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1

Electronic warfare (EW) channelizer and precision direction finder (PDF) applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EW channelizer and PDF were developed under the ARPA TOPS program to satisfy broad electronic warfare systems demands. This paper describes EW system architectures and the functions the TOPS EW channelizer and PDF processor performs in these systems. EW system architectures examined includes Ships Early Warning, airborne Surveillance, Weapons, and Airborne Warning. In addition, functional descriptions of the EW and PDF processors are provided.

Spezio, Anthony E.

1995-06-01

2

Electronic warfare (EW) channelizer and precision direction-finder(PDF) applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EW channelizer and PDF were developed under the ARPA TOPS program to satisfy broad electronic warfare systems demands. This paper describes EW system architectures and the functions the TOPS EW channelizer and PDF processor performs in these systems. EW system architectures examined includes Ships Early Warning, airborne Surveillance, Weapons, and Airborne Warning. In addition, functional descriptions of the EW

Anthony E. Spezio

1995-01-01

3

Challenge of Future EW System Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic warfare (EW) has emerged as a critical driving force in modern warfare. New generations of weapon systems directly impact EW requirements and strategies. Modern combat aircraft are faced with a drastic change of a possible threat scenario consisting of a mix of Western and Eastern weapon systems. The deployment of advanced pulse doppler radar systems in A/A and G/A application augmented by extensive electro-optic capabilities, directed energy weapons (laser or particle beam), and electromagnetic/shockwave weapons requires a detailed reassessment of NATO EW processes. The complexity and diversity of future threat scenarios necessitate changes in NATO EW system concepts, and an update of existing equipment including modifications of tactics and combinations of EW resources to improve survivability.

1994-05-01

4

Electronic warfare systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic warfare (EW) is an important capability that can advance desired military, diplomatic, and economic objectives or, conversely, impede undesired ones. In a military application, EW provides the means to counter, in all battle phases, hostile actions that involve the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum-from the beginning when enemy forces are mobilized for an attack, through to the final engagement. EW exploits

Anthony E. Spezio

2002-01-01

5

Electronic Warfare (EW) Historical Perspectives and Its Relationship to Information Operations (IO) - Considerations for Turkey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is the exploration of the relationship and interaction between Electronic Warfare (EW) and Information Operations (IO) core, supporting and related competencies. Understanding the definitions of information and its value, inform...

A. C. Kucukozyigit

2006-01-01

6

Joint warfare system (JWARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a campaign-level model of military operations that is currently being developed under contract by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) for use by OSD, the Joint Staff, the Services, and the War fighting Commands. The behavior of military forces can be simulated from ports of embarkation through to their activities in combat.

A. Simlote

2003-01-01

7

DROs meet EW and countermeasure system needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) that make them well suited for modern frequency-agile equipment designs are discussed. A DRO circuit configuration is shown and described, and long-term stability results experienced with DROs are reviewed. Practical applications using DROs in frequency-agile radars and EW systems are addressed, and the design process and characteristics of L-band mm-wave DROs are considered. The diversity of off-the-shelf DROs is discussed.

Bierman, Howard

1987-10-01

8

IF (Intermediate Frequency) Clutter Signal Generator for the DREO EW (Electronic Warfare) Engagement Simulation Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the implementation of an intermediate frequency (IF) radar clutter generator. The generator provides signals for the monopulse tracking radar which forms part of the Electronic Warfare Engagement Simulation Facility at the Defence Re...

G. A. Wardle

1986-01-01

9

On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract AsDefense agencies and services expand their reliance on computer networks, risk to information availability and integrity increases. It is no longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depthstrategy. We mustrecognize that we are engaged in a form of warfare, cyber warfare, and deploy our resources using the strategy and tactics of warfare. Most Defense organizations have not

Norman R. Howes; Michael Mezzino; John Sarkesain

10

IRST: a key system in modern warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A naval infra red search and track (IRST) system is a passive surveillance device capable of detecting and tracking air and surface threats in the region where electromagnetic sensors are less efficient, typically within a few degrees around the horizon. The evolution in anti ship sea skimming missiles performances has outlined the benefit that can be gained from infrared systems in ship self-defense. The complementary nature of radar and IRST systems can also be exploited to full advantage in the field of multisensor data fusion. The combined use of radar and infrared secures the detection by redundancy of data; it substantially enhances target tracking, classification and identification and reduces the combat system's reaction time. Designing an IRST implies matching technical choices with operational requirements, and this under increasingly stringent cost constraints. This paper first reminds the benefits that can be obtained with an IRST system in the context of modern naval warfare, then retraces the evolutions from the first generation IRST systems, such as VAMPIR, to the second-generation systems now entering service. A general presentation of the current SAGEM SA IRST family is also made for naval, air and ground-based applications.

Missirian, Jean-Michel; Ducruet, Laurent

1997-08-01

11

Return on Investment Analysis of Information Warfare Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Navy's Cryptologic Carry-On Program Office manages a portfolio of Information Warfare (IW) systems. This research and case study demonstrate how the Knowledge Value Added (KVA) Methodology can be used to formulate a framework for extract...

C. G. Rios

2005-01-01

12

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

13

International EW Conference and Exposition. Electronic Warfare: Facing 21st Century Revolutions. Held in Paris, France on May 3-6, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Association of Old Crows (AOC) is a world-wide organization for people active within the electronic warfare area. The organization was founded in the United States in 1964 and has today 74 subdivisions - Chapters - with a total number of members of about ...

L. Nystroem A. Eneroth B. Tarras-Wahlberg F. Oascarsson B. Andersson L. Berglund L. Falk B. Carlegrim C. L. Westerlund E. Peterson

1998-01-01

14

Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit

F. Lançon

2011-01-01

15

Warfare Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

16

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

17

Electronic warfare in the year 2000 and beyond  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of a design philosophy emphasizing integrated EW and integrated avionics are detailed. The discussion covers the hierarchy of EW system architecture, evolution of integrated systems, federated architecture, and transition to integrated systems. The performance of the joint surveillance target attack radar system during the operation Desert Storm is examined as an example of the integration approach. Finally, the future directions of electronic warfare systems are outlined. 6 refs.

Herskovitz, S.B.

1991-09-01

18

Two-Stage Littoral Warfare Ship System Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Systems Engineering approach to the development of a flexible warship system intended for littoral warfare is presented, followed by a description of the preliminary design of the ship shown by analysis to the most cost-effective. The requirements for t...

C. N. Calvano E. Hoy G. Blaylock R. Burger R. Thiel

1995-01-01

19

A Study of Embedded Computer Systems Support. Volume VI. Requirements Baseline: Electronic Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This portion of the study records the baseline description of current electronic warfare support. It will serve as a point of departure for recommending a plan for improved support of airborne and ground electronic warfare systems. It includes support of ...

1980-01-01

20

Systems biology of Ewing sarcoma: a network model of EWS-FLI1 effect on proliferation and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent pediatric bone tumor. In most of the patients, a chromosomal translocation leads to the expression of the EWS-FLI1 chimeric transcription factor that is the major oncogene in this pathology. Relative genetic simplicity of Ewing sarcoma makes it particularly attractive for studying cancer in a systemic manner. Silencing EWS-FLI1 induces cell cycle alteration and ultimately leads to apoptosis, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are unclear. In this study, a network linking EWS-FLI1 to cell cycle and apoptosis phenotypes was constructed through an original method of network reconstruction. Transcriptome time-series after EWS-FLI1 silencing were used to identify core modulated genes by an original scoring method based on fitting expression profile dynamics curves. Literature data mining was then used to connect these modulated genes into a network. The validity of a subpart of this network was assessed by siRNA/RT-QPCR experiments on four additional Ewing cell lines and confirmed most of the links. Based on the network and the transcriptome data, CUL1 was identified as a new potential target of EWS-FLI1. Altogether, using an original methodology of data integration, we provide the first version of EWS-FLI1 network model of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation.

Stoll, Gautier; Surdez, Didier; Tirode, Franck; Laud, Karine; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei; Delattre, Olivier

2013-01-01

21

Robotics at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The robotics division of the San Diego Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center is very active in research and development. Its home page has a good deal of information about the many projects currently underway. There are several categories of robotic systems to browse, including autonomous land robots; unmanned ground, air, and undersea vehicles; and telepresence and virtual reality. Image and movie galleries show the operation and features of many of the center's robots, and a quarterly newsletter is also given on the site, describing the most recent activities and research conducted at the center.

2002-01-01

22

IRST: a key system in modern warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naval infra red search and track (IRST) system is a passive surveillance device capable of detecting and tracking air and surface threats in the region where electromagnetic sensors are less efficient, typically within a few degrees around the horizon. The evolution in anti ship sea skimming missiles performances has outlined the benefit that can be gained from infrared systems

Jean-Michel Missirian; Laurent Ducruet

1997-01-01

23

Airborne Electronic Warfare: Issues for the 107th Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electronic warfare (EW) has been an important component of military air operations since the earliest days of radar. Radar, EW, and stealth techniques have evolved over time as engineers, scientists, and tacticians have struggled to create the most surviv...

C. Bolkcom

2001-01-01

24

The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.  

PubMed

The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each. PMID:16610337

Zilinskas, Raymond A

2006-01-01

25

Effect of External Safeguards on Human-Information System Thrust in an Information Warfare Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research looks at how human trust in an information system is influenced by external safeguards in an Information Warfare (1W) domain. Information systems are relied upon in command and control environments to provide fast and reliable information to...

G. S. Fields

2001-01-01

26

A portable jamming system to evaluate the performance of L band radio systems in an EW environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a system which has been developed to simulate a number of potential EW environments. The system consists of a net of portable jammers remotely controlled from a single command and control center. Each portable jammer can be adapted for ground or air utilization and each unit includes various types of noise sources, a power amplifier, and an integral transmit antenna. The paper provides a detailed description of the jammer hardware. The antenna is a specially developed conical horn back helix. An 80 Watt nominal solid state power amplifier is described along with the control system which allows precisely controlling and monitoring the RF Output power level. Circuitry to develop noise modulation is exlained as well as the AC/DC Power System which allows the jammer to be used with a variety of Power Sources. Control of the jammer via a centrally located RF transmitter addressing individual remote receivers is discussed.

Posner, R. D.; Oleary, J. N.

27

A probabilistic approach of the Flash Flood Early Warning System (FF-EWS) in Catalonia based on radar ensemble generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) are commonly identified as the most efficient tools in order to improve the preparedness and risk management against heavy rains and Flash Floods (FF) with the objective of reducing economical losses and human casualties. In particular, flash floods affecting torrential Mediterranean catchments are a key element to be incorporated within operational EWSs. The characteristic high spatial and temporal variability of the storms requires high-resolution data and methods to monitor/forecast the evolution of rainfall and its hydrological impact in small and medium torrential basins. A first version of an operational FF-EWS has been implemented in Catalonia (NE Spain) under the name of EHIMI system (Integrated Tool for Hydrometeorological Forecasting) with the support of the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC). Flash flood warnings are issued based on radar-rainfall estimates. Rainfall estimation is performed on radar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution (1km2 and 10 minutes) in order to adapt the warning scale to the 1-km grid of the EWS. The method is based on comparing observed accumulated rainfall against rainfall thresholds provided by the regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The so-called "aggregated rainfall warning" at every river cell is obtained as the spatially averaged rainfall over its associated upstream draining area. Regarding the time aggregation of rainfall, the critical duration is thought to be an accumulation period similar to the concentration time of each cachtment. The warning is issued once the forecasted rainfall accumulation exceeds the rainfall thresholds mentioned above, which are associated to certain probability of occurrence. Finally, the hazard warning is provided and shown to the decision-maker in terms of exceeded return periods at every river cell covering the whole area of Catalonia. The objective of the present work includes the probabilistic component to the FF-EWS. As a first step, we have incorporated the uncertainty in rainfall estimates and forecasts based on an ensemble of equiprobable rainfall scenarios. The presented study has focused on a number of rainfall events and the performance of the FF-EWS evaluated in terms of its ability to produce probabilistic hazard warnings for decision-making support.

Velasco, David; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Corral, Carles; Llort, Xavier; Velasco, Enrique

2010-05-01

28

Surface Warfare Officer Community Management Model System Dynamics Proof-of-Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system dynamics model was developed to analyze and discern the factors which lead to sustainable numbers of qualified surface warfare officers (SWO) as determined by current and future end-strength requirements and readiness goals. The analysis consi...

R. S. Myers M. E. McDevitt M. W. Zabarouskas

2004-01-01

29

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command Preparations for Year 2000 Battle Group Systems Integration Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall audit objective was to evaluate whether the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command effectively prepared for the U.S.S. Constellation Battle Group Systems Integration Testing for the year 2000 impact and to make recommendations for improving f...

1999-01-01

30

GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.  

PubMed

Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi-layered perceptron (MLP) and the modified cerebellar model articulation controller (MCMAC) [IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern: Part B 30 (2000) 491] in predicting bank failures based on a population of 3635 US banks observed over a 21 years period. Three sets of experiments are performed-bank failure classification based on the last available financial record and prediction using financial records one and two years prior to the last available financial statements. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network as a bank failure classification and EWS is encouraging. PMID:15109685

Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

2004-05-01

31

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

2007-10-01

32

Study and application of evaluation criteria in Underwater Acoustic Warfare Simulation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater Acoustic Warfare Simulation System simulates the counterworking procedure between surface ship\\/submarine and the attacking torpedo. To both systems, the effect of counterworking is a problem worthy of paying attention to. Hence, how to evaluate the counterworking result effectively becomes one of the important aspects in the study of simulation system. The evaluation methods are studied. And several useful and

Yangze Dong; Pingxiang Liu

2010-01-01

33

A photometric study of an EW-type binary system: GV Leo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photometric study of a contact binary system, GV Leo is presented. New observations were done using the BVR filter bands. We find that a revised orbital period is 0.26673171 d and the orbital period of this system is decreasing at a rate of dP/dt = -4.95 × 10-7 d yr-1. The photometric solutions are fairly well fitted at a mass ratio of q = 0.1879, with a fillout factor of f = 17.74%. The results indicate that there exists mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one at a rate of relative mass exchange, ?1/m = -1.09 × 10-7 yr-1. It is possible that this weak-contact system, that shows a decreasing orbital period, may undergo contraction of the inner and outer critical Roche lobes and evolve into a deep-contact binary.

Kriwattanawong, Wichean; Poojon, Panomporn

2013-11-01

34

Analysis of the Civilian Employee Reward System in use at Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An incentive system should motivate employees to increase productivity and find innovative ways to control costs. In 1998, Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, (NAWCAD) instituted a new reward system. At the request of the NAWCAD, this thesis soug...

J. F. Montgomery

1999-01-01

35

What are the roles of electronic and Cyber Warfare in cognitive radio security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, Electronic Warfare (EW) and Cyber Warfare (CW) have been viewed as independent, disparate disciplines. However, they are often trying to accomplish similar tasks, and thus may be viewed as two sides of the same coin. When both the attacher and defender employ cognitive techniques, the edge may go to the side that integrates techniques from both EW and CWo

Amber Scott; T. J. Hardy; Richard K. Martin; Ryan W. Thomas

2011-01-01

36

Electronic Warfare Coordination Module (EWCM): integrating design, R&M, and logistic support analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe actions taken to integrate support-related considerations such as reliability and maintainability (R&M) and logistics support analysis into design practices and the design phase of the US Navy's Electronic Warfare Coordination Module (EWCM) program. The EWCM system is a computer-based, highly interactive tactical command and control system with which the EW coordinator and EWCM operators can effectively collect,

R. E. Biedenbender; D. B. Klingensmith

1988-01-01

37

Electronic warfare situation analysis using a geographic information system/expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stressful working condition, large volume of data and complexity of the battlefield analysis process challenge even the most experienced situation analyst. An expert system tool called ExpertANALYST has previously been developed to help EW analysts process the large amount of information that current EW sensor systems collect. The expert system in the ExpertANALYST processes relatively low level data and does not consider many sources of information. In order for it to produce more sophisticated analysis, it must have access to the same information that is available to human analysts. The paper describes GIS/Expert System prototype software that extends the analysis capabilities of the expert system. The extension adds geo-spatial analysis capability through the interaction with a commercial GIS. This tool allows testing analyst- supplied hypothesis using knowledge defined in the rule base and the GIS data. Preliminary results are promising; however, the limited availability of fuzzy geo-spatial data prompts for further investigation on the use of fuzzy set- based techniques in situation analysis.

Lam, Sylvia; Brown, Richard

1999-07-01

38

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): A Case Study of Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego's Project Carrillo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) pilot implementation conducted at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD), the first of four Department of the Navy (DON) pilot implementations. Specifically, comparisons ar...

E. Oxendine D. M. Hoffman

2002-01-01

39

Tracing deep thermal water circulation systems in the E-W trending Büyük Menderes Graben, western Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present information on the spatial variation of helium isotope ratios and several conservative geochemical constituents that serve as natural tracers to identify thermal water flow systems along the E-W trending Büyük Menderes Graben. The air-normalized R/RA ratios (where R = sample 3He/4He and RA = air 3He/4He) of geothermal fluids in the graben range from 3.69 to 0.2. R/RA ratios of the high temperature fluids display regular variation along the graben, from high mantle values in the east to low crustal values in the west. The highest R/RA ratios showing significant mantle He signatures occur at the eastern segment of the graben. In the central section, R/RA ratios are lower and vary between 1.82 and 1.14. The lowest ratio of 0.20 RA, indicating a value of high crustal helium up to 98%, was observed in the Germencik Field, where one of the highest temperatures recorded was 232 °C, at the western segment of the graben. A regional variation is also apparent in the CO2-He systematics. Mantle-derived carbon proportions were found to be generally less than 2% but similar to the R/RA ratios, the higher mantle carbon proportions occur at the eastern segment of the graben. The spatial distribution of all the data points over the entire extent of the graben shows a regularly decreasing trend of mantle-derived He and CO2 contributions toward the west. These results were interpreted as a progressive dilution process of mantle volatiles resulting from the systematic addition of 3He-depleted crustal CO2 components. Finally, because the R/RA ratios of geothermal fluids in the graben decrease continuously in E-to-W direction, we propose a continuous dilution process involving the addition of crustal radiogenic 4He associated with deep circulating fluid flow. This conclusion is compatible with the B and Cl- concentrations of the thermal waters that show a westward-increasing trend. This trend appears to be controlled by water-rock interaction and may be linked to a possible thermal water circulation system trending from E to W toward the Aegean Sea.

Karaku?, Hüseyin; ?im?ek, ?akir

2013-02-01

40

Electronic Warfare Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of the modern technology employed in Electronic Warfare systems is carried out. Electronic and optical techniques presently used in the detection, localization, processing and identification of signals, linked with active and passive counterme...

R. P. Bittencourt

1976-01-01

41

Chemical and Biological Warfare Threat: USAF Water Systems at Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water and the systems that supply it are national critical infrastructures. Attack to deny or disrupt these systems could have catastrophic effects on the U.S. economy and military power. Water is particularly vulnerable to chemical or biological attack. ...

D. C. Hickman

1999-01-01

42

Information warfare and the information systems security professional  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a government agency or business computer system is attacked, the response to such an attack will be based on the attacker. Will the attacker be a hacker, phreaker, cracker, just someone breaking in for fun? Will the attacker be an employee of a business competitor, in the case of an attack on a business system, or will it be

Gerald L. Kovacich

1997-01-01

43

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

44

Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

Lançon, F.

2011-05-01

45

Surface Warfare Test Ship Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systems engineering approach to the design of a ship conversion to satisfy the requirements for a Surface Warfare Test Ship (SWTS) to be employed by the Port Hueneme Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center is presented. The ship described would mee...

C. N. Calvano D. Wickersham I. Farsaris P. Malone R. C. Harney

2000-01-01

46

From Prowlers to UAVs: A Bridge Too Far for Airborne Electronic Warfare?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Prowler (EA-6B), what is the future of airborne electric warfare? The Pentagon could stay with "business as usual", choosing an evolutionary USN/ USAF airframe. A contract, this paper proposes electric warfare that consists of modest airframes carrying robust interchangeable sensors linked together and directing new munitions. This network-centric approach to EW forms the best bridge to someday transition EW to UAV.

Houser, Jonathan P.

2002-05-01

47

Electronic Warfare Test and Evaluation (Essai et evaluation en matiere de guerre electronique).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electronic Warfare (EW) Test and Evaluation (T&E) is a complex and expensive undertaking. Practitioners must understand the subject matter to efficiently apply available test resources and cost effectively meet their test objectives. This revised EW T&E h...

M. Pywell, M. Welch

2012-01-01

48

TAO (Tactical Action Officer) ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare) Expert System Prototype.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expertise required by Tactical Action Officers in a modern Anti-Submarine warfare environment of complex weaponry, minimal reaction time and ardous conditions at sea necessitate training and experience that is both exhaustive and progressive. For thes...

G. A. Gostlow

1986-01-01

49

Testbed for distributed scenario simulations with EW and its effects on C2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper will present a simulation testbed in which a scenario can be setup, simulated and evaluated and where planning tools, electronic warfare (EW) components and command and control (C2) functionality can be integrated. The testbed is HLA (high level architecture) compliant, allows for a distributed simulation with dynamically configurable federates, and can also be used for testing actual equipment in a simulated scenario. One of the key components in the testbed is a set of planning tools that can be used to show ranges for sensors, jamming and communication systems. These tools can be used not only for planning the mission (e.g. best route) but can also be used during the mission to show the location of possible threats or the range of own equipment (sensor, jamming, communication) in different situations. During a mission these tools can be used to support the decisions of what actions to take in different situations. One goal with developing the planning tools in the testbed is to learn how to use planning tools in real life scenarios. Therefore, the planning tools are constantly developed and tested with respect to technical and tactical use. Also technical and tactical aspects of current and future EW and C2 equipment can be tested and developed in the testbed.

Tydén, L.; Wigren, C.; Andersson, H.; Olsson, S.

2007-05-01

50

Acoustic Transmission Loss and Pulse Time-Spread Measured Off the South Carolina Coast During the 1997 Littoral Warfare Advanced Development System Concept Validation Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acoustic transmission loss and pulse time-spread measurements were performed off the South Carolina coast as part of the Littoral Warfare Advanced Development (LWAD) environmental measurement support provided for the 1997 System Concept Validation (SCV 97...

B. Pasewark A. Al-Kurd

1998-01-01

51

New M&S Challenges Derived from the NATO Research & Technology Organization (RTO) Systems Analysis Studies (SAS071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted recently by NATO's RTO Systems Analysis Studies (SAS-071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare (IW) is of direct interest to the M&S community, as it formulates several new challenges that have to be met by the M&S community. IW comprises among others the following categories: insurgency\\/counter-insurgency, combat- ing terrorism, unconventional warfare, strategic communications, transnational criminal

Andreas Tolk

2009-01-01

52

Vaerdering Avvaegning TK/SAT en Foerstudie (Balanced Assessment of Electronic Warfare and Signature Management Technologies, a Pre-Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Signature Management Technologies (SMT) and Electronic Warfare (EW) are two important assets in order to increase survivability of platforms and combat units and be able to fulfill a mission objective. This report describes the effort that has been conduc...

P. Klum P. Carlsson G. Olsson C. Nelsson P. Johansson

2005-01-01

53

Affordable integrated sensor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PAVE PACE program showed that the cost and weight of an avionics system for a new aircraft can be cut in half and its reliability tripled by incorporating the concepts of common modules, resource sharing, and reconfiguration into the sensor domain. The sensor domain includes the classical RF boundaries of Communication-Navigation-Identification (CNI), Radar, and Electronic Warfare (EW). The Integrated

B. A. Rich

1996-01-01

54

Cyber Warfare Peacekeeping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and analyze a new concept in the field of cyber warfare - cyber warfare peacekeeping. We identify that in some parts of the world low intensity cyber warfare has been conducted for over three years. The PRC and Taiwan (among others) have established independent elements in their armed forces devoted to cyber warfare. Recent events have shown that

Thomas P. Cahill; Konstantin Rozinov; Christopher Mulé

2003-01-01

55

Information Warfare-Worthy Jamming Attack Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Fuzzy Inference System  

PubMed Central

The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes.

Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S. V.

2010-01-01

56

Information warfare-worthy jamming attack detection mechanism for wireless sensor networks using a fuzzy inference system.  

PubMed

The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes. PMID:22319307

Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S V

2010-01-01

57

An open system architecture for integrated RF systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PAVE PACE program showed that the cost and weight of an avionics system for a new aircraft can be cut in half and its reliability tripled by incorporating the concepts of common modules, resource sharing, and reconfiguration into the sensor domain. The sensor domain includes the classical RF boundaries of Communication-Navigation-Identification (CNI), Radar, and Electronic Warfare (EW). The Integrated

R. Brousseau; A. Sanders; D. R. Huffman; H. Abercrombie; D. L. Hoffman; S. Coleman

1997-01-01

58

Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world events and the proliferation of nuclear weapons related technology have increased the kinds of nuclear threats to include intentionally dispersed radiation sources and fallout from tactical nuclear weapons used in the modern AirLand battlefield scenario. Consequently, a DoD area of increasing interest focuses on determining the shielding effectiveness of foreign and US armored vehicles to radiological warfare and fallout radiation threats. To demonstrate the applicability of MASH for analyzing dispersed radiation source problems, calculations have been completed for two distributed sources; a dispersed radiation environment simulated by a uniformly distributed {sup 60}Co source, and a {sup 235}U fission weapon fallout source. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the free-field, the inside of a steel-walled two-meter box, in a phantom standing in the free-field, and in a phantom standing in the two-meter box. The results indicate substantial radiation protection factors for the {sup 60}Co dispersed radiation source and the fallout source compared to the prompt radiation protection factors. The dose protection factors ranged from 40 to 95 for the two-meter box and from 55 to 123 for the mid-gut position of the phantom standing in the box. The results further indicate that a {sup 60}Co source might be a good first order approximation for a tactical fission weapon fallout protection factor analysis.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Smith, M.S.

1994-03-01

59

Supra-means Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

America's infatuation with conventional warfare has displayed the limitations of conventional means in conflicts of both the past and present. Recognition of this fact reveals the need for the nation to redraw its boundaries with regard to warfare to make...

J. C. Berry

2008-01-01

60

The Ewing's sarcoma oncoprotein EWS\\/FLI induces a p53-dependent growth arrest in primary human fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing's sarcoma is associated with a fusion between the EWS and FLI1 genes, forming an EWS\\/FLI fusion protein. We developed a system for the identification of cooperative mutations in this tumor through expression of EWS\\/FLI in primary human fibroblasts. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that this system recapitulates many features of Ewing's sarcoma. EWS\\/FLI-expressing cells underwent growth arrest, suggesting that growth

Stephen L. Lessnick; Caroline S. Dacwag; Todd R. Golub

2002-01-01

61

Modeling of EO countermeasure systems in a network perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method where it is possible to configure and simulate an entire dynamic scenario with several platforms in a network and where electronic warfare (EW) is an integrated part. The method utilizes a multispectral (radio, radar, electro-optics) framework, EWSim (Electronic Warfare Simulation interface model), for distributed EW simulations. In the framework it is possible to design dynamic scenarios which can assess the few-against-few duel, in a single user mode or in an assessment duel where teams can compete against each other. The EWSim method is also compared to simpler methods where events on a timeline is studied to draw conclusions about EW systems in a network and also to more advanced methods where system specific models are used with a high level of fidelity.

Wigren, Christer

2006-10-01

62

New concepts in mine warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of remote and unmanned vehicles, the mine warfare operations have to be reconsidered. In order to complete the remote mine reconnaissance performed with unmanned vehicles such as SEAKEEPER, DCN proposes a new concept for identification and neutralisation operations. Based on the introduction of the GPS-based long range underwater positioning systems adapted to robotics solutions, these missions could

S. Proutiere; G. Fardella; F. Schom

2005-01-01

63

Human Systems Integration for Network Centric Warfare (Integration des systemes humains dans les operations reseaux centrees).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes and documents the Human View (HV) as a viable method for Human Systems Integration to identify and assess the human specific aspects of a total systems engineering approach (architecture framework) for system design and development. ...

2010-01-01

64

Biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

65

Absolute dimensions of solar-type eclipsing binaries. III. EW Orionis: stellar evolutionary models tested by a G0 V system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Recent studies of inactive and active solar-type binaries suggest that chromospheric activity, and its effect on envelope convection, is likely to cause significant radius and temperature discrepancies. Accurate mass, radius, and abundance determinations from additional solar-type binaries exhibiting various levels of activity are needed for a better insight into the structure and evolution of these stars. Aims: We aim to determine absolute dimensions and abundances for the G0 V detached eclipsing binary EW Ori, and to perform a detailed comparison with results from recent stellar evolutionary models. Methods: uvby light curves and {uvby}? standard photometry were obtained with the Strömgren Automatic Telescope, published radial velocity observations from the CORAVEL spectrometer were reanalysed, and high-resolution spectra were observed at the FEROS spectrograph; all are/were ESO, La Silla facilities. State-of-the-art methods were applied for the photometric and spectroscopic analyses. Results: Masses and radii that are precise to 0.9% and 0.5%, respectively, have been established for both components of EW Ori. The 1.12 M? secondary component reveals weak Ca ii H and K emission and is probably mildly active; no signs of activity are seen for the 1.17 M? primary. We derive an [Fe/H] abundance of +0.05 ± 0.09 and similar abundances for Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, and Ni. Yonsai-Yale and Granada solar-scaled evolutionary models for the observed metal abundance reproduce the components fairly well at an age of ?2 Gyr. Perfect agreement is, however, obtained at an age of 2.3 Gyr for a combination of a) a slight downwards adjustment of the envelope mixing length parameter for the secondary, as seen for other active solar-type stars; and b) a slightly lower helium content than prescribed by the Y-Z relations adopted for the standard model grids. The orbit is eccentric (e = 0.0758 ± 0.0020), and apsidal motion with a 62% relativistic contribution has been detected. The apsidal motion period is U = 16 300 ± 3900 yr, and the inferred mean central density concentration coefficient, log(k2) = -1.66 ± 0.30, agrees marginally with model predictions. The measured rotational velocities, 9.0 ± 0.7 (primary) and 8.8 ± 0.6 (secondary) km s-1, are in agreement with both the synchronous velocities and the theoretically predicted pseudo-synchronous velocities. Finally, the distance (175 ± 7 pc), age, and center-of mass velocity (6 km s-1) exclude suggested membership of the open cluster Collinder 70. Conclusions: EW Ori now belongs to the small group of solar-type eclipsing binaries with well-established astrophysical properties. Based on observations carried out at the Strömgren Automatic Telescope (SAT) and the 1.5 m telescope (62.L-0284) at ESO, La Silla.Table 11 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/511/A22

Clausen, J. V.; Bruntt, H.; Olsen, E. H.; Helt, B. E.; Claret, A.

