Sample records for warfare ew systems

  1. Electronic warfare systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony E. Spezio

    2002-01-01

    Electronic warfare (EW) is an important capability that can advance desired military, diplomatic, and economic objectives or, conversely, impede undesired ones. In a military application, EW provides the means to counter, in all battle phases, hostile actions that involve the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum-from the beginning when enemy forces are mobilized for an attack, through to the final engagement. EW exploits

  2. High temperature superconducting filter technology for electronic warfare systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.A. [Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The modern battlefield electromagnetic environment is saturated with many microwave radar and communication signals. The density and sophistication of this environment makes it difficult for military electronic warfare (EW) systems to efficiently receive and respond to the microwave environment. Additionally, modem high duty cycle and frequency hopping emitters provide unique challenges to EW systems. The existence of only one of these modem emitters can easily saturate the receiver/processor -- effectively blinding the system to potentially lethal threat systems. The potential of superconducting filter technology to this EW system problem will be discussed.

  3. THE MANEUVER AND ATTRITION WARFARE SIMULATION SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    THE MANEUVER AND ATTRITION WARFARE SIMULATION SYSTEM Rafael Moreira Savelli Gustavo Henrique Soares of warfare behavior in the same operation area (AOp): Attrition and Maneuver doctrines. The maneuver warfare behavior is based on vector algebra. The attrition behavior is an agent-based algorithm. Keywords

  4. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman R. Howes; Michael Mezzino; John Sarkesain

    Abstract AsDefense agencies and services expand their reliance on computer networks, risk to information availability and integrity increases. It is no longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depthstrategy. We mustrecognize that we are engaged in a form of warfare, cyber warfare, and deploy our resources using the strategy and tactics of warfare. Most Defense organizations have not

  5. Innovative microwave design leads to smart, small EW systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Niehenke

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the state-of-the-art in microwave component and system design for EW systems, whose size and weight has been progressively reduced in recent years as a result of continuing design innovation in microwave circuitry. Typically, AI-function computers are employed to control microwave functions in a way that allows rapid RAM or ROM software modification to meet new

  6. Warfare Ecology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho; )

    2008-09-01

    Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

  7. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

  8. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-01-01

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these

  9. Electronic warfare testing at the Benefield anechoic facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emad F. Ali; Pat Dubria; Bob Barker

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the test capabilities of the Benefield Anechoic Facility (BAF) and its mission to support avionics and electronic warfare (EW) test and evaluation (T&E) of current and future generation manned and unmanned aerospace vehicles. Testing at the BAF can provide the dense, complex, and realistic signal environment necessary to evaluate integrated systems\\/subsystems to meet both Development Test and

  10. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE Effects of METOC factors on EW systems against low detectable targets in a

    E-print Network

    #1 ELECTRONIC RESOURCE 2004 Effects of METOC factors on EW systems against low detectable targets systems / Jair Feldens Ferrari Ferrari, Jair Feldens. #3 ELECTRONIC RESOURCE 2003 COAMPS modeled combatant integration of METOC data acquisition and product distribution systems within the IT21

  11. Trends in electro-optical electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Carl R.; Grasso, Robert; Pledger, Jack; Murarka, Naveen

    2012-09-01

    Protection of military aircraft from hostile threats is paramount to ensure the survivability of aircrews, platforms, and mission success. While the threat environment continues to become more complex, shrinking defense budgets places new challenges on the development of electronic warfare (EW) systems. This paper presents the trends in electro-optical EW system development including 1) features, 2) affordability, 3) open architecture, 4) multi-functionality, 5) integrated avionics survivability equipment, and 6) enabling technologies for sensors, and optical sources. While these system attributes are not new, they have grown in importance in the design of EW systems. And, if treated correctly can have a beneficial symbiotic relationship to each other and to the airframe they support.

  12. Quantification of belief and knowledge systems in information warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. McCauley-Bell; R. Freeman

    1996-01-01

    This research presents an application of fuzzy set theory (FST) to the management of uncertainty in information warfare. Emphasis is placed on evidence accrual in the context of uncertain and\\/or incomplete performance. This analysis considers the observe-orient-decide-act (OODA) loop and the human responses in these four stages. The methodology proposes the analysis of evidence accrual by categorizing responses in the

  13. A Cost Effective Solution for Time-Stamping Electronic Warfare System Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Torres

    2006-01-01

    Electronic warfare support (ES) systems receive and process RF data real-time and these systems are time critical. Hardware and software updates to existing ES systems are required to properly maintain these systems. Testing the hardware and software updates plays an important role for releasing the update into the field. The majority of this testing takes place in the laboratory. Two

  14. Photometric Solution and Frequency Analysis of the oEA System EW Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Luo, Y. P.; Wang, K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the first photometric solution and frequency analysis of the neglected oscillating Algol-type (oEA) binary EW Boo. B- and V-band light curves of the star were obtained on 11 nights in 2014. Using the Wilson-Devinney code, the eclipsing light curves were synthesized and the first photometric solution was derived for the binary system. The results reveal that EW Boo could be a semi-detached system with the less-massive secondary component filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. Frequency analysis of residual light shows multi-mode pulsation with the dominant period at 0.01909 days. A preliminary mode identification suggests that the star could be pulsating in non-radial (l = 1) modes. The long-term orbital period variation of the system was also investigated for the first time. An improved orbital period and new ephemerides of the eclipsing binary are given. The O-C analysis indicates a secular period increasing at a rate of dP/dt=2.9× {{10}-7} days y{{r}-1}, which could be interpreted as mass transfer from the cooler secondary to the primary component.

  15. Systems biology of Ewing sarcoma: a network model of EWS-FLI1 effect on proliferation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Gautier; Surdez, Didier; Tirode, Franck; Laud, Karine; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei; Delattre, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent pediatric bone tumor. In most of the patients, a chromosomal translocation leads to the expression of the EWS-FLI1 chimeric transcription factor that is the major oncogene in this pathology. Relative genetic simplicity of Ewing sarcoma makes it particularly attractive for studying cancer in a systemic manner. Silencing EWS-FLI1 induces cell cycle alteration and ultimately leads to apoptosis, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are unclear. In this study, a network linking EWS-FLI1 to cell cycle and apoptosis phenotypes was constructed through an original method of network reconstruction. Transcriptome time-series after EWS-FLI1 silencing were used to identify core modulated genes by an original scoring method based on fitting expression profile dynamics curves. Literature data mining was then used to connect these modulated genes into a network. The validity of a subpart of this network was assessed by siRNA/RT-QPCR experiments on four additional Ewing cell lines and confirmed most of the links. Based on the network and the transcriptome data, CUL1 was identified as a new potential target of EWS-FLI1. Altogether, using an original methodology of data integration, we provide the first version of EWS-FLI1 network model of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. PMID:23935076

  16. JWARS: the joint warfare system (JWARS): a modeling and analysis tool for the defense department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George F. Stone III; Gregory A. McIntyre

    2001-01-01

    Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a campaign-level model of military operations. User will include the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, the Services, and the US Warfighting Commands. Program requirements documents specify implementation that fosters insight into cause and effect relationships encountered by military forces. JWARS will support multi-billion dollar resource allocation decisions and critical operational

  17. Systems Engineering in Electronic Warfare and Battlefield Communications Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Elias

    2005-01-01

    Battlefield Communications have been used since ancient times, and have undergone rapid improvements in recent years. The earliest known battlefield communication techniques over long distances used messengers, smoke signals, carrier pigeons, and flags. In the last 75 years, there have been great improvements through the use of copper wire, then again in the use of wireless systems and optical fiber.

  18. Fiber-Optics for Future EW Platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pirich; P. Anumolu

    2007-01-01

    An enabling technology for next-generation EW systems is an all fiber optic backplane. Fiber optic systems are rapidly evolving and this paper will review the application of fiber optics for aircraft and specifically EW applications.

  19. The Joint Warfare System (JWARS): a modeling and analysis tool for the Defense Department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. McIntyre

    2001-01-01

    JWARS (Joint WARfare System) is a campaign-level model of military operations. Its users include the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, the Services and the US Warfighting Commands. Program requirement documents specify an implementation that fosters insight into the cause-and-effect relationships encountered by military forces. JWARS supports multi-billion dollar resource allocation decisions and critical operational planning.

  20. What are the roles of electronic and Cyber Warfare in cognitive radio security?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber Scott; T. J. Hardy; Richard K. Martin; Ryan W. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, Electronic Warfare (EW) and Cyber Warfare (CW) have been viewed as independent, disparate disciplines. However, they are often trying to accomplish similar tasks, and thus may be viewed as two sides of the same coin. When both the attacher and defender employ cognitive techniques, the edge may go to the side that integrates techniques from both EW and CWo

  1. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  2. ELECTRONIC WARFARE NOVEMBER 2012

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FM 3-36 ELECTRONIC WARFARE NOVEMBER 2012 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release Electronic Warfare Contents Page PREFACE..............................................................................................................iv Chapter 1 ELECTRONIC WARFARE OVERVIEW ............................................................ 1

  3. Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, E. C.; Johnson, Gordon; Summey, Delbert C.; Portmann, Helmut H., Jr.

    2004-09-01

    This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS/TR-01/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from a Joint perspective in USJFCOM Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) Report #03-10 (Unmanned Effects (UFX): Taking the Human Out of the Loop). Here, the authors build on this foundation by reviewing the major findings and laying out the roadmap for achieving the vision and truly transforming how we fight wars. The focus is on broad impact across the Fleet - but the implications reach across all Joint forces. The term "Unmanned System" means different things to different people. Most think of vehicles that are remotely teleoperated that perform tasks under remote human control. Actually, unmanned systems are stand-alone systems that can execute missions and tasks without direct physical manned presence under varying levels of human control - from teleoperation to full autonomy. It is important to note that an unmanned system comprises a lot more than just a vehicle - it includes payloads, command and control, and communications and information processing.

  4. Hazardous substance management system (HSMS): Full ``cradle to grave`` implementation at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

    SciTech Connect

    Krake, J.N.; Taylor, M.J.; Boss, R.D.; Senhen, L.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Hazardous Substance Management System (HSMS) is an automated system for `cradle to grave` tracking and managing of hazardous material (HM) and hazardous waste (HW). This paper describes the procedure for disposition of hazardous material as waste, the pilot transfer of hazardous waste, and how the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SSC SD) has successfully implemented HSMS to track HM and HW from cradle to grave.

  5. GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.

    PubMed

    Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

    2004-05-01

    Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi-layered perceptron (MLP) and the modified cerebellar model articulation controller (MCMAC) [IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern: Part B 30 (2000) 491] in predicting bank failures based on a population of 3635 US banks observed over a 21 years period. Three sets of experiments are performed-bank failure classification based on the last available financial record and prediction using financial records one and two years prior to the last available financial statements. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network as a bank failure classification and EWS is encouraging. PMID:15109685

  6. Information Warfare and Democratic Accountability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Nincic

    2003-01-01

    This essay explores how the expansion of information technology may affect two defining features of democracy: how power and accountability are structured at the apex of the political system, and how government and governed interact. Offensive information warfare may carry consequences for democracy at two levels. First, by rendering ambiguous the very definition of warfare, it makes it harder to

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Biological Warfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    The following Web sites offer reliable information resources addressing biological warfare and related issues. The first Web site, from the Mayo Clinic, provides a brief overview of the agents commonly used in biological and chemical warfare -- such as anthrax, tularemia, and ricin (1). Links to related Mayo or CDC Web pages are also provided for further information. The next site contains a collection of articles on bioterrorism and bioweapons from the science news magazine NewScientist, spanning a range of about 4 years (2). Geneticists have determined which genes code for virulence in anthrax bacteria; the online version of Scientific American offers a recent article on this discovery (3). The Genetics Learning Center at the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics (University of Utah) takes a look a common misconceptions about biological warfare and provides and interesting overview of biological warfare programs in the US and beyond (4). The site also introduces Dark Winter, a fictional smallpox attack scenario staged by a collaboration of research organizations in June of 2001. Readers can find out more about Dark Winter in the following Web site from the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at John Hopkins University, one of the participating organizations (5). Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, a recently launched quarterly peer-reviewed journal, may be accessed online for free (6). The journal offers "multidisciplinary analyses and a vigorous exchange of perspectives that are essential to the formulation and implementation of successful strategies to diminish the threat of bioweapons." The last two sites are from MEDLINEplus, offering detailed information and numerous links of biological (7) and chemical (8) warfare.

  10. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lançon, F.

    2011-06-01

    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  11. Toward an adaptive data distribution service for dynamic large-scale network-centric operation and warfare (NCOW) systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanbor Wang; D. C. Schmidt; H. van't Hag; Angelo Corsaro

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the goal of information dominance, the DoD has adopted the doctrine of net-centric operations and warfare (NCOW). The global information grid (GIG), future combat system (FCS), C2 constellation, and FORCEnet are examples of net-centric operations where multiple systems-of-systems integrate thousands of platforms, sensors, decision nodes, weapons, and warfighters through heterogeneous wire-line and wireless networks. NCOW provides superior collection,

  12. A STUDY OF ORGANIC SOLVENT COMPONENT IN THE EMULSION SYSTEM FOR DECONTAMINATION OF POLYMER-THICKENED CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen Wei; Jianguo Wang; Gu Wei; Chi-Tai Tang; Wei Wang; Philip W. Bartram

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the mixing process and pH on the available chlorine content of the decontaminant calcium hypochlorite (or high-test hypochlorite, HTH) in the organic solvent-HTH-water mixture have been studied in order to develop new emulsion systems for the decontamination of polymer-thickened chemical warfare agents. A series of water-soluble and water-insoluble organic solvents were investigated. The observed temperature increase during

  13. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  14. Cyber Warfare Peacekeeping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Cahill; Konstantin Rozinov; Christopher Mulé

    2003-01-01

    We define and analyze a new concept in the field of cyber warfare - cyber warfare peacekeeping. We identify that in some parts of the world low intensity cyber warfare has been conducted for over three years. The PRC and Taiwan (among others) have established independent elements in their armed forces devoted to cyber warfare. Recent events have shown that

  15. Chinese Concepts and Capabilities of Information Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Anand

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese consider Information Warfare (IW) as an assassin's mace which can be used to defeat superior with the inferior. Western concepts of Information Warfare have been suitably modified using traditional Chinese military thought. They place due emphasis on the psychological component of IW in order to shape the perceptions and belief system of the adversary. PLA has been practicing

  16. Data Mining Strategies for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents

    E-print Network

    Solka, Jeff

    4 Data Mining Strategies for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Jeffrey. L. Solka1,2, Edward a classification system for the detection of various chemical warfare agents. The data were collected as part of the Naval Surface Warfare Center on simulant chemicals, which are designed to produce paper signatures sim

  17. Rapid identification of biological warfare agents using an instrument employing a light addressable potentiometric sensor and a flow-through immunofiltration-enzyme assay system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith A Uithoven; John C Schmidt; Mark E Ballman

    2000-01-01

    An instrument employing a light addressable potentiometric sensor and a flow-through immunofiltration-enzyme assay system has been developed for the rapid and specific identification of biological warfare (BW) agents. The system has been designed to assay for up to eight agents simultaneously and provides an indication of the absence or presence of a threat within 15 min. Parameters affecting the mixing

  18. Non-self-embedding context-free grammars for multi-function radar modeling - electronic warfare application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikita A. Visnevski; Fred A. Dilkes; Simon Haykin; Vikram Krishnamurthy

    2005-01-01

    Multi-function radars (MFRs) exploit flexible and sophisticated software control algorithms that enable them to perform multiple functions (tracking, acquisition, range resolution and search) virtually simultaneously. They can engage multiple targets at once, and employ complex hierarchical signal waveforms to achieve these goals. From the standpoint of the field of electronic warfare (EW), MFRs present a very serious threat. Traditional EW

  19. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  20. Information Warfare and Deception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Hutchinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the history of the phenomenon of Information Warfare and the increasingly dominant role that deception is taking within its framework. The concept of information warfare began as a technology oriented tactic to gain information dominance by superior command and control. This soon developed into a realization of the power of information as both a 'weapon' as well

  1. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  2. Class warfare American style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wallace C. Peterson

    1997-01-01

    The idea of class warfare, which originated with Karl Marx, frightens Americans. But the form of class warfare that exists\\u000a in America is not Marxian in nature. Rather, its source is hard-right conservatives, who have stood Marx on his head, using\\u000a the power of government and power in the marketplace to shift the distribution of income and wealth increasingly in

  3. Analytic tools for information warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  4. A Portable Local Exhaust Hood System Used to Sample One-Ton Containers Previously Filled with Chemical Warfare Munitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donnie R. Butler; John J. McFeters; L. Daryl Williams

    1996-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Muscle Shoals, Alabama, by contract with the Department of the Army, Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, Colorado, sampled and verified the decontamination level of 2354 empty one-ton containers (TCs) previously used to store chemical warfare munitions. The TCs had previously been chemically and\\/or thermally decontaminated and were stored at RMA awaiting removal and disposal. The

  5. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  6. Electronic warfare in the year 2000 and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herskovitz

    1991-01-01

    The advantages of a design philosophy emphasizing integrated EW and integrated avionics are detailed. The discussion covers the hierarchy of EW system architecture, evolution of integrated systems, federated architecture, and transition to integrated systems. The performance of the joint surveillance target attack radar system during the operation Desert Storm is examined as an example of the integration approach. Finally, the

  7. Autonomous littoral warfare systems evaluator-engineering simulation (ALWSE-ES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Eadie; R. D. Mace

    2001-01-01

    Performing surveillance, reconnaissance, mapping, reacquisition, identification, and neutralization of mines in the littoral environment presents a very complex and difficult problem to solve. The natural environment of this area is extremely dynamic and energetic, creating a formidable challenge for any appointed system. Evaluating system performance and interoperability are also very difficult in this environment. The complex nature of the littoral

  8. Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Johnson; R. T. Santoro; M. S. Smith

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world

  9. The Effect of External Safeguards on Human-Information System Trust in an Information Warfare Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Biros; Gregory Fields; Gregg H. Gunsch

    2003-01-01

    The modern military command and control (C2) center collects a massive amount of information that is both complex and contradictory. The amount of collected information is often more than can be effectively and efficiently understood by humans. Therefore, today's decision-makers have become reliant upon information systems to filter through the information and fuse that information into a computer representation of

  10. Surviving cyber warfare with a hybrid multiagent-base intrusion prevention system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armani Salah; Mohamed Shouman; Hossam M. Faheem

    2010-01-01

    Inspecting network traffic that only protects the network and its entire host is not sufficient to secure the network and is a time wasting task, since network traffic payloads may contain polymorphic or encrypted malicious code and executables. The proposed system ensures the preemptive protection against zero-day attacks and malwares, by applying behavioral analysis techniques that focus on objects' behaviors

  11. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan S. Mackie; Amanda S. Schilling; Arturo M. Lopez; Alfredo Rayms-Keller

    2002-01-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and\\/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting

  12. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J P Evans

    1983-01-01

    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable.

