warfare agent detection, tracking, and classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar has been identified as a promising sensor for remote detection of biological warfare agents (BWA). Elastic IR lidar can be used for cloud detection at long ranges and UV laser induced fluorescence can be used for discrimination of BWA against naturally occurring aerosols. This paper will describe a simulation tool which enables the simulation of lidar for detection, tracking and classification of aerosol clouds. The cloud model was available from another project and has been integrated into the model. It takes into account the type of aerosol, type of release (plume or puff), amounts of BWA, winds, height above the ground and terrain roughness. The model input includes laser and receiver parameters for both the IR and UV channels as well as the optical parameters of the background, cloud and atmosphere. The wind and cloud conditions and terrain roughness are specified for the cloud simulation. The search area including the angular sampling resolution together with the IR laser pulse repetition frequency defines the search conditions. After cloud detection in the elastic mode, the cloud can be tracked using appropriate algorithms. In the tracking mode the classification using fluorescence spectral emission is simulated and tested using correlation against known spectra. Other methods for classification based on elastic backscatter are also discussed as well as the determination of particle concentration. The simulation estimates and displays the lidar response, cloud concentration as well as the goodness of fit for the classification using fluorescence.

Jönsson, Erika; Steinvall, Ove; Gustafsson, Ove; Kullander, Fredrik; Jonsson, Per

2010-04-01

412

Transmissivity and storage coefficient estimates from slug tests, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slug tests were conducted on 56 observation wells open to bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey. Aquifer transmissivity (T) and storage coefficient (S) values for most wells were estimated from slug-test data using the Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos method. Test data from three wells exhibited fast, underdamped water-level responses and were analyzed with the Butler high-K method. The range of T at NAWC was approximately 0.07 to 10,000 square feet per day. At 11 wells, water levels did not change measurably after 20 minutes following slug insertion; transmissivity at these 11 wells was estimated to be less than 0.07 square feet per day. The range of S was approximately 10-10 to 0.01, the mode being 10-10. Water-level responses for tests at three wells fit poorly to the type curves of both methods, indicating that these methods were not appropriate for adequately estimating T and S from those data.

Fiore, Alex R.

2014-01-01

413

Use of doubly labeled water technique in soldiers training for jungle warfare  

SciTech Connect

The doubly labeled water method was used to estimate the energy expended by four members of an Australian Army platoon (34 soldiers) engaged in training for jungle warfare. Each subject received an oral isotope dose sufficient to raise isotope levels by 200-250 ({sup 18}O) and 100-120 ppm ({sup 2}H). The experimental period was 7 days. Concurrently, a factorial estimate of the energy expenditure of the platoon was conducted. Also, a food intake-energy balance study was conducted for the platoon. Mean daily energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method was 4,750 kcal (range 4,152-5,394 kcal). The factorial estimate of mean daily energy expenditure was 4,535 kcal. Because of inherent inaccuracies in the food intake-energy balance technique, we were able to conclude only that energy expenditure, as measured by this method, was greater than the estimated mean daily intake of 4,040 kcal. The doubly labeled water technique was well tolerated, is noninvasive, and appears to be suitable in a wide range of field applications.

Forbes-Ewan, C.H.; Morrissey, B.L.; Gregg, G.C.; Waters, D.R. (Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Scottsdale, Tasmania (Australia))

1989-07-01

414

The battle for Hue: casualty and disease rates during urban warfare.  

PubMed

Renewed nationalism with the ending of the Cold War has precipitated numerous conflicts between regions or countries that were formerly united. Hostilities between some ethnic and nationalistic factions have reached the point where regional security is threatened and United Nations-sanctioned military operations may be required. Because some U.N. operations could require the forcible removal of an entrenched faction from an urban setting, the present investigation seeks to determine the levels of medical casualties that might be sustained during urban warfare. Casualty rates and illness incidence were examined for U.S. Marine forces participating in the retaking of the city of Hue during the Tet offensive in 1968. The casualty rates were analyzed for different phases of the urban assault and contrasted with a different period of the Vietnam Conflict, and with the high intensity battle for Okinawa during World War II. Rates of casualties during the retaking of Hue were highest during the two phases of the operation that required close-quarter fighting. The house-to-house fighting south of the river yielded a wounded rate of 37.9 per 1,000 strength per day, while the fighting in the inner city yielded a rate of 44.4. Rate of wounded during the "mopping-up" phase was 5.8. The rate of illness incidence was stable over the month-long operation and showed no concomitant increase with battle intensity." PMID:7800172

Blood, C G; Anderson, M E

1994-09-01

415

Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.  