2010-02-01

66

Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

1988-01-01

67

The geography of warfare  

SciTech Connect

Focusing on the geographical considerations of preparing for and waging war, the authors examine tactics and terrain in conventional warfare under a variety of environmental conditions. The kinds of strategies, informational needs and logistical factors involved in a war as opposed to a battle are outlined with particular attention given to sea, air and nuclear, as well as guerilla and urban, warfare.

O'Sullivan, P.; Miller, J.W.

1983-01-01

68

What Is Information Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This essay examines that line of thinking and indicates several fundamental flaws while arguing the following points: (1) Information warfare, as a separate technique of waging war, does not exist. There are, instead, several distinct forms of information...

M. C. Libicki

1995-01-01

69

Analytic tools for information warfare  

SciTech Connect

Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

1996-05-01

70

Modeling and Simulation in Support of Network Warfare Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego (SSC San Diego) Code 2822, Network Centric Warfare Analysis Branch, has been developing and integrating models of Navy communications systems. These models are used for assessing communications performance in networked operations and the accompanying impact of communications on C4ISR operations. This paper provides an overview and highlights some of our recently

Chris Alspaugh; Nikhil Davé; Tom Hepner; Andy Leidy; Mark Stell; Cam Tran; Heather Woods; Wonita Youm; Albert Legaspi; Jim Weatherly

71

Expression profiling of EWS\\/FLI identifies NKX2.2 as a critical target gene in Ewing's sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our understanding of Ewing's sarcoma development mediated by the EWS\\/FLI fusion protein has been limited by a lack of knowledge regarding the tumor cell of origin. To circumvent this, we analyzed the function of EWS\\/FLI in Ewing's sarcoma itself.Bycombiningretroviral-mediatedRNAinterferencewithreexpressionstudies,weshowthatongoingEWS\\/FLIexpres- sion is required for the tumorigenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. We used this system to define the full complement of

Richard Smith; Leah A. Owen; Deborah J. Trem; Jenny S. Wong; Jennifer S. Whangbo; Todd R. Golub; Stephen L. Lessnick

2006-01-01

72

Implications of Network Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will examine Network Centric Warfare the centerpiece of Transformation. This form of warfare depends heavily on computer networks the Internet communications and sensors. These areas of dependence also provide numerous vulnerabilities. This pap...

A. L. Bailey

2004-01-01

73

Information Warfare and International Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of 'information warfare' presents international legal issues that will complicate nations' efforts both to execute and to respond to certain information warfare attacks, specifically those using computers, telecommunications, or networks t...

K. J. Soo Hoo L. T. Greenberg S. E. Goodman

1998-01-01

74

Electronic Warfare for Cyber Warriors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research paper provides complete course content for the AFIT EENG 509, Electronic Warfare class. It is intended as a replacement for the existing course and designed for Intermediate Developmental Education (IDE) students in the Cyber Warfare degree ...

D. E. Rauch

2008-01-01

75

Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating in. This section also examines why information war...

T. F. O'Hara

2004-01-01

76

Development of a Low-Temperature Catalytic Oxidation System for Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is to develop a low-temperature microwave catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). To protect personnel in shelters catalytic oxidation systems should (1) des...

C. Y. Cha B. Braunberger J. Wander C. Y. Wu

2004-01-01

77

Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM) - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to

Bill Hutchinson; Mat Warren

2002-01-01

78

Design and capabilities of an enhanced naval mine warfare simulation framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) designed and implemented a new tool, The Rapid Mine Simulation System Enterprise Architecture (RMSSEA), to support existing naval mine warfare simulations and to provide enhanced future mine warfare capabilities. RMSSEA sup-ports existing physics-based models of Navy assets and threats in order to provide ship susceptibility and sweep effectiveness measures. The

Timothy E. Floore; George H. Gilman

2011-01-01

79

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents. PMID:20358695

Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

2010-01-01

80

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

81

Surviving cyber warfare with a hybrid multiagent-base intrusion prevention system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspecting network traffic that only protects the network and its entire host is not sufficient to secure the network and is a time wasting task, since network traffic payloads may contain polymorphic or encrypted malicious code and executables. The proposed system ensures the preemptive protection against zero-day attacks and malwares, by applying behavioral analysis techniques that focus on objects' behaviors

Armani Salah; Mohamed Shouman; Hossam M. Faheem

2010-01-01

82

Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Mainside, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithologic and geophysical logs of boreholes at 29 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the Mainside of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, consists of un-consolidated sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The upper 220 feet of these sediments are divided into five hydrogeologic units, including the (1) Columbia (water-table) aquifer, (2) upper confining unit, (3) upper confined aquifer, (4) Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit, and (5) Aquia aquifer. The Columbia aquifer in the study area is a local system that is not affected by regional pumping. Ground-water recharge occurs at topographic highs in the northern part of the Mainside, and ground-water discharge occurs at topographic lows associated with adjacent surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of ground-water flow in the upper confined and Aquia aquifers is toward the southwest and southeast, respectively. A downward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers in the shallow system, and stresses on the Aquia aquifer are indicated by heads that range between 2 and 12 feet below sea level. The ratio of median horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Columbia aquifer to median vertical hydraulic con-ductivity of the upper confining unit, however, is approximately 2,600:1; therefore, under natural- flow conditions, most water in the Columbia aquifer probably discharges to adjacent surface- water bodies. The composition and distribution of major ions vary in the Columbia aquifer. In general, water samples from wells located along the inland perimeter roads of the study area have chloride or a combination of chloride and sulfate as the dominant anions, and water samples from wells located in the interior of the study area have bicarbonate or a combination of bicarbonate and sulfate as the dominant anions. Sodium and calcium were the dominant cations in most samples. Dissolved solids and four inorganic constituents are present in water from the Columbia aquifer at concentrations that exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL's) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentration of dissolved solids exceed the SMCL of 500 milligrams per liter in 3 of 29 samples from the Columbia aquifer. An elevated concentration of sodium is present in one water sample, and elevated concentrations of chloride are present in two water samples. Concentrations of dissolved iron and manga-nese exceed the SMCL in 10 and 17 of 29 water samples, respectively, and are the most extensive water-quality problem with regard to inorganic constituents in the Columbia aquifer.

Harlow, G. E., Jr.; Bell, C. F.

1996-01-01

83

Radiation Facilities at NSWC (Naval Surface Warfare Center).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirement for nuclear hardened equipment and systems creates a new and unique challenge for all developers of new systems. At the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), a solid base of technology exists for hardening strategic and tactical systems. Th...

1989-01-01

84

Unconventional Warfare Bibliography: Supplement No. 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fundamental elements of unconventional warfare; (Theory, strategy, legality, administrative matters, unconventional warfare operations); Historical models of unconventional warfare; (pre-world war II experience, world war II experience, post-wor...

N. A. Gardner

1965-01-01

85

Unconventional Warfare Bibliography, Supplement No. 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fundamental elements of unconventional warfare; (theory, strategy, legality, administrative matters, unconventional warfare operations, semi-conventional forces); Historical models of unconventional warfare in insurgencies; (pre-World War II exp...

N. Currier

1965-01-01

86

Inside Cyber Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of Jeffrey Carr’s work, Inside Cyber Warfare, follows upon our discussion in the previous issue of Interface, “Cyber War and U.S. Policy: Part I, Neo-realism.” That piece was informed in large part by a review of Richard A. Clarke and Robert Knake’s recent work, Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It.

Jeffrey Barlow

2010-01-01

87

Cyber warfare compared to fourth and fifth generation warfare as applied to the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspects of societal wide warfare occurring utilizing the technologies of the Internet for dissemination and recruitment by entities has been well studied. What has not been studied is the use of adversaries systems of communication, education, and entertainment to assess and gather intelligence. The utilization of the adversaries systems allows for real time knowledge of the adversaries intent and

Samuel Liles

2007-01-01

88

A Tactical Warfare Simulation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tactical warfare simulation program is a procedure by which the major interactions among opposing military units and terrain features can be treated in a tactical limited warfare situation. It is a critical-area, sequence-of-event model and is program...

W. W. Fain J. B. Fain H. W. Karr

1966-01-01

89

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

90

Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease.

Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

2011-01-01

91

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

2008-09-01

92

Cloning and chromosome localization of the mouse Ews gene  

SciTech Connect

The human EWS gene encodes a putative RNA binding protein. As a result of acquired chromosome rearrangement, the N-terminal portion of the EWS protein is fused to the DNA binding domain of either FLI1-or ERG in the Ewing family of tumors and to the DNA binding domain of ATF1 in malignant melanoma of soft parts. We have determined the cDNA sequence of the mouse Ews gene. Its nucleotide sequence and its translation product demonstrate 93 and 98% homology with the human EWS cDNA and protein, respectively. The murine Ews locus lies within a conserved synteny segment between human chromosome 22q12 and mouse chromosome 11A1-A3.

Plougastel, B.; Thomas, G.; Delattre, O. [Laboratoire de Genetique des Tumeurs, Paris (France)] [Laboratoire de Genetique des Tumeurs, Paris (France); Mattei, M.G. [Faculte de Medicine de la Timone, Marseille (France)] [Faculte de Medicine de la Timone, Marseille (France)

1994-09-01

93

General Crook and Counterinsurgency Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the operational and tactical procedures in counterinsurgency warfare developed by General George Crook while commanding U. S. Army forces in southwest and the northern plains. This work includes a brief introduction of General Cro...

W. L. Greenberg

2001-01-01

94

Information Warfare: A Philosophical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Information Warfare—the warfare characterised by the use of information and communication technologies.\\u000a This is a fast growing phenomenon, which poses a number of issues ranging from the military use of such technologies to its\\u000a political and ethical implications. The paper presents a conceptual analysis of this phenomenon with the goal of investigating\\u000a its nature. Such an

Mariarosaria Taddeo

95

Unconventional Warfare Bibliography: Supplement No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fundamental elements of unconventional warfare; (Background, military strategy, legality, administrative problems, operational concepts). Historical models of unconventional warfare; (Pre-world war II cases, world war II cases, post-world war II...

N. A. Gardner

1964-01-01

96

Retention of Junior Naval Special Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commander of the Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC) has identified junior officer retention within the Naval Special Warfare community as a significant problem. In 1997, the community experienced the highest number of resignations on record, and thi...

K. B. Davids

1998-01-01

97

Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advent of cyber warfare has sparked a debate amongst theorists as to whether timeless Clausewitzian principles remain true in the 21st century. Violence, uncertainty, and rationality still accurately depict the nature of cyber warfare, however, its ma...

J. B. Dermer

2013-01-01

98

Cyber warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Security concerns over the growing capability of Cyber Warfare are in the forefront of national policy and security discussions. In order to enable a realistic discussion of the topic this thesis seeks to analyze demonstrated Cyber Warfare capability and ...

B. L. Boyd

2009-01-01

99

Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

Chesler, David J.

100

Let-7a Is a Direct EWS-FLI-1 Target Implicated in Ewing's Sarcoma Development  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults, characterized by unique chromosomal translocations that in 85% of cases lead to expression of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein. EWS-FLI-1 functions as an aberrant transcription factor that can both induce and suppress members of its target gene repertoire. We have recently demonstrated that EWS-FLI-1 can alter microRNA (miRNA) expression and that miRNA145 is a direct EWS-FLI-1 target whose suppression is implicated in ESFT development. Here, we use miRNA arrays to compare the global miRNA expression profile of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and ESFT cell lines, and show that ESFT display a distinct miRNA signature that includes induction of the oncogenic miRNA 17–92 cluster and repression of the tumor suppressor let-7 family. We demonstrate that direct repression of let-7a by EWS-FLI-1 participates in the tumorigenic potential of ESFT cells in vivo. The mechanism whereby let-7a expression regulates ESFT growth is shown to be mediated by its target gene HMGA2, as let-7a overexpression and HMGA2 repression both block ESFT cell tumorigenicity. Consistent with these observations, systemic delivery of synthetic let-7a into ESFT-bearing mice restored its expression in tumor cells, decreased HMGA2 expression levels and resulted in ESFT growth inhibition in vivo. Our observations provide evidence that deregulation of let-7a target gene expression participates in ESFT development and identify let-7a as promising new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive pediatric malignancies.

Suva, Mario-Luca; Janiszewska, Michalina; Horlbeck, Janine; Baumer, Karine; Provero, Paolo; Stamenkovic, Ivan

2011-01-01

101

Information warfare: are you at risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information warfare at its simplest level is the use of computers to attack an adversary's information infrastructure while protecting one's own information infrastructure. The significance of information warfare threats has been recognized by both the business and government sectors. However, some governments and organizations have resorted to industrial and economic espionage employing information warfare attacks to gain unfair advantages over

A. J. Elbirt

2003-01-01

102

Research on Credibility of HLA Warfare Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the HLA technique is applied widely in the domain of warfare simulation, the research on the credibility of HLA warfare simulation is more and more valued, which can be guaranteed by W&A. In order to assure the warfare simulation be credible, it is very significant to study W&A in modeling and simulation all the cycle life. The hierarchy and

Tang Jianbing; Zha Yabing; Huang Xiaohui

2009-01-01

103

Electronic warfare channelizer signal processing algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive direction finding is an integral function of EW and ELINT systems. The ability to produce direction-of-arrival information in a timely, accurate manner is strongly influenced by both the direction-finding techniques employed and the processing algorithms. The processing algorithms must detect a signal, classify it as being a signal of interest, extract the signal's parameters, including its direction of arrival, control the receiver, and interface with the system's mission computer. This paper describes a direction-finding receiver that used an optical processor to extract the direction-of-arrival information from the signal environment and the processing algorithms required to support the optical processor.

Wood, Jerry B.; Daugherty, Gregory K.

1995-06-01

104

SESSION 4A: ECONOMIC WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines various legal, economic, and technological aspects of economic warfare particularly naval blockades. It begins with a summary of the rules of international law that most developed countries agreed should govern legal blockades, and the degree to which they are enforceable. The focus is then narrowed to a particular example of a blockade the varying success of the

Lance Davis; Stanley Engerman

2001-01-01

105

Implementation of battlespace agents for network-centric electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) paradigm, battlespace agents autonomously perform selected tasks delegated by actors/shooters and decision-makers including controlling sensors. Network-Centric electronic warfare is the form of electronic combat used in NCW. Focus is placed on a network of interconnected, adapting systems that are capable of making choices about how to survive and achieve their design goals in a dynamic environment. The battlespace entities: agents, actor/shooters, sensors, and decision-makers are tied together through the information and sensors grids.

Sciortino, John C.; Smith, James F.; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Franciose, Randall

2001-08-01

106

Bounded Rationality and Complex Process Coupling: Challenges for Intelligence Support to Information Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information warfare is predicated on a belief that new information processing technology, that has been embedded in intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance systems, command and control systems, and precision munitions, has vastly increased U.S. milit...

K. R. Cunningham

2000-01-01

107

Genomic EWS-FLI1 Fusion Sequences in Ewing Sarcoma Resemble Breakpoint Characteristics of Immature Lymphoid Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal translocations between the EWS gene and members of the ETS gene family are characteristic molecular features of the Ewing sarcoma. The most common translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) fuses the EWS gene to FLI1, and is present in 85–90% of Ewing sarcomas. In the present study, a specifically designed multiplex long-range PCR assay was applied to amplify genomic EWS-FLI1 fusion sites from as little as 100 ng template DNA. Characterization of the EWS-FLI1 fusion sites of 42 pediatric and young adult Ewing sarcoma patients and seven cell lines revealed a clustering in the 5? region of the EWS-breakpoint cluster region (BCR), in contrast to random distribution of breakpoints in the FLI1-BCR. No association of breakpoints with various recombination-inducing sequence motifs was identified. The occurrence of small deletions and duplications at the genomic junction is characteristic of involvement of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair system, similar to findings at chromosomal breakpoints in pediatric leukemia and lymphoma.

Berger, Manfred; Dirksen, Uta; Braeuninger, Andreas; Koehler, Gabriele; Juergens, Heribert

2013-01-01

108

Operator Performance Enhancement for the Guardrail/Common Sensor System 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Communications and Electronics Command (CECOM) Center for Electronic Warfare/Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (EW/RISTA) requested the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) to identify Guardrail ...

M. J. Hall

1990-01-01

109

Threat evaluation and weapons allocation in network-centric warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of threat evaluation and weapons allocation (TEWA) in the defense domain have traditionally been considered from the single platform perspective. However, with the current trend in defense towards network-centric warfare, that is the linking of sensors, engagement systems and decision-makers into an effective and responsive whole, it is becoming more appropriate to view these concepts at the force

Stephane Paradis; Abderrezak Benaskeur; M. Oxenham; P. Cutler

2005-01-01

110

A Simulation-optimization Approach to Air Warfare Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can computer-aided planning systems deal with the complexities, uncertainties, and rapidly shifting information needed to support air warfare operational planning? This paper uses a hierarchical decomposition of decision-making, coupled to a predictive simulation model that estimates the probability distribution of the outcomes of candidate operational plans. The approach will generate, evaluate, and improve Blue plans while assuming that Red

Douglas Popken; Louis Cox

2004-01-01

111

Open Systems Joint Task Force Case Study of the U.S. Army's Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Common Sensor (IEWCS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The open systems approach (OSA) is both a technical approach and a preferred business strategy that allows DoD to field superior combat capability quicker and at a more affordable cost. The OSA defines key interfaces using commercially supported specifica...

L. Burke M. Hanratty

1996-01-01

112

Pharmacokinetic modeling optimizes inhibition of the 'undruggable' EWS-FLI1 transcription factor in Ewing Sarcoma.  

PubMed

Transcription factors have long been deemed 'undruggable' targets for therapeutics. Enhanced recognition of protein biochemistry as well as the need to have more targeted approaches to treat cancer has rendered transcription factors approachable for therapeutic development. Since transcription factors lack enzymatic domains, the specific targeting of these proteins has unique challenges. One challenge is the hydrophobic microenvironment that affects small molecules gaining access to block protein interactions. The most attractive transcription factors to target are those formed from tumor specific chromosomal translocations that are validated oncogenic driver proteins. EWS-FLI1 is a fusion protein that results from the pathognomonic translocation of Ewing sarcoma (ES). Our past work created the small molecule YK-4-279 that blocks EWS-FLI1 from interacting with RNA Helicase A (RHA). To fulfill long-standing promise in the field by creating a clinically useful drug, steps are required to allow for in vivo administration. These investigations identify the need for continuous presence of the small molecule protein-protein inhibitor for a period of days. We describe the pharmacokinetics of YK-4-279 and its individual enantiomers. In vivo studies confirm prior in vitro experiments showing (S)-YK-4-279 as the EWS-FLI1 specific enantiomer demonstrating both induction of apoptosis and reduction of EWS-FLI1 regulated caveolin-1 protein. We have created the first rat xenograft model of ES, treated with (S)-YK-4-279 dosing based upon PK modeling leading to a sustained complete response in 2 of 6 ES tumors. Combining laboratory studies, pharmacokinetic measurements, and modeling has allowed us to create a paradigm that can be optimized for in vivo systems using both in vitro data and pharmacokinetic simulations. Thus, (S)-YK-4-279 as a small molecule drug is ready for continued development towards a first-in-human, first-in-class, clinical trial. PMID:24481407

Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Youbi, Sarah E; Hong, S Peter; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Monroe, Phillip; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S; Houghton, Peter; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

2014-01-30

113

Predictive Model of Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Factors Affecting Turnover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Junior Surface Warfare Officer retention is in a crisis. The Surface Warfare Officer community anticipates an inability to fill Department Head billets due to the number of junior Surface Warfare Officers leaving military service. The goal of this study w...

G. D. Gjurich

1999-01-01

114

Traditional and Irregular Warfare: A Flawed Concept for Categorizing Conflict.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irregular warfare and traditional warfare are poor terms for a fundamentally flawed concept of categorizing warfare that will limit the U.S. Government's ability to shape effectively the international environment without high costs militarily, economicall...

J. W. Purvis

2009-01-01

115

Analysis of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of normal aliphatic thiols have been used to derivatise the chemical warfare agents Lewisites I and II (LI and LII) in hydrocarbon matrices. Varying the chain length of the thiol allowed adjustment of derivative tR by 5.9min for Lewisite I and 5.3min for Lewisite II. Linear regression analysis of the chain length of the thiol derivatives of the

Bob Muir; Ben J Slater; David B Cooper; Christopher M Timperley

2004-01-01

116

Introduction to antisubmarine warfare technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an introduction to the acoustical techniques that are used in strategic antisubmarine warfare. We discuss the signals that are emitted from submarines, how they propagated and how they are attenuated in the ocean. Background noise in both the deep oceans and in the ice-covered Arctic regions are described. The general problems of searching and detection are outlined with specific examples evaluated for the U.S. and Soviet ballistic missile submarines.

Sakitt, M.

1988-12-15

117

Coherent Acoustic Communications During the Littoral Warfare Advanced Development 98-1 and SCV-97 Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coherent acoustic communication experiments were performed during two Littoral Warfare Advanced Development (LWAD) exercises. The first exercise, the 1997 System Concept Validation (SCV-97), was conducted September 1997 off the South Carolina coast. The s...

A. Al-Kurd J. Schindall T. C. Yang E. Carey

1998-01-01

118

Computing and Communications Infrastructure for Network-Centric Warfare: Exploiting COTS, Assuring Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In network centric warfare (NCW), the effectiveness of warfighters and their platforms is enhanced by rapid and effective information flow. This requires a robust and flexible computing and communications software infrastructure, and a degree of system in...

J. P. Richardson L. Graba M. Agrawal

2004-01-01

119

Evaluating Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) Financial Management Practices in Preparation for Implementing ERP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the current financial management processes in place at Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) and the impact an implementation of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system would have on these processes. The Department ...

R. E. Louzek

2000-01-01

120

EWS/ATF1 expression induces sarcomas from neural crest-derived cells in mice  

PubMed Central

Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignant tumor characterized by a unique t(12;22) translocation that leads to the expression of a chimeric EWS/ATF1 fusion gene. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the involvement of EWS/ATF1 in CCS development. In addition, the cellular origins of CCS have not been determined. Here, we generated EWS/ATF1-inducible mice and examined the effects of EWS/ATF1 expression in adult somatic cells. We found that forced expression of EWS/ATF1 resulted in the development of EWS/ATF1-dependent sarcomas in mice. The histology of EWS/ATF1-induced sarcomas resembled that of CCS, and EWS/ATF1-induced tumor cells expressed CCS markers, including S100, SOX10, and MITF. Lineage-tracing experiments indicated that neural crest–derived cells were subject to EWS/ATF1-driven transformation. EWS/ATF1 directly induced Fos in an ERK-independent manner. Treatment of human and EWS/ATF1-induced CCS tumor cells with FOS-targeted siRNA attenuated proliferation. These findings demonstrated that FOS mediates the growth of EWS/ATF1-associated sarcomas and suggest that FOS is a potential therapeutic target in human CCS.

Yamada, Kazunari; Ohno, Takatoshi; Aoki, Hitomi; Semi, Katsunori; Watanabe, Akira; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Toguchida, Junya; Shimizu, Katsuji; Hara, Akira; Yamada, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

121

An economic model of guerrilla warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on the guerrilla warfare literature so as to synthesize and to describe the dynamics of the initial stages of a guerrilla war against an established government. It combines two classical economic models, the Solow growth model and the Ricardian model of economic rents, with two classic studies of guerrilla warfare by T. E. Lawrence and by Mao

Dagobert L. Brito; Michael D. Intriligator

1990-01-01

122

Anthropology, archaeology, and the origin of warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main theories of the origin of warfare - from evolutionary psychology, materialism, and historical contingency - are examined. Their implications and their use of anthropological evidence, especially for the Yanomamö of the Amazon, are explored, then their relationship to the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic archaeological record. The early prehistoric evidence for conflict and warfare, mainly from Europe, is considered, from

I. J. N. Thorpe

2003-01-01

123

Mobile agents in network-centric warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes agent technology and the various ways in which it can be applied to command, control, communications and intelligence in general, and to network-centric warfare in particular. The paper provides a brief overview of agents, their properties, and their advantages. It covers the concept of the current military trend, network-centric warfare. Problems associated with agents are described, including

M. G. Ceruti

2001-01-01

124

The Web as weapon [cyber warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

As tensions in the Middle East erupted into vicious street fighting at the end of 2000, a different sort of pitched battle was being waged behind the scenes. With all the fervor of their comrades in arms, computer-savvy patriots on both sides managed to infiltrate or disable enemy Web servers. The prospect of cyber warfare, or information warfare, is a

J. Kumagai

2001-01-01

125

Designing cyber warfare information infrastructure resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to many cyber attacks in the last years, governments are realizing how vulnerable they have become should there be a break out of a cyberwar. This urged them to establish a cyber warfare information infrastructure in a short time. However, this cyber warfare information infrastructure relies heavily on public infrastructures, like electricity and the Internet, which will be most

Semir Daskapan; Jan Van der Berg

2011-01-01

126

Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in

ColarikAndrewM; Janczewski Lech D. Eng

2012-01-01

127

Biological agents: weapons of warfare and bioterrorism.  

PubMed

The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularaemia), filoviruses (Ebola hemorrrhagic fever and Marburg hemorrhagic fever), and arenaviruses Lassa (Lassa fever) and Junin (Argentine hemorrhagic fever). The pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these agents are discussed. Rapid identification and diagnosis using molecular diagnostic techniques such as PCR is an essential element in the establishment of coordinated laboratory response systems and is the focus of current research and development. Molecular techniques for detection and identification of these organisms are reviewed. PMID:11774197

Broussard, L A

2001-12-01

128

Mustard: a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism.  

PubMed

As one of the most important vesicant agents, the destructive properties of mustards on the skin, eyes and respiratory system, combined with a lack of antidote, makes them effective weapons. Such weapons are inexpensive, easily obtainable and frequently stockpiled. Sulphur mustard (mustard gas) has been used as a chemical warfare agent in at least 10 conflicts. In this article, the use of mustard as a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism is outlined. The dose-dependent effects of acute sulphur mustard exposure on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system are described, as well as the possible extents of injuries, the mechanisms of action and the long-term complications. Prevention and management of mustard exposure are briefly discussed. The need for awareness and preparedness in the dermatological community regarding mustard exposure is emphasized. PMID:16309468

Saladi, R N; Smith, E; Persaud, A N

2006-01-01

129

China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare andshows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element inChina's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasonsare: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; militarytechnologicalespionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionageto gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in usingcyberspace offensively than other actors,

Magnus Hjortdal

2011-01-01

130

Chemical warfare agent detection using MEMS-compatible microsensor arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsensors have been fabricated consisting of TiO2 and SnO2 sensing films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on microelectromechanical systems array platforms. Response measurements from these devices to the chemical warfare (CW) agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and HD (sulfur mustard) at concentrations between 5 nmol\\/mol (ppb) and 200 ppb in dry air, as well as to CW agent simulants

Douglas C. Meier; Charles J. Taylor; Richard E. Cavicchi; Michael W. Ellzy; Kenneth B. Sumpter; Steve Semancik

2005-01-01

131

Gas Warfare in World War I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

Flintham, A. J.

1978-01-01

132

Demythologizing White's Warfare of Science with Theology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article points out some faults in A. D. White's "History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom" and presents some problems with using it in support of the teaching of evolution in science. (BB)

Daub, Edward E.

1978-01-01

133

Coalition Warfare Versus France, 1792-1815.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coalition warfare adds another element of friction to the already unpredictable and chaotic art of war. Tension can develop between coalition members as they are forced to compromise on various ends-ways-means issues. Obtaining consensus on political goal...

M. F. Applegate

1996-01-01

134

Human Rights Watch: Chemical Warfare in Bosnia?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

135

MRAPs, Irregular Warfare, and Pentagon Reform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mine resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles offer an excellent case study for investigating the current debate over the Pentagon's approach to developing and fielding irregular warfare capabilities. MRAPs first gained prominence for their ability to p...

B. G. Fitzsimmons C. J. Lamb M. J. Schmidt

2009-01-01

136

Physical Readiness Testing of Surface Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focused on the appropriateness of the Navy's physical readiness test (PRT), particularly as it applies to surface warfare officers (SWOs). Physical requirements of fleet SWOs were addressed through two separate surveys and an extensive literatu...

L. D. Swinney W. D. Hatch

1991-01-01

137

Influence of Electronic Warfare on Operational Maneuver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The challenge of adapting to emerging technologies is difficult and important to future success on the battlefield. This study examines the influence of electronic warfare on operational maneuvers. The purpose is to determine how exploitation of electroni...

D. M. Rodriquez

1989-01-01

138

National Security Strategy and Information Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines how the National Security Strategy (NSS) and its new subcomponent, the National Security Science and Technology Strategy (NSSTS) address Information Warfare. The Executive Branch has put the Department of Defense (DoD) on the front lin...

S. Klinefelter

1997-01-01

139

Force level EW in the Australian Defence Force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian Defence Force is a small force, dependent upon a few high value assets that act as force multipliers. Consequently, it cannot afford to sustain high attrition. The current Concept of Operations for these platforms is to operate them outside the threat envelope. Organic sensors and data links are used to maintain Situational Awareness, Combat Air Patrol is used to intercept hostile missile launch platforms, and Electronic Warfare self-protection is used as a last resort. Unfortunately, it is common for such high value assets to be slowly, non-stealthy, low agility, physically large platforms that follow predictable trajectories. Consequently, they are easy to target and track from a long range and have a high `sitting duck' factor.

Finn, Anthony; Chalmers, Greg; Pincombe, Adrian

2001-08-01

140

Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's  

PubMed Central

Background: Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. Results: The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P < 0.001, r = ? 0.33). So that the patients who had more than three organs involved had lower quality of life. 95.4% of our participants experienced another complication with respiratory complication and the ophthalmologic complications were the most frequent accompanying condition. Conclusions: The results imply that chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life.

Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

141

Novel peptide binds EWS-FLI1 and reduces the oncogenic potential in Ewing tumors  

PubMed Central

Ewing tumor is driven by the oncogenic EWS-FLI1 fusion protein that functions as an aberrant transcription factor. The identification of EWS-FLI1 protein partners is essential to enhance its vulnerability as a therapeutic target. We utilized phage display library screening against recombinant EWS-FLI1 protein. We identified 27 unique Ewing Sarcoma binding peptides. The cytotoxicity evaluation of these peptides with in EWS-FLI1 containing cell lines yielded one potent peptide called ESAP1 (TMRGKKKRTRAN). ESAP1 binds EWS-FLI1 with 0.202 micromolar affinity as measured in surface plasmon resonance. The minimal interaction region of ESAP1 is characterized and found that the lysine residues are critical for cellular cytotoxicity. ESAP1 reduces the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1 as well as disrupts cell cycle kinetics in Ewing tumor cells. These findings provide both a novel experimental probe and a potential therapeutic scaffold for Ewing tumor.