  13. Waging submarine warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Handler

    1987-01-01

    Aggressive preparations by antisubmarine forces may undermine a precarious peace; seemingly prudent precautions in a crisis may have a contrary effect and further intensify the crisis. The maritime strategy and its antisubmarine warfare component are too reminiscent of the beginnings of World War I, when military plans called for a similar early mobilization of forces to insure that if war

  14. Chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Shenoi

    2002-01-01

    There is an increased risk that civilian populations will be targets of domestic terrorism. Release of chemical warfare agents in these populations can cause a large number of casualties, with children being disproportionately affected. Chemical agents pose a significant risk to unprepared medical providers. Emergency medical personnel must be able to diagnose and manage victims of toxic exposures. This article

  15. A transcription assay for EWS oncoproteins in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ng, King Pan; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Kevin A W

    2010-10-01

    Aberrant chromosomal fusion of the Ewing's sarcoma oncogene (EWS) to several different cellular partners produces the Ewing's family of oncoproteins (EWS-fusion-proteins, EFPs) and associated tumors (EFTs). EFPs are potent transcriptional activators, dependent on the N-terminal region of EWS (the EWS-activation-domain, EAD) and this function is thought to be central to EFT oncogenesis and maintenance. Thus EFPs are promising therapeutic targets, but detailed molecular studies will be pivotal for exploring this potential. Such studies have so far largely been restricted to intact mammalian cells while recent evidence has indicated that a mammalian cell-free transcription system may not support bona fide EAD function. Therefore, the lack of manipulatable assays for the EAD presents a significant barrier to progress. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes we describe a plasmid-based micro-injection assay that supports efficient, bona fide EAD transcriptional activity and hence provides a new vehicle for molecular dissection of the EAD. PMID:21204019

  16. Electronic warfare technology: Trends and visions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Helberg; Tony White; Kevin Geiger; Joseph Koesters; David Wilkes

    1990-01-01

    The design, development of effective and affordable electronic warfare systems has become a difficult challenge which requires full exploitation of the most advanced technology. Recent history has demonstrated that cost, effectiveness and reliability factors have almost driven on-board self-protection electronic countermeasure (EC) systems to the edge of operational viability. The future must include aggressive and innovative use of new technology

  17. Inside Cyber Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Barlow

    2010-01-01

    This review of Jeffrey Carr’s work, Inside Cyber Warfare, follows upon our discussion in the previous issue of Interface, “Cyber War and U.S. Policy: Part I, Neo-realism.” That piece was informed in large part by a review of Richard A. Clarke and Robert Knake’s recent work, Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It.

  18. Cyber warfare compared to fourth and fifth generation warfare as applied to the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Liles

    2007-01-01

    The aspects of societal wide warfare occurring utilizing the technologies of the Internet for dissemination and recruitment by entities has been well studied. What has not been studied is the use of adversaries systems of communication, education, and entertainment to assess and gather intelligence. The utilization of the adversaries systems allows for real time knowledge of the adversaries intent and

  19. Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

  20. Toward an Adaptive Data Distribution Service for Dynamic Large-Scale Network-Centric Operation and Warfare (NCOW) SystemsTo be sumitted to the 2008 Military Communications Conference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanbor Wang; Douglas C. Schmidt; Angelo Corsaro

    To achieve the goal of information dominance, the DoD has adopted the doctrine of net-centric opera- tions and warfare (NCOW). The Global Information Grid (GIG), Future Combat System (FCS), C2 Constel- lation, and FORCEnet are examples of net-centric oper- ations where multiple systems-of-systems integrate thou- sands of platforms, sensors, decision nodes, weapons, and warfighters through heterogeneous wire-line and wire- less

  1. A portable local exhaust hood system used to sample one-ton containers (TCs) previously filled with chemical warfare munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.R.; McFeters, J.J.; Williams, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Muscle Shoals, Alabama, by contract with the Department of the Army, Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, Colorado, sampled and verified the decontamination level of 2,354 empty one-ton containers (TCs) previously used to store chemical warfare munitions. The TCs had previously been chemically and/or thermally decontaminated and were stored on RMA awaiting removal and disposal. The size and weight of the TCs prohibited placing them inside an enclosure during sampling. To enable sampling containers in place, a portable local exhaust hood was devised to protect sampling personnel and to prevent the release of any residual chemical agent vapors to the environment. Agent vapors captured by the hood were scrubbed through a 200-pound bed of activated charcoal before being released to the ambient environment. Engineers and work crews on-site in Denver conceived the hood design and tested three prototypes before obtaining a functional unit. Crafts persons in Muscle Shoals fabricated the hood designs and made modifications. Over a five-month period in the summer of 1990, TVA successfully sampled 2,354 TCs for four chemical agents with no personnel exposures and no release of agent into the environment. Residual contamination was identified in 547 TCs.

  2. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  3. Information Warfare: A Philosophical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariarosaria Taddeo

    This paper focuses on Information Warfare—the warfare characterised by the use of information and communication technologies.\\u000a This is a fast growing phenomenon, which poses a number of issues ranging from the military use of such technologies to its\\u000a political and ethical implications. The paper presents a conceptual analysis of this phenomenon with the goal of investigating\\u000a its nature. Such an

  4. Electronic warfare technology: Trends and visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helberg, Kenneth; White, Tony; Geiger, Kevin; Koesters, Joseph; Wilkes, David

    1990-05-01

    The design, development of effective and affordable electronic warfare systems has become a difficult challenge which requires full exploitation of the most advanced technology. Recent history has demonstrated that cost, effectiveness and reliability factors have almost driven on-board self-protection electronic countermeasure (EC) systems to the edge of operational viability. The future must include aggressive and innovative use of new technology to produce penetration aids that are operationally useful and supportable. In the mean time, threat density and sophistication make the basic problem of finding, identifying, and countering all types of threat signals very difficult. The operational choices, as a result, have expanded to include smart jamming, support jamming in several different forms (stand-off, UAV), expendables (chaff, decoys) and a greater dependence on threat awareness and avoidance. These choices make it imperative to exploit technology to its fullest and in turn they provide an opportunity whereby technologies can be shown to impact the real capability needed operationally. As a result, trends of evolving technologies and visions of what they can mean for the future of electronic warfare are shaping present-day electronic warfare research.

  5. Panos Antsaklis and Kevin Passino, "Introduction to Intelligent Control Systems with High Degrees of Autonomy," in Greek, T echnical R e v i ew M onthly , Athens, Greece, pp 24-35, No 26, March 1994.

    E-print Network

    Antsaklis, Panos

    of Autonomy," in Greek, T echnical R e v i ew M onthly , Athens, Greece, pp 24-35, No 26, March 1994. #12 of Autonomy," in Greek, T echnical R e v i ew M onthly , Athens, Greece, pp 24-35, No 26, March 1994. #12 of Autonomy," in Greek, T echnical R e v i ew M onthly , Athens, Greece, pp 24-35, No 26, March 1994. #12

  6. Submarine Warfare in the A Bibliography

    E-print Network

    Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography Compiled by Michaele Lee Huygen 3D, 1966. p. 205. This bibliography is a revised edition of the bibliography Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries, 2003, which is in turn a revised and expanded version of Submarine Warfare in the 20

  7. Information warfare: are you at risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Elbirt

    2003-01-01

    Information warfare at its simplest level is the use of computers to attack an adversary's information infrastructure while protecting one's own information infrastructure. The significance of information warfare threats has been recognized by both the business and government sectors. However, some governments and organizations have resorted to industrial and economic espionage employing information warfare attacks to gain unfair advantages over

  8. Two New EW-type Eclipsing Variables Near AK Cnc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia A. Virnina

    2011-01-01

    Two new eclipsing variable stars, USNO-B1.0 1015-0165372 = 2MASS 08543896+1133002 and USNO-B1.0 1017-0168554 = 2MASS 08534894+1143534, were discovered in the field of the cataclysmic variable star AK Cnc. The remotely controlled astrophysical refractor AP-180 of the Tzec Maun Observatory (USA) has been used. Both binary systems were classified as EW-type. All parameters needed for the General Catalog of Variable Stars

  9. Biosensor-based detection and verification system for bio-chemical warfare agents, appendices 1, 2 and 3. Final report, 9 June 1991-9 June 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owicki

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to explore and demonstrate the application of technology based on the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor (LAPS) to detection and verification problems for bio-chemical warfare agents. The principal analytical method employed was microphysiometry, by which perturbations of cell physiology are detected using the LAPS. The work was done in three principal segments. First, silicon microtechnology

  10. Biosensor-based detection and verification system for bio-chemical warfare agents. Final report, 9 June 1991-9 June 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owicki

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to explore and demonstrate the application of technology based on the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor (LAPS) to detection and verification problems for bio-chemical warfare agents. The principal analytical method employed was microphysiometry, by which perturbations of cell physiology are detected using the LAPS. The work was done in three principal segments. First, silicon microtechnology

  11. Decision Support for Air Warfare: Detection of Deceptive Threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. P. Smith; Joan Johnston; Carol Paris

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an empirical study of the effectiveness of a decision support system called TADMUS. TADMUS is an acronym for Tactical Decision-Making Under Stress. The TADMUS DSS was developed at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center in San Diego.

  12. Research of information dissemination model based on Network Centric Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Yao; Zhi Li

    2010-01-01

    Network Centric Warfare (NCW) concept has been developed over ten years, but some misunderstanding is still in existence. The Command and Control, Battle Management, Communications (C2BMC) system of U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense System is one of the cases which employs NCW concept successfully. In this paper, the successful reason was found by the work of information dissemination modeling and then

  13. Development of a gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system for on-site detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kakegawa, Ken; Aida, Mari; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Seto, Yasuo; Okino, Akitoshi

    2015-06-01

    A gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system was developed to realize a mobile on-site analytical device for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this system, the plasma source was directly connected to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The plasma can be generated with ambient air, which is drawn into the discharge region by negative pressure in the mass spectrometer. High-power density pulsed plasma of 100 kW could be generated by using a microhollow cathode and a laboratory-built high-intensity pulsed power supply (pulse width: 10-20 ?s; repetition frequency: 50 Hz). CWAs were desorbed and protonated in the enclosed space adjacent to the plasma source. Protonated sample molecules were introduced to the mass spectrometer by airflow through the discharge region. To evaluate the analytical performance of this device, helium and air plasma were directly irradiated to CWAs in the gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system and the protonated molecules were analyzed by using an ion-trap mass spectrometer. A blister agent (nitrogen mustard 3) and nerve gases [cyclohexylsarin (GF), tabun (GA), and O-ethyl S-2-N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)] in solution in n-hexane were applied to the Teflon rod and used as test samples, after solvent evaporation. As a result, protonated molecules of CWAs were successfully observed as the characteristic ion peaks at m/z 204, 181, 163, and 268, respectively. In air plasma, the limits of detection were estimated to be 22, 20, 4.8, and 1.0 pmol, respectively, which were lower than those obtained with helium plasma. To achieve quantitative analysis, calibration curves were made by using CWA stimulant dipinacolyl methylphosphonate as an internal standard; straight correlation lines (R(2) = 0.9998) of the peak intensity ratios (target per internal standard) were obtained. Remarkably, GA and GF gave protonated dimer ions, and the ratios of the protonated dimer ions to the protonated monomers increased with the amount of GA and GF applied. PMID:25958918

  14. A Simulation-optimization Approach to Air Warfare Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Popken; Louis Cox

    2004-01-01

    How can computer-aided planning systems deal with the complexities, uncertainties, and rapidly shifting information needed to support air warfare operational planning? This paper uses a hierarchical decomposition of decision-making, coupled to a predictive simulation model that estimates the probability distribution of the outcomes of candidate operational plans. The approach will generate, evaluate, and improve Blue plans while assuming that Red

  15. COLLECTIVE PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND RADIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leber

    1958-01-01

    Fundamental principles and criteria are presented for use in the design ; of shelters to provide adequate and equal protection from chemical, biological, ; and radiological warfare agents in both gaseous and particulate form. Design ; criteria, drawings, and layouts are included for shelters, decontamination ; facilities, and ventilation systems. (Ca.);

  16. Northrop Grumman Private/Proprietary Level 1 Undersea Warfare

    E-print Network

    Characteristics of acoustics which influence Undersea Warfare Greatly Sound Velocity is SLOW ­ nominally 4800ft propagation above ~320Hz so acoustic system performance is environmentally driven Attenuation is proportional and significant platform driven performance issues Water flow affects acoustic sensors noise levels, so

  17. Role of Smokes in Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mishra

    The role of smokes in warfare is reviewed with particular reference to the world wars, and various types of smokes are discussed. The smokes that can defeat modem opto-electronics including infrared (IR)\\/millimetre wave (MMW) guidance and thermal imager are de!>cribed. Environment-friendly non-toxic smokes are dealt with briefly. The future of smokes in these circumstances is mentioned . I. INTRODUCTION Use

  18. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ColarikAndrewM; Janczewski Lech D. Eng

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to characterize the hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia, which is located on the Potomac River in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The study provides a description of the hydrogeologic units, directions of ground-water flow, and back-ground water quality in the study area to a depth of about 100 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data were collected from 28 wells drilled for this study, from 3 existing wells, and from outcrops. The shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area consists of two fining-upward sequences of Pleistocene fluvial-estuarine deposits that overlie Paleocene-Eocene marine deposits of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. The surficial hydrogeologic unit is the Columbia aquifer. Horizontal linear flow of water in this aquifer generally responds to the surface topography, discharging to tidal creeks, marshes, and the Potomac River, and rates of flow in this aquifer range from 0.003 to 0.70 foot per day. The Columbia aquifer unconformably overlies the upper confining unit 12-an organic-rich clay that is 0 to 55 feet thick. The upper confining unit conformably overlies the upper confined aquifer, a 0- to 35-feet thick unit that consists of interbedded fine-grained to medium-grained sands and clay. The upper confined aquifer probably receives most of its recharge from the adjacent and underlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. Water in the upper confined aquifer generally flows eastward, northward, and northeastward at about 0.03 foot per day toward the Potomac River and Machodoc Creek. The Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit consists of glauconitic, fossiliferous silty fine-grained sands of the Nanjemoy Formation. Where the upper confined system is absent, the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is directly overlain by the Columbia aquifer. In some parts of the Explosive Experimental Area, horizontal hydraulic conductivities of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit and the Columbia aquifer are similar (from 10-4 to 10-2 foot per day), and these units effectively combine to form a thick (greater than 50 feet) aquifer. The background water quality of the shallow aquifer system is characteristic of ground waters in the Virginia Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Water in the Columbia aquifer is a mixed ionic type, has a median pH of 5.9, and a median total dissolved solids of 106 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper confined aquifer and Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is a sodium- calcium-bicarbonate type, and generally has higher pH, dissolved solids, and alkalinity than water in the Columbia aquifer. Water in the upper confined aquifer and some parts of the Columbia aquifer is anoxic, and it has high concentrations of dissolved iron, manganese, and sulfide.