PubMed

Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. PMID:21944706

Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

2011-11-30

416

Global physics: from percolation to terrorism, guerilla warfare and clandestine activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism with worldwide range of destruction. It is argued to result from the first worldwide percolation of passive supporters. They are people sympathetic to the terrorism cause but without being involved with it. They just do not oppose it in case they could. This scheme puts suppression of the percolation as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Acting on the population is shown to be useless. Instead a new strategic scheme is suggested to increase the terrorism percolation threshold and in turn suppress the percolation. The relevant associated space is identified as a multi-dimensional social space including both the ground earth surface and all various independent flags displayed by the terrorist group. Some hints are given on how to shrink the geographical spreading of terrorism threat. The model apply to a large spectrum of clandestine activities including guerilla warfare as well as tax evasion, corruption, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution and black markets.

Galam, Serge

2003-12-01

417

Sensitizers on inorganic carriers for decomposition of the chemical warfare agent yperite.  

PubMed

Sulfur-containing compounds, such as mercaptans, alkali sulfides, alkali sulfites, and alkali thiosulfates, are byproducts of industrial processes and pollutants of waste and natural waters. Other sulfur-containing compounds such as yperite are dangerous chemical weapons. Efficient photocatalytic decomposition of these molecules is a process that can find applications in emergency situations or for the controlled destruction of chemical warfare stockpiles. A series of heterogeneous photocatalysts consisting of a metal phthalocyanine or 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium as photoactive components encapsulated inside the cavities of zeolite Y or the mesoporous channels of MCM-41 or supported on silica or titania-silica was tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of yperite. Two types of photoreactors, either an open reactor naturally aerated or a closed quartz tube with a constant airflow using UV or visible ambient light were used. These tests demonstrated that iron and manganese phthalocyanine and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium embedded in NaY or titania-silica can be suitable solid photocatalysts for the degradation of yperite using UV and visible irradiation. PMID:18678025

Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Preda, Elena; Iepure, Gabriel; Somoghi, Vasile; Carbonell, Esther; Alvaro, Mercedes; García, Hermenegildo

2008-07-01

418

Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications. PMID:25289459

Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

2014-11-25

419

A knowledge- and model-based system for automated weaning from mechanical ventilation: technical description and first clinical application.  

PubMed

To describe the principles and the first clinical application of a novel prototype automated weaning system called Evita Weaning System (EWS). EWS allows an automated control of all ventilator settings in pressure controlled and pressure support mode with the aim of decreasing the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory load takes inspired fraction of oxygen, positive end-expiratory pressure, pressure amplitude and spontaneous breathing activity into account. Spontaneous breathing activity is assessed by the number of controlled breaths needed to maintain a predefined respiratory rate. EWS was implemented as a knowledge- and model-based system that autonomously and remotely controlled a mechanical ventilator (Evita 4, Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany). In a selected case study (n = 19 patients), ventilator settings chosen by the responsible physician were compared with the settings 10 min after the start of EWS and at the end of the study session. Neither unsafe ventilator settings nor failure of the system occurred. All patients were successfully transferred from controlled ventilation to assisted spontaneous breathing in a mean time of 37 ± 17 min (± SD). Early settings applied by the EWS did not significantly differ from the initial settings, except for the fraction of oxygen in inspired gas. During the later course, EWS significantly modified most of the ventilator settings and reduced the imposed respiratory load. A novel prototype automated weaning system was successfully developed. The first clinical application of EWS revealed that its operation was stable, safe ventilator settings were defined and the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation was decreased. PMID:23892513