Erkizan, Hayriye V; Scher, Lauren J; Gamble, S Ellen; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S; Sajwan, Kamal P; Uren, Aykut

2011-01-01

142

SAW devices for military communications, radar, and EW systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the principles and applications of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is presented. Most SAW devices have been developed for use in the VHF and UHF bands (30 to 1000 MHz), and are limited at low frequencies by the size and cost of the substrates and at high frequencies by photolithographic resolution. A primary feature of the SAW

C. S. Hartmann; R. J. Kansy; W. D. Daniels; B. R. Potter

1982-01-01

143

Mechanism and relevance of EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional repression in Ewing sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma provides an important model for transcription-factor mediated oncogenic transformation because of its reliance on the ETS-type fusion oncoprotein EWS/FLI. EWS/FLI functions as a transcriptional activator and transcriptional activation is required for its oncogenic activity. Here we demonstrate that a previously less-well characterized transcriptional repressive function of the EWS/FLI fusion is also required for the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma. Through comparison of EWS/FLI transcriptional profiling and genome-wide localization data, we define the complement of EWS/FLI direct downregulated target genes. We demonstrate that LOX is a previously undescribed EWS/FLI-repressed target that inhibits the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the NuRD co-repressor complex interacts with EWS/FLI, and that its associated histone deacetylase and LSD1 activities contribute to the repressive function. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unknown molecular function for EWS/FLI, demonstrate a more highly coordinated oncogenic transcriptional hierarchy mediated by EWS/FLI than previously suspected, and implicate a new paradigm for therapeutic intervention aimed at controlling NuRD activity in Ewing sarcoma tumors.

Sankar, Savita; Bell, Russell; Stephens, Bret; Zhuo, Rupeng; Sharma, Sunil; Bearss, David J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2014-01-01

144

Does Network Centric Warfare Equal Micromanagerial Warfare. Minimizing Micromanagement at the Operational Level of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent advances in communications, sensors, and computers have brought the U.S. military into a new age of technical transformation. This transformation has resulted in a new approach to the conduct of warfare, often referred to as network centric warfare...

J. J. Cummings

2003-01-01

145

Naval special warfare PMMW data collection results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Systems Station under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is exploring the use of a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) sensor for Naval Special Warfare applications. The technology of passive millimeter wave imaging will provide the capability to do concealed object detection, zero visibility navigation, and clandestine passive markers. Nichols Research Corporation and Coastal Systems Station (CSS) have conducted a feasibility assessment of PMMW sensors to meet NSwt NSW mission requirements. The assessment began with a mission requirements analysis which will provided the measure of effectiveness for the performance evaluations. Following the requirement analysis, a technology survey was conducted to determine the state of the art of PMMW imaging. Performance analysis were conducted to compare the capabilities of the PMMW imager to the measures of effectiveness. Data collections using existing PMMW imaging devices, developed by Eglin AFB, were conducted to validate the modeling results and provide empirical system performance, and phenomenology data. This paper will present results from the PMMW data collection effort.

Blume, Bradley T.; Wood, Jody L.; Downs, Frank

1998-08-01

146

The Ews/Fli-1 fusion gene switches the differentiation program of neuroblastomas to Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors.  

PubMed

Neuroblastoma (NB) and the Ewing sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family are pediatric cancers derived from neural crest cells. Although NBs display features of the sympathetic nervous system, ES/PNETs express markers consistent with parasympathetic differentiation. To examine the control of these differentiation markers, we generated NB x ES/PNET somatic cell hybrids. NB-specific markers were suppressed in the hybrids, whereas ES/PNET-specific markers were unaffected. These results suggested that the Ews/Fli-1 fusion gene, resulting from a translocation unique to ES/PNETs, might account for the loss of NB-specific markers. To test this hypothesis, we generated two different NB cell lines that stably expressed the Ews/Fli-1 gene. We observed that heterologous expression of the Ews/Fli-1 protein led to the suppression of NB-specific markers and de novo expression of ES/PNET markers. To determine the extent of changes in differentiation, we used the Affymetrix GeneChip Array system to observe global transcriptional changes of genes. This analysis revealed that the gene expression pattern of the Ews/Fli-1-expressing NB cells resembled that observed in pooled ES/PNET cell lines and differed significantly from the NB parental cells. Therefore, we propose that Ews/Fli-1 contributes to the etiology of ES/PNET by subverting the differentiation program of its neural crest precursor cell to a less differentiated and more proliferative state. PMID:14973077

Rorie, Checo J; Thomas, Venetia D; Chen, Pengchin; Pierce, Heather Hanson; O'Bryan, John P; Weissman, Bernard E

2004-02-15

147

EWS represses cofilin 1 expression by inducing nuclear retention of cofilin 1 mRNA.  

PubMed

In Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), the proto-oncogene EWS that encodes an RNA-binding protein is fused by chromosomal translocation to the gene encoding one of the E-twenty six (ETS) family of transcription factors, most commonly friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI-1). Although EWS/FLI-1 chimeric proteins are necessary for carcinogenesis, additional events seem to be required for transformation to occur. We have previously reported that a protein product of an EWS mRNA target, whose expression is negatively regulated by EWS but not by EWS/FLI-1, contributes to ESFT development. However, the mechanism by which EWS represses protein expression remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that overexpression of full-length EWS repressed protein expression and induced nuclear retention of reporter mRNAs in a tethering assay. In contrast, when a mutant lacking the EWS C-terminal nuclear localization signal (classified as a PY-NLS) was expressed, reporter protein expression was upregulated, and the number of cells exporting reporter mRNA to the cytoplasm increased. EWS binds to the 3'-untranslated region in another mRNA target, cofilin 1 (CFL1), and negatively regulates the expression of CFL1. Overexpression of EWS induced nuclear retention of CFL1 mRNA. Furthermore, ESFT cell proliferation and metastatic potential were suppressed by small interfering RNA-mediated CFL1 knockdown. Together, our findings suggest that EWS induces nuclear retention of CFL1 mRNA, thereby suppressing expression of CFL1, and that CFL1 promotes development of ESFT. Targeting CFL1 might therefore provide another novel approach for treatment of this aggressive disease. PMID:23831569

Huang, L; Kuwahara, I; Matsumoto, K

2014-06-01

148

A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing's sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Ewing’s sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing’s sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing’s sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene.

Leacock, Stefanie W.; Basse, Audrey N.; Chandler, Garvin L.; Kirk, Anne M.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Amatruda, James F.

2012-01-01

149

[The history of biological warfare].  

PubMed

Selected events in the history of biological weapons are highlighted to increase the physician's awareness of this crucial threat. The deliberate use of biological substances originated in antiquity and has pervaded the history of human wars throughout time until the 21th century. The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors. These include the difficulty in verification of allegation, the use of the threat of this weapon for propaganda purposes, the lack of microbiological or epidemiological data, and the incidence of natural occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Although it may be problematic to verify at times, the use of such weapons has not been limited to national armies or militia. Frustrated civilians, terrorists and even physicians have used biological substances to promote their interests. Today, the biological threat has become more serious. It's potency, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to manufacture and deploy it with little sophistication, or under the semblance of legitimate commercial endeavors, will ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to human health. PMID:12170558

Cohen, Amir; Robenshtok, Eyal; Rotman, Eran; Sagi, Rami

2002-05-01

150

Period changes of EA-, EB- and EW-types binaries (Liao+, 2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study includes the stars listed in Kreiner, Kim & Nha (2001, An Altas of O-C Diagrams of Eclipsing Binary Stars. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Cracow, Poland), the 101 Algol systems in Giuricin et al. (1983ApJS...52...35G) and the Algol-type binaries listed in Ibanoglu et al. (2006, Cat. J/MNRAS/373/435). As selection criteria we considered stars either that show cyclic period changes or that have a secondary component of late spectral type. In total, 182 EA-type (including the 101 Algol systems used by Hall (1989, Space Sci. Rev., 50, 219), 43 EB-type and 53 EW-type binaries were added to the above sample. (5 data files).

Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.

2010-11-01

151

Maritime Irregular Warfare: A Long-Range View.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maritime irregular warfare (MIW) has been around since the dawn of sea power. While conventional naval warfare holds the premier position in naval affairs, MIW constitutes a less understood but equally important 'other' tradition that merits closer attent...

W. R. Sutton

2000-01-01

152

Survey and Analysis of Surface Warfare Officer Career Path Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface Warfare Officers (SWO) attending the Naval Postgraduate School were surveyed on career issues pertaining to career path specialization, warfare skills, SWO qualifications, and their impact on readiness. Survey results indicate that: (1) SWO techni...

G. S. Gilbert

1989-01-01

153

Maneuver Warfare revisited: a plea for balance  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a plea for balance in the current pursuit of understanding of the concept and the teaching of Maneuver Warfare. It specifically addresses the need for a more-complete analysis of some of the more-common historical examples commonly offered as examples of the supremecy of Maneuver Warfare. The paper in no way disagrees with the desirability of conducting the kinds of operations associated with the ill-defined concepts offered by advocates of Maneuver Warfare but suggests that the desirable results of historical battles may be too readily ascribed to the dynamic, offensive actions of the victorious side. Secondly, the paper points out the lack of utility and applicability of some common buzzwords being used in today's Army. Specifically assailed is the concept of turning within a decision cycle. The paper describes the reasons that this commonly used phrase has little applicability to ground warfare. Finally, the paper mentions the tendency for the Maneuver Warfare camp to cloud discussion of doctrine in a kind of intellectualism and elitism that has no use in forming the necessary consensus demanded by doctrine.

Hamilton, M,R.

1986-04-01

154

A CUBIC B-SPLINE COLLOCATION METHOD FOR THE EW EQUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical solution of the Equal Width (EW) equation based on a collocation method incorporated cubic B-splines is investigated. Accuracy of the proposed method is shown numerically by calculating conservation laws, L2 and L? norms on studying migration of a single solitary wave. It is shown that the collocation scheme for solutions of the EW equation gives rise to smaller

Bülent Saka

2004-01-01

155

On structure complexity and behavior complexity of naval warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an aim to master the development regulations of modern naval warfare, the author divides the complexity of modern naval warfare into the structure complexity and the behavior complexity for further measuring through analyzing the concept of naval warfare complexity. Firstly, the \\

Rui Guo; Buyun Wang

2011-01-01

156

Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.  

PubMed

Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

2014-06-01

157

Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents.

Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

2013-01-01

158

EW-7203, a novel small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) type I receptor/activin receptor-like kinase-5, blocks TGF-?1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Recently, small molecule inhibitors of transforming growth factor? (TGF-?) type I receptor kinase ? activin receptor-like kinase-5 (ALK5) have been developed to target TGF-? signalling as a therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. In the present study, the authors examined a novel small molecule inhibitor of ALK5, 3-((5- ([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-6-yl)-4-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-ylamino)methyl)benzonitrile (EW-7203) in breast cancer cells to determine if it has potential for cancer treatment. The inhibitory effects of EW-7203 on TGF-?-induced Smad signalling and epithelial- to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated in mammary epithelial cells using luciferase reporter assays, immunoblotting, confocal microscopy and wound healing assays. In addition, the suppressive effects of EW-7203 on mammary cancer metastasis to the lung were examined using a Balb ? c xenograft model system. The novel ALK5 inhibitor, EW-7203, inhibited the TGF-?1-stimulated transcriptional activation of p3TP-Lux and pCA-GA??- Luc. In addition, EW-7203 decreased phosphorylated Smad2 levels and the nuclear translocation of Smad2 was increased by TGF-?1. In addition, EW-7203 inhibited TGF-?1-induced EMT and wound healing of NMuMG cells. Furthermore, in xenografted Balb ? c mice, EW-7203 inhibited metastasis to the lung from breast tumors. The novel ALK5 inhibitor, EW-7203, efficiently inhibited TGF-?1-induced Smad signalling, EMT and breast tumor metastasis to the lung in vivo, demonstrating that EW-7203 has therapeutic potential for breast cancer metastasis to the lung. PMID:21707864

Park, Chul-Yong; Kim, Dae-Kee; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

2011-10-01

159

Association of EWS-FLI1 Type 1 Fusion with Lower Proliferative Rate in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) family of tumors, including peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), is defined genetically by specific chromosomal translocations resulting in fusion of the EWS gene with a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, either FLI1 (90–95%) or ERG (5–10%). A second level of molecular genetic heterogeneity stems from the variation in the location of the translocation breakpoints, resulting in the inclusion of different combinations of exons from EWS and FLI1 (or ERG) in the fusion products. The most common type of EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript, type 1, is associated with a favorable prognosis and appears to encode a functionally weaker transactivator, compared to other fusion types. We sought to determine whether the observed covariation of structure, function, and clinical course correlates with tumor cell kinetic parameters such as proliferative rate and apoptosis, and with expression of the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1R). In a group of 86 ES/PNET with defined EWS-ETS fusions (45 EWS-FLI1 type 1, 27 EWS-FLI1 non-type 1, 14 EWS-ERG), we assessed proliferation rate by immunostaining for Ki-67 using MIB1 antibody (n = 85), apoptosis by TUNEL assay (n = 66), and IGF-1R expression by immunostaining with antibody 1H7 (n = 78). Ki-67 proliferative index was lower in tumors with EWS-FLI1 type 1 than those with non-type 1 EWS-FLI1, whether analyzed as a continuous (P = 0.049) or categorical (P = 0.047) variable. Logistic regression analysis suggests that this association was secondary to the association of type 1 EWS-FLI1 and lower IGF-1R expression (P = 0.04). Comparing EWS-FLI1 to EWS-ERG cases, Ki-67 proliferative index was higher in the latter (P = 0.01, Mann-Whitney test; P = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test), but there was no significant difference in IGF-1R. TUNEL results showed no significant differences between groups. Our results suggest that clinical and functional differences between alternative forms of EWS-FLI1 are paralleled by differences in proliferative rate, possibly mediated by differential regulation of the IGF-1R pathway.

de Alava, Enrique; Panizo, Angel; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Huvos, Andrew G.; Pardo-Mindan, F. Javier; Barr, Frederic G.; Ladanyi, Marc

2000-01-01

160

Achieving battlespace awareness in network-centric warfare by integrating web and agent technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of military information systems to a network-centric paradigm will remove traditional barriers to interoperability and enable dynamic access to information and analysis resources. The technical challenges of accomplishing network-centric warfare (NCW) require the engineering of agile distributed software components imbued with the ability to operate autonomously on behalf of human individuals, while maintaining system level integrity, security, and performance

John M. McCormick; Peter M. Gerken; Kevin P. Barry; Brian Sidharta

161

Achieving battlespace awareness in network-centric warfare by integrating web and agent technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of military information systems to a network-centric paradigm will remove traditional barriers to interoperability and enable dynamic access to information and analysis resources. The technical challenges of accomplishing network-centric warfare (NCW) require the engineering of agile distributed software components imbued with the ability to operate autonomously on behalf of human individuals, while maintaining system level integrity, security, and performance

John M. McCormick; Peter M. Gerken; Kevin P. Barry; Brian Sidharta

2004-01-01

162

Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is

Kenneth Letendre; Robert G. Abbott

2011-01-01

163

CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION IN NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the spectrum of choices between organisational centralisation and decentralisation in the presence of emerging trends in communications, information-processing, and sensor technologies. These technologies are important drivers in the current move towards Network Centric Warfare (NCW), and raise the question: should the new networks being developed be used to enable greater centralisation, or greater decentralisation? We

Anthony H. Dekker

2003-01-01

164

Biological agents: Weapons of warfare and bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin

Larry A. Broussard

2001-01-01

165

Information Warfare Arms Control: Risks and Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the end of the 1991 Gulf War, information warfare has taken a prominent role in transforming the military as envisioned in Joint Vision 2010. However, due to the rapid changes in information technologies and the low cost, wide availability and high ...

M. C. Thom

2006-01-01

166

War-Gaming Network-Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The familiar techniques of war gaming will be insufficient for scenarios involving network-centric warfare. NCW, as it is known--with its focus on speed, downstream effects, and information flow--will require of gamers more than simply additional computat...

R. C. Rubel

2001-01-01

167

Information Warfare, Business Intelligence, Text Mining1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gli sviluppi dell'Information Technology hanno rivoluzionato il concetto di guerra, di difesa e di sicurezza. Sempre più spesso si parla infatti di Information Warfare e di Cyber Terrorismo. Ma questi sviluppi hanno anche rivoluzionato il concetto di intelligence e di come fare intelligence. Grazie infatti ai motori di ricerca e alle nuove tecnologie dei databases, la quantità di informazione disponibile

Alessandro Zanasi

168

Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

Kenneth J. Ewing; Jas Sanghera; Ishwar D. Aggarwal; Myron J. Block

2004-01-01

169

Asymmetric Information Warfare: Cyberterrorism Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorist attacks in recent years, particularly those of October 12, 2000 and September 11, 2001, along with war games such as Millennium Challenge have demonstrated forcefully that asymmetric warfare [THO01] with conventional weapons poses a challenge to existing defense and homeland security structures that have not been addressed satisfactorily. It appears only prudent to assume that such attacks, whether by

Stephen D. Wolthusen

2003-01-01

170

Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

2004-12-01

171

Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid

Sylvia Smith Talmage; Annetta Paule Watson; Veronique Hauschild; Nancy B Munro; J. King

2007-01-01

172

Conventional analytical methods for chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods that are currently used for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agents are reviewed and classified by the number of dimensions of infor- mation they provide. Single-dimensional sensors target specific compounds or classes of compounds. Although they can be less expensive and more portable than multidimensional sensors, multidimensional sensors detect a broader threat spectrum with greater precision

Herbert H. Hill; Stephen J. Martin

2002-01-01

173

Training Costs for Junior Surface Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) retention is well below the level needed to staff Department Head billets in the Fleet. The Navy is developing a career incentive pay to stem the flow of SWOs leaving the Navy and increase retention. The purpose of th...

M. D. Makee

1999-01-01

174

Integrated RF sensors for electronic warfare applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a research effort to develop integrated RF sensors for various electronic warfare applications. The immediate application is to enable a micro air vehicle (MAV) to detect and home in on a radar or other RF emitter. Thus the sensors must be able to detect RF signals in frequency bands of interest, identify RF emitters of interest, and

Geoffrey L. Barrows; Brian Krantz

2000-01-01

175

Transformation induced by Ewing's sarcoma associated EWS\\/FLI-1 is suppressed by KRAB\\/FLI-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing's sarcoma is a childhood bone tumour with poor prognosis, most commonly associated with a t(11;22)(q24;q12) reciprocal translocation that fuses the EWS and FLI-1 genes, resulting in the production of an aberrant chimeric transcription factor EWS\\/FLI-1. To elucidate the mechanisms by which EWS\\/FLI-1 mediates transformation in mouse models, we have generated a murine Ews\\/Fli-1 fusion protein. We demonstrate that this

D Chan; T J Wilson; D Xu; H E Cowdery; E Sanij; P J Hertzog; I Kola

2003-01-01

176

Variability of EWS chimaeric transcripts in Ewing tumours: a comparison of clinical and molecular data.  

PubMed Central

Ewing tumours (ET), including Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour, are well characterised at the molecular level by a unique chromosomal rearrangement which fuses the EWS gene to one of two closely related ETS proto-oncogenes, FLI-1 or ERG. Expression of the resulting chimaeric transcripts can be readily detected by reversed transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This approach led to the identification of a number of different exon combinations at the junction site of coding sequences. The physiological consequences of the observed variability in the hinge region of EWS chimaeric proteins are not known. We have analysed tumour-derived material from 30 ET patients with well-documented clinical course (18 with localised and 12 with metastatic disease at diagnosis) for the presence of EWS/FLI-1 or EWS/ERG RNA. Karyotypes were obtained in 21 out of 27 cases and analysed by routine cytogenetics. A chromosome 22 rearrangement was demonstrated in 18 cases (67%). In contrast, RT-PCR revealed the presence of chimaeric transcripts in 28 tumours (93%), with fusions of EWS exon 7 to FLI-1 exons 6 (19/28), 5 (4/28) and 7 (1/28). In addition, EWS/FLI-1 exon combinations 10/5 and 9/4 were observed in one case each. In the last tumour, the presence of at least four additional splicing variants corresponding to fusion of EWS exon 7 to FLI-1 exons 4, 6, 8 and 9 was demonstrated. Two tumours expressed EWS/ERG fusion transcripts involving EWS exon 7 and ERG exon 6. In this study, EWS/FLI-1 exon combinations 7/6 (type I) predominated over 7/5 (type II) in localised ET (14 versus 1) and were more abundant in tumours affecting the long bones (9 versus 0), whereas in central axis tumours and metastatic disease there was only little difference in the frequency of the two types. So far, no correlations between different chimaeric EWS transcripts and any other clinical parameters have been identified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Zoubek, A.; Pfleiderer, C.; Salzer-Kuntschik, M.; Amann, G.; Windhager, R.; Fink, F. M.; Koscielniak, E.; Delattre, O.; Strehl, S.; Ambros, P. F.

1994-01-01

177

EWS and RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor Inhibit Neuronal Phenotype Development and Oncogenic Transformation in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding EWS (EWSR1) is involved in various chromosomal translocations that cause the production of oncoproteins responsible for multiple cancers including Ewing sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, soft tissue clear cell sarcoma, and desmoplastic small round cell sarcoma. It is well known that EWS fuses to FLI to create EWS/FLI, which is the abnormal transcription factor that drives tumor development in Ewing sarcoma. However, the role of wild-type EWS in Ewing sarcoma pathogenesis remains unclear. In the current study, we identified EWS-regulated genes and cellular processes through RNA interference combined with RNA sequencing and functional annotation analyses. Interestingly, we found that EWS and EWS/FLI co-regulate a significant cluster of genes, indicating an interplay between the 2 proteins in regulating cellular functions. We found that among the EWS–down-regulated genes are a subset of neuronal genes that contain binding sites for the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST or neuron-restrictive silencer factor [NRSF]), neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE), suggesting a cooperative interaction between REST and EWS in gene regulation. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that EWS interacts directly with REST. Genome-wide binding analysis showed that EWS binds chromatin at or near NRSE. Furthermore, functional studies revealed that both EWS and REST inhibit neuronal phenotype development and oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma cells. Our data implicate an important role of EWS in the development of Ewing sarcoma phenotype and highlight a potential value in modulating EWS function in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma and other EWS translocation–based cancers.

Sankar, Savita; Gomez, Nicholas C.; Bell, Russell; Patel, Mukund; Davis, Ian J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

178

EWS\\/FLI1 Regulates Tumor Angiogenesis in Ewing's Sarcoma via Suppression of Thrombospondins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression of the expression of antiangiogenic factors has been closely associated with multiple malignancies. Throm- bospondins 1 and 2 are members of a family of angiogenic inhibitors that are regulated by several oncogenes. In this study, we investigate the role of thrombospondins in Ewing's sarcoma and their regulation by EWS\\/ETS fusion oncopro- teins. We show that the EWS\\/FLI1 fusion suppresses

Gary Potikyan; Rupert O. V. Savene; Julie M. Gaulden; Zhichao Zhou; Eugenie S. Kleinerman; Stephen L. Lessnick; Christopher T. Denny

2007-01-01

179

Functional Analysis of the EWS\\/ETS Target Gene Uridine Phosphorylase1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EWS\\/ETS fusion proteins associated with Ewings family tumors (EFTs) are thought to promote oncogenesis by acting as aberrant tran- scription factors. Uridine phosphorylase is a gene that is up-regulated by structurally distinct EWS\\/ETS fusions. Ectopic expression of uridine phosphorylase was able to support anchorage-independent cell growth, indicating that it plays an active role in the oncogenic process. Transcrip- tional

Benjamin Deneen; Habib Hamidi; Christopher T. Denny

2003-01-01

180

The EWS/FLI Oncogene Drives Changes in Cellular Morphology, Adhesion, and Migration in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma is a tumor of the bone and soft tissue caused by the expression of a translocation-derived oncogenic transcription factor, EWS/FLI. Overt metastases are associated with a poor prognosis in Ewing sarcoma, but patients without overt metastases frequently harbor micrometastatic disease at presentation. This suggests that the metastatic potential of Ewing sarcoma exists at an early stage during tumor development. We have therefore explored whether the inciting oncogenic event in Ewing sarcoma, EWS/FLI, directly modulates tumor cell features that support metastasis, such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytoarchitecture. We used an RNAi-based approach in patient-derived Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Although we hypothesized that EWS/FLI might induce classic metastatic features, such as increased cell adhesion, migration, and invasion (similar to the phenotypes observed when epithelial malignancies undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during the process of metastasis), surprisingly, we found the opposite. Thus, EWS/FLI expression inhibited the adhesion of isolated cells in culture and prevented adhesion in an in vivo mouse lung assay. Cell migration was similarly inhibited by EWS/FLI expression. Furthermore, EWS/FLI expression caused a striking loss of organized actin stress fibers and focal adhesions and a concomitant loss of cell spreading, suggesting that EWS/FLI disrupts the mesenchymal phenotype of a putative tumor cell-of-origin. These data suggest a new paradigm for the dissemination and metastasis of mesenchymally derived tumors: these tumors may disseminate via a “passive/stochastic” model rather than via an “active” epithelial-to-mesenchymal type transition. In the case of Ewing sarcoma, it appears that the loss of cell adhesion needed to promote tumor cell dissemination might be induced by the EWS/FLI oncogene itself rather than via an accumulation of stepwise mutations.

Chaturvedi, Aashi; Hoffman, Laura M.; Welm, Alana L.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2012-01-01

181

Identification of a tripartite import signal in the Ewing Sarcoma protein (EWS)  

SciTech Connect

The Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) protein is a ubiquitously expressed RNA processing factor that localises predominantly to the nucleus. However, the mechanism through which EWS enters the nucleus remains unclear, with differing reports identifying three separate import signals within the EWS protein. Here we have utilized a panel of truncated EWS proteins to clarify the reported nuclear localisation signals. We describe three C-terminal domains that are important for efficient EWS nuclear localization: (1) the third RGG-motif; (2) the last 10 amino acids (known as the PY-import motif); and (3) the zinc-finger motif. Although these three domains are involved in nuclear import, they are not independently capable of driving the efficient import of a GFP-moiety. However, collectively they form a complex tripartite signal that efficiently drives GFP-import into the nucleus. This study helps clarify the EWS import signal, and the identification of the involvement of both the RGG- and zinc-finger motifs has wide reaching implications.

Shaw, Debra J.; Morse, Robert; Todd, Adrian G. [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom)] [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); Eggleton, Paul [Inflammation and Musculoskeletal Disease, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom) [Inflammation and Musculoskeletal Disease, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); MRC Immunochemistry Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Lorson, Christian L. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Young, Philip J., E-mail: philip.young@pms.ac.uk [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom)

2009-12-25

182

Differential Disruption of EWS-FLI1 Binding by DNA-Binding Agents  

PubMed Central

Fusion of the EWS gene to FLI1 produces a fusion oncoprotein that drives an aberrant gene expression program responsible for the development of Ewing sarcoma. We used a homogenous proximity assay to screen for compounds that disrupt the binding of EWS-FLI1 to its cognate DNA targets. A number of DNA-binding chemotherapeutic agents were found to non-specifically disrupt protein binding to DNA. In contrast, actinomycin D was found to preferentially disrupt EWS-FLI1 binding by comparison to p53 binding to their respective cognate DNA targets in vitro. In cell-based assays, low concentrations of actinomycin D preferentially blocked EWS-FLI1 binding to chromatin, and disrupted EWS-FLI1-mediated gene expression. Higher concentrations of actinomycin D globally repressed transcription. These results demonstrate that actinomycin D preferentially disrupts EWS-FLI1 binding to DNA at selected concentrations. Although the window between this preferential effect and global suppression is too narrow to exploit in a therapeutic manner, these results suggest that base-preferences may be exploited to find DNA-binding compounds that preferentially disrupt subclasses of transcription factors.

Chen, Changmin; Wonsey, Diane R.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Kung, Andrew L.

2013-01-01

183

Electronic nose based on the polymer coated SAW sensors array for the warfare agent simulants classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reference and three polymer coated surface acoustic wave sensors making an electronic nose were introduced. This system contained the pre-concentration unit in order for detection of low level warfare agent simulants. Principal component analysis (PCA), artificial neural network (ANN) and the combination of these two methods (PCA-ANN) were used for differentiation between the three classes including nerve and mustard

T. Alizadeh; S. Zeynali

2008-01-01

184

Network Centric Warfare in the U.S. Navy's Fifth Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study was commissioned by the Office of Force Transformation in the United States Department of Defense to examine the employment of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) systems and practices in the U.S. Fifth Fleet's Commander Task Force Fifty (CTF-50). The staff and commander of CTF-50, embarked on the nuclear aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70), led a coalition

John Kruse; Mark Adkins; Kimberly A. Holloman

2005-01-01

185

Plasma decontamination of chemical & biological warfare agents by a cold arc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold arc plasma jet was introduced to decontaminate chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents for the application of a portable CBW decontamination system. The cold arc plasma jet is a low temperature, high density plasma that produces highly reactive species such as oxygen atoms and ozone. Moreover, it is possible to maintain stable plasma without He or Ar. The

Man Hyeop Han; Joo Hyun Noh; Ki Wan Park; Hyeon Seok Hwang; Hong Koo Baik

2008-01-01

186

Multi-sensor fusion, communications and information warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Todays fusion problems are chiefly concerned with organizational and procedural issues. The technology they employ is mostly available state-of-the-art. The future brings a new set of concerns centered about issues that are more technical in nature. Future military command and control and weapons systems will likely be more distributed, more automated and smarter. They will probably include an advanced form of information warfare where sensing, information exchange, jamming, deception, and misinformation will be capable of being managed and orchestrated from a total mission objective perspective. As a result, the future fusion process will be required to handle and process on orders of magnitude increase in the volume and diversity of input data, faster. It will need to produce a great variety of information to feed automated C2 and weapons systems data bases through more interactive and responsive interfaces than exist today. At the same time it needs to analyze this data at a deeper level of understanding than ever before, scrutinizing and drawing inferences and conclusions about ones adversaries underlying beliefs, readiness, intentions and future actions from what is often times a suspect and spotty data base. Finally, these conclusions and inferences need to be presented in a clear, concise, honest, but convincing and timely manner. This paper presents a unified framework from which the necessary information may be fused, managed and presented to support command in such a future information warfare environment and discusses the associated technical challenges. This paper reviews various ongoing research programs that are addressing these challenges.

Schutzer, D.

1983-12-01

187

Sequence-Specific Knockdown of EWS-FLI1 by Targeted, Nonviral Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Metastatic Ewing's Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of effective, systemic therapies for meta- static cancer is highly desired. We show here that the systemic delivery of sequence-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the EWS-FLI1 gene product by a targeted, nonviral delivery system dramatically inhibits tumor growth in a murine model of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. The nonviral delivery system uses a cyclodextrin-containing polycation to bind and

Siwen Hu-Lieskovan; Jeremy D. Heidel; Derek W. Bartlett; Mark E. Davis; Timothy J. Triche

188

Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

2011-11-01

189

75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate AGENCY: Department...SUMMARY: The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces...write to the Director, Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate, 2446...