  20. Modelling Information Warfare as a Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorma Jormakka; Jarmo V. E. Mölsä

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is one of the possible ways to study information warfare with mathematical models. This paper presents four example games which illustrate the different requirements for an effective playing strategy in information warfare. These games study, how a bold playing strategy can lead to domination, how a mixed playing strategy can reduce domination, how it can be useful to

  1. The Analysis of Compound Information Warfare Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kopp

    Abstract The practical defensive and offensive application of Information Warfare most frequently involves the use of complicated compound strategies, in which multichannel and multilayered attacks must be analysed. This paper presents a systematic approach to the analysis problem, which is exploitable for defensive and offensive purposes. Keywords Deception Techniques, Information Warfare, Strategic Deception, Tactical Deception, Perception Management

  2. Designing cyber warfare information infrastructure resilience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semir Daskapan; Jan Van der Berg

    2011-01-01

    Due to many cyber attacks in the last years, governments are realizing how vulnerable they have become should there be a break out of a cyberwar. This urged them to establish a cyber warfare information infrastructure in a short time. However, this cyber warfare information infrastructure relies heavily on public infrastructures, like electricity and the Internet, which will be most

  3. The Web as weapon [cyber warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kumagai

    2001-01-01

    As tensions in the Middle East erupted into vicious street fighting at the end of 2000, a different sort of pitched battle was being waged behind the scenes. With all the fervor of their comrades in arms, computer-savvy patriots on both sides managed to infiltrate or disable enemy Web servers. The prospect of cyber warfare, or information warfare, is a

  4. CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR TERRORISM/WARFARE

    E-print Network

    CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR TERRORISM/WARFARE A BIBLIOGRAPHY Compiled by Greta E. Marlatt;CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR TERRORISM/WARFARE A BIBLIOGRAPHY Complied by Greta E. Marlatt With thanks 2003 1 #12;PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 2 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL TERRORISM

  5. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Hjortdal

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare andshows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element inChina's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasonsare: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; militarytechnologicalespionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionageto gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in usingcyberspace offensively than other actors,

  6. Chemical warfare agent detection using MEMS-compatible microsensor arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas C. Meier; Charles J. Taylor; Richard E. Cavicchi; Michael W. Ellzy; Kenneth B. Sumpter; Steve Semancik

    2005-01-01

    Microsensors have been fabricated consisting of TiO2 and SnO2 sensing films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on microelectromechanical systems array platforms. Response measurements from these devices to the chemical warfare (CW) agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and HD (sulfur mustard) at concentrations between 5 nmol\\/mol (ppb) and 200 ppb in dry air, as well as to CW agent simulants

  7. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  8. Human Rights Watch: Chemical Warfare in Bosnia?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

  9. Decontamination of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo SETO

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister a- gents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, pro- teinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and bio- logical terrorism, speedy

  10. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

  11. Electronic warfare: Faulty test equipment impairs Navy readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-06-01

    The Navy equips its tactical aircraft with electronic warfare systems, such as radar warning receivers and jammers, to protect them from hostile weapons. The radar warning receiver alerts the pilot that the aircraft is being tracked by a hostile radar, and the jammer transmits electronic signals to deceive or otherwise interfere with the radar. The Navy believes that these systems are important for the aircraft to be able to accomplish their mission and survive in a wartime environment. Therefore, ensuring that these systems are maintained and operating properly is critical to accomplishing the Navy's mission.

  12. Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets Robert F. Erbacher Department of command in order to accommodate such changes. Cyber warfare capabilities have the potential to enormously

  13. Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    Extending Command and Control Infrastructures to Cyber Warfare Assets Robert F. Erbacher Department and the chain of command in order to accommodate such changes. Cyber warfare capabilities have the potential

  14. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  15. Subversion as a Threat in Information Warfare Emory A. Anderson1

    E-print Network

    Irvine, Cynthia E.

    . Schell3 1 Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command Systems Center Charleston Charleston, SC, USA, E to be protected from attack. Only when systems provide a verifiable resilience to attacks can the military these new `cyber' threats, cryptography, intrusion detection systems, virtual private networks

  16. Stealth: A revolutionary change to air warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kevin J.

    1992-02-01

    'Stealth, A Revolutionary Change To Warfare' highlights the unique capabilities stealth weapons bring to the battlefield and asserts they offer new and valuable options to the commander. It suggests these capabilities must be completely understood to be fully effective. With a focus at the doctrinal level, the paper claims the following: stealth assets take away from the absolute primacy of aerospace control (air superiority) and in many cases, allows force application to became the primary task. The claim is also made that stealth assets expand and enhance the potential opportunities for effective use of air power across the spectrum of warfare to include the force presence role. These and other changes will impact air warfare at all levels. Capitalizing on stealth requires the following: (1) a recognition of unique stealth attributes; (2) fully embracing these attributes through Air Force doctrinal changes; and (3) a fresh look for potential applications in all operational planning.

  17. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  18. The role of rewards in motivating participation in simple warfare.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this "cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis" with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare. PMID:24008817

  19. Conventional analytical methods for chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert H. Hill; Stephen J. Martin

    2002-01-01

    Analytical methods that are currently used for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agents are reviewed and classified by the number of dimensions of infor- mation they provide. Single-dimensional sensors target specific compounds or classes of compounds. Although they can be less expensive and more portable than multidimensional sensors, multidimensional sensors detect a broader threat spectrum with greater precision

  20. Information Warfare, Business Intelligence, Text Mining1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Zanasi

    Gli sviluppi dell'Information Technology hanno rivoluzionato il concetto di guerra, di difesa e di sicurezza. Sempre più spesso si parla infatti di Information Warfare e di Cyber Terrorismo. Ma questi sviluppi hanno anche rivoluzionato il concetto di intelligence e di come fare intelligence. Grazie infatti ai motori di ricerca e alle nuove tecnologie dei databases, la quantità di informazione disponibile

  1. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  2. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Smith Talmage; Annetta Paule Watson; Veronique Hauschild; Nancy B Munro; J. King

    2007-01-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid

  3. Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFAN RIEDEL

    2004-01-01

    ecause of the increased threat of terrorism, the risk posed by various microorganisms as biological weapons needs to be evaluated and the historical development and use of biological agents better understood. Biological warfare agents may be more potent than conventional and chemical weapons. During the past century, the progress made in biotechnology and biochemistry has simplifi ed the development and

  4. Biological agents: Weapons of warfare and bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry A. Broussard

    2001-01-01

    The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin

  5. Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Czárán, Tamás

    Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity Tama´s L. Cza´ra´n* , Rolf F. Hoekstra generating biodiversity and ecological mechanisms maintaining biodiversity seem to be diverse them- selves. Conventional explanations of biodiversity such as niche differentiation, density-dependent predation pressure

  6. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Szinicz

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when

  7. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhanshan [University of Idaho] [University of Idaho; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL] [ORNL; Krings, Axel [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic goal of information warfare is then to destroy or defend the reliability (honesty) of communication networks. The handicap principle that governs the reliability (honesty) of animal communication networks can be considered as the nature s version of information warfare strategy because it is a product of natural selection. What is particularly interesting is to transfer the evolutionary game theory models [e.g., Sir Philip Sydney (SPS) game] for the handicap principle to the study of information warfare. In a broad perspective, we realize that the handicap principle may actually contradict the principle of asymmetry in asymmetric warfare. Anyway, not every species of animals has evolved expensive signaling equipments like male peacocks (whose exaggerated train is an example of handicap). Furthermore, the handicap principle is not only about communication, and it also embodies the spirits of cooperation and competition. In human societies, communication modulates cooperation and competition; so does in animal communication networks. Therefore, to evolve or maintain a sustainable communication network, the proper strategy should be to balance (modulate) the cooperation and competition with communication tools (information warfare tools), which is perhaps in contradiction with the asymmetric strategy. There might be a paradox in the strategy of asymmetric warfare, and whether or not information warfare can be used as an asymmetric tool is still an open question.

  8. Improving anti-submarine warfare sonar performance modelling using BLUElink forecast environmental data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Exelby; H. X. Vu

    2010-01-01

    The underwater environment is often complex and highly variable in space and time, making it difficult to model the detection performance of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) sonar systems. Furthermore, the environment can result in complex active sonar data displays that are difficult to interpret. The performance of the sonar system can be enhanced by understanding and exploiting knowledge about the underwater

  9. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  10. ECCM model and the technical development trends to the demands of the future EW combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benren, Tao

    1994-06-01

    Based on analyzing the development trends of foreign airborne ECM technology, this paper points out the weak link of ECCM performance of the air defence missile weapon system. The paper also advocates an ECCM combat model, 'the electromagnetic silence,' to suit the needs of future EW combat and some technical methods for improving the ECCM performance, especially emphasizing the important role of the application of artificial intelligence technology in the area of ECCM.

  11. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991August 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Yang; J. A. Baker; J. R. Ward

    1992-01-01

    Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify

  12. Electronic nose based on the polymer coated SAW sensors array for the warfare agent simulants classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Alizadeh; S. Zeynali

    2008-01-01

    A reference and three polymer coated surface acoustic wave sensors making an electronic nose were introduced. This system contained the pre-concentration unit in order for detection of low level warfare agent simulants. Principal component analysis (PCA), artificial neural network (ANN) and the combination of these two methods (PCA-ANN) were used for differentiation between the three classes including nerve and mustard

  13. Chemicapacitive microsensors for chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd E. Mlsna; Sabina Cemalovic; Manna Warburton; Stephen T. Hobson; Debra A. Mlsna; Sanjay V. Patel

    2006-01-01

    Detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals using Microfabrication and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) chemicapactive sensors is described. Our sensor chips consist of 10 parallel plates or interdigitated capacitors with an absorbant dielectric material to measure the dielectric constant of an array of selectively absorbing materials. The dielectric permittivity of these polymer filled chemicapacitors changes upon adsorption and desorption

  14. Plasma decontamination of chemical & biological warfare agents by a cold arc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man Hyeop Han; Joo Hyun Noh; Ki Wan Park; Hyeon Seok Hwang; Hong Koo Baik

    2008-01-01

    The cold arc plasma jet was introduced to decontaminate chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents for the application of a portable CBW decontamination system. The cold arc plasma jet is a low temperature, high density plasma that produces highly reactive species such as oxygen atoms and ozone. Moreover, it is possible to maintain stable plasma without He or Ar. The

  15. Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hank D. Jackson II; Seth D. Shepherd

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a

  16. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hank D. Jackson II; Nathanael L. Grauvogel; Tommy L. Blair; Bruce A. Ensor

    2006-01-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a

  17. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth D. Shepherd

    2003-01-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a

  18. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hank D. Jackson II; Tommy L. Blair; Bruce A. Ensor; Charles R. Deyo; Jeff A. Longbottom; Jason C. White

    2005-01-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a

  19. Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hank D. Jackson II; Tommy L. Blair; Bruce A. Ensor

    2007-01-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a

  20. 17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications Problematic of many of the current schemes for biological and chemical defense (BWD and CWD) is that both defense systems are specific to certain chemicals or pathogens. Schemes that provide a more general defense

  1. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  2. Adversary Modeling and Simulation in Cyber Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel N. Hamilton; Wendy L. Hamilton

    2008-01-01

    Modeling and simulation provide many excellent benefits in preparation for successful cyber operations. Whether used for creating\\u000a realistic training environments, testing new cyber warfare techniques, or predicting possible adversary actions, it is critical\\u000a for such simulations to take into account the possibility of an active cyber adversary, able to adapt its plans to network\\u000a conditions. Without realtime high fidelity modeling

  3. Situation Awareness Information Dominance & Information Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mica R. Endsley; William M. Jones

    Abstract Information warfare and its primary objective, achieving information dominance over enemy forces, has arisen as a major area of emphasis for future military actions. The concept,of information dominance,and the issues involved in attaining it are explored through a model,of situation awareness within the context of complex, distributed crews (or military units) as is envisioned in future military operations. Achieving

  4. Passive millimeter-wave imaging device for naval special warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Frank; Wood-Putnam, Jody L.; Blume, Bradley T.; Smith, Roger M.

    1998-08-01

    The U.S. Navy Coastal Systems Station (CSS) is currently executing a program to develop a small, lightweight, low power passive millimeter wave imager. The end user will be Naval Special Operations Forces (SOF). The program began by conducting a feasibility assessment of the potential Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) technology that would meet the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) mission requirements. A performance analysis was conducted to compare the capabilities of the various PMMW imager technologies. Finally, a technology development road map is under development, which will include all recommendations for hardware development and image processing. Other DoD and industrial programs are being monitored for leveraging potential to insure the imager program will use the latest technology available. As a result of a technology survey, CSS decided to leverage their development funds with Eglin Air Force Base to develop an antenna-coupled microbolometer. This paper will discuss the program plans, and the potential applications of PMMW technology to Naval Special Warfare.

  5. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  6. Far-field effects of Late Miocene subduction in the Eastern Carpathians: EW compression and inversion of structures in the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herwig Peresson; Kurt Decker

    1997-01-01

    Kinematic and paleostress data constrain a Late Miocene E-W compressional event that affected the entire Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian system after 9 Ma and prior to 5.3 Ma. The maximum horizontal compression directions obtained from 110 stations show a mean sigma1 orientation of 083°. Deformation is mainly strike-slip. E-W directed compression followed Early to Middle Miocene upper plate extension in the Pannonian Basin

  7. Cyber-Warfare Threatens Corporations: Expansion into Commercial Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Knapp; William R. Boulton

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of a review of information warfare literature from 1990 to mid-2005, this article presents a framework of 12 important trends. These trends demonstrate the transformation of information warfare from primarily a military issue into a major commercial issue as well. Corporate IS managers need to understand the growing cyberwar threats and implement appropriate strategies to mitigate risk.

  8. ISSUES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CYBERSECURITY IN NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Stytz; Sheila B. Banks

    The transition to network centric warfare brings with it great promise for the effectiveness of future military operations. This promise arises from the capability for network centric warfare to empower individuals at all levels with vast amounts of relevant information and thereby lift the \\

  9. Plasma destruction of battlefield chemical and biological warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. O'Hair; J. Dickens; J. Fralick; L. Farrar

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Thermal plasmas are being evaluated for use in the destruction of deadly chemical and biological warfare agents. The technology approach consists of employing an electric arc to establish a plasma forming gas plume used to kill the harmful agents. The approach has been demonstrated on surrogate chemical and biological warfare agents. The harmful agents

  10. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Smith Talmage; Nancy B Munro; Annetta Paule Watson; J. King; Veronique Hauschild

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a

  11. Medical management of incidents with chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Zilker

    2005-01-01

    Successful management of incidents with chemical warfare agents strongly depends on the speed of medical help and the ability of helpers to react properly. Though the general principles of clinical toxicology, such as decontamination, stabilization, patient evaluation and symptomatic treatment are similar for many toxicants, chemical warfare agents deserve special attention because of their very high inhalative and cutaneous toxicity,

  12. The Orientation step of the OODA loop and Information Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Brumley; C. Kopp; K. Korb

    This paper develops a theoretical model of the internal processes of the Orientation step of Boyd's OODA loop model. The Orientation step is important from an Information Warfare perspective as it is where the decision- maker combines their existing knowledge with new information. Any new information is a potential target for manipulation by Information Warfare attacks. The operation of the

  13. PBT screening profile of chemical warfare agents (CWAs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Sanderson; Patrik Fauser; Marianne Thomsen; Peter B. Sørensen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been used and disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts have been dumped in the Baltic Sea following the disarmament of Germany after World War II causing environmental concerns. There is a data gap pertaining to chemical warfare agents, environmental properties not the least their aquatic toxicities. Given this gap and

  14. Chemical Warfare Agents: Emergency Medical and Emergency Public Health Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Brennan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Trueman W Sharp; Scott R Lillibridge

    1999-01-01

    The threat of exposure to chemical warfare agents has traditionally been considered a military issue. Several recent events have demonstrated that civilians may also be exposed to these agents. The intentional or unintentional release of a chemical warfare agent in a civilian community has the potential to create thousands of casualties, thereby overwhelming local health and medical resources. The resources

  15. EWS/ATF1 expression induces sarcomas from neural crest–derived cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazunari; Ohno, Takatoshi; Aoki, Hitomi; Semi, Katsunori; Watanabe, Akira; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Toguchida, Junya; Shimizu, Katsuji; Hara, Akira; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignant tumor characterized by a unique t(12;22) translocation that leads to the expression of a chimeric EWS/ATF1 fusion gene. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the involvement of EWS/ATF1 in CCS development. In addition, the cellular origins of CCS have not been determined. Here, we generated EWS/ATF1-inducible mice and examined the effects of EWS/ATF1 expression in adult somatic cells. We found that forced expression of EWS/ATF1 resulted in the development of EWS/ATF1-dependent sarcomas in mice. The histology of EWS/ATF1-induced sarcomas resembled that of CCS, and EWS/ATF1-induced tumor cells expressed CCS markers, including S100, SOX10, and MITF. Lineage-tracing experiments indicated that neural crest–derived cells were subject to EWS/ATF1-driven transformation. EWS/ATF1 directly induced Fos in an ERK-independent manner. Treatment of human and EWS/ATF1-induced CCS tumor cells with FOS-targeted siRNA attenuated proliferation. These findings demonstrated that FOS mediates the growth of EWS/ATF1-associated sarcomas and suggest that FOS is a potential therapeutic target in human CCS. PMID:23281395

  16. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM. PMID:10667941

  17. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  18. EW motion of aurorae as observed at Moscow, Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Wilkins; J. D. Assendrup; J. S. Kim

    1967-01-01

    E-W motions of aurorae were studied at Moscow, Idaho, from January 17 to April 1, 1966, inclusive. The experimental equipment consisted of an I.G.YE pulse-type auroral radar and two receiving antennae, each consisting of a vertical dipole in a 90° corner reflector. The transmitting antenna was a Telrex vertically polarized Yagi. A total of 284 radar echoes were received. Of

  19. The system dynamics of future warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moffat

    1996-01-01

    The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the unification of Germany have led to a new world order in which political structures have undergone substantial realingnent. NATO has been at the centre of this process of change which has led to the collapse of Soviet communism and the liberation of eastern Europe. Defence Operational

  20. Information warfare: radar in World War II as an historical example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Perusich

    1997-01-01

    Emerging technologies have increased the capability to acquire and use data as a weapon in warfare. Although aggregated under a common term, information warfare actually represents a variety of different ways with different actors in different environments that information can be used as part of an arsenal. One important form of information warfare is decision making (or OODA-loop) warfare, in

  1. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth D. Shepherd

    2002-01-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator IR Countermeasures test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight

  2. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth D. Shepherd

    2001-01-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) lab currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares, and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight

  3. Innovation, wargaming, and the development of armored warfare

    E-print Network

    Carter, Daniel S. (Daniel Simon)

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of simulation in the development of armored warfare doctrine during the interwar period. All the Great Powers faced the challenge of how to integrate new technologies, particularly the tank, ...