Schädler, Dirk; Mersmann, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz; Elke, Gunnar; Semmel-Griebeler, Thomas; Noll, Oliver; Pulletz, Sven; Zick, Günther; David, Matthias; Heinrichs, Wolfgang; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

2014-10-01

420

Joint deinterleaving\\/recognition of radar pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic support measures (ESM) system consists of a passive radar receiver that receives and measures the monopulse parameters of pulses emitted by radars in its instantaneous view, and a deinterleaver that sorts these pulses and groups them into individual cells. The cell parameters are compared with those stored in the threat library of the electronic warfare (EW) system to

Hossam E. Abou-Bakr Hassan; Franqois Chan; Y. T. Chan

2003-01-01

421

Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reactive chromophore developed at MIT exhibits sensitive and selective detection of surrogates for G-class nerve agents. This reporter acts by reacting with the agent to form an intermediate that goes through an internal cyclization reaction. The reaction locks the molecule into a form that provides a strong fluorescent signal. Using a fluorescent sensor platform, Nomadics has demonstrated rapid and sensitive detection of reactive simulants such as diethyl chloro-phosphate (simulant for sarin, soman, and related agents) and diethyl cyanophosphate (simulant for tabun). Since the unreacted chromophore does not fluoresce at the excitation wavelength used for the cyclized reporter, the onset of fluo-rescence can be easily detected. This fluorescence-based detection method provides very high sensitivity and could enable rapid detection at permissible exposure levels. Tests with potential interferents show that the reporter is very selective, with responses from only a few highly toxic, electrophilic chemicals such as phosgene, thionyl chloride, and strong acids such as HF, HCl, and nitric acid. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), a common and inactive simu-lant for other CW detectors, is not reactive enough to generate a signal. The unique selectivity to chemical reactivity means that a highly toxic and hazardous chemical is present when the reporter responds and illustrates that this sensor can provide very low false alarm rates. Current efforts focus on demonstrating the sensitivity and range of agents and toxic industrial chemicals detected with this reporter as well as developing additional fluorescent reporters for a range of chemical reactivity classes. The goal is to produce a hand-held sensor that can sensitively detect a broad range of chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical threats.

Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.

2005-05-01

422

Molecularly imprinted nanopatterns for the recognition of biological warfare agent ricin.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for biological warfare agent (BWA) ricin was synthesized using silanes in order to avoid harsh environments during the synthesis of MIP. The synthesized MIP was utilized for the recognition of ricin. The complete removal of ricin from polymer was confirmed by fluorescence spectrometer and SEM-EDAX. SEM and EDAX studies confirmed the attachment of silane polymer on the surface of silica gel matrix. SEM image of Ricin-MIP exhibited nanopatterns and it was found to be entirely different from the SEM image of non-imprinted polymer (NIP). BET surface area analysis revealed more surface area (227 m(2)/g) for Ricin-MIP than that of NIP (143 m(2)/g). In addition, surface area study also showed more pore volume (0.5010 cm(3)/g) for Ricin-MIP than that of NIP (0.2828 cm(3)/g) at 12 nm pore diameter confirming the presence of imprinted sites for ricin as the reported diameter of ricin is 12 nm. The recognition and rebinding ability of the Ricin-MIP was tested in aqueous solution. Ricin-MIP rebound more ricin when compared to the NIP. Chromatogram obtained with Ricin-MIP exhibited two peaks due to imprinting, however, chromatogram of NIP exhibited only one peak for free ricin. SDS-PAGE result confirmed the second peak observed in chromatogram of Ricin-MIP as ricin peak. Ricin-MIP exhibited an imprinting efficiency of 1.76 and it also showed 10% interference from the structurally similar protein abrin. PMID:19394810

Pradhan, Santwana; Boopathi, M; Kumar, Om; Baghel, Anuradha; Pandey, Pratibha; Mahato, T H; Singh, Beer; Vijayaraghavan, R

2009-11-15

423

Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.  