2010-02-10

190

Passive millimeter-wave imaging device for naval special warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy Coastal Systems Station (CSS) is currently executing a program to develop a small, lightweight, low power passive millimeter wave imager. The end user will be Naval Special Operations Forces (SOF). The program began by conducting a feasibility assessment of the potential Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) technology that would meet the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) mission requirements. A performance analysis was conducted to compare the capabilities of the various PMMW imager technologies. Finally, a technology development road map is under development, which will include all recommendations for hardware development and image processing. Other DoD and industrial programs are being monitored for leveraging potential to insure the imager program will use the latest technology available. As a result of a technology survey, CSS decided to leverage their development funds with Eglin Air Force Base to develop an antenna-coupled microbolometer. This paper will discuss the program plans, and the potential applications of PMMW technology to Naval Special Warfare.

Downs, Frank; Wood-Putnam, Jody L.; Blume, Bradley T.; Smith, Roger M.

1998-08-01

191

Adversary Modeling and Simulation in Cyber Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and simulation provide many excellent benefits in preparation for successful cyber operations. Whether used for creating\\u000a realistic training environments, testing new cyber warfare techniques, or predicting possible adversary actions, it is critical\\u000a for such simulations to take into account the possibility of an active cyber adversary, able to adapt its plans to network\\u000a conditions. Without realtime high fidelity modeling

Samuel N. Hamilton; Wendy L. Hamilton

2008-01-01

192

ODIN - an underwater warfare simulation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the capability, design and application of the generic underwater warfare simulation environment called ODIN. The model was developed by QinetiQ, previously known as DERA (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency), to model the detailed underwater interaction between surface ship\\/submarine\\/UUV (unmanned underwater vehicle) platforms, torpedoes and countermeasures. It was originally developed out of a need to model the effectiveness

T. Robinson

2001-01-01

193

Simulation of a Combined Active and Electronic Warfare System for the Defense of a Naval Ship Against Multiple Low-Altitude Missiles Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer simulation model was developed (interactive Simulation of System Performance, or ISSP) simulating the integrated performance of hard-kill (surface-to-air missile, and close-in weapon system) and soft-kill (defensive jammer, or ECM, and chaff) s...

H. K. Chia

1989-01-01

194

Transmission Loss and Frequency-Angle-Time Spread: Issues and Model Analysis for the Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Focused Technology Experiment 96-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mid-frequency active system concept was tested during the Focused Technology Experiment (FIE 96-1) sponsored by the Littoral Warfare Advanced Development (LWAD) program. Specifically, the BSDS directional projector was used as the source, an echo repeat...

T. C. Yang A. Al-Kurd T. Yates

1997-01-01

195

Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

Pickl, William C.

1988-01-01

196

Chemical Warfare Agents: Emergency Medical and Emergency Public Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of exposure to chemical warfare agents has traditionally been considered a military issue. Several recent events have demonstrated that civilians may also be exposed to these agents. The intentional or unintentional release of a chemical warfare agent in a civilian community has the potential to create thousands of casualties, thereby overwhelming local health and medical resources. The resources

Richard J Brennan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Trueman W Sharp; Scott R Lillibridge

1999-01-01

197

ISSUES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CYBERSECURITY IN NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to network centric warfare brings with it great promise for the effectiveness of future military operations. This promise arises from the capability for network centric warfare to empower individuals at all levels with vast amounts of relevant information and thereby lift the \\

Martin R. Stytz; Sheila B. Banks

198

Cyber-Warfare Threatens Corporations: Expansion into Commercial Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a review of information warfare literature from 1990 to mid-2005, this article presents a framework of 12 important trends. These trends demonstrate the transformation of information warfare from primarily a military issue into a major commercial issue as well. Corporate IS managers need to understand the growing cyberwar threats and implement appropriate strategies to mitigate risk.

Kenneth J. Knapp; William R. Boulton

2006-01-01

199

Molecular Modeling Of Energetic Materials And Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of military sites by energetic materials and chemical warfare agents is a growing problem. To avoid health hazards associated with these compounds, it is necessary to decontaminate or remediate the contaminated sites. Effective decontamination requires knowledge of environmental fate of contaminants and the appropriate remediation methodologies. While the fate of chemical warfare agents are well studied, the impact of

Nandhini Sokkalingam

2010-01-01

200

Molecular modeling of energetic materials and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of military sites by energetic materials and chemical warfare agents is a growing problem. To avoid health hazards associated with these compounds, it is necessary to decontaminate or remediate the contaminated sites. Effective decontamination requires knowledge of environmental fate of contaminants and the appropriate remediation methodologies. While the fate of chemical warfare agents are well studied, the impact of

Nandhini Sokkalingam

2010-01-01

201

Interface design for engagement planning in anti-air warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In future command and control (C2) for anti-air warfare (AAW) the nature of warfare changes from open seas to coastal areas, budget reductions force to 'do more with less', and technology causes increasing speed and maneuverability of weapons. This results in a higher workload for operators on ships, who are responsible for accomplishing a mission. In this paper, ecological interface

P. A. Groskamp; M. M. van Paassen; M. Mulder

2005-01-01

202

US and UK Military Cultural Relevance for Future Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shape of warfare is evolving and brings with it significant challenges for western militaries who must adapt to a more diffuse battle space and shift from large-scale maneuver to a counterinsurgency style of warfare. This project examines the organiza...

R. G. Arundell

2009-01-01

203

Differential Transactivation by Alternative EWS-FLI1 Fusion Proteins Correlates with Clinical Heterogeneity in Ewing's Sarcoma 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in up to 95% of cases of Ewing's sarcoma and results in the formation of an EWS-FLI1 fusion gene which encodes a chimeric transcription factor. The proximate role of EWS-FLI1 in the pathogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma is thought to involve the activation of as yet largely unknown target genes. Many alternative forms of EWS-FLI1 exist

Patrick P. Lin; Rachel I. Brody; Aimee C. Hamelin; James E. Bradner; John H. Healey; Marc Ladanyi

204

Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

Larsen, R.W.

1997-05-01

205

Solubility of chemical warfare agent simulants in supercritical carbon dioxide: experiments and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubility data are reported for ethyl phenyl sulfide (EPS) and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) in CO2 at temperatures from 25 to 100°C. These two sulfide-based compounds are homomorphs for chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Both sulfide–CO2 mixtures exhibit type-I phase behavior. The maximum in the 100°C isotherm is approximately 2600psia for the CEES–CO2 system and approximately 3400psia for the EPS–CO2 system.

Zhihao Shen; Gulu Sandhu; Dan Li; Christopher E Bara; Stephen B Waldrup; Shariq Siddiqui; Christy R Dillon; Brian K MacIver; Mark A McHugh

2004-01-01

206

Requirements for a future EWS - Cyber Defence in the internet of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of new technologies and services as well as trillions of devices and petabytes of data to be processed and transferred in the Internet of the Future mean that we have to deal with new threats and vulnerabilities, in addition to handle the remaining old ones. Together with the rise of Cyber Warfare and the resulting impact on the

Mario Golling; Bjorn Stelte

2011-01-01

207

Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As Defense agencies and services expand their reliance on computer networks, risk to information availability and integrity increases. It is no longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depth strategy. We must recognize that we are ...

N. R. Howes M. Mezzino J. Sarkesain

2004-01-01

208

Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: Vapor pressure and boiling point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3+/-1.9 K, about 7 K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7+/-5.1 K from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15 K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water.

Horn, Hans W.; Swope, William C.; Pitera, Jed W.

2005-11-01

209

Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: vapor pressure and boiling point.  

PubMed

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3+/-1.9 K, about 7 K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7+/-5.1 K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15 K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water. PMID:16321097

Horn, Hans W; Swope, William C; Pitera, Jed W

2005-11-15

210

EWS/ETS Regulates the Expression of the Dickkopf Family in Ewing Family Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Background The Dickkopf (DKK) family comprises a set of proteins that function as regulators of Wnt/?–catenin signaling and has a crucial role in development. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of this family in tumorigenesis, however their role in tumorigenesis is still remained unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We found increased expression of DKK2 but decreased expression of DKK1 in Ewing family tumor (EFT) cells. We showed that EFT-specific EWS/ETS fusion proteins enhance the DKK2 promoter activity, but not DKK1 promoter activity, via ets binding sites (EBSs) in the 5? upstream region. EWS/ETS-mediated transactivation of the promoter was suppressed by the deletion and mutation of EBSs located upstream of the DKK2 gene. Interestingly, the inducible expression of EWS/ETS resulted in the strong induction of DKK2 expression and inhibition of DKK1 expression in human primary mesenchymal progenitor cells that are thought to be a candidate of cell origin of EFT. In addition, using an EFT cell line SK-ES1 cells, we also demonstrated that the expression of DKK1 and DKK2 is mutually exclusive, and the ectopic expression of DKK1, but not DKK2, resulted in the suppression of tumor growth in immuno-deficient mice. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggested that DKK2 could not functionally substitute for DKK1 tumor-suppressive effect in EFT. Given the mutually exclusive expression of DKK1 and DKK2, EWS/ETS regulates the transcription of the DKK family, and the EWS/ETS-mediated DKK2 up-regulation could affect the tumorigenicity of EFT in an indirect manner.

Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Okita, Hajime; Itagaki, Mitsuko; Toyoda, Masashi; Katagiri, Yohko U.; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Hata, Jun-ichi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

2009-01-01

211

Fixing the EW scale in supersymmetric models after the Higgs discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TeV-scale supersymmetry was originally introduced to solve the hierarchy problem and therefore fix the electroweak (EW) scale in the presence of quantum corrections. Numerical methods testing the SUSY models often report a good likelihood L (or ?2=-2ln L) to fit the data including the EW scale itself (mZ0) with a simultaneously large fine-tuning i.e. a large variation of this scale under a small variation of the SUSY parameters. We argue that this is inconsistent and we identify the origin of this problem. Our claim is that the likelihood (or ?2) to fit the data that is usually reported in such models does not account for the ?2 cost of fixing the EW scale. When this constraint is implemented, the likelihood (or ?2) receives a significant correction (??2) that worsens the current data fits of SUSY models. We estimate this correction for the models: constrained MSSM (CMSSM), models with non-universal gaugino masses (NUGM) or higgs soft masses (NUHM1, NUHM2), the NMSSM and the general NMSSM (GNMSSM). For a higgs mass mh?126 GeV, one finds that in these models ??2/n?1.5 (?1 for GNMSSM), which violates the usual condition of a good fit (total ?2/n?1) already before fitting observables other than the EW scale itself (n=number of degrees of freedom). This has (negative) implications for SUSY models and it is suggested that future data fits properly account for this effect, if one remains true to the original goal of SUSY. Since the expression of ??2 that emerges from our calculation depends on a familiar measure of fine-tuning, one concludes that fine-tuning is an intrinsic part of the likelihood to fit the data that includes the EW scale (mZ0).

Ghilencea, D. M.

2013-11-01

212

Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

Not Available

1993-04-01

213

The Fate and Transport of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants in Complex Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to determine the fate and transport of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP), O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (OSDEMP), and 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) exposed to complex matrix systems are reported here. The aforementioned simulants were used in place of O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB), O-Ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX), and Bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide (HD), respectively. At ambient temperature, simulant pH (2.63

Cedrick M. Daphney

2008-01-01

214

Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.  

PubMed

Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

2012-08-01

215

Filipino Way of War: Irregular Warfare through the Centuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Filipino Way of War is the dominant irregular warfare strategy executed by the Filipino warrior throughout the centuries. Armed with severely limited resources, a strong fighting spirit, and deep traditions, the Filipino warrior has always had to look...

F. M. Reyeg N. B. Marsh

2011-01-01

216

Electronic Warfare: DOD Actions Needed to Strengthen Management and Oversight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) developed an electronic warfare strategy, but it only partially addressed key characteristics that GAO identified in prior work as desirable for a national or defense strategy. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fis...

2012-01-01

217

Manhunting: Counter-Network Organization for Irregular Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Manhunting - the deliberate concentration of national power to find, influence, capture, or when necessary kill an individual to disrupt a human network - has emerged as a key component of operations to counter irregular warfare adversaries in lieu of tra...

G. A. Crawford

2009-01-01

218

Scientific and Engineering Leaders of the Naval Surface Warfare Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This directory will introduce you to the top scientific and engineering leaders of the Naval Surface Warfare Center. It is divided into three sections, each representing a primary area of leadership. The sections contain photographs and brief resumes of t...

1988-01-01

219

Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nodes and Codes explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet, a string of weaponized code that reached through a domain previously associated with information operations to bring about the physical, and potentially lethal, destructio...

M. A. Cobos

2012-01-01

220

Towards a Semiotic Information Position Framework for Network Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semiotics is a field of study that deals with the relationships between representations, intended meanings, and interpretations of signs and symbols. As such, it is of particular relevance to a range of network centric warfare primitives, including data, ...

S. Baskarada

2011-01-01

221

Receptor-Conjugated Nanoparticles to Detect Biological Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research has examined the feasibility of detecting biological warfare agents by conjugating their antibodies (receptors) with taggant nanoparticles (also known as 'quantum dots'), which subsequently fluoresce upon excitation, when they are bound to...

A. Kumar S. Dwarakanath J. G. Bruno L. D. Stephenson

2004-01-01

222

Cyber Warfare: Raising Information Security to a Top Priority.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beyond the media hype, information warfare has become a central concern of the Internet age. While not denying the obvious military implications, a 15-year review (1990-2004) of information conflict reveals twelve characteristics and trends that affect ci...

K. J. Knapp

2004-01-01

223

Subterranean Warfare: A Counter to U.S. Airpower.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Subterranean warfare has evolved throughout history into what has become a technique for possibly negating the effect of air power. From the ancient underground structures in what is now present day to the heavily defended and fortified bunkers located in...

D. M. Heilig

2000-01-01

224

Characterizing and Exploring the Implications of Maritime Irregular Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given U.S. involvement in and support for multiple counterinsurgency (COIN) and counterterrorism (CT) campaigns in various theaters, particularly over the past decade, the concept of irregular warfare has become increasingly prevalent among defense strate...

B. Nichiporuk D. Hoffmann M. Dunigan P. Chalk P. Deluca

2012-01-01

225

Assessing Irregular Warfare: A Framework for Intelligence Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to assist the Department of the Army's National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) in better understanding the intelligence analytic requirements of irregular warfare (IW). To do this, RAND was to develop an analytic framework for...

B. Nichiporuk D. Eaton E. V. Larson T. S. Szayna

2008-01-01

226

Feasibility of a multipurpose transceiver module for phased array radar and EW applications using RFIC technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array antennas have a large number of civilian and military applications. In this paper we briefly review common approaches to an integrated implementation of radar and electronic warfare digital phase array module and highlight features that are common to both of these applications. Then we discuss how the promising features of the radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC)-based technology can be utilized in building a transceiver module that meets the requirements of both radar and electronic warfare applications with minimum number of external components. This is achieved by researching the pros and cons of the different receiver architectures and their performance from the targeted applications point of view. Then, we survey current RFIC technologies and highlight the pros and cons of these technologies and how they impact the performance of the discussed receiver architectures.

Al-Sarawi, Said; Hansen, Hedley; Zhu, Yingbo

2007-12-01

227

Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were

William Ortiz-Rivera; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2010-01-01

228

Professional Training and Graduate Education Needs in Warfare Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This essay reviews current best practices in graduate education emphasizing those that would be particularly useful to warfare\\u000a ecology, a budding subdiscipline within the area of environmental sciences. A discussion is also provided on those teaching\\u000a strategies and experiences that may be particularly appropriate developing effective graduate and professional training programs\\u000a in warfare ecology. This newly emergent discipline is inherently

Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

229

Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used

Martin R. Stytz; Sheila B. Banks

2011-01-01

230

The significance of E-W structural trends for the Alice Springs Orogeny in the Charters Towers Province, North Queensland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

E-W structural and igneous trends in the Charters Towers Province are highly anomalous within the overall N-S trending Tasman orogen of eastern Australia and resulted from a sequence of N-S shortening events. A succession of ~ E-W trending FIAs (Foliation Intersection/Inflexion Axis preserved within porphyroblasts) dated at 474.7 ± 7.2, 413 ± 13 and 381.1 ± 8.1 Ma correspond with adjacent granite crystallization ages and E-W trending FIA ages in the Greenvale Province to the NW. The magnetic anomaly map of Australia reveals that this E-W trending portion of the Tasman orogen links with and truncates several earlier formed orogens. The E-W trend of the Charters Towers Province resulted from overprinting of early Palaeozoic N-S trending structures in the Tasman Orogen by younger E-W ones during the Alice Springs Orogeny (450-300 Ma) resolving the E-W pluton shape and distribution of Cambrian to Devonian magmatic activity plus the truncational nature of aeromagnetic data from Central Australia to the East coast.

Quentin de Gromard, Raphael

2013-03-01

231

Junction region of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein has a dominant negative effect in Ewing's Sarcoma in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Ewing’s sarcoma is a malignancy characterized by a specific 11:22 chromosomal translocation which generates a novel EWS-FLI1 fusion protein functioning as an aberrant transcription factor. In the present study, we have further characterized the junction region of the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. Methods In-silico model of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein was analysed for ligand binding sites, and a putative region (amino acid (aa) 251–343 of the type 1 fusion protein) in the vicinity of the fusion junction was cloned and expressed using bacterial expression. The recombinant protein was characterized by Circular Dichroism (CD). We then expressed aa 251–280 ectopically in Ewing’s sarcoma cell-line and its effect on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity and expression of EWS-FLI1 target genes were analysed. Results Our modelling analysis indicated that Junction region (aa 251–343) encompasses potential ligand biding sites in the EWS-FLI1 protein and when expressed in bacteria was present as soluble form. Ectopically expressing this region in Ewing’s sarcoma cells inhibited tumorigenicity, and EWS-FLI1 target genes indicating a dominant negative biological effect. Conclusions Junction region can be exploited further as target for drug development in future to specifically target EWS-FLI1 in Ewing’s Sarcoma.

2012-01-01

232

Ewing Sarcoma Cells Secrete EWS/Fli-1 Fusion mRNA via Microvesicles  

PubMed Central

Tumours defined as Ewing sarcoma (ES) constitute a group of highly malignant neoplasms that most often affect children and young adults in the first 2 decades of life. The EWS/Fli-1 fusion gene, a product of the translocation t(11;22) (q24; 12), is detected in 95% of ES patients. Recently, it was validated that cells emit a heterogeneous mixture of vesicular, organelle-like structures (microvesicles, MVs) into their surroundings including blood and body fluids, and that these MVs contain a selected set of tumor-related proteins and high levels of mRNAs and miRNAs. In this present study, we detected the Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs from the culture medium of ES cell lines carrying t(11;22) (q24; 12). Also, we detected this fusion gene in approximately 40% of the blood samples from mice inoculated with xenografts of TC135 or A673 cells. These findings indicate the EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs might be a new non-invasive diagnostic marker for specific cases of Ewing sarcoma.

Tsugita, Masanori; Yamada, Nami; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Yamada, Kazunari; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Akao, Yukihiro; Ohno, Takatoshi

2013-01-01

233

EWS/FLI-responsive GGAA-microsatellites exhibit polymorphic differences between European and African populations  

PubMed Central

The genetics of Ewing sarcoma development remain obscure. The incidence of Ewing sarcoma is ten-fold less in Africans as compared to Europeans, irrespective of geographic location, suggesting population-specific genetic influences. Since GGAA-containing microsatellites within key target genes are necessary for Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/FLI DNA binding and gene activation, and gene expression is positively correlated with the number of repeat motifs in the promoter/enhancer region, we sought to determine if significant polymorphisms exist between African and European populations which might contribute to observed differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence and outcomes. GGAA-microsatellites upstream of two critical EWS/FLI-target genes, NR0B1 and CAV1, were sequenced from subjects of European and African descent. While the characteristics of the CAV1 promoter microsatellites were similar across both populations, the NR0B1 microsatellite in African subjects was significantly larger, harboring more repeat motifs, a greater number of repeat segments, and longer consecutive repeats, than in European subjects. These results are biologically intriguing as NR0B1 was the most highly enriched EWS/FLI bound gene in prior studies, and is absolutely necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma. These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms in the NR0B1 gene might influence disease susceptibility and prognosis in Ewing sarcoma in unanticipated ways.

Beck, Robert; Monument, Michael J.; Watkins, W. Scott; Smith, Richard; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2012-01-01

234

History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.  

PubMed

Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. PMID:24894605

Barras, V; Greub, G

2014-06-01

235

EWS-FLI1 inhibits TNF?-induced NF?B-dependent transcription in Ewing sarcoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing sarcoma is primarily caused by a t(11;22) chromosomal translocation encoding the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. To exert its oncogenic function, EWS-FLI1 acts as an aberrant transcription factor, broadly altering the gene expression profile of tumor cells. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF?B) is a tightly regulated transcription factor controlling cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, as well as tumorigenesis. NF?B activity is very low

Julie Lagirand-Cantaloube; Karine Laud; Alain Lilienbaum; Franck Tirode; Olivier Delattre; Christian Auclair; Marie-Hélène Kryszke

2010-01-01

236

Stimulating Innovation in Naval Special Warfare by Utilizing Small Working Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Naval Special Warfare has produced successful innovation by using small working groups. Naval Special Warfare deems an innovation successful if it results in a more efficient, less risky, more cost effective method to conduct special operations. The Quant...

T. A. Rainville

2001-01-01

237

Multiple UAV Task Allocation for an Electronic Warfare Mission Comparing Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper compares two algorithms applied to the task allocation of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for an electronic warfare mission. The electronic warfare mission scenario is discussed and a review of both the genetic algorithm and simulated ...

M. A. Darrah W. Niland B. Stolarik

2006-01-01

238

Polyoxometalate oxidation of chemical warfare agent simulants in fluorinated media.  

PubMed

The aim of this research is to determine if appropriate polyoxometalates (POMs) could be added to perfluoropolyether topical skin protectants (TSPs) currently available or under development to give these TSPs the additional capability of detecting and in some cases catalytically decontaminating sulfur mustard (HD) and perhaps other chemical warfare agents (CWAs) at ambient temperatures. Detection would be based on significant color changes in the POM upon reduction by the CWA whereas catalytic decontamination would be based on the ability of some families of POMs to catalyze O(2)-based oxidations by more than one mechanism. Five POMs (10-25% by weight) were each suspended in ca. 5 g of the perfluoropolyether (PFPE, CF(3)O[-CF(CF(3))CF(2)O-](x)(-CF(2)O-)(y)CF(3)) 'barrier' cream. A stoichiometric amount of HD sulfide simulant was layered on top of each POM-cream mixture. The short reaction times were recorded for each system. Mechanistic studies were conducted using an PFPE oil analog of the barrier cream in a microemulsion with the sulfide simulant, POM, PFPE surfactant and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol co-surfactant. PMID:10594904

Johnson, R P; Hill, C L

1999-12-01

239

Contrasts in Naval and Land Warfare; Their Impact on Combat Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report gives the results of an effort to adapt an abstract 'theory of combat' architecture which was developed for land warfare to the sea control aspects of naval warfare. The differences between the two forms of warfare are discussed, in term...

L. J. Low E. T. DuBois

1982-01-01

240

Molecular genetic characterization of the EWS/CHN and RBP56/CHN fusion genes in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.  

PubMed

Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a soft-tissue neoplasm cytogenetically characterized by the translocations t(9;22)(q22;q11-12) or t(9;17)(q22;q11), generating EWS/CHN or RBP56/CHN fusion genes, respectively. In the present study, 18 EMCs were studied both cytogenetically and at the molecular level. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 16 samples: 13 with involvement of 9q22 and 22q11-12, and three with rearrangements of 9q22 and 17q11. Fifteen cases had an EWS/CHN fusion transcript and three had an RBP56/CHN transcript. The most frequent EWS/CHN transcript (type 1; 10 tumors), involved fusion of EWS exon 12 with CHN exon 3, and the second most common (type 5; two cases) was fusion of EWS exon 13 with CHN exon 3. In all tumors with RBP56/CHN fusion, exon 6 of RBP56 was fused to exon 3 of CHN. By genomic XL PCR and sequence analyses, the breakpoints from 14 cases were mapped in the EWS, RBP56, and CHN genes. In CHN, 12 breakpoints were found in intron 2 and only two in intron 1. In EWS, the breaks occurred in introns 7 (one break), 12 (eight breaks), and 13 (one break), and in RBP56 in intron 6. Repetitive elements such as Alu and LINE sequences seem to have limited, if any, importance in the genesis of EWS/CHN and RBP56/CHN chimeras. Furthermore, there were no chi, chi-like, topoisomerase II, or translin consensus sequences in the introns harboring the translocation breakpoints, nor could the number of topo I sites in EWS, RBP56, and CHN introns explain the uneven distribution of the breakpoints among EWS or CHN introns. Additional genetic events, such as nucleotide insertions, homologies at the junction, deletions, duplications, and inversions, were found to accompany the translocations, indicating that the chromosomal translocations do not require sequence-specific recombinases or extensive homology between the recombined sequences. PMID:12378528

Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Mertens, Fredrik; Isaksson, Margareth; Domanski, Henryk A; Brosjö, Otte; Heim, Sverre; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Sciot, Raf; Dal Cin, Paola; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mandahl, Nils

2002-12-01

241

Biological warfare in a historical perspective.  

PubMed

There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse. PMID:12197867

Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

2002-08-01

242

Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Web site offers an unclassified document for public review entitled Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War. The introductory paragraph states, "This paper reflects the results of our multifaceted investigation into the Chemical Warfare (CW) issue, examining information on CW agent releases, Gulf war Iraqi CW deployments, and Iraqi chemical agents and weapons." One of the final paragraphs claims that the US still believes that Iraq did not use chemical weapons against Coalition forces. Although perhaps a difficult subject to read about, the one-page site does offer those interested a glimpse into one destructive use of science that humans have developed.

2002-01-01

243

IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

1995-01-01

244

GSTM4 is a microsatellite-containing EWS/FLI target involved in Ewing's sarcoma oncogenesis and therapeutic resistance.  

PubMed

Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone-associated tumor of children and young adults. Most cases of Ewing's sarcoma express the EWS/FLI fusion protein. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant ETS-type transcription factor and serves as the master regulator of Ewing's sarcoma-transformed phenotype. We recently showed that EWS/FLI regulates one of its key targets, NR0B1, through a GGAA-microsatellite in its promoter. Whether other critical EWS/FLI targets are also regulated by GGAA-microsatellites was unknown. In this study, we combined transcriptional analysis, whole genome localization data, and RNA interference knockdown to identify glutathione S-transferase M4 (GSTM4) as a critical EWS/FLI target gene in Ewing's sarcoma. We found that EWS/FLI directly binds the GSTM4 promoter, and regulates GSTM4 expression through a GGAA-microsatellite in its promoter. Reduction of GSTM4 levels caused a loss of oncogenic transformation. Furthermore, reduction of GSTM4 resulted in an increased sensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents, suggesting a role for this protein in drug resistance. Consistent with this hypothesis, patients with Ewing's sarcoma whose tumors had higher levels of GSTM4 expression had worse outcomes than those with lower expression levels. These data show that GSTM4 contributes to the cancerous behavior of Ewing's sarcoma and define a wider role for GGAA-microsatellites in EWS/FLI function than previously appreciated. These data also suggest a novel therapeutic resistance mechanism, in which the central oncogenic abnormality directly regulates a resistance gene. PMID:19718047

Luo, W; Gangwal, K; Sankar, S; Boucher, K M; Thomas, D; Lessnick, S L

2009-11-19

245

Cyber Warfare and the Crime of Aggression: The Need for Individual Accountability on Tomorrow’s Battlefield  

Microsoft Academic Search

As cyberspace matures, the international system faces a new challenge in confronting the use of force. Non-State actors continue to grow in importance, gaining the skill and the expertise necessary to wage asymmetric warfare using non-traditional weaponry that can create devastating real-world consequences. The international legal system must adapt to this battleground and provide workable mechanisms to hold aggressive actors

Jonathan A. Ophardt

2010-01-01

246

A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

2008-08-01

247

The dual inhibitory effect of thiostrepton on FoxM1 and EWS/FLI1 provides a novel therapeutic option for Ewing's sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The poor prognosis of Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS), together with its high lethal recurrence rate and the side-effects of current treatments, call for novel targeted therapies with greater curative effectiveness and substantially reduced side-effects. The oncogenic chimeric protein EWS/FLI1 is the key malignancy driver in most EWSs, regulating numerous target genes, many of which influence cell cycle progression. It has often been argued that targeting proteins regulated directly or indirectly by EWS/FLI1 may provide improved therapeutic options for EWS. In this context, our study examined FoxM1, a key cell cycle regulating transcription factor, reported to be expressed in EWS and influenced by EWS/FLI1. Thiostrepton, a naturally occurring small molecule, has been shown to selectively inhibit FoxM1 expression in cancer cells. We demonstrate that in EWS, in addition to inhibiting FoxM1 expression, thiostrepton downregulates the expression of EWS/FLI1, both at the mRNA and protein levels, leading to cell cycle arrest and, ultimately, to apoptotic cell death. We also show that thiostrepton treatment reduces the tumorigenicity of EWS cells, significantly delaying the growth of nude mouse xenograft tumors. Results from this study demonstrate a novel action of thiostrepton as inhibitor of the expression of the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein in vitro and in vivo, and that it shows greater efficacy against EWS than against other tumor types, as it is active on EWS cells and tumors at concentrations lower than those reported to have effective inhibitory activity on tumor cells derived from other cancers. Owing to the dual action of this small molecule, our findings suggest that thiostrepton may be particularly effective as a novel agent for the treatment of EWS patients.

SENGUPTA, ANIRUDDHA; RAHMAN, MAHBUBUR; MATEO-LOZANO, SILVIA; TIRADO, OSCAR M.; NOTARIO, VICENTE

2013-01-01

248

The dual inhibitory effect of thiostrepton on FoxM1 and EWS/FLI1 provides a novel therapeutic option for Ewing's sarcoma.  

PubMed

The poor prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma (EWS), together with its high lethal recurrence rate and the side?effects of current treatments, call for novel targeted therapies with greater curative effectiveness and substantially reduced side?effects. The oncogenic chimeric protein EWS/FLI1 is the key malignancy driver in most EWSs, regulating numerous target genes, many of which influence cell cycle progression. It has often been argued that targeting proteins regulated directly or indirectly by EWS/FLI1 may provide improved therapeutic options for EWS. In this context, our study examined FoxM1, a key cell cycle regulating transcription factor, reported to be expressed in EWS and influenced by EWS/FLI1. Thiostrepton, a naturally occurring small molecule, has been shown to selectively inhibit FoxM1 expression in cancer cells. We demonstrate that in EWS, in addition to inhibiting FoxM1 expression, thiostrepton downregulates the expression of EWS/FLI1, both at the mRNA and protein levels, leading to cell cycle arrest and, ultimately, to apoptotic cell death. We also show that thiostrepton treatment reduces the tumorigenicity of EWS cells, significantly delaying the growth of nude mouse xenograft tumors. Results from this study demonstrate a novel action of thiostrepton as inhibitor of the expression of the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein in vitro and in vivo, and that it shows greater efficacy against EWS than against other tumor types, as it is active on EWS cells and tumors at concentrations lower than those reported to have effective inhibitory activity on tumor cells derived from other cancers. Owing to the dual action of this small molecule, our findings suggest that thiostrepton may be particularly effective as a novel agent for the treatment of EWS patients. PMID:23857410

Sengupta, Aniruddha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Tirado, Oscar M; Notario, Vicente

2013-09-01

249

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability.