  4. Warriors and warfare: ideal and reality in early insular texts 

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Brian

    2012-06-28

    This thesis investigates several key aspects of warfare and its participants in the Viking Age insular world via a comparison of the image which warriors occupy in heroic literature to their concomitant depiction in ...

  5. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Stytz; Sheila B. Banks

    2011-01-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used

  6. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System. PMID:17923293

  7. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  8. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5 Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  9. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  10. Abstract--Network centric warfare (NCW) is a concept of operations that seeks to increase combat power by linking

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    1 Abstract-- Network centric warfare (NCW) is a concept of operations that seeks to increase combat, appropriate levels of automation, adaptive automation, distributed decision-making through team coordination system. Index Terms--Human supervisory control, decision support I. INTRODUCTION etwork Centric

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 229 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. 33 CFR 165.1103 - Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San...1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San...water adjacent to the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, bound by the...

  16. 75 FR 3901 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division Mission Activities AGENCY...improve the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division's (NSWC PCD's) capabilities...Ferrer, Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division, Code CX06, 110...

  17. ?-PADs for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

    2012-12-01

    Conventional methods of detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on chromogenic reactions are time and solvent intensive. The development of cost, time and solvent effective microfluidic paper based analytical devices (?-PADs) for the detection of nerve and vesicant agents is described. The detection of analytes was based upon their reactions with rhodamine hydroxamate and para-nitrobenzyl pyridine, producing red and blue colours respectively. Reactions were optimized on the ?-PADs to produce the limits of detection (LODs) as low as 100 ?M for sulfur mustard in aqueous samples. Results were quantified with the help of a simple desktop scanner and Photoshop software. Sarin achieved a linear response in the two concentration ranges of 20-100 mM and 100-500 mM, whereas the response of sulfur mustard was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 mM. Results were precise enough to establish the ?-PADs as a valuable tool for security personnel fighting against chemical terrorism. PMID:23086107

  18. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  19. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. PMID:24894605

  20. Mechanism and relevance of EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional repression in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Savita; Bell, Russell; Stephens, Bret; Zhuo, Rupeng; Sharma, Sunil; Bearss, David J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma provides an important model for transcription-factor mediated oncogenic transformation because of its reliance on the ETS-type fusion oncoprotein EWS/FLI. EWS/FLI functions as a transcriptional activator and transcriptional activation is required for its oncogenic activity. Here we demonstrate that a previously less-well characterized transcriptional repressive function of the EWS/FLI fusion is also required for the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma. Through comparison of EWS/FLI transcriptional profiling and genome-wide localization data, we define the complement of EWS/FLI direct downregulated target genes. We demonstrate that LOX is a previously undescribed EWS/FLI-repressed target that inhibits the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the NuRD co-repressor complex interacts with EWS/FLI, and that its associated histone deacetylase and LSD1 activities contribute to the repressive function. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unknown molecular function for EWS/FLI, demonstrate a more highly coordinated oncogenic transcriptional hierarchy mediated by EWS/FLI than previously suspected, and implicate a new paradigm for therapeutic intervention aimed at controlling NuRD activity in Ewing sarcoma tumors. PMID:23178492

  1. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...appropriate career and training preparation information...relationships with the Naval Special Warfare community...completing Navy SEAL accession training. Affected Public: Individuals...general information about Naval Special Warfare), and...success at Navy SEAL training. Dated: February...

  2. The handicap principle, strategic information warfare and the paradox of asymmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick T. Sheldon; Axel Krings

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and

  3. Fear as a medium of communication in asymmetric forms of warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gorm Harste

    2011-01-01

    Fear is defined as the distinction between risk and danger, a distinction that operates in communicative forms. War is always also warfare about the form of war. The article describes how fear in warfare becomes a symbolically generalized medium of communication, mainly focusing on how the form of fear evolves in asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric war induces fear in both parties,

  4. Adaptation and improvement of ASW tactical decision aid design to mine warfare tactical decision aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Keiffer; K. B. Briggs; J. Novarini; P. A. Elmore; M. D. Richardson; C. S. Kennedy; G. R. Bower; P. J. Valent

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. In this presentation, the adaptation of a tactical decision aid (TDA) designed for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) to one used for Mine Warfare is discussed. Previous work at the Naval Research Laboratory established a TDA, namely GRASP for the ASW role. Recently at NRL work has been done to extend the TDA model to Mine Warfare.

  5. Adaptation and improvement of ASW tactical decision aid design to Mine Warfare tactical decision aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dubberley

    2003-01-01

    In this presentation, the adaptation of a tactical decision aid (TDA) designed for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) to one used for Mine Warfare is discussed. Previous work at the Naval Research Laboratory established a TDA, namely GRASP for the ASW role. Recently at NRL work has been done to extend the TDA model to Mine Warfare. Specifically this presentation examines

  6. Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectroscopy for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Simulants

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectroscopy for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Simulants spectroscopy device is demonstrated for the on-chip spectroscopic determination of chemical warfare simulant Remote Sensing 1. Introduction The threat posed by nerve agents in chemical warfare to soldiers

  7. Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Web site offers an unclassified document for public review entitled Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War. The introductory paragraph states, "This paper reflects the results of our multifaceted investigation into the Chemical Warfare (CW) issue, examining information on CW agent releases, Gulf war Iraqi CW deployments, and Iraqi chemical agents and weapons." One of the final paragraphs claims that the US still believes that Iraq did not use chemical weapons against Coalition forces. Although perhaps a difficult subject to read about, the one-page site does offer those interested a glimpse into one destructive use of science that humans have developed.

  8. Cyber Warfare and the Crime of Aggression: The Need for Individual Accountability on Tomorrow’s Battlefield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Ophardt

    2010-01-01

    As cyberspace matures, the international system faces a new challenge in confronting the use of force. Non-State actors continue to grow in importance, gaining the skill and the expertise necessary to wage asymmetric warfare using non-traditional weaponry that can create devastating real-world consequences. The international legal system must adapt to this battleground and provide workable mechanisms to hold aggressive actors

  9. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  10. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3740 (United States)

    2009-03-10

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  11. Justice in Allocations for Terrorism, Biological Warfare, and Public Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosamond Rhodes

    Terrorism, biological or chemical warfare, and the public health response to threats and events are on everyone’s mind. At the same time, any public policy response must be just. Yet, it is difficult to achieve justice in public health policy because there is neither a single consideration nor a simple formula for success. A variety of considerations can legitimately support

  12. Stealth and the changing role of electronic warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Way, G.W. (Lockheed Sanders, Inc., Nashua, NH (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The advantages of stealth in a combat environment and how electronic warfare has changed to complement stealth survivability and improve combat effectiveness is presented. Attention is given to providing better pilot-situation awareness using passive sensors, multispectral in design, that do not emit energy.

  13. NEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

    to integrate widely dispersed human decision makers, situational and targeting sensors, and forces and weaponsNEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target Recognition QILIAN LIANG University of Texas in collaborative automatic target recognition (CATR). Signal (waveform) design for radar sensor networks (RSN

  14. Disposing of chemical warfare agents and munitions stockpiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    There are at least two important reasons to dispose of US chemical warfare agents and munitions stockpiles without deliberate delay. One is the laudable intent to rid the world of these dangerous weapons of mass destruction. The other is the pragmatic observation that the aging stockpile is becoming increasingly dangerous for US citizens. In terms of laudable intent, the United

  15. Biomonitoring of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Noort; H. P. Benschop; R. M. Black

    2002-01-01

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, confirmation of nonexposure, verification of nonadherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention, health surveillance,

  16. Information warfare and sub?state actors: An organisational approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Rathmell

    1998-01-01

    Information Warfare is perceived as an increasing threat by armed forces, governments and corporations alike. There is a perception that sub?state groups pose a particular problem because they may find it easier than states to exploit Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to leverage limited resources into disproportionate political, economic or military gains. Since the mid?1990s, therefore, Western governments have framed

  17. Affecting trust: Terrorism, internet and offensive information warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Valeri; Michael Knights

    2000-01-01

    The national security consequences of the potential use of the Internet by terrorist organizations have attracted the interest of many academics and government and intelligence officials. The goal of this article is to provide a new explanatory angle concerning the possible targets of terrorists’ offensive information warfare (OIW) operations. It argues that these organizations may prove more valuable and effective

  18. Information Warfare: Legal & Ethical Challenges of the Next Global Battleground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Yurcik

    1997-01-01

    The development of the Internet and particularly the World-Wide-Web has accelerated the perception of a global society dependent on information technology. As a consequence, profound problems of international law and ethics have emerged which have increasingly been drawing the attention of public policy makers and international security experts, especially those concerned about the future of warfare. A new form of

  19. Aspects of Warfare in the First Testament World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Hobbs

    1995-01-01

    This study of ancient attitudes toward war and its place in society surveys and offers a critique of recent literature on the subject of ancient biblical warfare. It extends the investigation into developing interdisciplinary resources dealing with the ways in which texts reflect perceptions and meanings deriving from the social world of the First Testament.

  20. Teaching information warfare with lab experiments via the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Jacobson

    2004-01-01

    Iowa State University has offered a course in information warfare for the past 8 years to both on campus and off campus students via streaming media. The class looks at computer security from an attack\\/defend viewpoint. We study attacks and look at methods to stop the attacks. The course has several lab experiments where student try out attack tools and

  1. INFORMATION WARFARE AND THE FUTURE OF THE SPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip H. J. Davies

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the new ICTs on the collection of covert intelligence and covert political actions undertaken by national intelligence agencies. It is argued that there exist two distinct doctrines in the literatures of intelligence and information warfare concerning the future relative importance of information from human sources ('agents') and technical methods (signal interception, overhead imagery and

  2. Cyber-warfare seen through a mariner's spyglass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Laprise

    2006-01-01

    The Internet is now an essential tool in the everyday conduct of commercial life. The ability of terrorists to conduct cyber-warfare is largely unknown, but the potential for the disruption of life worries many policymakers. In searching for precedent to anticipate the potential impact of a cyber-war, it is important to identify modes of conflict that are useful both against

  3. Carlos Marighela: The father of urban guerrilla warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Williams

    1989-01-01

    Two decades ago Carlos Marighela, the Brazilian revolutionary, was killed by Brazilian security forces. Known as “the father of urban guerrilla warfare,” Marighela laid out his theories in his Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla. He is noted for espousing urban?based revolution over a “rural foco,” militarization of the political process, and manipulation of the media. He broke with the Brazilian

  4. SURVIVABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To tests and provide a comprehensive, integrated list of survival rates of biological warfare agents' survival of landfill conditions. Research into the permanence of the final disposal contaminated building debris of the inactivated or active agent of terrorism is being exam...

  5. BIOMATERIALS FOR MEDIATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Russell; Jason A. Berberich; G ´ eraldine; F. Drevon

    2003-01-01

    ? Abstract Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and

  6. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  7. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rolland; M.-A. Bolzinger; C. Cruz; S. Briançon; D. Josse

    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive.The purpose of this study was to characterize the in

  8. Microfabricated Electrochemical Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents: Smaller is Better

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilwhan Oh; Chelsea Monty; Mark A. Shannon; R. I. Maset

    2007-01-01

    A novel type of gas chemical sensor is fabricated by combining microfabrication techniques and electrochemical transducer. The microchannel sensor we built is composed of liquid\\/gas microchannels separated by a nanoporous membrane. When oxime chemistry is adapted into the microchannel sensor, it gives response of hundreds of mV to trace vapor (10 ppb) of chemical warfare agent simulants within ~10 sec.

  9. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lavoie; Sree Srinivasan; R. Nagarajan

    2011-01-01

    Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use “simulants,” namely, analogous chemicals

  10. Terahertz electronics for chemical and biological warfare agent detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Woolard; R. Kaul; R. Suenram; A. Hight Walke; T. Globus; A. gSamuels

    1999-01-01

    The capability of solid-state electronics within the terahertz frequency regime is reviewed and assessed. Recent developments in chemical and biological science are presented that provide important insight and motivations for future uses of THz electronics in spectroscopic sensing. Finally, the impact of new advances in nanotechnology and molecular physics on the detection of chemical and biological warfare agents is addressed

  11. Analytical separation techniques for the determination of chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin W. J Hooijschuur; Charles E Kientz; Udo A. Th Brinkman

    2002-01-01

    Today, the determination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is an important area of application in analytical chemistry. Chromatographic, capillary electrophoretic and mass spectrometric techniques are primarily used for the identification and quantification of a broad field of classical CWAs in environmental samples and neutralization masses, obtained after destruction of CWAs. This overview is illustrative for the state of the art

  12. Detection of chemical warfare agents using nanostructured metal oxide sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey A. Tomchenko; Gregory P. Harmer; Brent T. Marquis

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of thick-film chemical sensors based on various semiconductor metal oxides to reliably detect chemical warfare agents has been studied. Nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) powders were used as initial materials for the sensors’ fabrication. The thick films were prepared using a simple drop-coating technique accompanied with in situ annealing of the deposited films by a heater that is

  13. History 285 Western Warfare Since 1789 Carr Room 240

    E-print Network

    McShea, Daniel W.

    of the eighteenth century, ranging from the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars to the current wars Revolution I: The Transition to Modern Warfare," in Charles Townshend, ed., The Oxford History of Modern War (Oxford, 2005), 20-39. Jeremy Black, "The Military Revolution II: Eighteenth Century War," in Charles

  14. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Seth D.

    2003-09-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability.

  15. Surface-immobilization of molecules for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Indrani; Neelam

    2014-09-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale molecular assemblies with advanced functionalities is an emerging field. These systems provide new perspectives for the detection and degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The main concern in this context is the design and fabrication of "smart surfaces" able to immobilize functional molecules which can perform a certain function or under the input of external stimuli. This review addresses the above points dealing with immobilization of various molecules on different substrates and describes their adequacy as sensors for the detection of CWAs. PMID:24998209

  16. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber resources to information protection tasks. The first section of the paper introduces the cyber warfare simulation challenge and the reasons for its importance. The second section contains background information related to our research. The third section contains a discussion of the information ring technique and its use for simulating cyber attacks. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for research.