PubMed

Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new and promising option. PMID:24091052

Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

2013-12-01

424

Direction-finding performance of a Ka-band ESM receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although development of electronic warfare (EW) receivers has begun to address the need to detect millimeter wave radars, very little ESM (electronic support measures) performance data have been provided to the system engineering community. This has partially been a result of the sensitivity of some millimeter wave applications. This paper provides a sample of direction-finding (DF) measurements derived from tests

E. Boch; M. Stapleton

1994-01-01

425

earnest430 12EvEnts and REsEaRch nEws in EnginEERing and sciEncE today www.clEmson.Edu/cEs  

E-print Network

affiliated with the har- vard-mit division of health sciences and technology, and the wyss instituteearnest4·30 12EvEnts and REsEaRch nEws in EnginEERing and sciEncE today www. in this talk, shah will introduce the problem of action, event, and activity representa- tion and recognition

Duchowski, Andrew T.

426

VOLUME 77, NUMBER 15 P HY S I CA L REV I EW L E T T ER S 7 OCTOBER 1996 Turbulent Fluctuations in TFTR Configurations with Reversed Magnetic Shear  

E-print Network

VOLUME 77, NUMBER 15 P HY S I CA L REV I EW L E T T ER S 7 OCTOBER 1996 Turbulent Fluctuations) and the enhanced reversed shear (ERS) mode [3]. The RS mode is similar to the supershot regime which is normally observed in TFTR with monotonic q profiles. The ERS mode is characterized by highly peaked density

Hammett, Greg

427

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 189 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

428

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 235 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

429

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

430

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

431

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

432

Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples: Gas chromatographic analysis of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) (1st communication).  

PubMed

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can be detected with GC/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds can be determined with GC/ECD. The comparison of the analytical results with and without derivatization shows that the sternutators in the investigated samples are metabolized in part. PMID:19002393

Haas, R; Krippendorf, A

1997-01-01

433

Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which consisted of developing an understanding of the cyberwarfare environment and categorizing offensive cyberwarfare strategies and techniques. In the second phase of the research project, which is the centerpiece of this paper, we developed and refined the system software architecture and system design and developed and revised a knowledge base design. In the third phase, which will be the subject of future research reports, we will implement a prototype CW OPFOR and test and evaluate its performance within realistic experiments. The second phase of the CW OPFOR research project is a key step; one that will determine the scalability, utility, and maintainability of the CWOPFOR. For the CW OPFOR, software development and knowledge acquisition must be key activities and must be conducted so that the CW OPFOR has the ability to adapt and incorporate research results and cyberbattlespace insights. This paper will discuss the key aspects of these two parallel knowledge base design efforts as well as discuss the CW OPFOR software architecture and design. The paper is organized as follows. Section One presents a discussion concerning the motivation for the CW OPFOR project, the need for the capability, and the expected results. Section Two contains a discussion of background material. Section Three contains an overview discussion of the CW OPFOR knowledge base design and the key design choices and alternatives considered at each choice. Section Four contains a discussion of conclusions and future work.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2005-03-01

434

Precision (±0.005%) Quiet Sun Limb Darkening Scans Show E-W Vs N-S Chords Same.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the 80-cm McMath-Pierce image, we compare equatorial and meridian limb darkening and find they are identical. Observations consist of 20 scans over 30 minutes at 15648 Å (H- opacity minimum) and 34168 Å continua. Noise is sky and disk structure limited. System noise is negligible at ± 0.005%; disk structure noise is ± 0.03% at 15648 Å 0.02% at 34168 Å. Our next step will be to compare these limb darkening results with those predicted by solar models. Ref: Livingston & Sheeley, 2008, ApJ 672 no.1, in press.

Livingston, W. C.; Milkey, R.; Sheeley, N., Jr.

2008-03-01

435

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. January 1983-September 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 83-Sep 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in the series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 164 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-08-01

436

Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1983-29 September 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work accomplished in the first year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and and performance that will be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. The presence and absence of correlations between social behavior and performance on two operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are reported as are the effects of caffeine (as a control) and atropine on the social and performance variables.

Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

1984-10-01

437

Synergism of activated carbon and undoped and nitrogen-doped TiO2 in the photocatalytic degradation of the chemical warfare agents soman, VX, and yperite.  

PubMed

Efficient photocatalytic decomposition of chemical warfare agents is a process that may find application in emergency situations or for the controlled destruction of chemical warfare stockpiles. A series of heterogeneous photocatalysts comprising TiO2-activated carbon or N-TiO2-activated carbon composites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity to effect the complete decomposition of yperite, soman, and VX in high concentrations. The remarkable photocatalytic activity arises from the synergism between adsorption on active carbon and photoactivity by titania. Nitridation makes the composite also active under visible-light irradiation. PMID:19350607

Cojocaru, Bogdan; Nea?u, Stefan; Pârvulescu, Vasile I; Somoghi, Vasile; Petrea, Nicoleta; Epure, Gabriel; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

2009-01-01

438

Two-Body Convection in the Mantle of the Earth: E/W Asymmetry, Under Astronomically Determined Tilt in g  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under purely geocentric gravity, over time displacement under mantle convection is globally symmetrical, resulting in zero net lithosphere rotation. The effect is here explored of substituting the asymmetric Earth-Moon field, gconv, prevalent in actuality. The gravity responsible for mantle convection is defined as the vector sum of a vertical component and the day-averaged attraction of masses lagging tidal equilibrium. The increasingly accurately measured lunar recession may then be used to delimit the internal field in terms of the secular luni-tidal interval of the Earth as a whole, some 600 seconds [1], without having to identify tidal components i.e. separate marine from body tides. In context the astronomic phase-lag may be viewed as a global isostatic anomaly, in which the longitude circles marking Earth's gravimetric figure are located east of those describing its perpetually unattained equilibrium figure by some 89 km at the Equator. Reference the hydrostatic ellipsoid gconv is tilted by the astronomically delimited amount, albeit that the phase lag is attributable in part to the convection itself. As with the convection, the tectonic significance of its asymmetry is determinable geodetically. Using present art-state a strategically located GPS grid [2] would provide continuously more precise separation of the asymmetric component of surface displacement. In developing plate-motion models including members of the Nuvel series, it would be logical to follow up rather than discard the set permitting minor asymmetrical convection sans net torque, such as an element of net-lithosphere-rotation relative to plumes. To conserve system angular-momentum, this may be the only valid set. Characteristics of the convection to be expected accord with 'paradoxical' features of plate tectonics under purely radial gravity, including: difficulty in closing plate-motion circuits; net-lithosphere-rotation refce. hot-spots, sans net torque; geotectonic maps ranging from Wegener to the present day [3], identifying a 'global tectonic polarity'; and westward drift, of which the asymmetry may be regarded as its engine. In sum, Earth's mantle is subject to three non-reversing force systems acting in the direction of causing net surface-west horizontal displacement, namely: I, Weak and tectonically insignificant forces ('tidal drag'), in unison constituting GH Darwin's tidal retarding couple; II, The forces inducing cumulative vorticity (TVI) [4] in an imperfectly elastic mantle, under passage of tidal M2. The operation of this system is ineluctable, and based on stress and energy consumption is likely to be significant, but its quantification requires separation of the marine from the bodily tidal energy dissipation utilizing secondary effects [4,5]; and III, Buoyancy-forces under convection now recognized as fundamental in geotectonics; - as normally modeled, greatly superadiabatic and dissipative, but within a field gconv minutely west-tilted, rather than artifically devoid of the Moon. Asymmetry of its internal gravity is unique to the asynchronous member of Kuiper's Earth-Moon double planet. The asymmetry distinguishes Earth's steady-state convection from the episodic regime of its moonless and almost non-rotating 'identical twin', Venus. Refs: [1] Tuoma, J. and J. Wisdom, 1994. Astron. J. 108(5) 1943-1961. [2] RCB, 2002. Episodes: J. Int. Geosc. 25(3), in pr. [3] Doglioni, C., 1993. J. Geol. Soc. 150, 991-1002. [4] RCB, 2000. Tectonic Consequences of Earth's Rotation (Oxford UP) s.4.3. [5] Lambeck, K., 1988. Geophysical Geodesy: The Slow Deformations of the Earth (Oxford UP) s. 11.3.