Shepherd, Seth D.

2003-09-01

250

Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) as a probe of macromolecule adsorption kinetics at functionalized interfaces.  

PubMed

Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) has been employed to study the interfacial adsorption kinetics of coumarin-tagged macromolecules onto a range of functionalized planar surfaces. Such studies are valuable in designing polymers for complex systems where the degree of interaction between the polymer and surface needs to be tailored. Three tagged synthetic polymers with different functionalities are examined: poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, potassium salt) (PSPMA), and a mannose-modified glycopolymer. Adsorption transients at the silica/water interface are found to be characteristic for each polymer, and kinetics are deduced from the initial rates. The chemistry of the adsorption interfaces has been varied by, first, manipulation of silica surface chemistry via the bulk pH, followed by surfaces modified by poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA) and cellulose, giving five chemically different surfaces. Complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has been used for additional surface characterization of adsorbed layers and functionalized interfaces to allow adsorption rates to be interpreted more fully. Adsorption rates for PSPMA and the glycopolymer are seen to be highly surface sensitive, with significantly higher rates on cellulose-modified surfaces, whereas PAA shows a much smaller rate dependence on the nature of the adsorption surface. PMID:22489550

O'Connell, Michael A; de Cuendias, Anne; Gayet, Florence; Shirley, Ian M; Mackenzie, Stuart R; Haddleton, David M; Unwin, Patrick R

2012-05-01

251

Surface Warfare: The Littoral Battle. January/February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this issue of Surface Warfare Magazine, we turn our focus toward fighting in the littorals. The post-Cold War era has demanded that we adapt our strategies, tactics and technologies to conform to this much more active and dangerous area of operations. ...

1995-01-01

252

Military Bridging and Maneuver Warfare: Deficiencies and the Way Ahead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Marine Corps' concept of expeditionary maneuver warfare focuses on the 'ability to take action to generate and exploit some kind of advantage over the enemy as a means of accomplishing our objectives as effectively as possible.' This con...

J. L. Wagner

2008-01-01

253

Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

Cooper, Martha

254

Evaluation of the Marine Game Simple Surface Warfare Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

War games are nothing new and are used by most militaries in one form or another. The war game 'Simple Surface Warfare Model' (SSM) was developed by the Swedish National Defence College to train cadets and test military plans. The purpose of this study wa...

A. Frank J. Lundin P. Lif

2011-01-01

255

Warfare in the 21st Century. A Selected Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warfare in the 21st Century is a special theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles in the Army War College Library. It also includes a number of web...

J. E. Gibish

2003-01-01

256

Teaching information warfare with lab experiments via the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iowa State University has offered a course in information warfare for the past 8 years to both on campus and off campus students via streaming media. The class looks at computer security from an attack\\/defend viewpoint. We study attacks and look at methods to stop the attacks. The course has several lab experiments where student try out attack tools and

Doug Jacobson

2004-01-01

257

Cyber-warfare seen through a mariner's spyglass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is now an essential tool in the everyday conduct of commercial life. The ability of terrorists to conduct cyber-warfare is largely unknown, but the potential for the disruption of life worries many policymakers. In searching for precedent to anticipate the potential impact of a cyber-war, it is important to identify modes of conflict that are useful both against

J. Laprise

2006-01-01

258

INFORMATION WARFARE AND THE FUTURE OF THE SPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of the new ICTs on the collection of covert intelligence and covert political actions undertaken by national intelligence agencies. It is argued that there exist two distinct doctrines in the literatures of intelligence and information warfare concerning the future relative importance of information from human sources ('agents') and technical methods (signal interception, overhead imagery and

Philip H. J. Davies

1999-01-01

259

Microfabricated Electrochemical Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents: Smaller is Better  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel type of gas chemical sensor is fabricated by combining microfabrication techniques and electrochemical transducer. The microchannel sensor we built is composed of liquid\\/gas microchannels separated by a nanoporous membrane. When oxime chemistry is adapted into the microchannel sensor, it gives response of hundreds of mV to trace vapor (10 ppb) of chemical warfare agent simulants within ~10 sec.

Ilwhan Oh; Chelsea Monty; Mark A. Shannon; R. I. Maset

2007-01-01

260

Saw Sensor Array for Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface acoustic wave array of sensors was developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants. Sensors were coated with different polymers for a higher accuracy. Data acquired were processed; principal components analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) were used for the discrimination and classification of the chemical agents.

J. Marti; D. Matatagui; M. J. Fernaindez; J. L. Fontecha; M. Aleixandre; F. J. Gutierrez; M. C. Horrillo; I. Gracia; C. Cane

2009-01-01

261

Detection of chemical warfare agents using nanostructured metal oxide sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of thick-film chemical sensors based on various semiconductor metal oxides to reliably detect chemical warfare agents has been studied. Nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) powders were used as initial materials for the sensors’ fabrication. The thick films were prepared using a simple drop-coating technique accompanied with in situ annealing of the deposited films by a heater that is

Alexey A. Tomchenko; Gregory P. Harmer; Brent T. Marquis

2005-01-01

262

Detection of chemical warfare agents in the presence of interferents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the use of an array of SAW (surface acoustic wave devices) to detect and identify chemical warfare agents (nerve and mustard simulants) in a background of interferents (methanol, diesel and hexane). Even in a varying concentration and realistic gas delivery profiles, an array of SAW is able to identify and predict the concentrations of simulants in real-time.

Gregory P. Harmer; Chuncai Yang; Brent T. Marquis

2004-01-01

263

Plasma chemical degradation of phosphorous-containing warfare agents simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gliding electric discharge (or “glidarc”) technique is a new advanced oxidation process used for the degradation of organic solutes or spent solvents. Discharges in humid air at atmospheric pressure produce active species (i.e., OH and NO) that are able to oxidize organic target up to carbon oxides and water. Aqueous solutions of triethylphosphate (TEP), a warfare agent simulant, are

Sarah Pascal; David Moussa; Eugen Hnatiuc; Jean-Louis Brisset

2010-01-01

264

Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the

Michael E. Webber; Michael B. Pushkarsky; C. Kumar N. Patel

2004-01-01

265

Amphibious Warfare Ships for the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the amphibious warfare ships of the United States Navy. The buildown of the Department of Defense has been driven by victory in the Cold War and defeat in the battle of the budget. For the first time this century Americans have the ch...

R. R. Hanke

1992-01-01

266

A Tabu Search Heuristic for Resource Management in Naval Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective utilization of scarce resources, in particular weapon resources, is a prominent issue in naval anti-air warfare. In this paper, defence plans are constructed to guide the allocation and scheduling of different types of defence weapons against anti-ship missiles, subject to various physical and operational constraints. To reduce the frequency of replanning, decision trees are considered to explicitly account, in

Dale E. Blodgett; Michel Gendreau; François Guertin; Jean-Yves Potvin; René Séguin

2003-01-01

267

Air Force Cyber Warfare: Now and the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern-day cyber warriors are elusive figures. Are they technological ninjas, typing feverishly on a keyboard in a darkened room or perhaps gunslingers throwing cyber bullets downrange at shadowy foes. There are many images of cyber warfare in popular cul...

J. Lotspeich W. J. Poirier

2013-01-01

268

SURVIVABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

To tests and provide a comprehensive, integrated list of survival rates of biological warfare agents' survival of landfill conditions. Research into the permanence of the final disposal contaminated building debris of the inactivated or active agent of terrorism is being exam...

269

Badges of Immobilized Enzymes: Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in all of its forms including gas and liquid is of paramount importance to protect the warfighter or first responders in homeland defense. CWAs such as OPs and vesicants pose serious threats because these ...

A. T. Gunduz B. P. Doctor R. K. Gordon

2003-01-01

270

Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive.The purpose of this study was to characterize the in

P. Rolland; M.-A. Bolzinger; C. Cruz; S. Briançon; D. Josse

271

Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the

Wilson Lai; Henry Lai; Spencer P. Kuo; Olga Tarasenko; Kalle Levon

2005-01-01

272

Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) Imaging Device for Naval Special Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term goal of this research is to demonstrate a prototype, lightweight, low power and low-cost passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imager that is capable of supporting Naval Special Warfare (NSW). PMMW wave imaging technology will provide NSW the capab...

B. T. Blume D. Eden F. Downs

1998-01-01

273

Information Technologies and the Future of Land Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the future of land warfare will be shaped by the rapidly expanding information technologies. In December 1993, RAND convened 18 researchers with expertise in the information sciences and military operations to brainstorm on the ways that fast-grow...

B. Nichiporuk C. H. Builder

1995-01-01

274

Affecting trust: Terrorism, internet and offensive information warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national security consequences of the potential use of the Internet by terrorist organizations have attracted the interest of many academics and government and intelligence officials. The goal of this article is to provide a new explanatory angle concerning the possible targets of terrorists’ offensive information warfare (OIW) operations. It argues that these organizations may prove more valuable and effective

Lorenzo Valeri; Michael Knights

2000-01-01

275

[Acute Empyema with Fistula Successfully Treated by Curettage and Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot (EWS)].  

PubMed

A 49-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of empyema. A chest drainage tube inserted and lavage performed. Her general condition improved but the infection and a major air leakage remained. On the 10th day after chest drainage, we performed thoracoscopic debridement and occlusion of bronchopleural fistulas using cellulose oxidized( Surgicel) and fibrin glue. Expansion of the lung and the improvement of inflammation were observed. but a major air leakage remained. On 29th postoperative day, we performed bronchial embolization using endobronchial Watanabe spigot (EWS). The leakage stopped the 7 days after bronchial embolization, we removed chest tube and 10 days after bronchial embolization she was discharged. PMID:24743536

Tamaki, Masafumi; Miura, Kazumasa; Norimura, Shoko; Kenzaki, Koichirou; Yoshizawa, Kiyoshi

2014-03-01

276

The relative timing of N-S and E-W extension at the Tibet-to-Himalaya transition: Insights from NW Bhutan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is generally regarded as the type example of a collisional mountain belt despite contractional structures being limited to just the northern and southern margins of the system, with strike-slip and normal faulting accommodating E-W extension across most of the Tibetan Plateau. At the southern margin of the plateau, the transition between the contractional structures of the Himalaya and the extensional structures of Tibet is poorly constrained. The boundary is often coincident with a family of E-W trending, gently north-dipping extensional structures - the South Tibetan fault system (STFS) - that is thought by some to accommodate southward extrusion of the metamorphic core of the orogen. The relationship between N-S extension across the STFS and E-W extension on the Tibetan Plateau is uncertain. Age constraints on the STFS suggest that it was active from ca. 23 to 12 Ma, while E-W extensional faulting on the Tibetan Plateau lasted from ca. 17 to possibly 4 Ma, indicating a considerable period of overlap between the two. In order to place tighter constraints on the relative timing of these two systems, we studied an area where the two intersect. In NW Bhutan, a NE-SW trending extensional graben, the Yadong cross structure (YCS), intersects the STFS in the vicinity of Mount Jomolhari. Recent mapping shows that the primary STFS detachment in this region can be traced for ca. 65 km in the direction of fault motion, and is cut by a series of high-angle normal faults of the Jomolhari fault system (JFS), which bound the eastern margin of the YCS. Leucogranite intrusions are pervasive in the footwall, occurring as a large pluton (the Chung La granite) and networks of smaller sills and dikes. U-Pb zircon rim analyses from both the Chung La granite and a leucogranite dike give crystallization ages of ca. 21 Ma, consistent with Miocene ages elsewhere in the Himalaya. Rim ages from multiple zircons in a deformed leucogranite collected within the Lingshi fault zone, a high-angle normal fault of the JFS, show a more complicated U-Pb history, with a spread from ca. 22 to 14 Ma. In-situ monazite and xenotime U-Th-Pb ages from three pelitic samples within the STFS footwall give similar ages to the leucogranites. Two samples collected close to the trace of the Lingshi fault give age ranges of ca. 25 to 14 Ma and ca. 18 to 14 Ma, comparable to the sheared Lingshi fault zone granite. A third sample collected ~15 km from the Lingshi fault gives a slightly shorter age span from ca. 22 to 17 Ma. Based on our geochronologic data, we suggest that the STFS footwall experienced a major prograde metamorphic event in the Middle Miocene (ca. 25-21 Ma) coeval with early movement on the STFS. The younger, post-21 Ma dates on leucogranites associated with the Lingshi shear zone imply that granite intrusion outlasted regional metamorphism. The ca. 14 Ma age for a deformed leucogranite within the Lingshi fault zone implies that E-W extension in the area commenced sometime after 14 Ma, but a minimum age for the onset of slip on the YCS remains unconstrained. Research ca. 100 km to the northeast in southern Tibet (Edwards and Harrison, 1997) suggested the continuation of STFS slip in the region to more recently than 12.5 Ma, an interpretation consistent with our work if the YCS initiated more recently.

Cooper, F. J.; Hodges, K.; Parrish, R. R.

2012-12-01

277

Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended\\u000a for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic\\u000a Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser\\u000a detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m

William Ortiz-Rivera; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2010-01-01

278

Adenosine Transporter ENT4 Is a Direct Target of EWS\\/WT1 Translocation Product and Is Highly Expressed in Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDesmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) is a highly aggressive malignancy that affects mainly adolescents and young adults. A defining characteristic of DSRCT is a specific chromosomal translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), that fuses EWS with WT1, leading to a production of two isoforms of chimeric transcription factor, EWS\\/WT1(?KTS) and EWS\\/WT1(+KTS). The chimeric proteins are thought to play critical roles in various stages

Hongjie Li; Gromoslaw A. Smolen; Lisa F. Beers; Li Xia; William Gerald; Joanne Wang; Daniel A. Haber; Sean Bong Lee; Dong-Yan Jin

2008-01-01

279

Identification of an Inhibitor of the EWS-FLI1 Oncogenic Transcription Factor by High-Throughput Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Chromosomal translocations generating oncogenic transcription factors are the hallmark of a variety of tumors, including many sarcomas. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs) are characterized by the t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation that generates the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 and Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWS-FLI1) fusion transcription factor responsible for the highly malignant phenotype of this tumor. Although continued expression of EWS-FLI1 is believed to be critical for ESFT cell survival, a clinically effective small-molecule inhibitor remains elusive likely because EWS-FLI1 is a transcription factor and therefore widely felt to be “undruggable.” Methods We developed a high-throughput screen to evaluate more than 50 000 compounds for inhibition of EWS-FLI1 activity in TC32 ESFT cells. We used a TC32 cell–based luciferase reporter screen using the EWS-FLI1 downstream target NR0B1 promoter and a gene signature secondary screen to sort and prioritize the compounds. We characterized the lead compound, mithramycin, based on its ability to inhibit EWS-FLI1 activity in vitro using microarray expression profiling, quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analysis, and in vivo using immunohistochemistry. We studied the impact of this inhibition on cell viability in vitro and on tumor growth in ESFT xenograft models in vivo (n = 15–20 mice per group). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Mithramycin inhibited expression of EWS-FLI1 downstream targets at the mRNA and protein levels and decreased the growth of ESFT cells at half maximal inhibitory concentrations between 10 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8 to 13 nM) and 15 nM (95% CI = 13 to 19 nM). Mithramycin suppressed the growth of two different ESFT xenograft tumors and prolonged the survival of ESFT xenograft–bearing mice by causing a decrease in mean tumor volume. For example, in the TC32 xenograft model, on day 15 of treatment, the mean tumor volume for the mithramycin-treated mice was approximately 3% of the tumor volume observed in the control mice (mithramycin vs control: 69 vs 2388 mm3, difference = 2319 mm3, 95% CI = 1766 to 2872 mm3, P < .001). Conclusion Mithramycin inhibits EWS-FLI1 activity and demonstrates ESFT antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.

Woldemichael, Girma M.; Griffin, Laurie B.; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Chen, Qing-Rong; Yeung, Choh; Currier, Duane G.; Davis, Sean; Khanna, Chand; Khan, Javed; McMahon, James B.; Helman, Lee J.

2011-01-01

280

Network Centric Warfare in the U.S. Navy's Fifth Fleet Web-Supported Operational Level Command and Control in Operation Enduring Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study was commissioned by the Office of Force Transformation in the United States Department of Defense to examine the employment of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) systems and practices in the U.S. Fifth Fleet's Commander Task Force Fifty (CTF-50). The staff and commander of CTF-50, embarked on the nuclear aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70), led a coalition

John Kruse; Mark Adkins; Kimberly A. Holloman

281

New 100 MHz bandwidth vector signal analysis measurement technique for R&D in radar development, EW and surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many new and next generation wide bandwidth microwave radar, EW and surveillance applications require measurement and analysis of RF and microwave signals with wide bandwidth analog and digital modulation. This paper describes a new measurement technique featuring 100 MHz of information bandwidth signal analysis capability, including spectrum analysis and modulation analysis of RF and microwave signals with wide bandwidth complex

L. Dickstein; B. Matreci

1998-01-01

282

The oncogenic properties of EWS/WT1 of desmoplastic small round cell tumors are unmasked by loss of p53 in murine embryonic fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is characterized by the presence of a fusion protein EWS/WT1, arising from the t (11;22) (p13;q12) translocation. Here we examine the oncogenic properties of two splice variants of EWS/WT1, EWS/WT1-KTS and EWS/WT1?+?KTS. Methods We over-expressed both EWS/WT1 variants in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of wild-type, p53+/- and p53-/- backgrounds and measured effects on cell-proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, clonogenicity after serum withdrawal, and sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and gamma irradiation in comparison to control cells. We examined gene expression profiles in cells expressing EWS/WT1. Finally we validated our key findings in a small series of DSRCT. Results Neither isoform of EWS/WT1 was sufficient to transform wild-type MEFs however the oncogenic potential of both was unmasked by p53 loss. Expression of EWS/WT1 in MEFs lacking at least one allele of p53 enhanced cell-proliferation, clonogenic survival and anchorage-independent growth. EWS/WT1 expression in wild-type MEFs conferred resistance to cell-cycle arrest after irradiation and daunorubicin induced apoptosis. We show DSRCT commonly have nuclear localization of p53, and copy-number amplification of MDM2/MDMX. Expression of either isoform of EWS/WT1 induced characteristic mRNA expression profiles. Gene-set enrichment analysis demonstrated enrichment of WNT pathway signatures in MEFs expressing EWS/WT1?+?KTS. Wnt-activation was validated in cell lines with over-expression of EWS/WT1 and in DSRCT. Conclusion In conclusion, we show both isoforms of EWS/WT1 have oncogenic potential in MEFs with loss of p53. In addition we provide the first link between EWS/WT1 and Wnt-pathway signaling. These data provide novel insights into the function of the EWS/WT1 fusion protein which characterize DSRCT.

2013-01-01

283

Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa.  

PubMed

On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de' Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de' Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event. PMID:12194776

Wheelis, Mark

2002-09-01

284

Report on Biological Warfare Defense Vaccine Research & Development Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 190-page .pdf document, dated July 2001 but released online September 7, 2001 by the US Department of Defense (DoD), gives the latest status of biological warfare defense vaccine development. The DoD assembled a panel of experts in the scientific, regulatory, and industrial aspects of vaccine production and in federal procurement to review the topic. They concluded that the scope and complexity of the DoD biological warfare defense vaccine requirements were too great for either the DoD or the pharmaceutical industry to accomplish alone. The first part of this online report is an executive summary from the DoD, followed by the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act For Fiscal Year 2001, and finally the independent panel's full report, Department of Defense Acquisition of Vaccine Production, of December 2000. Sections of the dense, 167-page report include financial and personnel resource requirements, policies, findings, and recommendations.

2001-01-01

285

Eighty years of the threat and use of chemical warfare: the medical-organizational challenge.  

PubMed

The threat of using chemical warfare (CW) by countries ruled by dictators and totalitarian governments still exists despite the Geneva Convention of 1925 that prohibited the use of CW. This situation forces nations and their armed forces to be in a state of preparedness in the event of a CW attack. A CW attack on an unprotected civilian population in a dense urban area can cause numerous casualities and become a mass disaster. However, this danger may be significantly reduced by: a) providing collective and individual protective measures, b) training the population in the use of protective measures, and c) early warning to provide sufficient lead time to use the various components of protection. Coping with a nonconventional warfare threat requires an innovative approach in the organization of the health care delivery system so as to maximize the number of survivors. The fact that the population is protected may deter the enemy from using CW since the potential destructive impact of CW is neutralized or at least reduced. PMID:1757231

Shemer, J; Danon, Y L

1991-01-01

286

Surface detection of chemical warfare agent simulants and degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants as well as their degradation and hydrolysis products were detected from surfaces using thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS). CWA simulant materials that closely mimic the chemical structures of real CWA G\\/V-type nerve and S-type vesicant simulants were used in this study. Reduced mobility constants (K0) in air were reported for 20 compounds studied. Spectra

Abu B. Kanu; Paul E. Haigh; Herbert H. Hill

2005-01-01

287

Proximal detection of chemical warfare agents using PMIRRAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-contact chemical warfare agent detection has been demonstrated on military painted surfaces using polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS). Notably, VX has been detected on chemical agent resistance coating (CARC) paint at a distance of approximately 10 cm. PMIRRAS does not rely on the presence of chemical vapors and is not affected by many common battlefield interferants such as aerosolized dust, water and diesel vapors, etc., making it highly suitable for use in operational environments.

Petryk, Michael W. P.; Marenco, Armando J.

2010-04-01

288

Bronchial leiomyoma in a chemical warfare victim--a causative agent or an incidental finding: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Bronchial leiomyoma is one of the rarest benign tumors of the lower respiratory system, compromising less than 2% of reported benign pulmonary tumors. Chemical warfare is a known cause of chronic pulmonary diseases in soldiers who survives of the chemical wars. Most of these patients are chronically under treatment by respiratory drugs and acute exacerbations of their symptoms prompt for investigations for diagnosis of a new complication in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report we present a 43 y/o male chemical warfare victim who was under treatment for his respiratory disease for near 20 years but at last bronchial leiomyoma was diagnosed as the cause of exacerbation of his symptoms. He was undergone right thoracotomy and sleeve resection of left main bronchus. Severe adhesions plus lymphadenitis in the mediastinum might be due to the effects of prior inflammatory process. DISCUSSION Because of rarity of this tumor, bronchial leiomyoma in this patient may be the result of previous exposure to nitrogen mustard but the exact relationship remained to be confirmed. CONCLUSION Although the association between chemical warfare and lung neoplasias has not been well understood, it is the first time that a bronchial leiomyoma is reported in a nitrogen mustard survivor.

Behesthirouy, Samad; Kakaei, Farzad; Azhough, Ramin; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

2012-01-01

289

The threat of mid-spectrum chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

There is a spectrum of several threat agents, ranging from nerve agents and mustard agents to natural substances, such as biotoxins and new, synthetic, bioactive molecules produced by the chemical industry, to the classical biological warfare agents. The new, emerging threat agents are biotoxins produced by animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. Examples of such biotoxins are botulinum toxin, tetanus toxin, and ricin. Several bioactive molecules produced by the pharmaceutical industry can be even more toxic than are the classical chemical warfare agents. Such new agents, like the biotoxins and bioregulators, often are called mid-spectrum agents. The threat to humans from agents developed by modern chemical synthesis and by genetic engineering also must be considered, since such agents may be more toxic or more effective in causing death or incapacitation than classical warfare agents. By developing effective medical protection and treatment against the most likely chemical and mid-spectrum threat agents, the effects of such agents in a war scenario or following a terrorist attack can be reduced. PMID:15310042

Aas, Pål

2003-01-01

290

Upregulation of Id2, an oncogenic helix-loop-helix protein, is mediated by the chimeric EWS\\/ets protein in Ewing sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal translocation specifically linked to the Ewing sarcoma family results in the generation of fusion proteins comprising the amino terminal portion of EWS and the DNA-binding domain of ets transcription factors. The EWS\\/ets chimeric proteins act as aberrant transcription factors leading to tumorigenic processes. We searched for genes specifically activated in Ewing sarcoma cells but not in other tumor

Mariko Fukuma; Hajime Okita; Jun-ichi Hata; Akihiro Umezawa

2003-01-01

291

Nondestructive test and evaluation at the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Philadelphia site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Code 623 has been involved in the nondestructive test and evaluation of US Navy surface vessels since the 1960s. In this time, CDNSWC 623 has been involved in the utilization and technical development of many forms of NDE including visual inspection, contact ultrasonics, eddy current inspections, computer- automated ultrasonics, and laser optics. The present laser optic tube inspection system (LOTIS) was developed through a joint venture between NSWCCD 623 and Quest Integrated, Inc. of Kent, WA. CDNSWC 623 is presently involved in the centralization of several fleet- wide NDE practices including boiler inspection devices, contact ultrasonics, eddy current, the ultrasonic tube inspection system, and the LOTIS. These systems all have very diverse ranges of application and have proven to be cost-saving devices when implemented throughout the US Navy.

Leinbach, Russell A., Jr.

1995-06-01

292

Fast Analysis Conditions for Chemical Warfare Agents: Providing the Environmental Protection Agency with Ultra-Dilute Chemical Warfare Agent Standards. Part II: Procedure for Purity Determination of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes procedures used to assure the quality of ultradilute (10 part-permillion) chemical warfare agent (CWA) standards provided to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) l...

H. Mulcahy

2011-01-01

293

Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E. [and others

1995-07-01

294

Slutrapport for Projektet Dynamisk Duellsimulering Telekrig. (Final Report for the Project Dynamic Duel Simulations of Electronic Warfare).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the project Dynamic duel simulations of electronic warfare simulation in the research and development (R & T) program for Electronic warfare from 2009 to 2011. The project has had an overall objective to demonstrate duel simulation ...

M. Sjoman

2011-01-01

295

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) lab currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares, and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9' X 3' cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and in the foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for proper spatial and intensity characteristics. All relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

Shepherd, Seth D.

2001-08-01

296

Lysyl Oxidase Is Downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 Oncoprotein and Its Propeptide Domain Displays Tumor Supressor Activities in Ewing Sarcoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by oncogenic fusion proteins (i.e. EWS/FLI1) acting as aberrant transcription factors that upregulate and downregulate target genes, leading to cellular transformation. Thus, identificating these target genes and understanding their contribution to Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis are key for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study we show that lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme involved in maintaining structural integrity of the extracellular matrix, is downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein and in consequence it is not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cells and primary tumors. Using a doxycycline inducible system to restore LOX expression in an Ewing sarcoma derived cell line, we showed that LOX displays tumor suppressor activities. Interestingly, we showed that the tumor suppressor activity resides in the propeptide domain of LOX (LOX-PP), an N-terminal domain produced by proteolytic cleavage during the physiological processing of LOX. Expression of LOX-PP reduced cell proliferation, cell migration, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and formation of tumors in immunodeficient mice. By contrast, the C-terminal domain of LOX, which contains the enzymatic activity, had the opposite effects, corroborating that the tumor suppressor activity of LOX is mediated exclusively by its propeptide domain. Finally, we showed that LOX-PP inhibits ERK/MAPK signalling pathway, and that many pathways involved in cell cycle progression were significantly deregulated by LOX-PP, providing a mechanistic explanation to the cell proliferation inhibition observed upon LOX-PP expression. In summary, our observations indicate that deregulation of the LOX gene participates in Ewing sarcoma development and identify LOX-PP as a new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive paediatric malignancies. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies based on the administration of LOX propeptide or functional analogues could be useful for the treatment of this devastating paediatric cancer.

Garcia-Garcia, Laura; de la Parra, Juan; Alonso, Javier

2013-01-01

297

NLO EW and QCD proton-proton cross section calculations with mcsanc-v1.01  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mcsanc is a Monte Carlo tool based on the SANC (Support for Analytic and Numeric Calculations for experiments at colliders) modules for higher order calculations in hadron collider physics. It allows to evaluate NLO QCD and EW cross sections for Drell-Yan processes (inclusive), associated Higgs and gauge boson production and single-top quark production in s- and t-channels. The paper contains theoretical description of the SANC approach, numerical validations and manual.

Bondarenko, Sergey G.; Sapronov, Andrey A.

2013-10-01

298

Morphoproteomic Profiling of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Pathway in Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (EWS/WT1), Ewing's Sarcoma (EWS/FLI1) and Wilms' Tumor(WT1)  

PubMed Central

Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare sarcoma in adolescents and young adults. The hallmark of this disease is a EWS-WT1 translocation resulting from apposition of the Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS) gene with the Wilms’ tumor (WT1) gene. We performed morphoproteomic profiling of DSRCT (EWS-WT1), Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS-FLI1) and Wilms’ tumor (WT1) to better understand the signaling pathways for selecting future targeted therapies. Methodology This pilot study assessed patients with DSRCT, Wilms’ tumor and Ewing’s sarcoma. Morphoproteomics and immunohistochemical probes were applied to detect: p-mTOR (Ser2448); p-Akt (Ser473); p-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204); p-STAT3 (Tyr 705); and cell cycle-related analytes along with their negative controls. Principal Findings In DSRCT the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is constitutively activated by p-Akt (Ser 473) expression in the nuclear compartment of the tumor cells and p-mTOR phosphorylated on Ser 2448, suggesting mTORC2 (rictor+mTOR) as the dominant form. Ewing’s sarcoma had upregulated p-Akt and p-mTOR, predominantly mTORC2. In Wilm’s tumor, the mTOR pathway is also activated with most tumor cells moderately expressing p-mTOR (Ser 2448) in plasmalemmal and cytoplasmic compartments. This coincides with the constitutive activation of one of the downstream effectors of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, namely p-p70S6K (Thr 389). There was constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway p-ERK 1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) expression in the Wilms tumor and metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma, but not in the DSRCT. Conclusion Morphoproteomic tumor analyses revealed constitutive activation of the mTOR pathway as evidenced by: (a) expression of phosphorylated (p)-mTOR, p-p70S6K; (b) mTORC 2 in EWS and DSRCT; (c) ERK signaling was seen in the advanced setting indicating these as resistance pathways to IGF1R related therapies. This is the first morphoproteomic study of such pathways in these rare malignancies and may have potential therapeutic implications. Further study using morphoproteomic assessments of these tumors are warranted.