  17. In: Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 2000, pp. 177-186. The Synthesis of Real-Time Systems from Processing Graphs

    E-print Network

    Goddard, Steve

    application for an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) system. 1. Introduction Directed graphs, called processing method with an embedded signal processing application for an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) system

  18. EW-7197 inhibits hepatic, renal, and pulmonary fibrosis by blocking TGF-?/Smad and ROS signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-A; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Shin; Lee, Seon-Joo; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Dae-Kee; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis is an inherent response to chronic damage upon immense apoptosis or necrosis. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) signaling plays a key role in the fibrotic response to chronic liver injury. To develop anti-fibrotic therapeutics, we synthesized a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-? type I receptor kinase (ALK5), EW-7197, and evaluated its therapeutic potential in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) mouse, bile duct ligation (BDL) rat, bleomycin (BLM) mouse, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse models. Western blot, immunofluorescence, siRNA, and ChIP analysis were carried out to characterize EW-7197 as a TGF-?/Smad signaling inhibitor in LX-2, Hepa1c1c7, NRK52E, and MRC5 cells. In vivo anti-fibrotic activities of EW-7197 were examined by microarray, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and a survival study in the animal models. EW-7197 decreased the expression of collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), fibronectin, 4-hydroxy-2, 3-nonenal, and integrins in the livers of CCl4 mice and BDL rats, in the lungs of BLM mice, and in the kidneys of UUO mice. Furthermore, EW-7197 extended the lifespan of CCl4 mice, BDL rats, and BLM mice. EW-7197 blocked the TGF-?1-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), collagen, and ?-SMA in LX-2 cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) isolated from mice. Moreover, EW-7197 attenuated TGF-?- and ROS-induced HSCs activation to myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. The mechanism of EW-7197 appeared to be blockade of both TGF-?1/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling to exert an anti-fibrotic activity. This study shows that EW-7197 has a strong potential as an anti-fibrosis therapeutic agent via inhibition of TGF-?-/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling. PMID:25487606

  19. EWS and RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor Inhibit Neuronal Phenotype Development and Oncogenic Transformation in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Savita; Gomez, Nicholas C.; Bell, Russell; Patel, Mukund; Davis, Ian J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    The gene encoding EWS (EWSR1) is involved in various chromosomal translocations that cause the production of oncoproteins responsible for multiple cancers including Ewing sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, soft tissue clear cell sarcoma, and desmoplastic small round cell sarcoma. It is well known that EWS fuses to FLI to create EWS/FLI, which is the abnormal transcription factor that drives tumor development in Ewing sarcoma. However, the role of wild-type EWS in Ewing sarcoma pathogenesis remains unclear. In the current study, we identified EWS-regulated genes and cellular processes through RNA interference combined with RNA sequencing and functional annotation analyses. Interestingly, we found that EWS and EWS/FLI co-regulate a significant cluster of genes, indicating an interplay between the 2 proteins in regulating cellular functions. We found that among the EWS–down-regulated genes are a subset of neuronal genes that contain binding sites for the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST or neuron-restrictive silencer factor [NRSF]), neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE), suggesting a cooperative interaction between REST and EWS in gene regulation. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that EWS interacts directly with REST. Genome-wide binding analysis showed that EWS binds chromatin at or near NRSE. Furthermore, functional studies revealed that both EWS and REST inhibit neuronal phenotype development and oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma cells. Our data implicate an important role of EWS in the development of Ewing sarcoma phenotype and highlight a potential value in modulating EWS function in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma and other EWS translocation–based cancers. PMID:24069508

  20. The Cell Cycle Regulator CCDC6 Is a Key Target of RNA-Binding Protein EWS

    PubMed Central

    Duggimpudi, Sujitha; Larsson, Erik; Nabhani, Schafiq; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I

    2015-01-01

    Genetic translocation of EWSR1 to ETS transcription factor coding region is considered as primary cause for Ewing sarcoma. Previous studies focused on the biology of chimeric transcription factors formed due to this translocation. However, the physiological consequences of heterozygous EWSR1 loss in these tumors have largely remained elusive. Previously, we have identified various mRNAs bound to EWS using PAR-CLIP. In this study, we demonstrate CCDC6, a known cell cycle regulator protein, as a novel target regulated by EWS. siRNA mediated down regulation of EWS caused an elevated apoptosis in cells in a CCDC6-dependant manner. This effect was rescued upon re-expression of CCDC6. This study provides evidence for a novel functional link through which wild-type EWS operates in a target-dependant manner in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:25751255

  1. EWS-FLI1 Suppresses NOTCH-Activated p53 in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Ban; Max Kauer; Karl-Ludwig Schaefer; Christopher Poremba; Gunhild Jug; Raphaela Schwentner; Oskar Smrzka; Karin Muehlbacher; Dave N. T. Aryee; Heinrich Kovar

    2008-01-01

    Although p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer, half of human tumors retain wild-type p53, whereby it is unknown whether normal p53 function is compromised by other cancer-associated alterations. One example is Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT), where 90% express wild-type p53. ESFT are characterized by EWS-FLI1 oncogene fusions. Studying 6 ESFT cell lines, silencing of EWS-FLI1 in

  2. NLO QCD+EW automation and precise predictions for V+multijet production

    E-print Network

    Stefan Kallweit; Jonas M. Lindert; Stefano Pozzorini; Marek Schönherr; Philipp Maierhöfer

    2015-05-21

    In this talk we present a fully automated implementation of next-to-leading order electroweak (NLO EW) corrections in OpenLoops together with Sherpa and Munich. As a first application, we present NLO QCD+EW predictions for the production of positively charged W bosons in association with up to three jets and for the production of a Z boson or photon in association with one jet.

  3. NLO QCD+EW automation and precise predictions for V+multijet production

    E-print Network

    Kallweit, Stefan; Pozzorini, Stefano; Schönherr, Marek; Maierhöfer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we present a fully automated implementation of next-to-leading order electroweak (NLO EW) corrections in OpenLoops together with Sherpa and Munich. As a first application, we present NLO QCD+EW predictions for the production of positively charged W bosons in association with up to three jets and for the production of a Z boson or photon in association with one jet.

  4. Inhibition of EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Toretsky; Yvette Connell; Len Neckers; Narayan K. Bhat

    1997-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) contain reciprocal translocations, of which approximately 90% occur between the long arm of chromosomes 11 and 22, t(11;22)(q24;q12), resulting in the formation of chimeric proteins generated by a fusion of the EWS and FLI-1 genes. To determine if EWS-FLI-1 protein is responsible for the Ewing sarcoma phenotype we have used sequence-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN)

  5. Rapid screening of precursor and degradation products of chemical warfare agents in soil by solid-phase microextraction ion mobility spectrometry (SPME–IMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preshious Rearden; Peter B. Harrington

    2005-01-01

    The use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to detect precursor and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as soil contaminants was investigated. The development and characterization of a system to interface a thermal desorption solid-phase microextraction inlet with a hand held ion mobility spectrometer was demonstrated. The analytes used in this study were diisopropyl

  6. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Sipe; Kenneth P. Schoonmaker; James N. Herron; Michael J. Mostert

    2000-01-01

    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection.

  7. Surface detection of chemical warfare agent simulants and degradation products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abu B. Kanu; Paul E. Haigh; Herbert H. Hill

    2005-01-01

    Chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants as well as their degradation and hydrolysis products were detected from surfaces using thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS). CWA simulant materials that closely mimic the chemical structures of real CWA G\\/V-type nerve and S-type vesicant simulants were used in this study. Reduced mobility constants (K0) in air were reported for 20 compounds studied. Spectra

  8. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  9. EwE-F 1.0: an implementation of Ecopath with Ecosim in Fortran 95/2003 for coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoglu, E.; Libralato, S.; Salihoglu, B.; Oguz, T.; Solidoro, C.

    2015-02-01

    Societal and scientific challenges foster the implementation of the ecosystem approach to marine ecosystem analysis and management, which is a comprehensive means of integrating the direct and indirect effects of multiple stressors on the different components of ecosystems, from physical to chemical and biological and from viruses to fishes and marine mammals. Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used software package, which offers great capability for a dynamic description of the multiple interactions occurring within a food web, and potentially, a crucial component of an integrated platform supporting the ecosystem approach. However, being written for the Microsoft .NET framework, seamless integration of this code with Fortran-based physical oceanographic and/or biogeochemical models is technically not straightforward. In this work we release a re-coding of EwE in Fortran (EwE-F). We believe that the availability of a Fortran version of EwE is an important step towards setting-up integrated end-to-end (E2E) modelling schemes utilising this widely adopted software because it (i) increases portability of the EwE models, (ii) provides greater flexibility towards integrating EwE with Fortran-based modelling schemes. Furthermore, EwE-F might help modellers using Fortran programming language to get close to the EwE approach. In the present work, first the fundamentals of EwE-F are introduced, followed by validation of EwE-F against standard EwE utilising sample models. Afterwards, an E2E ecological representation of the Trieste Gulf (Northern Adriatic Sea) ecosystem is presented as an example of online two-way coupling between an EwE-F food web model and a biogeochemical model. Finally, the possibilities that having EwE-F opens up for are discussed.

  10. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described. PMID:23277066

  15. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

    2002-12-01

    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  16. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E. [and others

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  17. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Seth D.

    2001-08-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) lab currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares, and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9' X 3' cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and in the foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for proper spatial and intensity characteristics. All relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

  18. Tectonics of the Western Betics: the role of E-W strike slip fault corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Célérier, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The tectonic origin of the arcuate Betic-Rif orogenic belt that surrounds the Alboran Sea at the western tip of the Mediterranean Sea remains debated. Here, we investigate the tectonic units cropping out in the Western Betics (Malaga region, Southern Spain) with the main goal of reconstructing the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the area. New structural data and geological mapping together with available data allow us to identify the main structural features of the area. Deformation is found to be extremely diffused but two E-W elongated tectonic blocks with different lithological composition are outlined by marked E-W dextral strike-slip corridors ending up in horse-tail splays. These E-W strike slip corridors are responsible for late Miocence tectonics of both the internal and external zones of the Betic Cordillera.

  19. Gulf legacy: warfare in the information age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Adam

    1991-01-01

    How a worldwide network of satellites, spy planes, computers, and databases united in support of some revolutionary weapons in the Persian Gulf War is described. The nature of and role played by the coalition's information architecture, and its growth and operation, are examined. The system, which loosely fit under what the Pentagon calls command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I),

  20. Requirements for a future EWS - Cyber Defence in the internet of the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Golling; Bjorn Stelte

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of new technologies and services as well as trillions of devices and petabytes of data to be processed and transferred in the Internet of the Future mean that we have to deal with new threats and vulnerabilities, in addition to handle the remaining old ones. Together with the rise of Cyber Warfare and the resulting impact on the

  1. Quasars as Cosmological Probes: The Ionizing Continuum, Gas Metallicity and the EW-L Relation

    E-print Network

    Kirk Korista; Jack Baldwin; Gary Ferland

    1998-05-27

    Using a realistic model for line emission from the broad emission line regions of quasars, we are able to reproduce the previously observed correlations of emission-line ratios with the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED). In agreement with previous studies, we find that the primary driving force behind the Baldwin Effect (EW ~ L^beta, beta < 0) is a global change in the SED with quasar luminosity, in that more luminous quasars must have characteristically softer ionizing continua. This is completely consistent with observations that show correlations between L_uv, alpha_ox, alpha_uvx, line ratios and EWs. However, to explain the complete lack of a correlation in the EW(NV)--L_uv diagram we propose that the more luminous quasars have characteristically larger gas metallicities (Z). As a secondary element, nitrogen's rapidly increasing abundance with increasing Z compensates for the losses in EW(NV) emitted by gas illuminated by softer continua in higher luminosity quasars. A characteristic relationship between Z and L has an impact on the EW--L_uv relations for other lines as well. For a fixed SED, an increasing gas metallicity reduces the EW of the stronger metal lines (the gas cools) and that of Ly_alpha and especially HeII (because of the increasing metal opacity), while the weaker lines (e.g., CIII] 1909) generally respond positively. The interplay between the effects of a changing SED and Z with L results in the observed luminosity dependent spectral variations. All of the resulting dependences on L_uv are within the range of the observed slopes.

  2. Violence With a Conscience: Religiosity and Moral Certainty as Predictors of Support for Violent Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moira Shaw; Stephanie A. Quezada; Michael A. Zárate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Emerging research on the moral licensing effect implies that increasing a person's moral certainty may decrease concerns about the moral consequences of violent warfare. Therefore, if religion increases moral certainty, then it may also contribute to support for violent warfare. The present experiment tested the extent to which religion's contribution to moral certainty explains participants' support for the United

  3. Department of Defense Analysis Degree: MS in Defense Analysis (Irregular Warfare)

    E-print Network

    in Terrorism and Sub- State Conflict (1 of 5 Regions) (DA) Critical Thinking and Ethical Decision- Making (DA in Terrorism and Irregular Warfare Warlords, Militias and the State American Approaches to Small Wars Ethnic and Collective Action Regional Seminar in Terrorism and Irregular Warfare Warlords, Militias and the State

  4. RTO-MP-IST-091 27 -1 Rumour detection in information warfare: understanding publishing

    E-print Network

    RTO-MP-IST-091 27 - 1 Rumour detection in information warfare: understanding publishing behaviours In the context of information warfare, rumour detection has become a central issue. From classical media-related campaign, to propaganda and indoctrination that lie at the core of terrorism, rumour is a mean widely used

  5. WOOD MADE DECONTAMINABLE OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AFTER SUNLIGHT WEATHERING OR ABRASION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moon G. Kim; C. U. Pittman Jr; D. D. Nicholas; T. P. Schultz; L. L. Ingram Jr; F. R. A. Kabir; L. Wang; Y. Wu; L. Wasson; M. Ivankoe

    2001-01-01

    Methods of making wood decontaminable of major chemical warfare agents were investigated using phenol-formaldehyde and polyurethane resins. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resins impregnated in southern yellow pine gave enhanced dimensional stability and fire resistance properties without decreasing strength properties, but the decontaminability for one major chemical warfare agent was inadequate. Selected polyurethane resins impregnated in southern yellow pine gave enhanced dimensional stability

  6. Women in Warfare: From Troy to the Trenches Conference Papers and Speakers

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Women in Warfare: From Troy to the Trenches Conference Papers and Speakers Women in Warfare: From `Tis of Thee Iain Macintyre The Remarkable Elsie Inglis and the Scottish Women's Hospital Peter Grant Sister Susie's Sisters: Women in Charity, Philanthropy and Humanitarianism in the First World War

  7. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Simonian; T. A. Good; S.-S. Wang; J. R. Wild

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous

  8. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong C. Hong; Jeong H. Kim; Han S. Uhm

    2004-01-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents

  9. An introduction to the physics of underwater sound and their application to passive anti-submarine warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Roderick

    1988-01-01

    Summary form only given. The need has been recognized for a thorough understanding of the basic principles of underwater sound, as the primary phenomenon governing the application of passive antisubmarine warfare. The author describes the basics of underwater acoustics and its association with the undersea warfare effort. He presents some highlights of the present state-of-the-art applications in passive antisubmarine warfare

  10. Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czárán, Tamás L.; Hoekstra, Rolf F.; Pagie, Ludo

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary processes generating biodiversity and ecological mechanisms maintaining biodiversity seem to be diverse themselves. Conventional explanations of biodiversity such as niche differentiation, density-dependent predation pressure, or habitat heterogeneity seem satisfactory to explain diversity in communities of macrobial organisms such as higher plants and animals. For a long time the often high diversity among microscopic organisms in seemingly uniform environments, the famous "paradox of the plankton," has been difficult to understand. The biodiversity in bacterial communities has been shown to be sometimes orders of magnitudes higher than the diversity of known macrobial systems. Based on a spatially explicit game theoretical model with multiply cyclic dominance structures, we suggest that antibiotic interactions within microbial communities may be very effective in maintaining diversity.

  11. Possible long term effects of chemical warfare using visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

  12. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  13. Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

  14. Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  15. Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Shepherd, Seth D.

    2004-08-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  16. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Grauvogel, Nathanael L.; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.

    2006-05-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combine the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  17. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.; Deyo, Charles R.; Longbottom, Jeff A.; White, Jason C.

    2005-05-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  18. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  19. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal–organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal–organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  20. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley Iii, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy. PMID:25774952

  1. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Della A; Hulst, Albert G; de Reuver, Leo P J; van Krimpen, Simon H; van Baar, Ben M L

    2007-11-01

    Forensic laboratories do not have the infrastructure to process or store contaminated DNA samples that have been recovered from a crime scene contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents. Previous research has shown that DNA profiles can be recovered from blood exposed to several chemical warfare agents after the agent has been removed. The fate of four toxic agents, sulfur mustard, sodium 2-fluoroacetate, sarin, and diazinon, in a lysis buffer used in Promega DNA IQ extraction protocol was studied to determine if extraction would render the samples safe. Two independent analytical methods were used per agent, selected from GC-MS, 1H NMR, 19F NMR, (31)P NMR, or LC-ES MS. The methods were validated before use. Determinations were carried out in a semi-quantitative way, by direct comparison to standards. Agent levels in the elution buffer were found to be below the detectable limits for mustard, sarin, sodium 2-fluoroacetate or low (<0.02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory. PMID:18093062

  2. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.

    2000-04-01

    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

  3. Chemical warfare agent detectors probe the fogs of war

    SciTech Connect

    Ember, L.R. (C EN, Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-08-01

    The air-power-dominated Persian Gulf War was the largest massing of coalition forces since World War II. This short conflict left its own intriguing legacy of unanswered questions. Were chemical weapons used in the theater of war Some US Allies, many US service members, and a US Senator believe they were. Yet both US and U.K. defense establishments offer emphatic denials. If Saddam Hussein didn't use chemical weapons, how can the multitude of warning alarms that sounded, alarms indicating the presence of these warfare agents, be explained Did the chemical warfare (CW) agent monitors and detectors the US deployed operate properly And were they sensitive enough to detect not just militarily significant levels, for which troops would have had to don full protective gear, but also very low concentrations of these weapons, levels that Sen. Richard C. Shelby (D.-Ala.) believes may be responsible for the illnesses many Gulf War veterans are now experiencing In this paper, the author addressed these questions.