Bostrom, R. C.

2002-12-01

439

A guide to the selection of personal protective equipment for use in responding to a release of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was potentially as great a threat as from transportation and the final demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a civilian community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warface munitions. An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with any HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and detection equipment used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel. FEMA requested that ORNL create training materials for CSEPP participants. These training materials were to provide information on a variety of topics and answer questions that a typical CSEPP participant might ask, including the following: how did the Army select the CSEPP recommended ensemble (i.e., protective clothing, respiratory equipment, and detection equipment); how does the CSEPP participant know this ensemble is the right PPE for chemical warfare agents and will actually protect him; what are the concept of operations and work rules? Does one need to know what the CSEPP concept of operations and work rules include? This report describes the training document ORNL created.

Foust, C.B.

1997-10-01

440

Warfare rather than agriculture as a critical influence on fires in the late Holocene, inferred from northern Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Fire has played an essential role in the development of human civilization. Most previous research suggests that frequent-fire regimes in the late Holocene were associated with intensification of human activities, especially agriculture development. Here, we analyze fire regimes recorded in the Song Hong delta area of Vietnam over the past 5,000 years. In the prehistoric period, 2 long-term, low-charcoal abundance periods have been linked to periods of low humidity and cool climate, and 5 short-term fire regimes of 100–150 years in duration occurred at regular intervals of ?700 years. However, over the last 1,500 years, the number, frequency, and intensity of fire regimes clearly increased. Six intensified-fire regime periods in northern Vietnam during this time coincided with changes of Vietnamese dynasties and associated warfare and unrest. In contrast, agricultural development supported by rulers of stable societies at this time does not show a positive correlation with intensified-fire regime periods. Thus, warfare rather than agriculture appears to have been a critical factor contributing to fire regimes in northern Vietnam during the late Holocene. PMID:19597148

Li, Zhen; Saito, Yoshiki; Dang, Phong X.; Matsumoto, Eiji; Vu, Quang Lan

2009-01-01

441

An Integrated Flexible Self-calibration Approach for 2D Laser Scanning Range Finders Applied to the Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a flexible approach for the geometric calibration of a 2D infrared laser scanning range finder. It does not require spatial object data, thus avoiding the time-consuming determination of reference distances or coordinates with superior accuracy. The core contribution is the development of an integrated bundle adjustment, based on the flexible principle of a self-calibration. This method facilitates the precise definition of the geometry of the scanning device, including the estimation of range-measurement-specific correction parameters. The integrated calibration routine jointly adjusts distance and angular data from the laser scanning range finder as well as image data from a supporting DSLR camera, and automatically estimates optimum observation weights. The validation process carried out using a Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW confirms the correctness of the proposed functional and stochastic contexts and allows detailed accuracy analyses. The level of accuracy of the observations is computed by variance component estimation. For the Hokuyo scanner, we obtained 0.2% of the measured distance in range measurement and 0.2 deg for the angle precision. The RMS error of a 3D coordinate after the calibration becomes 5 mm in lateral and 9 mm in depth direction. Particular challenges have arisen due to a very large elliptical laser beam cross-section of the scanning device used.

Mader, D.; Westfeld, P.; Maas, H.-G.