Jiang, Yunyun; Buryanek, Jamie; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea

2013-01-01

299

Exploratory Study: Female Surface Warfare Officers' Decisions to Leave Their Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this exploratory study was to discover the reasons that female Surface Warfare Officers (SWO) leave the Surface Warfare Officer Community and to identify paths that might encourage them to stay. Seven focus groups and nine interviews were u...

S. L. Graham

2006-01-01

300

WOOD MADE DECONTAMINABLE OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AFTER SUNLIGHT WEATHERING OR ABRASION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of making wood decontaminable of major chemical warfare agents were investigated using phenol-formaldehyde and polyurethane resins. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resins impregnated in southern yellow pine gave enhanced dimensional stability and fire resistance properties without decreasing strength properties, but the decontaminability for one major chemical warfare agent was inadequate. Selected polyurethane resins impregnated in southern yellow pine gave enhanced dimensional stability

Moon G. Kim; C. U. Pittman Jr; D. D. Nicholas; T. P. Schultz; L. L. Ingram Jr; F. R. A. Kabir; L. Wang; Y. Wu; L. Wasson; M. Ivankoe

2001-01-01

301

Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including

Albert T. Lebedev

2005-01-01

302

Adaptation and Improvement of ASW Tactical Decision Aid Design to Mine Warfare Tactical Decision Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this presentation, the adaptation of a tactical decision aid (TDA) designed for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) to one used for Mine Warfare is discussed. Previous work at the Naval Research Laboratory established a TDA, namely GRASP for the ASW role. Rec...

J. Dubberley

2003-01-01

303

Electronic Warfare Test. Interim Report Phase 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Joint Advanced Distributed Simulation (JADS) Joint Test and Evaluation (JT&E) was chartered by the Deputy Director, Test, Systems Engineering and Evaluation (Test and Evaluation), Office of the Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) in Octo...

D. L. Wright R. M. Nation

1999-01-01

304

EWS/FLI and its Downstream Target NR0B1 Interact Directly to Modulate Transcription and Oncogenesis in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Most Ewing's sarcomas harbor chromosomal translocations that encode fusions between EWS and ETS family members. The most common fusion, EWS/FLI, consists of an EWSR1-derived strong transcriptional activation domain fused, in frame, to the DNA binding domain-containing portion of FLI1. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant transcription factor to regulate genes that mediate the oncogenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. One of these regulated genes, NR0B1, encodes a co-repressor protein, and likely plays a transcriptional role in tumorigenesis. However, the genes that NR0B1 regulates and the transcription factors it interacts with in Ewing's sarcoma are largely unknown. We used transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify genes that are regulated by NR0B1, and compared these data to similar data for EWS/FLI. While the transcriptional profile overlapped as expected, we also found that the genome-wide localization of NR0B1and EWS/FLI overlapped as well, suggesting that they regulate some genes coordinately. Further analysis revealed that NR0B1 and EWS/FLI physically interact. This protein-protein interaction is likely to be relevant for Ewing's sarcoma development because mutations in NR0B1 that disrupt the interaction have transcriptional consequences and also abrogate oncogenic transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that EWS/FLI and NR0B1 physically interact, coordinately modulate gene expression, and mediate the transformed phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma.

Kinsey, Michelle; Smith, Richard; Iyer, Anita K.; McCabe, Edward R.B.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2009-01-01

305

Genomic structure of the EWS gene and its relationship to EWSR1, a site of tumor-associated chromosome translocation  

SciTech Connect

The EWS gene has been identified based on its location at the chromosome 22 breakpoint of the t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation that characterizes Ewing sarcoma and related neuroectodermal tumors. The EWS gene spans about 40 kb of DNA and is encoded by 17 exons. The nucleotide sequence of the exons is identical to that of the previously described cDNA. The first 7 exons encode the N-terminal domain of EWS, which consists of a repeated degenerated polypeptide of 7 to 12 residues rich in tyrosine, serine, threonine, glycine, and glutamine. Exons 11, 12, and 13 encode the putative RNA binding domain. The three glycine- and arginine-rich motifs of the gene are mainly encoded by exons 8-9, 14, and 16. The DNA sequence in the 5[prime] region of the gene has features of a CpG-rich island and lacks canonical promoter elements, such as TATA and CCAAT consensus sequences. Positions of the chromosome 22 breakpoints were determined for 19 Ewing tumors. They were localized in introns 7 or 8 in 18 cases and in intron 10 in 1 case. 26 refs., 5 figs.

Plougastel, B.; Zucman, J.; Peter, M.; Thomas, G.; Delattre, O. (Laboratoire de Genetique des Tumeurs, Paris (France))

1993-12-01

306

Cryptic exons as a source of increased diversity of Ewing tumor-associated EWS-FLI1 chimeric products.  

PubMed

In the Ewing family of tumors (EFT), the EWS gene is rearranged with members of the ets oncogene family. Variability in genomic breakpoint locations is the source of significant heterogeneity in fusion product structure. As a consequence of variably included exon sequences from the two partner genes, a variable amount of additional peptide sequence is inserted in between the minimal transforming domains. Some of this molecular diversity has recently been correlated with disparate clinical outcome. Here we report on cryptic exons found in the chimeric RNA of three EFT with different EWS-FLI1 fusions. In two tumors, the emergence of a cryptic exon from FLI1 intron 5 in the chimeric RNA was apparently unrelated to the genomic rearrangement that occurred in FLI1 introns 4 and 5, respectively. In one case, a novel exon was generated through the creation of an artificial splice acceptor site in FLI1 intron 6 by the genomic rearrangement that occurred in EWS intron 8. These results further extend the spectrum of molecular diversity in EFT. PMID:10493837

Kovar, H; Jugovic, D; Melot, T; Zoubek, A; Lenoir, G; Fink, F M; Philip, I; Turc-Carel, C; Thomas, G; Zucman-Rossi, J

1999-09-15

307

78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sec. 165.1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego...zone: The water adjacent to the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, bound...The proposed security zone at the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command would...

2013-08-28

308

78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sec. 165.1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego...zone: The water adjacent to the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, bound...The proposed security zone at the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command would...

2013-12-02

309

Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1/15Deg and 1/30/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and 3.7 km, respectively). The model grid covers the Baltic from 9.3 to 24.6E and from 53.0 to 60.2N. The Transport module of the model takes the predetermined velocity field and uses the random walk technique to predict the motion of individual particles, the sum of which constitutes a consid- ered chemical agent. Several different approaches for modeling are used for different kind of chemical agents. Basic processes affecting the chemicals to be modeled are hydrolysis, solubility, and microbiological destruction. All available toxicity data re- garding the chemical warfare agents of primary concern and the expected degradation products in the Baltic environment were gathered and summarized. This information was used to compare the toxicities of the different agents and their degradation prod- ucts and to decide which chemicals may represent a toxic threat to the environment. The model was adapted to be used for chemical agents with various characteristics and behavior (as Sarin, Lewsite, Musturd, etc.) in seawaters. Special algorithms are developed to describe nonlinear reactions producing toxic and nontoxic products in result of the warfare agent destruction. Sources of chemical pollution in the sea are considered as steady state (chronic) point and/or distributed releases because princi- pally different two methods were used in dumping CW: 1) concentrated dumping of containers, shells, and bombs together with ships; 2) dispersed dumping of individual containers, shells and aircraft bombs from moving vessels. The model was run with four most recurrent climatic wind fields for the Bornholm and Gotland damping sites. The results are compared with estimations obtained before by other researchers. Ways to implement the model in real-time forecasting system are discussed. The system will allow the prediction of concentrations and scales of possible pollution zone in resulting from real leakages might happen in locations of dumping.

Korotenko, K. A.

310

Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.  

PubMed

It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans. PMID:12943034

Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

2003-08-01

311

Sensor fusion with application to electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate, Survivability/Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Division mission is to provide affordable aircraft and ground electronic sensor/systems and signature management technologies which enhance survivability and lethality of US and International Forces. Since 1992, efforts have been undertaken in the area of Situational Awareness and Dominant Battlespace Knowledge. These include the Radar Deception and Jamming Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD), Survivability and Targeting System Integration, Integrated Situation Awareness and Targeting ATD, Combat Identification, Ground Vehicle Situational Awareness, and Combined Electronic Intelligence Target Correlation.

Zanzalari, Robert M.; van Alstine, Edward

1999-03-01

312

CCMR: Alcoholysis of Chemical Warfare Agents: Progress Toward Microencapsulated Catalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This summer I investigated catalysts for the alcoholysis of chemical warfare agent simulates. I successfully synthesized and crystallized a catalyst, and using 31P-NMR spectroscopy I showed that the catalyst increases the rate of reaction. I fabricated a Ag/AgCl ion-selective electrode and assembled the necessary instrumentation to monitor the evolution of chloride ion using a pH meter connected to a personal computer. This is an effort to create a high through put screening process. Using this set up, I quantitatively showed that the catalyst is effective for this reaction.

Danek, Jacquelynn

2004-08-17

313

Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

2014-01-01

314

The incubator as a chemical warfare protective device in neonatal intensive care units.  

PubMed

During the Persian Gulf war chemical warfare (CW) protective devices were distributed to the entire population of Israel. Neonates were to be placed in a protective infant carrier (PIC) or an improved PIC ("active PIC") to which filtered air was actively introduced by a blower. The specific needs of low birthweight babies hospitalized in intensive care units and treated in incubators were not adequately addressed. Transfer to a PIC meant disconnecting the infants from life-supporting systems and monitoring devices and exposing them to changes in ambient temperature. To overcome this difficulty the original incubator was used as a CW protective device. Its ports were sealed and low-grade positive pressure was created. This avoided transfer of the neonates from their controlled environment, reduced physiological stress, and improved medical supervision. PMID:1757239

Epstein, Y; Linder, N; Lubin, D; Gale, R; Gale, J; Reichman, B

1991-01-01

315

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combine the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

Jackson, Hank D., II; Grauvogel, Nathanael L.; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.

2006-06-01

316

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

Jackson, Hank D., II; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.; Deyo, Charles R.; Longbottom, Jeff A.; White, Jason C.

2005-05-01

317

Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

Jackson, Hank D., II; Shepherd, Seth D.

2004-08-01

318

Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

Jackson, Hank D., II; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.

2007-04-01

319

Electromagnetic modeling & simulation for assessing hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel (HERP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power radiating systems such as communications and Electronic Warfare (EW) systems are a crucial part of all current military platforms. EW systems provide protection for the soldiers against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). These systems comprise of high-power radiating antennas placed on the roof of the platform, often in close proximity to other antennas, systems and humans. This paper presents

M. Lazzaro

2010-01-01

320

PROPHET and future signal warfare decision aids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision aids, even well designed ones, have demonstrated a wide range of utility and effectiveness when employed in the operational environment. The development and employment of the PROPHET HF propagation assessment system was observed for over a decade. Recent studies indicate that some of the early assumptions on how the module was to be employed were invalid. Although it uniquely fills a real need and its models and products were extensively tested in operational environments by its users, which include most military and civilian branches of the U.S. Department of Defense, PROPHET faces an uncertain future as a stand-alone system. Its main strength is to provide mission oriented and scenario products to perform HF signal coverage, signal vulnerability and radio circuit connectivity in near real time. While technically sound in meeting these objectives, PROPHET's effectivenss is limited by variations in user training, experience, motivation and the lack of operationally convenient access. These problems appear to apply in some degree to the employment of most decision aids. Based on the PROPHET experience, the fallacies that are common in decision aid development and employment, how they affect the decision aid effectiveness, a recommendation for the next generation propagation assessment decision aid results from an initial demonstration prototyping effort to check out some of the new concepts are described.

Rose, Robert B.

1989-09-01

321

Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.

2000-04-01

322

Chemical warfare agent detectors probe the fogs of war  

SciTech Connect

The air-power-dominated Persian Gulf War was the largest massing of coalition forces since World War II. This short conflict left its own intriguing legacy of unanswered questions. Were chemical weapons used in the theater of war Some US Allies, many US service members, and a US Senator believe they were. Yet both US and U.K. defense establishments offer emphatic denials. If Saddam Hussein didn't use chemical weapons, how can the multitude of warning alarms that sounded, alarms indicating the presence of these warfare agents, be explained Did the chemical warfare (CW) agent monitors and detectors the US deployed operate properly And were they sensitive enough to detect not just militarily significant levels, for which troops would have had to don full protective gear, but also very low concentrations of these weapons, levels that Sen. Richard C. Shelby (D.-Ala.) believes may be responsible for the illnesses many Gulf War veterans are now experiencing In this paper, the author addressed these questions.

Ember, L.R. (C EN, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-08-01

323

Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary processes generating biodiversity and ecological mechanisms maintaining biodiversity seem to be diverse themselves. Conventional explanations of biodiversity such as niche differentiation, density-dependent predation pressure, or habitat heterogeneity seem satisfactory to explain diversity in communities of macrobial organisms such as higher plants and animals. For a long time the often high diversity among microscopic organisms in seemingly uniform environments, the famous “paradox of the plankton,” has been difficult to understand. The biodiversity in bacterial communities has been shown to be sometimes orders of magnitudes higher than the diversity of known macrobial systems. Based on a spatially explicit game theoretical model with multiply cyclic dominance structures, we suggest that antibiotic interactions within microbial communities may be very effective in maintaining diversity.

Czaran, Tamas L.; Hoekstra, Rolf F.; Pagie, Ludo

2002-01-01

324

Magnetostatic Wave Channelizer (MSWC) Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the test and evaluation of the Magnetostatic Wave Channelizer (MSWC). The MSWC was developed for Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and applications. The motivation for MSWC resulted from a need for wide instantaneous bandwidth and larg...

B. S. Krantz A. E. Spezio S. L. Fargo

1999-01-01

325

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

1991-02-11

326

Coseismic Strain Steps of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Indicate EW Extension of Tibetan Plateau and Increased Hazard South to Epicenter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) occurred at the east edge of Tibetan Plateau. It is the biggest seismic disaster in China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. To determine the effects of the earthquake on the deformation field of Tibetan Plateau, we collect and analyze continuing strain data of three stations before and after the earthquake in Tibetan Plateau observed by capacitance-type bore-hole strainmeters (Chi, 1985). We collect strain data in NS, EW, NE-SW and NW-NS directions at each borehole. Then we deduce the co-seismic strain steps at time point 14:28 of May 12, 2008 (at this time point the earthquake occurred) with the data before and after the earthquake using the least squares method. Our observation shows that in Tibetan Plateau significant co-seismic strain steps are accompanied with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Extension in EW direction is observed at interior and north Tibetan Plateau which indicates a rapid EW extension of the whole Plateau. Field investigation shows that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau (Dong et al., 2008). Eastwards growth of the Tibetan Plateau results naturally in the extension of the Plateau in EW direction. Our co-seismic strain observation agrees well with the conclusion from surface rupture investigation. The magnitude of co-seismic strain step equals to five times of average year extensional strain rate throughout the plateau interior. Shortening in SE- NW direction is observed at the east edge of the Plateau. As hints that the eastward extension of Tibetan Plateau is resisted by Sichuan rigid basin which increases the potential earthquake hazard around the observation station, manifests the declaration from co-seismic stress changes calculation (Persons et al., 2008). Our observed co-seismic strain steps are in total lager than theoretical calculations of dislocation theories which indicate that magnitude of the great earthquake should be bigger than 7.9. Due to the special structures of Tibetan Plateau, only part of observed co-seismic steps can be explained well by dislocation theories.

Fu, G.; Shen, X.; Tang, J.; Fukuda, Y.

2008-12-01

327

Implementation of a Tactic Manager for the Simulation of a Target Motion Analysis between a Submarine and a Surface Ship Warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tactic manager which can change the behavior of a simulation model according to the tactics defined outside of the model has been studied and implemented. Based on DEVS(discrete event system specification) formalism, we generated a simulation model which is equipped with the interface to the tactic manager. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the tactic manager, a target motion analysis in the warfare between a submarine and a surface ship is simulated.

Son, Myeong-Jo; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Cha, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Kyu-Yeul; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Jun-Kyu

328

Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

2004-12-01

329

Soviet naval forces and nuclear warfare: Weapons, employment, and policy  

SciTech Connect

Based on formal content analysis of the writings of Admiral Sergei G. Gorshkov and past Soviet ministers of defense and heads of the Politburo, the author interprets what the Soviets say they will do in the event of nuclear war. He then constructs a hardware and exercise analysis of the strategic employment of the Soviet Navy in a nuclear war, offering three possible cases-the ''bolt from the blue,'' with existing forces on patrol; full mobilization; and a plausible case of partial mobilization. In addition, he examines, from a Soviet perspective, concepts of deterrence, the strategic goals and missions of its fleet, nuclear targeting policy, the Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) disruption mission, and the potential for tactical nuclear warfare limited to the sea. The author concludes by assessing the implications of Soviet politico-military planning for Western defense strategy and arms control.

Tritten, J.J.

1986-01-01

330

Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

2012-05-01

331

Chimeric EWS-FLI1 transcript in a Ewing cell line with a complex t(11;22;14) translocation.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuroectodermal tumors include the differentiated neuroepithelioma and the undifferentiated Ewing's tumor. Despite clinical and pathological differences, both malignancies are characterized by a t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation which is observed in > 90% of the cases. Molecularly, the translocation is underlaid by a rearrangement between the EWS and Fli-1 genes on chromosomes 22 and 11, respectively. Because of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis between various small round cell tumors of childhood, including Ewing's tumor, a molecular diagnostic assay would be desirable. A prerequisite for predicting the reliability of such a test resides in the molecular elucidation of the peripheral neuroectodermal tumor cases which do not exhibit the prototypical translocation. We have analyzed one such case of Ewing's tumor-derived cell line with a t(11;22;14)(q24;q12;q11) translocation. An EWS-Fli-1 fusion transcript was evidenced by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a reverse transcription product obtained from total RNA. Direct sequencing was performed to demonstrate that the molecular rearrangement in this particular Ewing sample resulted in a fusion transcript similar to those observed in tumors with the prototypical translocation. PMID:8339272

Bonin, G; Scamps, C; Turc-Carel, C; Lipinski, M

1993-08-15

332

Adenosine Transporter ENT4 Is a Direct Target of EWS/WT1 Translocation Product and Is Highly Expressed in Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) is a highly aggressive malignancy that affects mainly adolescents and young adults. A defining characteristic of DSRCT is a specific chromosomal translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), that fuses EWS with WT1, leading to a production of two isoforms of chimeric transcription factor, EWS/WT1(?KTS) and EWS/WT1(+KTS). The chimeric proteins are thought to play critical roles in various stages of oncogenesis through aberrant transcription of different genes, but only a few of these genes have been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the identification of a new target of EWS/WT1, ENT4 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4) which encodes a pH-dependent adenosine transporter. ENT4 is transcriptionally activated by both isoforms of EWS/WT1 as evidenced by promoter-reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Furthermore, ENT4 is highly and specifically expressed in primary tumors of DSRCT as well as in a DSRCT cell line, JN-DSRCT-1. Treatment of JN-DSRCT-1 cells with adenosine analogs, such as 2-chloro-2?-deoxyadenosine (2-CdA), resulted in an increased cytotoxic response in dose- and pH-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance Our detailed analyses of a novel target of EWS/WT1 in DSRCT reveal an insight into the oncogenic mechanism of EWS-fusion chromosomal translocation gene products and provide a new marker for DSRCT. Furthermore, identification of ENT4 as a highly expressed transcript in DSRCT may represent an attractive pathway for targeting chemotherapeutic drugs into DSRCT.

Li, Hongjie; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Beers, Lisa F.; Xia, Li; Gerald, William; Wang, Joanne; Haber, Daniel A.; Lee, Sean Bong

2008-01-01

333

Coalition Warfare Program Management Plan. Nominations for Fiscal Years 2013-2014.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To address the need for interoperability the Department of Defense established the Coalition Warfare Program (CWP) program element (0603923D8Z) under the authority of the Office of the Under secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and logistics (...

2011-01-01

334

U.S. Special Operations: Context and Capabilities in Irregular Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irregular warfare (IW) is a concept highlighted in contemporary military thinking, but it encompasses a perspective that has long been the core of America's special operations forces (SOF). The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), created b...

E. T. Olson

2010-01-01

335

Advances in Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering: Implications for the Development of New Biological Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conferees on the FY96 National Defense Authorization Conference noted with concern that the recent progress in biotechnology could potentially lead to the development of new biological warfare (BW) agents and capabilities among potential adversaries o...

1996-01-01

336

Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Anti-Surface Warfare Platforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) is performed for three alternative anti-surface warfare (ASUW) platforms that will conduct operations in multi-service regional scenarios. Estimated program costs, historical cost variances, and measure...

W. M. Skinner

1993-01-01

337

Coherent Acoustic Communications During the Littoral Warfare Advanced Development 99-1 Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coherent acoustic communication experiments were performed during the Littoral Warfare Advanced Development exercise in the Gulf of Mexico in February 1999 (LWAD 99-1). The Acoustic Communication (ACOMM) experiment was allotted four segments of 5 hours ea...

A. Al-Kurd J. Schindall

2000-01-01

338

Integrated Biological Warfare Technology Platform (IBWTP). Intelligent Software Supporting Situation Awareness, Response, and Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the context of the Integrated Biological Warfare Technology Platform (IBWTP) program, Quantum Leap Innovations, Inc. (QLI) was tasked by the Office of Naval Research to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate novel technology supporting early detection ...

A. H. Johnson D. D. Steiner F. T. Abbott S. D. Prior

2007-01-01

339

Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the pa...

T. E. Potok X. Cui

2009-01-01

340

Rapid, Physiologically Based Method for Evaluating Candidate Chemical Warfare Agent Uptake Simulants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential chemical warfare agent uptake simulants were selected and evaluated using a physiologically based method. Measurements of the partitioning of a chemical in body tissues and its physical properties, together with animal exposures in a closed cham...

G. W. Jepson H. J. Clewell M. E. Andersen

1985-01-01

341

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestric...

R. A. Jenkins M. V. Buchanan R. Merriweather R. H. Ilgner T. M. Gayle

1992-01-01

342

Chemical Protection Against Chemical Warfare Agents. Reactive Nanoparticles as Destructive Adsorbents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project dealt with the study of the reactions of chemical warfare agent simulant's with nanoparticulate metal oxides, both as dry powders and as slurries or emulsions with appropriate solvents. Products of these detoxification processes were determin...

K. J. Klabunde

2003-01-01

343

Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents (SERPACWA) - Effect of Alcohol Pre-Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents (SERPACWA, previously known as Topical Skin Protectant), has been proposed to complement chemical protective clothing. The skin surface at the closure sites of chemical protective clothing and ...

L. Levine W. A. Latzka M. J. McCreery C. M. Kesick M. A. Kolka

2001-01-01

344

Adding a Performance-Based Component to Surface Warfare Officer Bonuses: Will it Affect Retention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community has difficulty retaining mid-grade officers, as is evident by the considerable shortfall between Officer Programmed Authorization and the current officer inventory beginning at 9 years of commissioned service. T...

A. S. Carman R. M. Mudd

2008-01-01

345

Combinatorial Auction Theory Applied to the Selection of Surface Warfare Officer Retention Incentives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential retention and cost impacts of offering combinations of retention base incentives to members of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community. The SWO community has experienced the lowest junior off...

C. G. Lewis C. M. Denmond C. R. Zegley D. N. Johnson

2007-01-01

346

An Essay on the Relationship of Warfare Ecology to General Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Warfare represents not only tragedies for societies and casualties and suffering for people, but also a great menace to environmental\\u000a health and most living organisms. In a short time, warfare mobilizes a massive amount of energy, matter and information without\\u000a a transparent and shared control of actions usually adopted by societies during peace-time. It comprises a very special “extreme”\\u000a tool

Almo Farina

347

A Fuzzy Associative Memory for the Classification of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development and testing of a fuzzy associative memory (FAM) architecture for use in the classification of chemical warfare agent simulants. A hybrid ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS(tof)MS) instrument was used to collect data for two chemical warfare agent simulants: dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP). A preprocessor was developed to convert the

Robert J. Hammell; Robert J. Schafer

2007-01-01

348

Political Warfare—An Essential Instrument of U.S. Grand Strategy Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent policy changes at the Departments of State and Defense and the U.S. Agency for International Development have affected U.S. national security. The George W. Bush Administration has begun restructuring the federal government to better use an instrument of grand strategy called political warfare. Ill-defined and often misunderstood, political warfare is a nonviolent instrument comprising tangible, interrelated operations such as

Donovan C. Chau

2006-01-01

349

Characterization of the genomic breakpoint and chimeric transcripts in the EWS-WT1 gene fusion of desmoplastic small round cell tumor.  

PubMed Central

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a recently recognized distinctive tumor shown to be associated with a recurrent translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), and rearrangement of the genes for Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and Wilms tumor (WT1). A genomic DNA fragment containing the EWS-WT1 gene fusion has been isolated from a desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and the breakpoint has been characterized. The breakpoints involve the intron between EWS exons 7 and 8 and the intron between WT1 exons 7 and 8. Chimeric transcripts corresponding to the fusion gene were detected in four of six cases studied. Analysis of these transcripts show an in-frame fusion of RNA encoding the amino-terminal domain of EWS to both alternatively spliced forms of the last three zinc fingers of the DNA-binding domain of WT1. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor represents the third tumor type associated with translocation of EWS and the first tumor associated with consistent translocation of WT1. The chimeric products are predicted to modulate transcription at WT1 target sites and contribute to development of this unique tumor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Gerald, W L; Rosai, J; Ladanyi, M

1995-01-01

350

Analysis of the expression of cell cycle regulators in Ewing cell lines: EWS-FLI-1 modulates p57KIP2and c-Myc expression.  

PubMed

Ewing tumour is characterized by specific chromosome translocations which fuse EWS to a subset of genes encoding ETS transcription factors, most frequently FLI-1. We report the analysis of the expression of various cell cycle regulators both in Ewing tumour derived cell lines and in different cellular models with either inducible or constitutive EWS-FLI-1 cDNA expression. In Ewing cell lines, cyclin D1, CDK4, Rb, p27KIP1 and c-Myc were consistently highly expressed whereas p57KIP2, p15INK4B and p14ARF demonstrated undetectable or low expression levels. The amount of p16INK4A, p21CIP1, p18INKAC and CDK6 was variable from one cell line to the other. The inducible expression of EWS-FLI-1 led to a strong upregulation of c-Myc and a considerable downregulation of p57KIP2. Other proteins did not show evident modification. High c-Myc and very low p57KIP2 expression levels were also observed in neuroblastoma NGP cells constitutively expressing EWS-FLI-1 as compared to parental cells. Analysis of the p57KIP2 promoter indicated that EWS-FLI-1 downregulates, possibly through an indirect mechanism, the transcription of this gene. Finally, we show that ectopic expression of p57KIP2 in Ewing cells blocks proliferation through a complete G1 arrest. These results suggest that the modulation of p57(KIP2) expression by EWS-FLI-1 is a fundamental step in Ewing tumorigenesis. PMID:11423975

Dauphinot, L; De Oliveira, C; Melot, T; Sevenet, N; Thomas, V; Weissman, B E; Delattre, O

2001-05-31

351

The epidemiology of critical care air transport team operations in contemporary warfare.  

PubMed

Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) have evolved as a vital component of the U.S. Air Force's aeromedical evacuation system. Previous epidemiological research in this area is limited. The objective of this commentary is to highlight the importance of obtaining robust epidemiological data regarding patients transported by CCATTs. A limited epidemiological analysis was performed to describe CCATT patients transported during Operation Enduring Freedom and the waning months of Operation Iraqi Freedom. CCATT transports for the calendar year 2011 were examined as recorded in the U.S. Transportation Command Regulating and Command and Control (C2) Evacuation System database. As many as 290 CCATT primary patient transport records were reviewed. Of these, 58.6% of patients had multiple injuries, 15.9% of patients had traumatic brain injury, 7% had acute coronary syndromes, and 24.8% of all transports were for nonbattle-related injuries. The most common International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification coded injury was bilateral lower extremity amputation (40%). Explosive blasts were the top mechanism of injury for patients requiring CCAT. The distribution of injuries and illnesses requiring CCAT appear to have changed compared to previous conventional conflicts. Understanding the epidemiology of casualties evacuated by CCATT during modern warfare is a prerequisite for the development of effective predeployment training to ensure optimal outcomes for critically ill and injured warriors. PMID:24902127

Galvagno, Samuel M; Dubose, Joseph J; Grissom, Thomas E; Fang, Raymond; Smith, Richard; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shackelford, Stacy; Scalea, Thomas M

2014-06-01

352

Healthcare and Warfare. Medical Space, Mission and Apartheid in Twentieth Century Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents’ ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a ‘terrorist hospital’ in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people’s healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic.

Nord, Catharina

2014-01-01

353

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator IR Countermeasures test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using up to eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9 inch X 3 inch cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and int eh foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for property spatial and intensity characteristics. Al relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

Shepherd, Seth D.

2002-07-01

354

Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern namibia.  

PubMed

In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic. PMID:25045182

Nord, Catharina

2014-07-01

355

BACTERIAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE--The Current Status  

PubMed Central

For fourteen years public attention has been focused so sharply on atomic weapons as to lose sight of other, less spectacular but equally significant advances in the art of warfare. In the shadows cast by brilliant research in nuclear physics are hidden startling advances in the field of chemical and biological weapons. These weapons, as now developed, are not only capable of producing mass casualties quite comparable with those of atomic bombs, but they also possess certain advantages which may make them the weapons of choice for an unscrupulous enemy. If war should come, it is the medical profession which will have the sole responsibility for protecting the citizens of California against these weapons, and we can therefore delay no longer in acquainting ourselves with their potentialities and characteristics. In this task, we are working under two serious handicaps. The first is that our classical medical training affords little appreciation of the real danger, and the second is the cloak of secrecy surrounding the entire subject.

Coggins, Cecil H.

1960-01-01

356

Passive standoff detection of chemical warfare agents on surfaces.  

PubMed

Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible. PMID:15540446

Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O

2004-11-01

357

Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

Wente, William Baker

2005-06-01

358

Performance effects of chemical warfare antidotes: A perspective  

SciTech Connect

The threat that enemy forces may use chemical warfare against United States military troops has caused the medical research and development community to find effective antidotes. Particularly in the case of nerve agent poisoning, the timely use of antidote therapies represents the key to survival in contaminated environments. Current training doctrine instructs soldiers how to recognize the symptoms of nerve agent exposure, and then how to counteract the life-threatening effects with the administration of atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride. However, these compounds can produce performance degrading effects on their own even when no chemical agent is present. Particularly in the case of the aviator, who is expected to exercise very precise control over an inherently complex vehicle such as a helicopter, the impact of self-administered antidotes should be fully appreciated. The present review briefly summarizes what is known about the actions and performance effects of both atropine and pralidoxime chloride, and recommendations are made concerning the need for additional research.

Caldwell, J.A.

1992-07-01

359

Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV.

Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

2011-01-01

360

Remote sensing of evaporation ducts for Naval warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas critical to naval operations are the prediction and application of atmospheric refractivity gradients. This report describes the use of the evaporation duct over the ocean and a plan for obtaining information about the evaporation duct by space-borne sensors. There has been little research on the theory and modeling of lower atmospheric refractivity, particularly evaporation ducts over a nonhomogeneous ocean over the past five decades. Much is known about surface layer similarity theory and propagation model techniques, but little attention has been placed on the spatial variabilities in the turbulent propagation medium (such as the atmospheric surface layer) in regions of strategic Navy interest. These regions include the coastal shelf, Gulf Stream, marginal ice zone, and those places where sharp sea surface temperature fronts exist. For tomorrow's Navy, using remote sensing techniques to infer evaporative and tropospheric ducts are a requirement. Although research efforts on ducts must couple the tropospheric and surface layer components, this report summarizes the state of the art for the evaporative duct and assess the potential of new and future results on improving next generation naval warfare capabilities.

Geernaert, G. L.

1989-11-01

361

Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (LC- ESI-MS) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (DESI-MS) Identification of Chemical Warfare Agents in Consumer Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrorist use of chemical warfare agents could involve contamination of consumer products with chemical warfare agents or other toxic chemicals. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and desorption electrospray ioniza...

C. L. Chenier P. A. D'Agostino

2007-01-01

362

Metoder, Verktyg och Verksamheter vid FOI Foersvarsanalys (Assessment of Electronic Warfare: Methods, Tools and Studies Performed by the Division of Defence Analysis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This main objective of this report is to describe methods and tools for assessment of electronic warfare. The report is primarily focused at describing activities that have been accomplished within the project Assessment of Electronic Warfare at the Divis...

G. Kindvall

2002-01-01

363

Analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents using capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), their precursors and degradation products (DPs) is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. Considering a growing number of papers presented in the last years in the field of capillary electrophoresis (CE) of DPs, this review article gives an overview on CE techniques which are feasible for the determination of DPs with the advantages of using relatively simple and inexpensive research instrumentation, reduced consumption of potentially toxic samples, shorter sample preparation times, etc. A brief introduction is provided into the chemical background of CWAs followed by a documented appraisal that the CE method is well suited to deal with polar, acidic DPs mostly occurring in aqueous samples or extracts. Applications of CE to the separation of DPs are described, complemented by a critical discussion of the detection techniques, including mostly conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence, UV absorption and mass spectrometry. This review also includes actual development regarding the challenges of CE in analyses of different DPs from real samples, often avoided by in- and off-line pre-concentration techniques or the coupling of CE to selective detection methods. Special emphasis is placed on the miniaturised CE systems that have the potential of being before long developed into a field deployable and potentially disposable platform for routine DP monitoring in environmental samples. PMID:21858300

Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Gareil, Pierre; Timerbaev, Andrei R

2011-10-21

364

Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 ?m diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-?m microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

2005-11-01

365

Period changes of EA, EB and EW-types binaries (Liao+, 2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study includes the stars listed in Kreiner, Kim & Nha (2001, An Altas of O-C Diagrams of Eclipsing Binary Stars. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Cracow, Poland), the 101 Algol systems in Giuricin et al. (1983ApJS...52...35G) and the Algol-type binaries listed in Ibanoglu et al. (2006, Cat. J\\/MNRAS\\/373\\/435). As selection criteria we considered stars either that show cyclic period changes

W.-P. Liao; S.-B. Qian

2010-01-01

366

EZH2 is a mediator of EWS\\/FLI1 driven tumor growth and metastasis blocking endothelial and neuro-ectodermal differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing tumors (ET) are highly malignant, localized in bone or soft tissue, and are molecularly defined by ews\\/ets translocations. DNA microarray analysis revealed a relationship of ET to both endothelium and fetal neural crest. We identified expression of histone methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste, Drosophila, Homolog 2 (EZH2) to be increased in ET. Suppressive activity of EZH2 maintains stemness in normal

Günther H. S. Richter; Stephanie Plehm; Annette Fasan; Sabine Rössler; Rebekka Unland; Idriss M. Bennani-Baiti; Marc Hotfilder; Diana Löwel; Irene von Luettichau; Ilona Mossbrugger; Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez; Heinrich Kovar; Martin S. Staege; Carsten Müller-Tidow; Stefan Burdach

2009-01-01

367

EWS-FLI-1 modulates miRNA145 and SOX2 expression to initiate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward Ewing sarcoma cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) display plasticity and self-renewal properties reminiscent of normal tissue stem cells, but the events responsible for their emergence remain obscure. We recently identified CSCs in Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) and showed that they retain mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) plasticity. In the present study, we addressed the mechanisms that underlie ESFT CSC development. We show that the EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene, associated with 85%–90% of ESFTs and believed to initiate their pathogenesis, induces expression of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) genes OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in human pediatric MSCs (hpMSCs) but not in their adult counterparts. Moreover, under appropriate culture conditions, hpMSCs expressing EWS-FLI-1 generate a cell subpopulation displaying ESFT CSC features in vitro. We further demonstrate that induction of the ESFT CSC phenotype is the result of the combined effect of EWS-FLI-1 on its target gene expression and repression of microRNA-145 (miRNA145) promoter activity. Finally, we provide evidence that EWS-FLI-1 and miRNA-145 function in a mutually repressive feedback loop and identify their common target gene, SOX2, in addition to miRNA145 itself, as key players in ESFT cell differentiation and tumorigenicity. Our observations provide insight for the first time into the mechanisms whereby a single oncogene can reprogram primary cells to display a CSC phenotype.

Riggi, Nicolo; Suva, Mario-Luca; De Vito, Claudio; Provero, Paolo; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Baumer, Karine; Cironi, Luisa; Janiszewska, Michalina; Petricevic, Tanja; Suva, Domizio; Tercier, Stephane; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Guillou, Louis; Stamenkovic, Ivan

2010-01-01

368

Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

J. R. Pugh; J. H. Grinstead; J. A. Farley; P. D. Enlow; D. A. Kelly

1996-01-01

369

NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

2007-02-01

370

Anthrax vaccine. Model of a response to the biologic warfare threat.  

PubMed

Anthrax vaccine is being administered to all 2.4 million active duty, reserve, and National Guard troops, as prophylaxis against biologic warfare. The vaccine's effectiveness in this setting may be limited. This article discusses unresolved issues of safety, with an emphasis on the need for careful surveillance of vaccines used by the military, which has sidestepped the commercial process. Also considered are ethical issues related to the development and use of military biologics, as the United States Army advances its Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program, a plan to produce more than ten vaccines specifically for biologic warfare threat, and to administer them to all military servicemembers. PMID:10198799

Nass, M

1999-03-01

371

Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents  

DOEpatents

A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN); Sanders, Charlene A. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-05-27

372

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the main site, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1992. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the Navy with hydrogeologic data to meet the requirements of a Spill Contingency Plan. This report describes the ground-water observation-well network, hydro- geologic, and water-quality data collected between August 1992 and September 1993. The report includes a description of the locations and con- struction of 35 observation wells on the Main Site. Hydrologic data include lithologic core samples, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and tide data. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

Bell, Clifton F.; Bolles, Thomas P.; Harlow, George E.

1994-01-01

373

Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 ?g/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 ?g/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

2008-12-01

374

United States Navy operational oceanographic nowcast\\/forecast system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command operates a system of meteorological and oceanographic models for continuous, realtime nowcast\\/forecast support to United States Department of Defense forces, particularly for Navy\\/Marine Corps safety of navigation, exploitation of oceanic fronts, and nearshore tactical employment of ships, aircraft and personnel for mine warfare, strike warfare, amphibious landings and special forces operations. The models

D. L. Durham

1994-01-01

375

A Simple Extension of EW Gauge Boson Mixing and Mass of the 125 GeV Higgs Boson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple extension of EW gauge theory found within the framework of the SM mixes the Yang-Mills (Y-M) field with the vector (Weak and EM), scalar (Higgs), and tensor gauge fields resulting in a model prediction of a Higgs mass spectrum that includes the recently discovered 125 GeV particle. The key feature is the use of coupled Y-M gauge fields (B?) whose quanta are spin J?=0,1,2 and isotopic spin I3=0 mixing off-diagonally with the neutral Higgs, Z, photon and tensor gauge fields. The tensor algebra is associated with a unimodular 4x4 integral matrix with even (vector) and odd (scalar and tensor) 2x2 matrix subspace components. The predicted Higgs spectrum consists of neutral scalar (J?^? =0^+,I3=0) and pseudoscalar (J?^? =0^-,I3=0) particles whose QCD quark-antiquark (ut,ct,tt) wavefunctions are combinations of a scalar Higgs color magnetic triplet (sp quarks) and a pseudoscalar Higgs color magnetic singlet (ss quarks). The two lowest lying Higgs scalar particles are predicted to be 124.05 GeV (ut) and 125.30 GeV(ct). The predicted Higgs scalar and pseudoscalar mass spectra will be presented and discussed.

Ward, Thomas

2013-04-01

376

Computing Systems and Networks Division.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brochure describes the mission and workings of the Computing Systems and Networks Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NAVSWC) in Dahlgren, Virginia. The Division works towards the following objectives: (1) to provide and maintain Center-wid...

1991-01-01

377

Clash of Opposing Futures: Examining the Role of the Will in Shaping Future Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. and Coalition forces conducted a lightning campaign during Operation DESERT STORM, shattering Iraqi forces in a 100-hour ground campaign. During the conflict the United States fielded a highly trained force versed in maneuver warfare doctrine and int...

P. C. Byron

2005-01-01

378

Instructional Development and Classroom Technology: Prototype Classrooms at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first phase of the process of developing a plan to promote increased use of educational technology by the instructors and students of the U.S. Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS) in Newport, Rhode Island, began with a needs assessment which focused on the mission and organization of the school; the SWOS curriculum and the teaching…

Simonson, Michael; And Others

379

All-Indian Rodeo: A Transformation of Western Apache Tribal Warfare and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics of All-Indian Rodeos held on the Fort Apache Reservation (Arizona) clearly reflect the evolution of historical patterns of tribal warfare and raiding. Rodeos provide the means to preserve Apache rituals, the warrior ideal, and traditional relationships with neighboring Navajo and Papago tribes. (SV)

Chavis, Ben

1993-01-01

380

Adenovirus and its Vector for Developing Vaccines Against Biological Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum reviews a new platform for the development of vaccines against biological warfare (BW) agents. The noted platform uses adenovirus as a vector to deliver DNA that encodes for key antigens of BW agents. Once inside the mammalian cell, this a...

Q. Wu

2004-01-01

381

Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including

S S Ramkumar; A Love; U R Sata; C J Koester; W J Smith; G A Keating; L Hobbs; S B Cox; W M Lagna; R J Kendall

2008-01-01

382

78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13, 23, and 24, Township 6 North, Range 22 East, Mount Diablo Meridian, lying within the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training...Section 14 and 15, Township 7 North, Range 22 East, Mount Diablo Meridian, within the proclamation boundaries of the...

2013-05-21

383

Ion mobility spectrometry and its applications in detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

When fast detection of chemical warfare agents in the field is required, the ion mobility spectrometer may be the only suitable option. This article provides an essential survey of the different ion mobility spectrometry detection technologies. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.). PMID:20979419

Mäkinen, Marko A; Anttalainen, Osmo A; Sillanpää, Mika E T

2010-12-01

384

Network Centric Warfare - A Tool or Hindrance to the Operational Commander.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Network Centric Warfare has been identified as the manner in which the Joint Force will operate in the 21st Century. Six years after VADM Arthur Cebrowski proposed the road to a netted force, we are able to examine the progress toward the attainment of th...

J. Villa

2004-01-01

385

Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy is an established is an established technique for observing the rotational spectra of molecules and complexes in molecular beams. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are adapting this measurement technology for applications in analytical chemistry. Presently, FTMW spectroscopy is being used to investigate chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors. A FTMW spectroscopy facility has been established at a surety laboratory at the Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, where the capabilities exist for handling these deadly warfare agents. Here, the rotational spectra of Sarin, Soman and DF have been observed and assigned. Also, microwave spectroscopic studies of less toxic precursors such as pinacolyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and thiodiglycol have been carried out at NIST. Tests will be undertaken to assess the potential of using FTMW spectroscopy for detecting trace amounts of chemical-warfare agents and precursors in air. A database of rotational transition frequencies is being compiled for use in conjunction with a FTMW spectrometer to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical weapons. The sensitivity and resolution of FTMW spectroscopy of FTMW spectroscopy suggest that the technique may offer real-time, unequivocal identification of chemical-warfare agents at trace vapor concentrations in air.

Hight Walker, Angela R.; Suenram, Richard D.; Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Woolard, Dwight L.; Wiebach, W.

1999-01-01

386

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress. Updated October 22, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) activities, and has taken some steps in recent years to strengthen its ability to conduct such activities. Among the most readily visible of the Navy'...

R. O'Rourke

2010-01-01

387

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) activities. Among the most readily visible of the Navy's recent IW operations have been those carried out by Navy sailors serving ashore in Afghanista...

R. O'Rourke

2013-01-01

388

Network Centric Warfare in Operation Allied Force: Future Promise or Future Peril.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elements of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) had a significant impact on the Headquarters, U.S. European Command conduct and oversight of Operation ALLIED FORCE, the NATO combat operation conducted in and around the Serbian province of Kosovo from March to J...

R. M. Stuart

2000-01-01

389

Acute Toxicity Estimation and Operational Risk Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Exposures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To address a broad range of related issues associated with chemical risk assessment and operational risk decision making. While this report focuses on a specific group of chemical warfare agents (GA GB, GD, GF, VX and HD) and exposure routes (i.e., inhala...

2004-01-01

390

Chemical warfare agents: A historical update from an American perspective. Final report, January-June 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the evolution of chemical warfare agents from their introduction during World War I to the development of the more lethal agents that exist in current military stockpiles. The corresponding evolution of World War I harassing agents into the riot control agents of today is also followed, and some historical background to the development of a nonlethal incapacitating agent is also described.

Aaron, H.S.

1993-04-01

391

Heat exchange during encapsulation in a chemical warfare agent protective patient wrap in four hot environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerable encapsulation time in a Chemical Warfare Agent Protective Patient Wrap (dry insulative value = 1.44 clo; permeability index = 0.25) was determined in four hot environments including a simulated solar heat load (1152 W.m-2) for eight males. Mean body temperature (Tb), evaporative heat loss (EHL), dry heat gain (R + C), metabolic rate (M), and net heat flow (Msk)

L. A. Stephenson; M. A. Kolka; A. E. Allan; W. R. Santee

1988-01-01

392

Experimental Analysis of Integration of Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Naval Special Warfare Operations Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the use of small, expendable, endurance UAVs to enhance the combat effectiveness of Naval Special Warfare Forces (NSW) The experiment involved UAVs, NSW forces, and a red team in a downed-pilot rescue...

J. C. Butner

2002-01-01

393

Experimental Analysis of Integration of Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Naval Special Warfare Operations Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the use of small, expendable, endurance UAVs to enhance the combat effectiveness of Naval Special Warfare Forces (NSW) . The experiment involved UAVs, NSW forces, and a red team in a downed-pilot resc...

J. C. Butner

2002-01-01

394

Biological Warfare Agents, Toxins, Vectors and Pests as Biological Terrorism Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The threat and use of biological agents for warfare and terrorism purposes has a long history. As the human, animal and plant pathogens and toxin lists will be hard to define we propose several tables of enlisted pathogens and toxins with important criter...

S. Bokan

2003-01-01

395

Incorporating AFEWC IMOM as an Instructional Asset for NPS Radar and Electronic Warfare Curricula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, effort is made to incorporate the computer program, Improved Many (Jammers)-on-Many (Radars) (IMOM) , into radar and electronic warfare curricula at the Naval Postgraduate School. The IMOM program is used operationally by the U.S. Air Forc...

G. A. Van Splinter

1992-01-01

396

How China will use cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract:The People’s Republic of China (PRC) may be a global power economically but its military lacks force projection beyond the Asia Pacific region. Its traditional military hardware is one to three generations behind the US and Russia. In light of these deficiencies it is probable that cyber warfare will provide China with an asymmetric advantage to deter aggression from stronger

Jason Fritz

2008-01-01

397

Sandals and Robes to Business Suits and Gulf Streams: Warfare in the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warfare used to be a bi-polar structure, state on state. Our defense establishment was more concerned with templating our enemies in a force-on- force engagement that was grounded in understood rules of war. The battlefield was linear and structured, with...

M. T. Flynn

2011-01-01

398

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

399

WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

400

Waste minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a systematic approach to identify, select and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. The report describes the application of the waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station in Keyport, WA (NUWES Keyport).

NONE

1991-09-01

401

Chemistry of destroying chemical warfare agents in flame. Technical project report, April 1994May 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the research is to increase our understanding of flame chemistry of organophosphorus compounds (OPC). This class of chemicals includes chemical warfare agents. (CWAs) such as the nerve agents GB GD and VX, stockpiles of which in the United States and Former Soviet Union are scheduled for destruction by incineration or other technologies. Although high CWA destruction efficiency

O. P. Korobeinichev; A. A. Chernov; V. M. Shvartsberg; V. V. Mokrushin

1995-01-01

402

Quantitative detection of a simulant of organophosphonate chemical warfare agents using liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of liquid crystal (LC)-based sensors for detection of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP), a representative organophosphonate compound and simulant of chemical warfare agent sarin, are presented. The equilibration coordination interaction among the aluminum ions on a surface, the cyano group in LCs, and the phosphoryl group in DMMP have been exploited to achieve sensitive, fast, and reversible sensor responses. Measurement

Heidi J. VanTreeck; Darrin R. Most; Bart A. Grinwald; Kurt A. Kupcho; Avijit Sen; Michael D. Bonds; Bharat R. Acharya

2011-01-01

403

Semiconducting tin oxide nanowires and thin films for Chemical Warfare Agents detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we report the preparation and structural characterization of tin oxide nanowires as functional materials for the development of chemical sensors. Aspects of material preparation relevant for gas sensing applications, such as the control of the wire diameter, are emphasized. The functional characterization is focused on the detection of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) simulants, with particular regard to

G. Sberveglieri; C. Baratto; E. Comini; G. Faglia; M. Ferroni; M. Pardo; A. Ponzoni; A. Vomiero

2009-01-01

404

Chemical ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agent simulants using laser produced metal ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an initial investigation of the potential utility of chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry of selected analogs of chemical warfare agents using metal ions, the reactions of manganese ions with chloroalkyl sulfides and organophosphonates have been followed in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer. Mn{sup +} ions, produced by UV laser radiation focused on a stainless steel target, react rapidly with

Chih-Cong Chou; S. Randolph Long

1990-01-01

405

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such

R. A. Jenkins; M. V. Buchanan; R. Merriweather; R. H. Ilgner; T. M. Gayle; J. H. Moneyhun; A. P. Watson

1992-01-01

406

A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants for the Study of Environmental Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in the environmental fate of chemical warfare agents attributable to the intensified threat of chemical weapons use in a terrorist attack. Knowledge of processes that influence the fate of agents such as distilled mustard, lewisite, tabun, sarin, soman, and VX in the environment is important for development of disposal strategies and for risk and exposure assessments.

Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt; Detlef R. U. Knappe; Morton A. Barlaz

2008-01-01

407

Chemical warfare agents simulants detection with an optimized SAW sensor array  

Microsoft Academic Search

An E-nose based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors has been developed, and sensitive polymer coatings have been optimized to detect simulants of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The polymers selected have allowed to discriminate among simulants and classify them at low concentrations in air through Pattern Recognition Methods. Good detection responses have been achieved for very low concentrations, such as

D. Matatagui; J. Martí; M. J. Fernández; J. L. Fontecha; J. Gutiérrez; I. Gràcia; C. Cané; M. C. Horrillo

2011-01-01

408

Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Presence of Interfering Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two portable chemical warfare agent (CWA) alarm units, AP2CV (Proengin France) and M90 (Environics, Finland), challenged with CWA and interfering materials, was evaluated in the laboratory. This study focuses on the effect of fuel vapors and carbon dioxide on the detectors' responses to sulfur mustard (HD) and sarin (GB) vapors. The interfering materials were chosen to simulate

Shai Kendler; Amalia Zaltsman; Gad Frishman

2003-01-01

409

Modeling the Thermal Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents Bound on Building Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of a terrorist attack with chemical warfare agents (CWAs), large quantities of materials, both indoor and outdoor, may be treated with thermal incineration during the site remediation process. CWAs in general are not particularly thermally stable and decompose readily in a high temperature combustion environment. Potential difficulties exist, however, in thermally processing waste materials from a post-CWA

P. Lemieux; J. Wood

410

Multivariate statistical classification of surface enhanced Raman spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial results which demonstrate the ability to classify surface enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants are presented. The spectra of 2 endospores (B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus); 2 chemical agent simulants (Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), Diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP)); and 2 toxin simulants (Ovalbumin, Horseradish peroxidase) were collected on multiple substrates fabricated from colloidal gold adsorbed onto a

Augustus W. Fountain III; William F. Pearman

2005-01-01

411

Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of optical techniques for the detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in real-world conditions. We analyze the problem of detecting a target species in the presence of a multitude of interferences that are often stochastic and we provide a broadly applicable technique for evaluating the sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP), and probability

Michael E. Webber; Michael Pushkarsky; C. Kumar N. Patel

2005-01-01

412

Optimized design of a SAW sensor array for chemical warfare agents simulants detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agent simulants detection is of great interest for security reasons. An electronic nose based on Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors has been developed and sensor polymer coatings have been optimized. These allowed us to detect very low concentrations of certain simulants. A good classification was achieved.

D. Matatagui; J. Martí; M. J. Fernández; J. L. Fontecha; J. Gutiérrez; I. Gràcia; C. Cané; M. C. Horrillo

2009-01-01

413

Mission over Mechanism: Reorganizing the Intelligence Community to Meet the Challenge of Asymmetric Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the age of asymmetric warfare, intelligence is tantamount to national defense. Our terrorist adversaries are too dispersed to destroy and too fanatical to deter. Our best hope of security is accurate, timely, accessible information and actionable analysis. We need to organize the Intelligence Community (IC) by mission—not collection mechanism—to take full advantage of our technical proficiency and analytic expertise.

Diana Raschke

414

Molecularly imprinted nanopatterns for the recognition of biological warfare agent ricin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for biological warfare agent (BWA) ricin was synthesized using silanes in order to avoid harsh environments during the synthesis of MIP. The synthesized MIP was utilized for the recognition of ricin. The complete removal of ricin from polymer was confirmed by fluorescence spectrometer and SEM–EDAX. SEM and EDAX studies confirmed the attachment of silane polymer on

Santwana Pradhan; M. Boopathi; Om Kumar; Anuradha Baghel; Pratibha Pandey; T. H. Mahato; Beer Singh; R. Vijayaraghavan

2009-01-01

415

The Baltic Sea as a dumping site of chemical munitions and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Allied and Soviet forces after World War II is presented. The types and properties of the chemical warfare agents found in the Baltic, as well as the known dumping regions, are described. The potential hazards for the environment arising from the long-term disposal of munitions

Aleksandra Szarejko; Jacek Namie?nik

2009-01-01

416

AN ANALYSIS OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY'S PROPOSED UNDERSEA WARFARE TRAINING RANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In October 2005, the United States Navy issued a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the construction of an undersea warfare training range off the North Carolina coast. Exercises conducted in thisproposed,range will involve the use of mid- frequency sonar, the known cause of one mass whale stranding in the Bahamas, and the suspected cause of at least twelve other

Elizabeth M. Wexler

2006-01-01

417

Assessing India's Emerging Land Warfare Doctrines and Capabilities: Prospects and Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to locate and assess the sources of India's land warfare doctrines and capabilities. It begins by briefly examining the Indian army's significant combat experience in dealing with the external and internal security threats during the past six decades. The first section analyzes the security challenges and threats that presently drive the evolution of India's land war–fighting doctrines

Harinder Singh

2011-01-01

418

Use of SolidPhase Extraction in Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical warfare agents Tabun, Sarin, Soman, VX and mustard gas and the Sarin impurity diispropyl methylphosphonate have been isolated from different samples from a battlefield environment. 50 ml of water, 2 g of grass, soil, sand, paper, neoprene or butyl rubber or 1 g of silicone, a polyurethane foam with activated charcoal or a polyester\\/cotton fabric were spiked with

John Aasulf Tørnes; Aase Mari Opstad; Bjørn Arne Johnsen

1991-01-01

419

Destruction of simulated chemical warfare agents in non-thermal atmospheric-pressure air plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in air was investigated. Stainles s steel samples inoculated with malathion (a surrogate for nerve agent VX) were placed on the ca thode, where they were treated by the chemical active species produced in the streamers. An effect ive decontamination (>99.7 %) was achieved after 10

J. Jarrige; P. Vervisch

420

An outbreak of chickenpox in a military field hospital--the implications for biological warfare.  

PubMed

An outbreak of chickenpox with spread to patients and staff on the isolation ward of a British field hospital during the Gulf war is described. The implications for the design and operation of field hospital isolation units should transmissible biological warfare agents be encountered in any future conflict are discussed. PMID:1774746

Hepburn, N C; Brooks, T J

1991-12-01

421

Applications of LPG fiber optical sensors for relative humidity and chemical-warfare-agents monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-period grating (LPG) fiber optic sensor has been developed for monitoring the relative humidity levels and toxic chemicals, especially the chemical warfare agents. The principle of operation of this sensor is based on monitoring the refractive index changes exhibited by the reactive coating applied to the surface of the LPG region in response to analytes. Specific interaction of the

Shufang Luo; Yongcheng Liu; Artur Sucheta; Mishell K. Evans; Roger Van Tassell

2002-01-01

422

Spectroscopic Variations of the Be-Shell Star EW Lacertae in the V/R Variation Periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EW Lac showed remarkable VfraslR variations in 1976-1986, and a similar VfraslR variation started again in around 2007, after some quasi-periodic VfraslR variations. For the first VfraslR variation event, we analyzed the spectroscopic behaviors of emission lines and shell absorption lines of the Balmer series. The VfraslR variations of the H? through H? lines are characterized by the different manner of variations of the individual emission line in time lag and in duration of the VfraslR phases. Weak correlation is also notable between the VfraslR variations and other variations of the line-profile parameters, such as the peak velocities, emission-line intensities, and peak separations. We analyzed shell absorption lines for higher members of the Balmer series concerning their central depths and radial velocities. The optical depth of the H? line is in the range of 2000 to 6000, and its long-term variation discloses different behaviors as compared to the VfraslR variations. Combining the analyses of emission and shell absorption lines, and regarding the VfraslR variation as wave propagation phenomena, we find for the 1976-1986 event that the VfraslR variation is of retrograde structure, and that a spiral structure is likely formed inside the disk in the latter half of this event. The weak correlations among physical parameters are suggestive of the disk being truncated at some radius. It is noticed that remarkable stellar brightening occurred in the latter half of the event, accompanying a marked decrease of the emission-line intensities. As for a VfraslR variation that appeared in around 2007, which looks like a recurrence of a previous event, we found a less developed state of the disk without an appreciable time lag.

Mon, Masahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Moritani, Yuki; Kogure, Tomokazu

2013-08-01

423

Towards Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Technologies and Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the architecture of an automatic early warning system (EWS) that aims at providing predictions and advice regarding security threats in information and communication technology without incorporation of cognitive abilities of humans and forms the basis for drawing a situation picture. Our EWS particularly targets the growing malware threat and shall achieve the required capabilities by combining malware collectors, malware analysis systems, malware behavior clustering, signature generation and distribution and malware/misuse detection system into an integrated process chain. The quality and timeliness of the results delivered by the EWS are influenced by the number and location of participating partners that share information on security incidents. In order to enable such a cooperation and an effective deployment of the EWS, interests and confidentiality requirements of the parties involved need to be carefully examined. We discuss technical details of the EWS components, evaluate alternatives and examine the interests of all parties involved in the anticipated deployment scenario.

Apel, Martin; Biskup, Joachim; Flegel, Ulrich; Meier, Michael

424

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

425

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

426

Engineering workstation applications to systems design (panel session): life above the IC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerospace industry is characterized by sophisticated systems level design and integration. Large and diversified companies (“systems houses”) have generally supported several mainframe-based computing networks. But, as customer requirements expanded, almost every resource has penetrated the aerospace market. The engineering workstation (EWS) is no exception. Its rapid development has had a tremendous impact on the electronics industry.Initially, the EWS was

Cecelia Jankowski

1985-01-01

427

The multifunctional FUS, EWS and TAF15 proto-oncoproteins show cell type-specific expression patterns and involvement in cell spreading and stress response  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: FUS, EWS and TAF15 are structurally similar multifunctional proteins that were first discovered upon characterization of fusion oncogenes in human sarcomas and leukemias. The proteins belong to the FET (previously TET) family of RNA-binding proteins and are implicated in central cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression, maintenance of genomic integrity and mRNA\\/microRNA processing. In the present study,

Mattias K Andersson; Anders Ståhlberg; Yvonne Arvidsson; Anita Olofsson; Henrik Semb; Göran Stenman; Ola Nilsson; Pierre Åman

2008-01-01

428

Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): Effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller’s earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper1 the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller’s earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to

L. Taysse; F. Dorandeu; S. Daulon; A. Foquin; N. Perrier; G. Lallement; P. Breton

2011-01-01

429

Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.  

PubMed

Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

2012-01-01

430

Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Chemical warfare agents are potential threats to military personnel and civilians. The potential for associated traumatic injuries is significant. Damage control surgery could expose medical personnel to agents contaminating the wounds. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate efficacy of surgical decontamination and assess exposure risk to attending personnel. Methods: Weanling pigs were randomly assigned to 2 of 4 debridement tools (scalpel, Bovie® knife, Fugo Blade®, and Versajet™ Hydrosurgery System). Penetrating traumatic wounds were created over the shoulder and thigh and then exposed to liquid sulfur mustard (HD) for 60 minutes. Excisional debridement of the injuries was performed while vapors over each site were collected. Gas chromatography was used to measure HD in samples of collected vapors. Unbound HD was quantified in presurgical wound swabs, excised tissues, and peripheral tissue biopsies following solvent extraction. Results: Excisional debridement produced agent-free wound beds (surgical decontamination). A significant amount of HD vapor was detected above the surgical fields with each tool. Apart from the Versajet™ producing significantly lower levels of HD detected over thigh wounds compared with those treated using the scalpel, there were no differences in the amount of agent detected among the tools. All measured levels significantly exceeded established safety limits. Vesicating levels of unbound HD were extracted from excised tissue. There was no measured lateral spreading of HD beyond the surgical margins. Conclusions: There is significant occupational exposure risk to HD during surgical procedures designed to stabilize agent-contaminated wounds. If appropriate protective measures are taken, surgical decontamination is both effective and safe.