  4. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  5. www.unh.edu (Search: "Positive Exercise") ew research from the

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    CreatingYour PlanB B PositiveMemories Mean More Exercise DarkChocolate Health Benefits MysterySolved UCONNwww.unh.edu (Search: "Positive Exercise") N ew research from the University of New Hampshire shows that a positive memory about exercise increases the likeli- hood that you will repeat the exercise. The new

  6. VOLUME 76, NUMBER 8 P HY S I CA L REV I EW L E T T ER S 19 FEBRUARY 1996 Quantum Optical SpinGlass State of Impurity TwoLevel Atoms in a Photonic Band Gap

    E-print Network

    John, Sajeev

    long­ range nature of RDDI, this state is the quantum optical analog of a classical neural network [7VOLUME 76, NUMBER 8 P HY S I CA L REV I EW L E T T ER S 19 FEBRUARY 1996 Quantum Optical Spin at a given site is nonzero. Glassy behavior may also arise in quantum systems. Interacting electrons

  7. Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: vapor pressure and boiling point.

    PubMed

    Horn, Hans W; Swope, William C; Pitera, Jed W

    2005-11-15

    The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3+/-1.9 K, about 7 K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7+/-5.1 K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15 K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water. PMID:16321097

  8. Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

    1991-02-11

    This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

  9. Association of EWS-FLI1 Type 1 Fusion with Lower Proliferative Rate in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    de Alava, Enrique; Panizo, Angel; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Huvos, Andrew G.; Pardo-Mindán, F. Javier; Barr, Frederic G.; Ladanyi, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) family of tumors, including peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), is defined genetically by specific chromosomal translocations resulting in fusion of the EWS gene with a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, either FLI1 (90–95%) or ERG (5–10%). A second level of molecular genetic heterogeneity stems from the variation in the location of the translocation breakpoints, resulting in the inclusion of different combinations of exons from EWS and FLI1 (or ERG) in the fusion products. The most common type of EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript, type 1, is associated with a favorable prognosis and appears to encode a functionally weaker transactivator, compared to other fusion types. We sought to determine whether the observed covariation of structure, function, and clinical course correlates with tumor cell kinetic parameters such as proliferative rate and apoptosis, and with expression of the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1R). In a group of 86 ES/PNET with defined EWS-ETS fusions (45 EWS-FLI1 type 1, 27 EWS-FLI1 non-type 1, 14 EWS-ERG), we assessed proliferation rate by immunostaining for Ki-67 using MIB1 antibody (n = 85), apoptosis by TUNEL assay (n = 66), and IGF-1R expression by immunostaining with antibody 1H7 (n = 78). Ki-67 proliferative index was lower in tumors with EWS-FLI1 type 1 than those with non-type 1 EWS-FLI1, whether analyzed as a continuous (P = 0.049) or categorical (P = 0.047) variable. Logistic regression analysis suggests that this association was secondary to the association of type 1 EWS-FLI1 and lower IGF-1R expression (P = 0.04). Comparing EWS-FLI1 to EWS-ERG cases, Ki-67 proliferative index was higher in the latter (P = 0.01, Mann-Whitney test; P = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test), but there was no significant difference in IGF-1R. TUNEL results showed no significant differences between groups. Our results suggest that clinical and functional differences between alternative forms of EWS-FLI1 are paralleled by differences in proliferative rate, possibly mediated by differential regulation of the IGF-1R pathway. PMID:10702401

  10. Binary Lenses in OGLE III EWS Database. Season 2005

    E-print Network

    J. Skowron; M. Jaroszynski; A. Udalski; M. Kubiak; M. K. Szymanski; G. Pietrzynski; I. Soszynski; O. Szewczyk; L. Wyrzykowski; K. Ulaczyk

    2008-02-25

    We present nine new binary lens candidates from OGLE-III Early Warning System database for the season of 2005. We have also found four events interpreted as single mass lensing of double sources. The candidates have been selected by visual light curves inspection. Examining the models of binary lenses in our previous studies (10 caustic crossing events of OGLE-II seasons 1997--1999 and 34 binary lens events of OGLE-III seasons 2002--2004, including one planetary event), in this work and in three publications concerning planetary events of season 2005, we find four cases of extreme mass ratio binaries (q<0.01), and almost all other models with mass ratios in the range 0.1systems and binary stars.

  11. Binary Lenses in OGLE-III EWS Database. Season 2004

    E-print Network

    M. Jaroszynski; J. Skowron; A. Udalski; M. Kubiak; M. K. Szymanski; G. Pietrzynski; I. Soszynski; K. Zebrun; O. Szewczyk; L. Wyrzykowski

    2007-01-31

    We present 19 binary lens candidates from OGLE-III Early Warning System database for the season of 2004. We have also found five events interpreted as single mass lensing of double sources. The candidates have been selected by visual light curves inspection. Examining the models of binary lenses of this and our previous studies (10 caustic crossing events of OGLE-II seasons 1997--1999 and 15 binary lens events of OGLE-III seasons 2002--2003) we find one case of extreme mass ratio binary (q ~ 0.005, a known planetary lens OGLE 2003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53) and almost all other models with mass ratios in the range 0.1systems and binary stars.

  12. Plasma chemical degradation of phosphorous-containing warfare agents simulants.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Sarah; Moussa, David; Hnatiuc, Eugen; Brisset, Jean-Louis

    2010-03-15

    The gliding electric discharge (or "glidarc") technique is a new advanced oxidation process used for the degradation of organic solutes or spent solvents. Discharges in humid air at atmospheric pressure produce active species (i.e., .OH and .NO) that are able to oxidize organic target up to carbon oxides and water. Aqueous solutions of triethylphosphate (TEP), a warfare agent simulant, are exposed to a glidarc in humid air to evaluate the solute stability under the impinging flux of active species. TEP was degraded and the overall zero order kinetic rate (k(0)=3.4 x 10(-4)mol h(-1)) was compared with that of previously considered tributylphosphate. The total degradation of TEP is monitored by the formation of H(3)PO(4) as the ultimate oxidation product of phosphorus by total organic carbon measurements. Extra investigation was performed on dimethylmethylphosphonate to examine the potential influence of the molecule symmetry on the degradation rate. PMID:19962821

  13. Cutaneous manifestations of biological warfare and related threat agents.

    PubMed

    McGovern, T W; Christopher, G W; Eitzen, E M

    1999-03-01

    The specter of biological warfare (BW) looms large in the minds of many Americans. The US government has required that emergency response teams in more than 100 American cities be trained by the year 2001 to recognize and contain a BW attack. The US military is requiring active duty soldiers to receive immunization against anthrax. Dermatologists need not feel helpless in the face of a potential BW attack. Many potential agents have cutaneous manifestations that the trained eye of a dermatologist can recognize. Through early recognition of a BW attack, dermatologists can aid public health authorities in diagnosing the cause so that preventive and containment measures can be instituted to mitigate morbidity and mortality. This article reviews bacterial, viral, and toxin threat agents and emphasizes those that would have cutaneous manifestations following an aerosol attack. We conclude with clues that can help one recognize a biological attack. PMID:10086453

  14. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side. PMID:21240320

  15. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic University, New York 11201 (United States); Othmer Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences and Engineering, Polytechnic University, New York 11201 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  16. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  17. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  18. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  19. Enzyme-based detoxification of organophosphorus neurotoxic pesticides and chemical warfare agents 

    E-print Network

    Kern, Rory James

    2009-05-15

    There are some 15,000 known organophosphorus chemicals. Some of these OP’s, including VX and paraoxon, demonstrate an acute neurotoxicity due to the inhibition of cholinergic enzymes. Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents and pesticide...

  20. Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Investigations of Alleged Use of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Robert W.

    Chemical warfare agents were used extensively throughout the twentieth century. Many such uses are well documented; however some allegations of use of chemical warfare agents were not easily confirmed. During the early 1980s interest developed into investigation of alleged use by analytical techniques, particularly mass spectrometry. Since that time, many combined chromatographic - mass spectrometric methods have been developed, both for application to the analysis of environmental and biomedical samples and for investigation of physiological interactions of chemical warfare agents. Examples are given of some of the investigations in which the author has been involved, including those into Yellow Rain and uses of chemical warfare agents in Iraq and Iran. These examples illustrate the use of combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods and emphasise the importance of controls in analytical investigations.

  1. Enzyme-based detoxification of organophosphorus neurotoxic pesticides and chemical warfare agents

    E-print Network

    Kern, Rory James

    2009-05-15

    There are some 15,000 known organophosphorus chemicals. Some of these OP’s, including VX and paraoxon, demonstrate an acute neurotoxicity due to the inhibition of cholinergic enzymes. Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents and pesticide...

  2. Variant EWS-WT1 Chimeric Product in the Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes S. Chan; Sue MacNeill; Paul Thorner; Jeremy Squire; Maria Zielenska

    1999-01-01

    Chromosome translocations found in neoplasms often result in the creation of hybrid genes encoding chimeric proteins. Desmoplastic\\u000a small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a recently described aggressive malignancy associated with a unique chromosomal translocation\\u000a t(11;22)(p13;q12). This translocation has recently been characterized, revealing the rearrangement and fusion of the WT1 gene on chromosome 11 to the EWS gene on chromosome 22.

  3. Current algebra based effective chiral theory of mesons and a new EW theory

    E-print Network

    Bing An Li

    2005-09-08

    A current algebra based effective chiral theory of pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector mesons is reviewed. A new mechanism generating the masses and guage fixing terms of gauge boson is revealed from this effective theory. A EW theory without Higgs is proposed. The masses and gauge fixing terms of W and Z are dynamically generated. Three heavy scalar fields are dynamically generated too. They are ghosts.

  4. An Essay on the Relationship of Warfare Ecology to General Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almo Farina

    \\u000a Warfare represents not only tragedies for societies and casualties and suffering for people, but also a great menace to environmental\\u000a health and most living organisms. In a short time, warfare mobilizes a massive amount of energy, matter and information without\\u000a a transparent and shared control of actions usually adopted by societies during peace-time. It comprises a very special “extreme”\\u000a tool

  5. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  6. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Raber; Raymond McGuire

    2002-01-01

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, “L-Gel”, consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone™, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of

  7. Factors influencing the sustained-performance capabilities of 155-mm howitzer sections in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, T.M.; Banderet, L.E.; Tharion, W.J.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-04-01

    Factors that limit the performance capabilities of sustained artillery operations in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments were studied. The results show that perceptions of psychological (mental) fatigue, rather than perceptions of muscular fatigue, were primary factors affecting sustained artillery performance. Furthermore, variations in these psychological states were correlated with artillery task performance during the period. In the simulated chemical warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant perosnality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

  8. Microwave Neural Net-Antenna Array for Electronic Warfare Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Macedo Filho; L. A. L. S. Cardoso

    1990-01-01

    Microwave Neural Networks are introduced. These are microwave subsystems, designed on basis of the emerging Artificial Neural Network Theory, that together with inhomogeneous antenna arrays, are able to perform identification tasks of radar emitters, in real time. A model is presented and its properties are commented.

  9. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

  10. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

  11. Use of neutral electrolysed water (EW) for quality maintenance and shelf-life extension of minimally processed lettuce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Rico; Catherine Barry-Ryan; Jesus M. Frias; Gary T. M. Henehan; Jose M. Barat

    2008-01-01

    \\u000aExperiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of different treatments based on the use of neutral electrolysed water (EW) on fresh-cut lettuce. EW was diluted to obtain different free chlorine concentrations (120, 60 and 12?ppm) and to compare with standard washing treatment of 120?ppm chlorine solution. Shelf-life quality and safety markers were studied at the beginning and at the end

  12. Induction of the interleukin-2\\/15 receptor ?-chain by the EWS–WT1 translocation product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenise C Wong; Sean B Lee; Moshe D Bell; Paul A Reynolds; Emilio Fiore; Ivan Stamenkovic; Vivi Truong; Jonathan D Oliner; William L Gerald; Daniel A Haber

    2002-01-01

    EWS–WT1 is a chimeric transcription factor resulting from fusion of the N-terminal domain of the Ewing sarcoma gene EWS to the three C-terminal zinc fingers of the Wilms tumor suppressor WT1. This translocation underlies desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), which is noted for the abundance of reactive stroma surrounding islets of tumor cells, suggestive of paracrine signals contributing to

  13. Transcriptional regulation of IGF-I receptor gene expression by novel isoforms of the EWS-WT1 fusion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ina Finkeltov; Scott Kuhn; Tova Glaser; Gila Idelman; John J Wright; Charles T Roberts; Haim Werner

    2002-01-01

    The EWS family of genes is involved in numerous chromosomal translocations that are characteristic of a variety of sarcomas. A recently described member of this group is desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), which is characterized by a recurrent t(11;22)(p13;q12) translocation that fuses the 5? exons of the EWS gene to the 3? exons of the WT1 gene. The originally

  14. Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C A; Rodriguez, M; Greenbaum, E

    2001-09-01

    Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable after 40 days, storage and they can be launched or dropped into suspected danger zones. Commercially available hand-held fluorometric detector systems were used to measure Photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency of green algae and cyanobacteria entrapped on filter paper disks. Toxic agents flowing in the gas stream through the sensors can alter the characteristic fluorescence induction curves with resultant changes in photochemical yields. Tabun (GA), sarin (GB), mustard agent, tributylamine (TBA) (a sarin stabilizer), and dibutyl sulfide (DBS) (a mustard agent analog) were tested. Upper threshold limits of detectability for GA, TBA, and DBS are reported. With additional research and development, these biosensors may find application in stand-off detection of chemical and perhaps biological warfare agents under real-world conditions. PMID:11544038

  15. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN + using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of small molecule disruptors of EWS-FLI1 interactions in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tosso, Perrer N; Kong, Yali; Scher, Lauren; Cummins, Ryan; Schneider, Jeffrey; Rahim, Said; Holman, K Travis; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Wang, Kan; Üren, Aykut; Brown, Milton L

    2014-12-26

    EWS-FLI1 is an oncogenic fusion protein implicated in the development of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT). Using our previously reported lead compound 2 (YK-4-279), we designed and synthesized a focused library of analogues. The functional inhibition of the analogues was measured by an EWS-FLI1/NR0B1 reporter luciferase assay and a paired cell screening approach measuring effects on growth inhibition for human cells containing EWS-FLI1 (TC32 and TC71) and control PANC1 cell lines devoid of the oncoprotein. Our data revealed that substitution of electron donating groups at the para-position on the phenyl ring was the most favorable for inhibition of EWS-FLI1 by analogs of 2. Compound 9u (with a dimethylamino substitution) was the most active inhibitor with GI50 = 0.26 ± 0.1 ?M. Further, a correlation of growth inhibition (EWS-FLI1 expressing TC32 cells) and the luciferase reporter activity was established (R(2) = 0.84). Finally, we designed and synthesized a biotinylated analogue and determined the binding affinity for recombinant EWS-FLI1 (Kd = 4.8 ± 2.6 ?M). PMID:25432018

  17. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  18. Performance effects of chemical warfare antidotes: A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    The threat that enemy forces may use chemical warfare against United States military troops has caused the medical research and development community to find effective antidotes. Particularly in the case of nerve agent poisoning, the timely use of antidote therapies represents the key to survival in contaminated environments. Current training doctrine instructs soldiers how to recognize the symptoms of nerve agent exposure, and then how to counteract the life-threatening effects with the administration of atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride. However, these compounds can produce performance degrading effects on their own even when no chemical agent is present. Particularly in the case of the aviator, who is expected to exercise very precise control over an inherently complex vehicle such as a helicopter, the impact of self-administered antidotes should be fully appreciated. The present review briefly summarizes what is known about the actions and performance effects of both atropine and pralidoxime chloride, and recommendations are made concerning the need for additional research.

  19. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  20. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  1. Towards the implementation of a spectral database for the detection of biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Gelfusa, M.; Cenciarelli, O.; D'Amico, F.; Malizia, A.; Scarpellini, D.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2014-10-01

    The deliberate use of biological warfare agents (BWA) and other pathogens can jeopardize the safety of population, fauna and flora, and represents a concrete concern from the military and civil perspective. At present, the only commercially available tools for fast warning of a biological attack can perform point detection and require active or passive sampling collection. The development of a stand-off detection system would be extremely valuable to minimize the risk and the possible consequences of the release of biological aerosols in the atmosphere. Biological samples can be analyzed by means of several optical techniques, covering a broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Strong evidence proved that the informative content of fluorescence spectra could provide good preliminary discrimination among those agents and it can also be obtained through stand-off measurements. Such a system necessitates a database and a mathematical method for the discrimination of the spectral signatures. In this work, we collected fluorescence emission spectra of the main BWA simulants, to implement a spectral signature database and apply the Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL) statistical method. Our preliminary analysis, conducted in laboratory conditions with a standard UV lamp source, considers the main experimental setups influencing the fluorescence signature of some of the most commonly used BWA simulants. Our work represents a first step towards the implementation of a spectral database and a laser-based biological stand-off detection and identification technique.

  2. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Seth D.