2014-06-01

442

E-W extension and block rotation of the southeastern Tibet: Unravelling late deformation stages in the eastern Himalayas (NW Bhutan) by means of pyrrhotite remanences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Himalayan chain the collision of India into Eurasia has produced some of the most complex crustal interactions along the Himalayan-Alpine Orogen. In NW Bhutan, middle to late Miocene deformation has been partitioned between conjugate strike-slip faulting, E-W extension along the Yadong-Gulu graben and kilometre-scale folding. To better understand the late deformation stages and their implications for the evolution of the eastern Himalayas, the palaeomagnetism in the erosional remnant of the Tethyan Himalayan rocks outcropping in NW Bhutan has been studied. Their position to the south of the trace of the inner South Tibetan Detachment, to the south of the Tibetan Plateau offers a unique possibility to study the Tertiary rotation of the Himalayas. Pyrrhotite is the carrier of the characteristic magnetisation based on 270-325 °C unblocking temperatures. The age of the remanence is ca. 13 Ma indicated by illite 40K/40Ar cooling ages and a negative fold test. Small circle intersection method applied to the pyrrhotite components shows a ca. 32° clockwise rotation with respect to stable India since 13 Ma. We suggest that this clockwise rotation is related to strain partitioning between NE-directed shortening, sinistral-slip along the Lingshi fault, and east-west extension. This represents a field-based explanation and a minimum onset age for present-day eastward motion of the upper-crust of SE-Tibet and NE-Himalayas.

Antolín, B.; Schill, E.; Grujic, D.; Baule, S.; Quidelleur, X.; Appel, E.; Waldhör, M.

2012-09-01

443

Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507), unemployment (effect size = 0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect to GSI (P < 0.001). Conclusion The study showed that severe ophthalmologic complications in chemical survivors are accompanied with destructive effects on psychological health status. Appropriate management may improve psychological health status in these patients. PMID:22494523

2012-01-01

444

Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 ?m to 12 ?m. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household liquid. This capability, deployed at airports and other public places, will go a long way towards increasing public safety and minimizing inconveniences faced in airline travel.

Patel, C. K. N.

2008-01-01

445

Aerospace, Transportation and Advanced Systems Laboratory (ATAS)  

E-print Network

control, electromagnetic field control and measurement, and signal filtering, all of which support GTRI. ELSYS employs an "end-to-end" approach to developing electronic warfare and other electronic systems's core system-level capabilities. In support of this work the laboratory develops and maintains world

Bennett, Gisele

446

Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Surrogate Biological Warfare Agents in Building Debris and Leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative

Pascal E. Saikaly; Morton A. Barlaz; F. L. de los Reyes

2007-01-01

447

Ka Pu Te Ruha, Ka Hao Te Rangatahi: Changes in Maori Warfare between the Period Prior to First European Contact and the End of the New Zealand Wars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geoffrey Parker asserts in 'The Cambridge History of Warfare' that the western way of war is based on five fundamental principles. He states that the combination of a heavy reliance on technology, reinforced by discipline and aggressive pursuit of total v...

T. C. Johanson

2009-01-01

448

Ion-pair solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometric determination of acidic hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents from aqueous samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical warfare agents (CWA) degrade rapidly in aqueous samples and convert to acidic degradation products. Extraction and identification of the degradation products from complex matrices using simple sample preparation and sensitive detection and identification is the most important step in the off-site analysis of samples. In this present study, we report a simple sample preparation step based on ion-pair

U. V. R. Vijaya Saradhi; S. Prabhakar; T. Jagadeshwar Reddy; M. Vairamani

2006-01-01

449

Application of microcolumn liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with flame photometric detection for the screening of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcolumn liquid chromatography (?LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled on-line with flame photometric detection (FPD) have been used for the screening of polar breakdown products of chemical warfare agents in water and soil samples, provided during Official Proficiency Tests organized by the Technical Secretariat of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. CE–FPD is shown to be a powerful

Edwin W. J Hooijschuur; Charles E Kientz; Udo A. Th Brinkman

2001-01-01

450

Detection of chemical warfare agent degradation products in foods using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following work presents the exploration of three chromatographic separations in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products (CWADPs). The robust ionization of ICP is virtually matrix independent thus enabling the examination of sample matrices generally considered too complicated for analysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

Kevin M. Kubachka; Douglas D. Richardson; Douglas T. Heitkemper; Joseph A. Caruso

2008-01-01

451

Rapid screening procedures for the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents using positive and negative ion liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative screening procedures have been developed for the rapid detection and identification of the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents in aqueous samples and extracts, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). Previously reported screening procedures, which used positive APCI or electrospray ionisation (ESI), were modified by using LC conditions that allowed acquisition of

Robert W Read; Robin M Black

1999-01-01

452

Comparison of physical activity energy expenditure in Japanese adolescents assessed by EW4800P triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water method.  