Graham, John S.; Gerlach, Travis W.; Logan, Thomas P.; Bonar, James P.; Fugo, Richard J.; Lee, Robyn B.; Coatsworth, Matthew A.

2008-01-01

431

Potential Usage of Aqueous Alum for Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents. Part 2: Reactions with VX and QL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The destruction of chemical warfare agents (CWA's), particularly 0- ethyl- S- 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methyiphosponothiolate (VX), has been the focus of many articles in the popular media and in professional news journals such as Chemical and Engineerin...

D. J. Williams V. L. Bevilacqua W. R. Creasy D. J. McGarvey J. S. Rice

2006-01-01

432

Naval Special Warfare Sports Medicine Conference Proceedings, Held in Coronado, California on 4-6 May 94.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Sports Medicine Conference, held 4-6 May 1994, was initiated as a Naval Health Research Center research project in collaboration with the Department of Sports Medicine, Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton. The Conference wa...

L. T. Meyer J. Moore T. Sopchick-Smith

1994-01-01

433

Examination of the Collateral Psychological and Political Damage of Drone Warfare in the FATA Region of Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research will examine the collateral psychological and political damage of the United States drone warfare program on Pakistani society in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), to determine if this is an effective, proactive homeland defens...

J. J. Dengler

2013-01-01

434

Immobilization of Enzymes in Nanoporous Host Materials: A Nanobiotechnological Approach to Decontamination and Demilitarization of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As proposed, we have established the concept of a novel nanobiotechnology for decontamination and demilitarization of chemical and biological warfare agents, based on immobilizing decon/demil effective enzymes such as organophosphorus acid anhydrolases (O...

Y. Wei

2002-01-01

435

Analysis of Surface Warfare Officer Measures of Effectiveness as Related to Commissioning Source, Undergraduate Education, and Navy Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis develops multivariate models to estimate the determinants of three measures of effectiveness for surface warfare officers (SWO): retention, promotion, and early professional qualifications. Using data from the Navy Officer Master File, Navy Of...

J. F. Nolan

1993-01-01

436

Effect of the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act on Surface Warfare Officer Career Paths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reviews the joint officer management policies mandated by the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act and analyzes their effect on Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) career paths. The focus of this thesis is the balance between j...

T. F. Steward

1987-01-01

437

Improving Integrated Operation in the Joint Integrated Mission Model (JIMM) and the Simulated Warfare Environment Data Transfer (SWEDAT) Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Simulated Warfare Environment Data Transfer (SWEDAT) is a shared memory interface currently managed by the Joint Integrated Mission Model (JIMM). It allows integrated operation of resources whereby the JIMM threat environment, stimulators virtual cock...

D. W. Mutschler

2005-01-01

438

Stand-off spectroscopy for the detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most desirable configuration for detection of toxic chemicals utilises the maximum distance between detector and hazard. This approach minimises the contamination of equipment or personnel. Where the target chemical is an involatile liquid, indirect detection of the liquid contamination is made difficult by inherently low vapour pressure. In this instance, direct detection of the chemical hazard is the best approach. Recent technology developments have allowed spectroscopic systems to provide multiple options for the stand-off detection of involatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Two different stand-off spectroscopic systems, based upon IR absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques are described here. The Negative Contrast Imager (NCI) is based upon an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal. This crystal has a fanned grating design and wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the PPLN crystal within the 1064 nm pump beam. This approach enables the production of shortwave and midwave IR radiation (1.5 - 1.8 ?m and 2.6 - 3.8 ?m, respectively), which is scanned across the scene of interest. Target materials that have an absorption feature commensurate with the wavelength of incoming radiation reduce the intensity of returned signal, resulting in dark pixels in the acquired image. This method enables location and classification of the target material. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy allows target chemicals to be identified at range through comparison of the acquired signature relative to a spectral database. In this work, we used a Raman system based upon a 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser source and a proprietary InGaAsP camera system. Utilisation of a longer excitation wavelength than most conventional stand-off detection systems (e.g. 532 or 785 nm) enables reduction of fluorescence from both the surface and the deposited chemicals, thereby revealing the Raman spectrum. NCI and Raman spectroscopy are able to detect CWAs on surfaces at distances of 2 - 10 metres and have potential to detect over longer ranges. We report the successful identification of at least 60 ?l of nitrogen mustard at a distance of a 2 m and 10 m using NCI and Raman spectroscopy.

Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Stothard, David J. M.; Dunn, Malcolm H.; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth; Cox, Rick; Williams, Brad; Russell, Matt

2012-10-01

439

Adaptable Miniature Initiation System Technology (AMIST).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ever-changing nature of warfare presents constant challenges to weapon system designers, who must carefully consider various perspectives of mutual importance. Specifically, designers must address constraints associated with newly developed aircraft, ...

K. Bradley C. Martin E. Wild R. Platteborze

2006-01-01

440

Automic Change Detection and Classification (ACDC) System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors are developing an Automated Change Detection and Classification (ACDC) system for the Mine Warfare (MIW) group at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). ACDC detects features in sidescan imagery, classifies the features (e.g., as minelike...

G. J. Layne M. C. Lohrenz M. L. Gendron

2005-01-01

441

Miocene (~12 Ma) transition from E-W to N-S syn-convergence normal faulting in the central Himalayas (Ama Drime range).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the high Himalayan range, near the transition to the Tibetan plateau, at least two generations of syn-convergence normal faults have been described. The oldest one corresponds to a major orogen parallel (~E-W) normal fault termed the South Tibet Detachment (STD) while the younger one corresponds to orogen perpendicular (~N-S) active normal faults similar to those observed thorough South and Central Tibet. The timing of activation and end of each of these fault systems has major bearings on the mechanical models of geodynamic evolution of the India-Asia convergence zone. Just North of the highest stretch of the Himalayan range, comprised between the Chomolongma and KanchenJunga summits, rocks of the Himalayan crystalline slab are exhumed in the 6500 m high Ama Drime range. This range is a horst bounded on both sides by preeminent N-S active faults: the Kartha fault to the west and the Dinggye fault to the east. Both of these faults show steep (dip ~35-65°) brittle fault planes and quartzitic cataclasites. In the footwall of both faults outcrop shallower (dip ~30-45°) ductile mylonites showing evidences for normal shear sense. These N-S faults clearly offset the STD. In the core of the range outcrop orthogneiss and migmatites embedding amphibolite layers that belong to the Lower Himalayan Crystalline series and that have been buried to a depth of ~60 km (1.7 GPa). Our study that combines structural and petrographic analysis of the mylonites with U-Pb, Ar/Ar and U/He geochronology, indicates that the Dinggye shear zone has been activated prior to 11 Ma ago and that rocks rapidly cooled below ~300°C at ~10Ma. Data from the Kharta shear zone are more dispersed but are also compatible with exhumation starting ~12 Ma ago. The lower temperature thermo-chronometers [(U-Th)/He apatite] confirm apparent exhumation rates of about 1 mm/yr in the last 5 Myr for the whole range (Jessup et al., 2008). Total exhumation linked with the Kharta and Dinggye Faults and shear zones is on the order of 2 to 4 kbar (7 to 15 km), and could have taken place in two separate phases, the youngest one starting ~5 Ma ago. East of the Ama Drime, in the hanging wall of the Dinggye fault, the STD separates Paleozoic Tethyan series at the top from High Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) micaschists and leucogranites at the bottom. The STD dips ~5-15° to the North. Immediately below the STD, the HHC is highly deformed in the STD shear zone, lineations trend NE and the shear senses indicate top to the N motion. P-T paths constrained by garnet isopleths in the HHC micashists show decompression and cooling from ~5 kbar (~18 km) and ~650°C, after an initial heating phase. U/Pb dating of Monazite and zircons in both deformed and undeformed leucogranites suggest that ductile deformation lasted until at least ~16 Ma but ended prior to ~15Ma in the STD shear zone a few meters below the detachment. Ar/Ar micas ages span between ~15 and 13 Ma indicating rapid cooling down to below ~300°C at that time. These data are interpreted as reflecting ~4 kbar (~15km) of exhumation along the STD and STD shear zone prior to ~13 Ma. Such timing for the end of motion along the STD system fits particularly well with the ~12Ma timing of initiation of the crosscutting Kharta and Dinggye faults. We thus propose that the local direction of extension switched from N-S to E-W at ~12.5 Ma in the Ama Drime area. It is not yet clear if such switch occurred synchronously at the scale of the orogen (i.e. from the Thakkhola to the Yadong grabbens). Such switch should be taken into account in mechanical models of the Himalaya - Tibet orogeny.

Leloup, P. H.; Kali, E.; Arnaud, N.; Mahéo, G.; Boutonnet, E.; Xiaohan, Liu; Liu, Dunyi; Li, Haibing; Liu-Zeng, Jing

2009-04-01

442

Illness experience of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents as the result of the detonation of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah.Methods: In 1999, we conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2918 Gulf War veterans from Oregon, Washington, California, North Carolina, and Georgia to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported medical diagnoses and hospitalizations among this

Linda A McCauley; Michael Lasarev; Diana Sticker; D. Gary Rischitelli; Peter S Spencer

2002-01-01

443

Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen

Adam H. Love; Christopher G. Bailey; M. Leslie Hanna; Saphon Hok; Alex K. Vu; Dennis J. Reutter; Ellen Raber

2011-01-01

444

Epidemic field investigation as applied to allegations of chemical, biological, or toxin warfare.  

PubMed

It is proposed that the established epidemiologic framework normally used for investigation of civilian epidemics can usefully be adapted to provide a more structured approach to future investigations of allegations of chemical, biological, or toxin warfare. Using this framework, investigations of such allegations during the past decade are reviewed. These investigations took place during the yellow rain affair in Laos and Kampuchea, the Iran-Iraq war, and the Iraq-Kurd war. Further allegations are likely and will require investigation. PMID:24669408

Barss, P

1992-02-01

445

Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. The assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. These shops service the Mark 48 torpedo and the Mark 46 torpedo respectively. The five waste minimization options presented are volume reduction of contaminated clothing, automated cleaning of parts, automated fuel tank draining, modification of the deep sink draining schedule and recycling of mineral spirits.

Not Available

1991-07-01

446

Classification of chemical warfare agents using thick film gas sensor array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor thick film gas sensors based on tin oxide are fabricated and their gas response characteristics are examined for four simulant gases of chemical warfare agent (CWA)s. The sensing materials are prepared in three different sets such as impregnation, physical mixing (ball-milling) and co-precipitation method. Surface morphology, particle size, and specific surface area of fabricated sensing films are performed by

Nak-Jin Choi; Jun-Hyuk Kwak; Yeon-Tae Lim; Tae-Hyun Bahn; Ky-Yeol Yun; Jae-Chang Kim; Jeung-Soo Huh; Duk-Dong Lee

2005-01-01

447

Detection of simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents by vibrational spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was focused in the measurement of spectroscopic signatures of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants (CWAS) and degradation products of chemical agents using vibrational spectroscopy for the generation of spectroscopic libraries. The chemicals studied were: DMMP, DIMP, 2-CEES, 2-BAET, 1,4-thioxane, thiodiglycol sulfoxide, dihexylamine, cyclohexylamine, among others. Raman microscopy experiments were performed at different excitation wavelengths that spanned from NIR at

Orlando Ruiz-Pesante; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Oliva M. Primera-Pedrozo; William Ortiz; Yadira M. Soto-Feliciano; Deborah E. Nieves; Michael L. Ramirez; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2007-01-01

448

Simulation in support of military operations, tactics, and planning: ODIN: an underwater warfare simulation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the capability, design and application of the generic underwater warfare simulation environment ODIN. The model was developed by QinetiQ, previously DERA (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency), to model the detailed underwater interaction between surface ship\\/submarine\\/UUV (Unmanned Underwater Vehicle) platforms, torpedoes and countermeasures. It was originally developed out of a need to model the effectiveness of advanced countermeasure

Terence Robinson

2001-01-01

449

Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic\\/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1\\/15Deg and 1\\/30\\/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and

K. A. Korotenko

2002-01-01

450

The French Army ‘Centre for Training and Preparation in Counter-Guerrilla Warfare’ (CIPCG) at Arzew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological warfare had been used by the French army in the Indochina War (1946–54), and had spawned a sub-caste of French officers who moulded it and counter-insurgent propaganda into a doctrine known as guerre révolutionnaire (revolutionary war). In Algeria, in 1956, the army established a specialist training centre, the CIPCG, at Arzew on the Algerian coast, to provide courses for

Frédéric Guelton

2002-01-01

451

Development of an Analytical Protocol for Forensic Identification of Chemical Warfare Agent Surrogates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical protocol for forensic identification of chemical warfare agent surrogates in various sample media is developed. This protocol can be implemented on site or in a mobile laboratory, based on a quick sample extraction procedure and a subsequent gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) analysis. The surrogates in this work include 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), 2-(butylamino) ethanethiol

Wenxing Kuang; Merv Fingas; Ken Li

2007-01-01

452

Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate\\/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure

Annetta Paule Watson; Fredrick G Dolislager

2007-01-01

453

Demonstration of a Reagent for the Chemical Neutralization of Arsenical-Based Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PM NSCM) is responsible for destruction of several categories of chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in a safe, environmentally sound manner, and in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention. Captured WW II era German Traktor Rockets (GTRs), containing arsenical-based tearing and vomiting agents, and 4400 empty ton containers (TCs), some with lewisite

Kevin M. Morrissey

454

On the Suitability of NetLogo for the Modelling of Civilian Assistance and Guerrilla Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a pilot study of the suitability of NetLogo, an agent-based software tool, in modelling guerilla warfare. In this study, a local civilian populace reports observed insurgent activity to peacekeepers with varying levels of enthusiasm depending on the reputation of the peacekeepers with those local populaces. A simulation model is developed in NetLogo to assess the suitability of

Scott Wheeler

455

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement,

D. N. Sinha; K. Springer; W. Han; D. Lizon; S. Kogan

1997-01-01

456

Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial demonstration of this technology in a 'stand alone' environment was undertaken at the NIFC in November 2011 using a data set comprised of 140,000 documents. Recently the system has been modified to include a secure authentication mechanism based on a Kerberos ticketing framework and this has now been integrated onto the NIFC Battlefield Information, Collection, and Exploitation System (BICES) network. In summary, the paper discusses the CWP project; the two key technologies (i.e., Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms) developed within the US UK ITA research program; how these have been integrated into the NIFC BICES; and future plans for the program.

Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

2013-05-01

457

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. January 1979-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1979-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (This updated bibliography contains 310 citations, 29 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

458

Bell-state diagonal entanglement witnesses for relativistic and nonrelativistic multispinor systems in arbitrary dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two kinds of Bell-state diagonal (BSD) entanglement witnesses (EWs) are constructed by using the algebra of Dirac ? matrices in a space-time of arbitrary dimension d , where the first kind can detect some BSD relativistic and nonrelativistic m -partite multispinor bound entangled states in a Hilbert space of dimension 2m?d/2? , including the bipartite Bell-type and isoconcurrence-type states in four-dimensional space-time (d=4) . By using the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure and the optimal EWs associated with the states, it is shown that, as far as the spin quantum correlations are concerned, the amount of entanglement is not a relativistic scalar and has no invariant meaning. The introduced EWs are manipulated via linear programming (LP) and can be solved exactly by using the simplex method. The decomposability or nondecomposability of these EWs is investigated, the region of nondecomposable EWs of the first kind is partially determined and it is shown that, all of the EWs of the second kind are decomposable. These EWs have the property that in bipartite systems they can determine the region of separable states, i.e., bipartite nondetectable density matrices of the same type as the EWs of the first kind are necessarily separable. Also, multispinor EWs with nonpolygon feasible regions are provided, where the problem is solved by approximate LP, and in contrast to the exactly manipulatable EWs, both the first and second kinds of the optimal approximate EWs can detect some bound entangled states.

Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Sufiani, R.

2008-01-01

459

A flock-tailored early warning system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in commercial egg laying flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an early warning system (EWS) for commercial egg laying flocks to detect the subtle mortality and egg production changes that characterize low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections. An EWS will create an alert when the recommended ‘trigger point’ is reached or exceeded. Previously used EWSs are based on fixed

Daniel Beltrán-Alcrudo; Tim E. Carpenter; Carol Cardona

2009-01-01

460

DoD's Evaluation and Analysis of Electronic Combat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audit objective was to evaluate the mission and management of the Air Force Electronic Warfare Center (AFEWC) and the Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC). We evaluated DoD's oversight of these centers, coordination of Electronic Warfare (EW) missio...

D. E. Reed T. F. Gimble R. A. Spencer M. E. Simpson M. A. Tarlaian

1993-01-01

461

Mass spectrometry as a tool for characterization of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-thiols--precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-thiols belong to the group of precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). These compounds were analyzed by means of electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry (ion trap) and proposed fragments were confirmed by accurate mass measurement using a QqTOF system. The fragmentation pathways of studied compounds and the products of oxidation (formation of -S-S- linkage) were described. Some minor interesting processes, such as rearrangement of SH group, were observed and proved. A new microLC/MS method, based on ion-pairing chromatography, was developed. Trifluoroacetic acid was employed as an ion-pairing agent to increase the low retention of compounds of interest in the reverse-phase system. The technique was compared with the UPLC/MS method, allowing fast analysis of all the studied thiols as well as an explorative control of originated disulfides. PMID:19802902

Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Lemr, Karel

2009-11-01

462

Information fusion in anti asymmetric warfare and low intensity conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information fusion is a key factor for insuring information superiority in various military and civil surveillance systems. Military applications may be found in air defence, force and convoy protection, and combat management systems for naval ships. Coastal and urban surveillance, air traffic control, and Harbour protection address more civil areas. A new aspect in all these applications is the issue

Felix Opitz; Josef Filusch; Kaeye Dästner; Thomas Kausch

2007-01-01

463

Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.  

PubMed

Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ? 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPAR? mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPAR? mRNA was greater (P ? 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ? 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG compared with EWRG steers but greater (P = 0.03) ADG than NW steers. At slaughter, carcass characteristics did not differ (P ? 0.22) among treatments. In summary, EW steers provided a high-concentrate diet in drylot for at least 90 d were heavier at the time of normal weaning than NW steers and EW steers grazed on ryegrass pastures for 60 to 90 d and supplemented with concentrate at 1.0% of BW. Feeding a high-concentrate diet immediately after EW enhanced the muscle PPAR? expression but did not enhance marbling at slaughter. PMID:24948652

Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

2014-08-01

464

THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

SciTech Connect

Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

Martin, A

2006-10-23

465

Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations. PMID:23532782

Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

2013-06-01

466

Facility monitoring of chemical warfare agent simulants in air using an automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Vapors of four chemical warfare agent (CWA) stimulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), diethyl malonate (DEM), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate (MeS), were detected, identified, and quantitated using a fully automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. Samples were ionized using a glow discharge electron ionization (GDEI) source, and ions were mass analyzed with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer. A dual-tube thermal desorption system was used to trap compounds on 50:50 Tenax TA/Carboxen 569 sorbent before their thermal release. The sample concentrations ranged from low parts per billion [ppb] to two parts per million [ppm]. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.26 to 5.0 ppb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented for each analyte. A sample of CEES at low ppb concentration was combined separately with two interferents, bleach (saturated vapor) and diesel fuel exhaust (1%), as a way to explore the capability of detecting the simulant in an environmental matrix. Also investigated was a mixture of the four CWA simulants (at concentrations in air ranging from 270 to 380 ppb). Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral data were used to identify and quantify the individual components. PMID:21504010

Smith, Jonell N; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

2011-05-30

467

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

468

Classification of Composite Defects Using the Signature Classification Development System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Carderock Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center are developing a Signature Classification Development System (SCDS) to transfer classification technology to nondestructive evaluation (...

J. S. Lin L. M. Brown C. A. Lebowitz

1996-01-01

469

Review of the MDF-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DSTO were given a sample of the Modec Decontamination Foam (MDF)-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System and two Force 1 Decon products (surfactant and sodium hypochlorite) to evaluate and determine their effectiveness against chemical warfare agents (CWAs)....

R. Sferopoulos

2011-01-01

470

Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric and desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in office media typically collected during a forensic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prior analytical studies have dealt with the determination of chemical warfare agents in environmental or biological matrices that would typically be collected following battlefield use or in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention. These methods may be useful for some investigations, but may not be practical for indoor forensic investigations where chemical warfare agent use is suspected. There is

P. A. D’Agostino; J. R. Hancock; C. L. Chenier; C. R. Jackson Lepage

2006-01-01

471

Naval Special Warfare Command's Implementation of the CFO Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense and the Department of the Navy accounting and budgeting systems are often characterized by the classic problem of 'garbage in, garbage out'. Differences in definitions and classifications of finance categories, human error, and l...

M. J. Sabel

2001-01-01

472

Simulation of Operations in the Underwater Warfare Testbed (UWT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Several studies have shown the benefits of multi- platform and multi-static operations. To facilitate torpedo defence system studies and the development of future t...

D. Keus F. P. Benders H. J. Fitski H. J. Grootendorst

2009-01-01

473

Stormy Waters: Technology, Sea Control and Regional Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important aspect of the current strategic calculus is the diffusion of technology and proliferation of advanced weaponry, particularly naval weapon systems. This is of particular concern for the United States' Navy, historically the first on-scene and ...

D. A. Schnell

1994-01-01

474

Improved Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Effectiveness MSSE Capstone Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protection of our nation's ability to operate military forces freely and safely across the world's oceans remains a paramount goal of the United States Navy. The NUWC Division Newport cohort applied the disciplined practice of systems engineering proc...

F. Dziekan F. Frantz J. Broadmeadow P. Kelley R. Gudz

2008-01-01

475

Development of Stress Loading Facility Test Techniques (Direction and Non-Direction Finding Systems) Methodology Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document develops a standard method for determining Measures of Functional Performance for Complex Electronic Warfare/Intelligence Systems. The document contains procedures for both Electronic and Communications Intelligence Systems. Keywords: Method...

J. W. Shaver

1988-01-01

476

Nanodispersive mixed oxides for destruction of warfare agents prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis with urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline mixed oxides of Ti, Zn, Al and Fe were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphates with urea at temperature of 100 °C in an aqueous solution. The prepared samples were characterized by BET and BJH measurements, an X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with yperite (2,2?-dichloroethyl sulphide), soman (3,3-dimethyl-2-butyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and matter VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothionate). An excellent activity in decomposition of chemical warfare agents was observed in these materials (conversion degree higher then 96%/h).

Dan?k, Ond?ej; Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Kalendová, Andrea; Opluštil, Frantisek

2007-05-01

477

Chemical weapons convention: Will it assure the end of chemical warfare. Study project report  

SciTech Connect

After more than a generation of negotiations, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) has completed a draft treaty banning the development, production, stockpiling, transfer, and use of chemical weapons (CW). Unfortunately, despite all the successful work put into the CWC it will not, and cannot assure a permanent halt to chemical warfare. This paper analyzes the merits of having a CWC treaty to thwart chemical weapons proliferation. It will offer a way to strengthen the verification regime. Finally, from this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning what CW policy best supports US national interests.

Cain, E.; Walsh, M.W.

1993-02-22

478

The Role of Game Theory in Information Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of cyber assets is critical in today's corporate and military environment. Whether an attacker is a casual hacker or an organized terrorist group, it is crucial to be able to keep your system functional and secure. Game theory offers an array of promising techniques for aiding tactical analysis in this domain. In this paper, we identify the areas of

Samuel N. Hamilton; Wendy L. Miller; Allen Ott; Sami Saydjari

2002-01-01

479

Strategies for the prevention of a successful biological warfare aerosol attack.  

PubMed

Biological warfare (BW) aerosol attacks are different from chemical attacks in that they may provide no warning/all clear signals that allow the soldier to put on or remove his M17/M40 protective mask. Methods are now being perfected to detect a BW aerosol cloud using an airborne (helicopter) pulsed laser system to scan the lower altitudes upwind from a troop concentration of corps size, and to sample and analyze the nature of the aerosol within a brief time interval. This system has certain limitations and vulnerabilities, since it is designed specifically to detect a line-type aerosol attack. Provision of, training with, and field use of a lightweight dust mist or HEPA filter respirator for each soldier is proposed for protection against undetected aerosol attacks. This particulate filter respirator would be issued in addition to the M17/M40 mask. Such a BW respirator will be able to purify the soldier's air by removing particles in the 0.3- to 15-micro m-diameter range with an efficiency of 98 to 100%. Particle size of BW aerosols is in the same range, with an optimum size for high-efficiency casualty production of 1 to 5 micro m mass median diameter. The proposed BW respirator will be lightweight; will require low inhalation pressures; will be comfortable to wear for prolonged periods; will not interfere with vision, hearing, and communication; and will not degrade overall effectiveness and performance to the degree observed with the M17/M40 masks. Such respirators would be worn as part of a contingency defense against an enemy likely to use BW agents. This respirator could be worn for prolonged periods when under threat of an undetectable BW attack during weather conditions favorable to the success of such an attack (i.e., low wind velocity and temperature inversion in the target area). In addition, tactically important assets such as command and control centers and missile batteries can also be protected continuously by air filtration systems powered by electricity (modular collective protection equipment). Vaccinations against anthrax, botulism, Q fever, plague, and tularemia are now available and immune protection against ricin and staphylococcal toxins appears feasible in the near future. Chemotherapy can also be provided for prophylaxis of infectious agents released on the battlefield. The vaccines and antibiotics can provide back-up protection against an unexpected BW attack during a period when the BW respirator is not in use or malfunctions due to a poor seal or filter leak. Enemy sites of biological weapon production, assembly, testing, and storage, and delivery vehicles can be targeted for destruction by bombs and/or missiles. An integrated, well-planned, BW defense with multiple components can decrease the likelihood of a successful enemy BW aerosol attack. PMID:8855053

Wiener, S L

1996-05-01

480

EWS/FLI1 regulates EYA3 in Ewing's sarcoma via modulation of microRNA-708, resulting in increased cell survival and chemoresistance  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive pediatric cancer of the bone and soft tissue, in which patients whose tumors have a poor histological response to initial chemotherapy have a poor overall prognosis. Therefore, it is important to identify molecules involved in resistance to chemotherapy. Herein, we demonstrate that the DNA-repair protein and transcriptional cofactor, EYA3, is highly expressed in Ewing's sarcoma tumor samples and cell lines compared with mesenchymal stem cells, the presumed cell of origin of Ewing's sarcoma, and that it is regulated by the EWS/FLI1 fusion protein transcription factor. We further demonstrate that EWS/FLI1 mediates upregulation of EYA3 via repression of miR-708, a microRNA that targets the EYA3 3?UTR, rather than by binding the EYA3 promoter directly. Importantly, we demonstrate that high levels of EYA3 significantly correlate with low levels of miR-708 in Ewing's sarcoma samples, suggesting that this miR-mediated mechanism of EYA3 regulation holds true in human cancers. Because EYA proteins are important for cell survival during development, we examine, and demonstrate, that loss of EYA3 decreases survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Most importantly, knockdown of EYA3 in Ewing's sarcoma cells leads to sensitization to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma, and as expected, after chemotherapeutic treatment, EYA3 knockdown cells repair DNA damage less effectively than their control counterparts. These studies identify EYA3 as a novel mediator of chemoresistance in Ewing's sarcoma and define the molecular mechanisms of both EYA3 overexpression and of EYA3-mediated chemoresistance.

Robin, Tyler P; Smith, Anna; McKinsey, Erin; Reaves, Lisa; Jedlicka, Paul; Ford, Heide L.

2012-01-01

481

Integrating botnet simulations with network centric warfare simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Botnets," or "bot armies," are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software designed and operated in order to conduct attacks against government and civilian targets. Bot armies are one of the most serious security threats to networks and computer systems in operation today. Botnets are remotely operated by botmasters who can launch large-scale malicious network activity. While bot army activity has, to date, been largely limited to fraud, blackmail, and other criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet and launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers, networks, and data gathering operations has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but instead discuss ways to use simulation to address the threats they pose. This paper suggests means for addressing the need to provide botnet defense training based upon existing simulation environments and discusses the capabilities needed for training systems for botnet activities. In this paper we discuss botnet technologies and review the capabilities that underlie this threat to network, information, and computer security. The second section of the paper contains background information about bot armies and their foundational technologies. The third section contains a discussion of the techniques we developed for estimating botnet bandwidth consumption and our approach for simulating botnet activities. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for additional research.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2010-04-01

482

Mathematical Modeling to Reduce the Cost of Complex System Testing: Characterizing Test Coverage to Assess and Improve Information Return.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective, cost-efficient testing is critical to the long-term success of Open Architecture within the Navy's Integrated Warfare System. In previous research, we developed a simple, effective framework for examining the testing of complex systems. This mo...

K. D. Pfeiffer T. J. Housel V. A. Kanevsky

2011-01-01

483

Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:140-151, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24519220

Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

2014-05-01

484

An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

2013-08-01

485

Using antisubmarine warfare experience to enhance unattended ground sensor (UGS) employment tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present employment tactics for acoustic sensors in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) networks bear no resemblance to similar broadband acoustic sensor tactics for anti-submarine warfare. The tactical thought processes for the employment of both networks do not explain the differences even taking into account the variance in speed of sound in water and other environmental factors. The use of sonobouy experience appears to be a valid source of information on which to base tactical theory for acoustic sensor placement in the land warfare scenario. The development of tactical scenarios for land sensor operations requires knowledge of a set of factors parallel to the at sea scenario. Reverberation characteristics of local terrain, foliage attenuation of sound, weather background noise and other environmental issues must be considered in the placement of sensors to maximize effectiveness. Land-based sensors are being deployed in a single formation for both search and for track of targets. Examination of the operational experience of at sea deployment of acoustic sensors can greatly accelerate the deployment success of land-based unattended ground sensors in tactical situations.

Jarrett, Stephen M.

2002-08-01

486

Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.  

PubMed

Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons. PMID:24035908

Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

2013-11-25

487

Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2010-11-15

488

Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

2007-05-01

489

Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions  

PubMed Central

Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonize new areas, as well as the importance of interspecies interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin-producing, sensitive and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled us to extrapolate these intricate interdependencies in terms of phenomenological biodiversity laws. Our mathematical analysis also suggested that cyclic dominance between strains is not a prerequisite for coexistence in competitive range expansions. Instead, robust three-strain coexistence required a balance between growth rates and either a reduced initial ratio of the toxin-producing strain, or a sufficiently short toxin range.

Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

2014-01-01

490

Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions.  

PubMed

Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonize new areas, as well as the importance of interspecies interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin-producing, sensitive and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled us to extrapolate these intricate interdependencies in terms of phenomenological biodiversity laws. Our mathematical analysis also suggested that cyclic dominance between strains is not a prerequisite for coexistence in competitive range expansions. Instead, robust three-strain coexistence required a balance between growth rates and either a reduced initial ratio of the toxin-producing strain, or a sufficiently short toxin range. PMID:24806706

Weber, Markus F; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

2014-07-01