    2002-07-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator IR Countermeasures test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using up to eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9 inch X 3 inch cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and int eh foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for property spatial and intensity characteristics. Al relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

  3. Chiral Separation of G-type Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents via Analytical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(–) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(–) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. Chirality 26:817–824, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Chirality published by John Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25298066

  4. Transitioning mine warfare to network-centric sensor analysis: future PMA technologies & capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, J. R.; Guthrie, R. S.; Cramer, M. A.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the requisite technologies and enabling capabilities for network-centric sensor data analysis within the mine warfare community. The focus includes both automated processing and the traditional humancentric post-mission analysis (PMA) of tactical and environmental sensor data. This is motivated by first examining the high-level network-centric guidance and noting the breakdown in the process of distilling actionable requirements from this guidance. Examples are provided that illustrate the intuitive and substantial capability improvement resulting from processing sensor data jointly in a network-centric fashion. Several candidate technologies are introduced including the ability to fully process multi-sensor data given only partial overlap in sensor coverage and the ability to incorporate target identification information in stride. Finally the critical enabling capabilities are outlined including open architecture, open business, and a concept of operations. This ability to process multi-sensor data in a network-centric fashion is a core enabler of the Navy's vision and will become a necessity with the increasing number of manned and unmanned sensor systems and the requirement for their simultaneous use.

  5. Chiral separation of G-type chemical warfare nerve agents via analytical supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-12-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(-) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(-) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. PMID:25298066

  6. Nanowire-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for chemical warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, J. A.; Miragliotta, J. A.; Wang, J.; Tyagi, P.; Maddanimath, T.; Gracias, D. H.; Papadakis, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    Hand-held instruments capable of spectroscopic identification of chemical warfare agents (CWA) would find extensive use in the field. Because CWA can be toxic at very low concentrations compared to typical background levels of commonly-used compounds (flame retardants, pesticides) that are chemically similar, spectroscopic measurements have the potential to reduce false alarms by distinguishing between dangerous and benign compounds. Unfortunately, most true spectroscopic instruments (infrared spectrometers, mass spectrometers, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers) are bench-top instruments. Surface-acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are commercially available in hand-held form, but rely on a handful of functionalized surfaces to achieve specificity. Here, we consider the potential for a hand-held device based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using templated nanowires as enhancing substrates. We examine the magnitude of enhancement generated by the nanowires and the specificity achieved in measurements of a range of CWA simulants. We predict the ultimate sensitivity of a device based on a nanowire-based SERS core to be 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than a comparable SAW system, with a detection limit of approximately 0.01 mg m-3.

  7. Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading Matthew D. Shawkey, Shreekumar R. Pillai and Geoffrey E. Hill

    E-print Network

    Shawkey, Matthew

    Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading bacteria Matthew D. Shawkey warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading bacteria. Á/ J. Avian Biol. 34: 345Á/349. Anti themselves against feather-degrading and other potentially harmful bacteria using this oil. We preliminarily

  8. The Cultural Geography Model: Evaluating the Impact of Tactical Operational Outcomes on a Civilian Population in an Irregular Warfare Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan K. Alt; Leroy A. ‘Jack’ Jackson; David Hudak; Stephen Lieberman

    2009-01-01

    The civilian population has been described as ‘the center of gravity in irregular warfare’. Understanding the behavioral response of the civilian population in irregular warfare operations presents a major challenge area to the joint modeling and simulation community where there is a clear need for the development of models, methods, and tools to address civilian behavior response. This paper provides

  9. Adipogenesis stimulates the nuclear localization of EWS with an increase in its O-GlcNAc glycosylation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Kamemura, Kazuo

    2014-07-18

    Although the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) proto-oncoprotein is found in the nucleus and cytosol and is associated with the cell membrane, the regulatory mechanisms of its subcellular localization are still unclear. Here we found that adipogenic stimuli induce the nuclear localization of EWS in 3T3-L1 cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation in the C-terminal PY-nuclear localization signal of EWS was negative throughout adipogenesis. Instead, an adipogenesis-dependent increase in O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation of EWS was observed. Pharmacological inactivation of O-GlcNAcase in preadipocytes promoted perinuclear localization of EWS. Our findings suggest that the nuclear localization of EWS is partly regulated by the glycosylation. PMID:24928395

  10. Late Triassic-early Jurassic block tilting along E-W faults, in southern Tunisia: New interpretation of the Tebaga of Medenine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, Camille; Lamotte, Dominique Frizon de; Bouaziz, Samir; Khomsi, Sami; Mouchot, Nicolas; Ruiz, Geoffrey; Guillocheau, François

    2011-08-01

    The Tebaga of Medenine is a puzzling structure situated at the northern edge of the Jeffara plain in southern Tunisia. It presents the unique outcropping marine Permian sequence in Africa as well as spectacular angular unconformities related to Mesozoic tectono-sedimentary events. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this structure but some questions still remain. We present the result of an integrated study of the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the region, based on new field work and a reassessment of some subsurface data. We propose a new structural hypothesis in which the Tebaga of Medenine is interpreted as resulting from large scale block tilting, mainly controlled by inherited E-W major faults, the Azizia fault system. These E-W faults running along the Jeffara plain may represent inherited structural features in relation with deep faulting in the Paleozoic substratum. This rifting occurring during late Triassic up to the end of early Jurassic, is finally integrated in the general frame of the East Mediterranean.

  11. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. PMID:21959843

  12. Adenosine Transporter ENT4 Is a Direct Target of EWS\\/WT1 Translocation Product and Is Highly Expressed in Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongjie Li; Gromoslaw A. Smolen; Lisa F. Beers; Li Xia; William Gerald; Joanne Wang; Daniel A. Haber; Sean Bong Lee; Dong-Yan Jin

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundDesmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) is a highly aggressive malignancy that affects mainly adolescents and young adults. A defining characteristic of DSRCT is a specific chromosomal translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), that fuses EWS with WT1, leading to a production of two isoforms of chimeric transcription factor, EWS\\/WT1(?KTS) and EWS\\/WT1(+KTS). The chimeric proteins are thought to play critical roles in various stages

  13. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  14. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN); Sanders, Charlene A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  15. Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

  16. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 ?g/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 ?g/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  17. The chimeric EWS-WT1 gene product in the desmoplastic small round cell tumor: Molecular detection and alternative transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, W.; Alava, E. de; Ladanyi, M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a recently recognized aggressive type of primitive sarcoma occurring mainly in young males. Previous cytogenetic reports have identified a recurrent translocation in DSRCT, t(11;22)(p13;q12). We have recently shown that this translocation represents a rearrangement between the EWS and WT1 genes, normally located at 22q12 and 11p13, respectively, generating a fusion gene which encodes a chimeric RNA resulting from an in-frame junction of EWS exon 7 to WT1 exon 8. Thus, this chimeric RNA encodes a putative protein in which the RNA-binding domain of EWS is replaced by the three C-terminal zinc fingers of the WT1 DNA-binding domain. We have now assessed the molecular detection of this rearrangement in a panel of 7 DSRCTs and 38 other small round cell tumors, and we have examined the WT1 portion of the chimeric RNA for the presence of the previously reported splice variants of the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain of WT1. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) revealed a single identical product in 4/5 cases tested, including a case in which a t(11;22)(p13;q12) by karyotyping. By Southern blotting, rearrangement of both EWS and WT1 was detectable in 3/6 cases, EWS alone in 1/6, and neither in 2/6. Histologically, the sole sample negative by both methods contained very scanty viable tumor. EWS-WT1 RT-PCR was negative in 16 Wilms` tumors, 12 rhadomyosarcomas, and 10 Ewing`s sarcomas. RT-PCR with splice site-specific primers showed the chimeric EWS-WT1 transcripts to include both splice variants of the zinc-finger domain of WT1, {open_quotes}+KTS{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}-KTS{close_quotes}. The t(11;22)(p13;q12) of DSRCT is most reliably detected by RT-PCR, and results in a specific and structurally highly consistent EWS-WT1 chimeric transcript which may interact with the normal targets of both splice variants of WT1.

  18. The oncogenic properties of EWS/WT1 of desmoplastic small round cell tumors are unmasked by loss of p53 in murine embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is characterized by the presence of a fusion protein EWS/WT1, arising from the t (11;22) (p13;q12) translocation. Here we examine the oncogenic properties of two splice variants of EWS/WT1, EWS/WT1-KTS and EWS/WT1?+?KTS. Methods We over-expressed both EWS/WT1 variants in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of wild-type, p53+/- and p53-/- backgrounds and measured effects on cell-proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, clonogenicity after serum withdrawal, and sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and gamma irradiation in comparison to control cells. We examined gene expression profiles in cells expressing EWS/WT1. Finally we validated our key findings in a small series of DSRCT. Results Neither isoform of EWS/WT1 was sufficient to transform wild-type MEFs however the oncogenic potential of both was unmasked by p53 loss. Expression of EWS/WT1 in MEFs lacking at least one allele of p53 enhanced cell-proliferation, clonogenic survival and anchorage-independent growth. EWS/WT1 expression in wild-type MEFs conferred resistance to cell-cycle arrest after irradiation and daunorubicin induced apoptosis. We show DSRCT commonly have nuclear localization of p53, and copy-number amplification of MDM2/MDMX. Expression of either isoform of EWS/WT1 induced characteristic mRNA expression profiles. Gene-set enrichment analysis demonstrated enrichment of WNT pathway signatures in MEFs expressing EWS/WT1?+?KTS. Wnt-activation was validated in cell lines with over-expression of EWS/WT1 and in DSRCT. Conclusion In conclusion, we show both isoforms of EWS/WT1 have oncogenic potential in MEFs with loss of p53. In addition we provide the first link between EWS/WT1 and Wnt-pathway signaling. These data provide novel insights into the function of the EWS/WT1 fusion protein which characterize DSRCT. PMID:24321497

  19. Downregulation and forced expression of EWS-Fli1 fusion gene results in changes in the expression of G 1 regulatory genes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Y; Tanaka, K; Nakatani, F; Matsunobu, T; Matsuda, S; Iwamoto, Y

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24:q12) is detected in approximately 90% of tumours of the Ewing family (ET). This translocation results in EWS-Fli1 gene fusion which produces a EWS-Fli1 fusion protein acting as an aberrant transcriptional activator. We previously reported that the inhibition of EWS-Fli1 expression caused the G 0/G 1 arrest of ET cells. We, therefore, hypothesized that EWS-Fli1 may affect the expression of G 1 regulatory genes. Downregulation of EWS-Fli1 fusion proteins was observed 48 hours after the treatment with EWS-Fli1 antisense oligonucleotides. The expressions of G 1 cyclins, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, were markedly decreased in parallel with the reduction of EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. On the other hand, the expression of p21 and p27, which are important cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) for G 1–S transition, was dramatically increased after the treatment with EWS-Fli1 antisense oligonucleotides. RT-PCR analysis showed that alteration of the expressions of the cyclins and CKIs occurred at the mRNA level. Furthermore, transfection of EWS-Fli1 cDNA to NIH3T3 caused transformation of the cells and induction of the expression of cyclin D1 and E. Clinical samples of ET also showed a high level of expression of cyclin D1 mRNA, whereas mRNAs for p21 and p27 were not detected in the samples. These findings strongly suggest that the G 1–S regulatory genes may be involved in downstream of EWS-Fli1 transcription factor, and that the unbalanced expression of G 1–S regulatory factors caused by EWS-Fli1 may lead to the tumorigenesis of ET. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www. bjcancer.com PMID:11259090

  20. The Baltic Sea as a dumping site of chemical munitions and chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Szarejko; Jacek Namie?nik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Allied and Soviet forces after World War II is presented. The types and properties of the chemical warfare agents found in the Baltic, as well as the known dumping regions, are described. The potential hazards for the environment arising from the long-term disposal of munitions

  1. Informational warfare: Coalitional gossiping as a strategy for within-group aggression

    E-print Network

    , like those among human males and among female nonhuman primates, in part serve competitive aggressive benefits of coalitions in male aggression and warfare. Theories of human female coalitions, however, have nonhuman female primates do serve competitive functions. We argue that relationships among human females

  2. Classical Deception Techniques and Perception Management vs. the Four Strategies of Information Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kopp

    The use of deception techniques for intelligence operations, strategic and tactical deception in war, politics, business and media manipulation is well established and well documented. This paper analyses established deception techniques in the context of the four canonical strategies of Information Warfare, to establish an information theoretical and game theoretical framework for future modelling and analysis.

  3. The Five Ds in Martial Arts are Directly Applicable to Information Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perry Luzwick

    2000-01-01

    On the surface it may appear a stretch to relate martial arts to information warfare (IW), but the similarities are striking (no pun intended). There are physical, spiritual, and metaphysical aspects to martial arts that are directly and indirectly analogous to the physical, virtual, and perception management aspects of IW.

  4. Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism: embracing the network-centric warfare paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Masys

    2004-01-01

    Military operations today more than ever are carried out by large coalitions, usually distributed between several organisations and often separated by substantial temporal and spatial scales. To facilitate such military operations, network-centric warfare is often cited as the panacea of command and control, possessing the characteristics of elevated speed of command, high levels of self-synchronisation and shared situational awareness. A

  5. Decontamination issues for chemical and biological warfare agents: How clean is clean enough?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Raber; Alfred Jin; Kathleen Noonan; Ray McGuire; Robert D. Kirvel

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this assessment is to determine what level of cleanup will be required to meet regulatory and stakeholder needs in the case of a chemical and\\/or biological incident at a civilian facility. A literature review for selected, potential chemical and biological warfare agents shows that dose information is often lacking or controversial. Environmental regulatory limits or other industrial

  6. How China will use cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Extract:The People’s Republic of China (PRC) may be a global power economically but its military lacks force projection beyond the Asia Pacific region. Its traditional military hardware is one to three generations behind the US and Russia. In light of these deficiencies it is probable that cyber warfare will provide China with an asymmetric advantage to deter aggression from stronger

  7. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S S Ramkumar; A Love; U R Sata; C J Koester; W J Smith; G A Keating; L Hobbs; S B Cox; W M Lagna; R J Kendall

    2008-01-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including

  8. Laser-based instrumentation for detection of chemical-warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Sander, R.K.; Hartford, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being developed for remote, point, and surface contamination detection of chemical warfare agents. These techniques include optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. Detection limits in the part-per-million to part-per-billion regime have been demonstrated.

  9. Realizing the network-centric warfare vision: network technology challenges and guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Freebersyser; Joseph P. Macker

    2001-01-01

    An expanded and improved information technology capability is the fundamental heart of the network-centric warfare (NCW) vision. The NCW vision is worthy and is a direct path to achieving improved collaborative power and information dominance. The potential benefits of diverse information sharing and interconnection are manifold, but at the same time difficult to fully predict and quantify. Moreover, along with

  10. REALIZING THE NETWORK-CENTRIC WARFARE VISION: NETWORK TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES AND GUIDELINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Freebersyser; Joseph P. Macker

    2010-01-01

    An expanded and improved information technology capability is the fundamental heart of the network -centric warfare (NCW) vision. The NCW vision is worthy and is a direct path to achieving improved collaborative power and information dominance. The potential benefits of diverse information sharing and interconnection are manifold, but at the same time difficult to fully predict and quantify. Moreover, along

  11. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  12. Protecting Buildings from Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Attacks a long journey

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    by chemical agents, such as modern nerve- gas chemical agents, is not less severe than biological agents to a few ppm of a nerve-agent is commonly fatal. A major difference between a CBWA attack and an indoor airEditorial Protecting Buildings from Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Attacks ­ a long journey

  13. Multivariate statistical classification of surface enhanced Raman spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Augustus W. Fountain III; William F. Pearman

    2005-01-01

    Initial results which demonstrate the ability to classify surface enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants are presented. The spectra of 2 endospores (B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus); 2 chemical agent simulants (Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), Diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP)); and 2 toxin simulants (Ovalbumin, Horseradish peroxidase) were collected on multiple substrates fabricated from colloidal gold adsorbed onto a

  14. Quantitative detection of a simulant of organophosphonate chemical warfare agents using liquid crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi J. VanTreeck; Darrin R. Most; Bart A. Grinwald; Kurt A. Kupcho; Avijit Sen; Michael D. Bonds; Bharat R. Acharya

    2011-01-01

    The performance characteristics of liquid crystal (LC)-based sensors for detection of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP), a representative organophosphonate compound and simulant of chemical warfare agent sarin, are presented. The equilibration coordination interaction among the aluminum ions on a surface, the cyano group in LCs, and the phosphoryl group in DMMP have been exploited to achieve sensitive, fast, and reversible sensor responses. Measurement

  15. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Jenkins; M. V. Buchanan; R. Merriweather; R. H. Ilgner; T. M. Gayle; J. H. Moneyhun; A. P. Watson

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such

  16. Use of SolidPhase Extraction in Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Aasulf Tørnes; Aase Mari Opstad; Bjørn Arne Johnsen

    1991-01-01

    The chemical warfare agents Tabun, Sarin, Soman, VX and mustard gas and the Sarin impurity diispropyl methylphosphonate have been isolated from different samples from a battlefield environment. 50 ml of water, 2 g of grass, soil, sand, paper, neoprene or butyl rubber or 1 g of silicone, a polyurethane foam with activated charcoal or a polyester\\/cotton fabric were spiked with

  17. POLYURETHANE RESINS-TREATED WOOD PALLETS WHICH ARE DECONTAMINABLE OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Nicholas; Moon G. Kim; C. U. Pittman Jr; T. P. Schultz; L. L. Ingram Jr; F. R. A. Kabir; L. Wasson; L. Wang; M. Ivankoe

    2001-01-01

    Wood pallets manufactured by impregnating and coating wood with selected polyurethane resins performed comparably to steel control pallets in decontamination of major chemical warfare agents before and after being subjected to various rough-handling and strength test procedures. Cost calculations showed that the wood pallets would be competitive with steel pallets. See Ref. [1].