PubMed

The present study compared the accuracy of triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring physical activity (PA) in Japanese adolescents. A total of sixty adolescents aged 12-15 years were analysed. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over 7 d by the DLW method and with an EW4800P triaxial accelerometer (Panasonic Corporation). The measured (RMR)(m) and predicted RMR (RMR(p)) were 5·7 (SD 0·9) and 6·0 (SD 1·0) MJ/d, respectively. TEE measured by the DLW method and accelerometry using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 11·0 (SD 2·6), 10·3 (SD 1·9), and 10·7 (SD 2·1) MJ/d, respectively. The PA levels (PAL) measured by the DLW method using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 1·97 (SD 0·31) and 1·94 (SD 0·31) in subjects who exercised, and 1·85 (SD 0·27) and 1·74 (SD 0·29) in subjects who did not exercise. The percentage of body fat correlated significantly with the percentage difference between RMR(m) v. RMR(p), TEE, PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and PAL using RMR(p), and PAL using RMR(m) assessed by the DLW method and accelerometry. The present data showed that while accelerometry estimated TEE accurately, it did not provide the precise measurement of PAEE and PAL. The error in accelerometry was attributed to the prediction error of RMR and assessment in exercise. PMID:23544366

Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ito, Chinatsu

2013-10-01

453

Optical constants of neat liquid-chemical warfare agents and related materials measured by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied various liquids using a vertical attenuated total reflection (ATR) liquid sampling assembly in conjunction with Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (IR-VASE), to determine the infrared optical constants of several bulk liquids related to chemical warfare. The index of refraction, n, and the extinction coefficient, k, of isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Sarin or GB), isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (a precursor of GB), and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)-a commonly employed simulant for GB, measured by our vertical ATR IR-VASE setup are closely matched to those found in other studies. We also report the optical constants of cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GF), 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (HD), and 2-chlorovinyl dichloroarsine (L, Lewisite). The ATR IR-VASE technique affords an accurate measurement of the optical constants of these hazardous compounds.

Yang, C. S.-C.; Williams, B. R.; Hulet, M. S.; Tiwald, T. E.; Miles, R. W., Jr.; Samuels, A. C.

2011-05-01

454

Contamination in Fractured-Rock Aquifers - Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

2007-01-01

455

Decision Support System for Fighter Pilots  

E-print Network

parts of the electronic warfare domain. A brief description of this domain is given. It containsDecision Support System for Fighter Pilots Lars Rosenberg Randleff Kongens Lyngby 2007 IMM-PHD-2007 by ground based threats. The pilot can use different measures to avoid the aircraft from being detected by e

456

Unintended behavior Often systems do not behave as we intend.  

E-print Network

. · Organized terrorist groups. · Foreign espionage agents. · Information-warfare operations intended to disrupt goals of attacks are not specific to computer systems: · Publicity. · Fraud. · Theft of intellectual for computer systems is much like security in the rest of the real world. · It is not black and white

Abadi, Martín

457

Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1984-29 September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work accomplished in the second year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and performance that wil be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. Performance scores on three operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are presented and correlations between the social and performance variables are examined. The effects of atropines on several of the social and performance measures are reported as are data from plasma hormone assays for cortisol and prolactin.

Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

1985-10-01

458

Integrated nuclear and conventional theater warfare simulation (INWARS) documentation. Part IV. User's manual component. Volume III. Ead c2i inputs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume III of the User's Manual Component of the Integrated Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) documentation. It discusses the form and content of user inputs to the INWARS treatment of Echelon Above Division Command, Control, and Intelligence (C2I) capabilities. In essence, these inputs characterize the doctrines, policies, and parameters used by the C2I elements in their information, decision, planning, and control processes.

Aldrich, J.R.; Gilmer, J.B.

1980-02-08

459

How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

Foust, C.B.

1999-05-01

460

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2011-01-01

461

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2012-01-01