  18. Destruction of simulated chemical warfare agents in non-thermal atmospheric-pressure air plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jarrige; P. Vervisch

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in air was investigated. Stainles s steel samples inoculated with malathion (a surrogate for nerve agent VX) were placed on the ca thode, where they were treated by the chemical active species produced in the streamers. An effect ive decontamination (>99.7 %) was achieved after 10

  19. DESI-MS\\/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. D'Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A \\

  20. Simplified anti-submarine warfare problem treated as a steady state Markov process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Marsh; R. Piacesi

    1988-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the physics community in questions related to strategic nuclear force survivability. Markov processes represent a powerful method for quantifying such questions. In this paper the authors give an elementary introduction to Markov processes and chains followed by a simple anti-submarine warfare example in which the scenario of a surveillance-surge attack is treated as a

  1. Waste minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a systematic approach to identify, select and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. The report describes the application of the waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station in Keyport, WA (NUWES Keyport).

  2. Heat and mass transfer from a baby manikin: impact of a chemical warfare protective bag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Danielsson; Eur J Appl Physiol

    2004-01-01

    A chemical warfare (CW) protective bag for babies, younger than 1 year, has been evaluated in respect of thermal load. Heat and water vapour dissipating from the baby make the climate in the protective bag more demanding than outside. The thermal strain on a baby was estimated from heat and mass transfer data using an electrically heated baby manikin and a

  3. Instructional Development and Classroom Technology: Prototype Classrooms at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; And Others

    The first phase of the process of developing a plan to promote increased use of educational technology by the instructors and students of the U.S. Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS) in Newport, Rhode Island, began with a needs assessment which focused on the mission and organization of the school; the SWOS curriculum and the teaching…

  4. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  6. Darwins soldiers: Gender, evolution and warfare in Them! and Forbidden Planet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick B. Sharp

    2008-01-01

    The classic 1950s sf films Them! (1954) and Forbidden Planet (1956) draw on Darwinist plots of future warfare and sexual selection to represent men as natural soldiers and masters of technology, limiting the roles of women to romantic interests for the military men. However, they differ from other contemporary films in their representation of the roles women should play in

  7. Bacterial release of arsenic ions and organoarsenic compounds from soil contaminated by chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Köhler; Klaus Hofmann; Fernando Völsgen; Kerstin Thurow; Andreas Koch

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate possible participation of microorganisms in the release of soluble arsenical compounds from organoarsenic warfare agents in contaminated soil.A number of bacterial strains were isolated with high resistance against As3+ and As5+ ions which are able to degrade the water insoluble compounds triphenylarsine (TP) and triphenylarsineoxide (TPO). These strains belong to different genera

  8. Derivatisation reactions in the chromatographic analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin M Black; Bob Muir

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products is an important component of verification of compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention. Gas and liquid chromatography, particularly combined with mass spectrometry, are the major techniques used to detect and identify chemicals of concern to the Convention. The more polar analytes, and some of the more reactive or highly volatile

  9. Possible immediate and long-term health effects following exposure to chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Karalliedde; H Wheeler; R Maclehose; V Murray

    2000-01-01

    Agents of chemical warfare continue to pose a threat to human life. Organophosphorus compounds are possibly the best known and most used agents in recent times. These are known to produce acute ill health and death and, probably equally important, many diverse delayed effects, many of which are not clinically nor pathologically well defined. The immediate and delayed effects of

  10. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Albert T. [Organic Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  11. In vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Ochi; Toshihide Suzuki; Hideo Isono; Toshikazu Kaise

    2004-01-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid [DPAs(V)], a degradation product of diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, both of which were developed as chemical warfare agents, was investigated in terms of its capacity to induce cytotoxic effects, numerical and structural changes of chromosomes, and abnormalities of centrosome integrity and spindle organizations in conjunction with the effects of glutathione (GSH) depletion. DPAs(V) had toxic effects on cultured human

  12. Utilizing a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma for chemical\\/biological warfare agent decontamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. McLean; J. R. Roth

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. An innovative approach to the decontamination of chemical and\\/or biological warfare agents is described. This recently developed technology involves utilizing a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) as the decontaminant\\/sterilant. The plasma provides a very powerful but environmentally safe oxidizing and disinfecting technique without the use of strong chemicals (chlorine bleach) or high

  13. Chemical warfare agent and high explosive identification by spectroscopy of neutron-induced gamma rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Caffrey; J. D. Cole; R. J. Gehrke; R. C. Greenwood

    1992-01-01

    A nondestructive assay method to identify chemical warfare (CW) agents and high explosive (HE) munitions was tested with actual chemical agents and explosives. The assay method exploits the gamma radiation produced by neutron interactions inside a container or munition to identify the elemental composition of its contents. The characteristic gamma-ray signature of the chemical elements chlorine, phosphorus, and sulfur were

  14. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Webber; Michael Pushkarsky; C. Kumar N. Patel

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of optical techniques for the detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in real-world conditions. We analyze the problem of detecting a target species in the presence of a multitude of interferences that are often stochastic and we provide a broadly applicable technique for evaluating the sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP), and probability

  15. Modeling of Debris Deposition on an Extrusion Filter Medium E.W. Jenkins and C.L. Cox

    E-print Network

    Jenkins, Lea

    Modeling of Debris Deposition on an Extrusion Filter Medium E.W. Jenkins and C.L. Cox Clemson and Films (CAEFF), we are interested in simulating a fiber spinning process from the polymer melt for the mechanisms that govern debris deposition in a porous filter medium. We consider the complete coupled

  16. Development of an improved four-site water model for biomolecular simulations: TIP4P-Ew

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    popular nonpolarizable and polarizable water potentials. Using high precision simulations, and careful application of standard analytical corrections, we show that the new TIP4P-Ew potential has a density maximum at 1 °C, and reproduces experimental bulk-densities and the enthalpy of vaporization, Hvap , from 37

  17. Suppression of FOXO1 is responsible for a growth regulatory repressive transcriptional sub-signature of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Niedan, S; Kauer, M; Aryee, D N T; Kofler, R; Schwentner, R; Meier, A; Pötschger, U; Kontny, U; Kovar, H

    2014-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma (ES) EWS-FLI1 chimeric oncoprotein is a prototypic aberrant ETS transcription factor with activating and repressive regulatory functions. We report that EWS-FLI1-repressed promoters are enriched in forkhead box (FOX) recognition motifs, and identify FOXO1 as a EWS-FLI1-suppressed regulator orchestrating a major subset of EWS-FLI1-repressed genes. In addition to FOXO1 regulation by direct promoter binding of EWS-FLI1, its subcellular localization and activity is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2- and AKT-mediated phosphorylation downstream of EWS-FLI1. Restoration of nuclear FOXO1 expression in ES cells impaired proliferation and significantly reduced clonogenicity. Gene-expression profiling revealed a significant overlap between EWS-FLI1-repressed and FOXO1-activated genes. As a proof of principle for a potential therapeutic application of our findings, the treatment of ES cell lines with methylseleninic acid (MSA) reactivated endogenous FOXO1 in the presence of EWS-FLI1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced massive cell death dependent on FOXO1. In an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, MSA increased FOXO1 expression in the tumor paralleled by a significant decrease in ES tumor growth. FOXO1 reactivation by small molecules may therefore serve as a promising strategy for a future ES-specific therapy. PMID:23995784

  18. Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John S.; Gerlach, Travis W.; Logan, Thomas P.; Bonar, James P.; Fugo, Richard J.; Lee, Robyn B.; Coatsworth, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Chemical warfare agents are potential threats to military personnel and civilians. The potential for associated traumatic injuries is significant. Damage control surgery could expose medical personnel to agents contaminating the wounds. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate efficacy of surgical decontamination and assess exposure risk to attending personnel. Methods: Weanling pigs were randomly assigned to 2 of 4 debridement tools (scalpel, Bovie® knife, Fugo Blade®, and Versajet™ Hydrosurgery System). Penetrating traumatic wounds were created over the shoulder and thigh and then exposed to liquid sulfur mustard (HD) for 60 minutes. Excisional debridement of the injuries was performed while vapors over each site were collected. Gas chromatography was used to measure HD in samples of collected vapors. Unbound HD was quantified in presurgical wound swabs, excised tissues, and peripheral tissue biopsies following solvent extraction. Results: Excisional debridement produced agent-free wound beds (surgical decontamination). A significant amount of HD vapor was detected above the surgical fields with each tool. Apart from the Versajet™ producing significantly lower levels of HD detected over thigh wounds compared with those treated using the scalpel, there were no differences in the amount of agent detected among the tools. All measured levels significantly exceeded established safety limits. Vesicating levels of unbound HD were extracted from excised tissue. There was no measured lateral spreading of HD beyond the surgical margins. Conclusions: There is significant occupational exposure risk to HD during surgical procedures designed to stabilize agent-contaminated wounds. If appropriate protective measures are taken, surgical decontamination is both effective and safe. PMID:18716652

  19. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  20. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  1. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): Effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller’s earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Taysse; F. Dorandeu; S. Daulon; A. Foquin; N. Perrier; G. Lallement; P. Breton

    2011-01-01

    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper1 the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller’s earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to

  2. How clean is clean enough? Recent developments in response to threats posed by chemical and biological warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Raber; Tina M Carlsen; Karen J Folks; Robert D Kirvel; Jeffrey I Daniels; Kenneth T Bogen

    2004-01-01

    Recent terrorist events underscore the urgent need to develop a comprehensive set of health-protective cleanup standards and effective decontamination technologies for use in the restoration of civilian facilities. Accurate scientific information remains limited in the area of biological warfare agents. However, new guidelines and calculated cleanup values are emerging for initial re-entry and long-term reoccupation following use of chemical warfare

  3. Signature-Based Small Molecule Screening Identifies Cytosine Arabinoside as an EWS/FLI Modulator in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stegmaier, Kimberly; Wong, Jenny S; Ross, Kenneth N; Chow, Kwan T; Peck, David; Wright, Renee D; Lessnick, Stephen L; Kung, Andrew L; Golub, Todd R

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of tumor-specific mutations in the cancer genome represents a potential opportunity for pharmacologic intervention to therapeutic benefit. Unfortunately, many classes of oncoproteins (e.g., transcription factors) are not amenable to conventional small-molecule screening. Despite the identification of tumor-specific somatic mutations, most cancer therapy still utilizes nonspecific, cytotoxic drugs. One illustrative example is the treatment of Ewing sarcoma. Although the EWS/FLI oncoprotein, present in the vast majority of Ewing tumors, was characterized over ten years ago, it has never been exploited as a target of therapy. Previously, this target has been intractable to modulation with traditional small-molecule library screening approaches. Here we describe a gene expression–based approach to identify compounds that induce a signature of EWS/FLI attenuation. We hypothesize that screening small-molecule libraries highly enriched for FDA-approved drugs will provide a more rapid path to clinical application. Methods and Findings A gene expression signature for the EWS/FLI off state was determined with microarray expression profiling of Ewing sarcoma cell lines with EWS/FLI-directed RNA interference. A small-molecule library enriched for FDA-approved drugs was screened with a high-throughput, ligation-mediated amplification assay with a fluorescent, bead-based detection. Screening identified cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) as a modulator of EWS/FLI. ARA-C reduced EWS/FLI protein abundance and accordingly diminished cell viability and transformation and abrogated tumor growth in a xenograft model. Given the poor outcomes of many patients with Ewing sarcoma and the well-established ARA-C safety profile, clinical trials testing ARA-C are warranted. Conclusions We demonstrate that a gene expression–based approach to small-molecule library screening can identify, for rapid clinical testing, candidate drugs that modulate previously intractable targets. Furthermore, this is a generic approach that can, in principle, be applied to the identification of modulators of any tumor-associated oncoprotein in the rare pediatric malignancies, but also in the more common adult cancers. PMID:17425403

  4. EWS/FLI and its Downstream Target NR0B1 Interact Directly to Modulate Transcription and Oncogenesis in Ewing's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Michelle; Smith, Richard; Iyer, Anita K.; McCabe, Edward R.B.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Most Ewing's sarcomas harbor chromosomal translocations that encode fusions between EWS and ETS family members. The most common fusion, EWS/FLI, consists of an EWSR1-derived strong transcriptional activation domain fused, in frame, to the DNA binding domain-containing portion of FLI1. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant transcription factor to regulate genes that mediate the oncogenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. One of these regulated genes, NR0B1, encodes a co-repressor protein, and likely plays a transcriptional role in tumorigenesis. However, the genes that NR0B1 regulates and the transcription factors it interacts with in Ewing's sarcoma are largely unknown. We used transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify genes that are regulated by NR0B1, and compared these data to similar data for EWS/FLI. While the transcriptional profile overlapped as expected, we also found that the genome-wide localization of NR0B1and EWS/FLI overlapped as well, suggesting that they regulate some genes coordinately. Further analysis revealed that NR0B1 and EWS/FLI physically interact. This protein-protein interaction is likely to be relevant for Ewing's sarcoma development because mutations in NR0B1 that disrupt the interaction have transcriptional consequences and also abrogate oncogenic transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that EWS/FLI and NR0B1 physically interact, coordinately modulate gene expression, and mediate the transformed phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:19920188

  5. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments. PMID:24244972

  6. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. New studies disputing allegations of bacteriological warfare during the Korean War.

    PubMed

    Rolicka, M

    1995-03-01

    In the television series Korea the Unknown War produced jointly by Thames Television (London) and WGBH (Boston) in 1990, General Matthew Ridgway, Commander in Chief of United Nations forces during the Korean War, called the accusations that the United States waged bacteriological warfare "black propaganda." The charges discredited the United States and, despite denials and many international discussions, have not been completely refuted until new. Following studies in archives previously not available for research and after uncovering new sources, many specific examples of black propaganda were discovered that contained false information and lies discrediting the United States. The mechanism of lies, which convinced the Korean population that bacteriological warfare was going on and that the only way not to become victims of the United States' inhuman cruelty was to fight, are shown in this paper. PMID:7783939

  8. A comparison of {sup 252}Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a {sup 252}Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-{micro}g {sup 252}Cf source emitting 10{sup 7} n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source.

  9. Mechanistic insights into the luminescent sensing of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents and simulants using trivalent lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Genevieve H; Johnston, Martin R

    2015-04-20

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OP CWAs) are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that can cause incapacitation and death within minutes of exposure, and furthermore are largely undetectable by the human senses. Fast, efficient, sensitive and selective detection of these compounds is therefore critical to minimise exposure. Traditional molecular-based sensing approaches have exploited the chemical reactivity of the OP CWAs, whereas more recently supramolecular-based approaches using non-covalent interactions have gained momentum. This is due, in part, to the potential development of sensors with second-generation properties, such as reversibility and multifunction capabilities. Supramolecular sensors also offer opportunities for incorporation of metal ions allowing for the exploitation of their unique properties. In particular, trivalent lanthanide ions are being increasingly used in the OP CWA sensing event and their use in supramolecular sensors is discussed in this Minireview. We focus on the fundamental interactions of simple lanthanide systems with OP CWAs and simulants, along with the development of more elaborate and complex systems including those containing nanotubes, polymers and gold nanoparticles. Whilst literature investigations into lanthanide-based OP CWA detection systems are relatively scarce, their unique and versatile properties provide a promising platform for the development of more efficient and complex sensing systems into the future. PMID:25649522

  10. Development of an Analytical Protocol for Forensic Identification of Chemical Warfare Agent Surrogates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenxing Kuang; Merv Fingas; Ken Li

    2007-01-01

    An analytical protocol for forensic identification of chemical warfare agent surrogates in various sample media is developed. This protocol can be implemented on site or in a mobile laboratory, based on a quick sample extraction procedure and a subsequent gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) analysis. The surrogates in this work include 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), 2-(butylamino) ethanethiol

  11. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: An Essential Tool to Counteract Chemical Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Noort; M. J. Schans; F. J. Bikker; H. P. Benschop

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed\\u000a over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed.\\u000a Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agents is useful for various applications. It can be envisaged that rapid diagnosis\\u000a will play a pivotal role in the management

  12. Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

  13. Demonstration of a Reagent for the Chemical Neutralization of Arsenical-Based Chemical Warfare Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Morrissey

    The U.S. Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PM NSCM) is responsible for destruction of several categories of chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in a safe, environmentally sound manner, and in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention. Captured WW II era German Traktor Rockets (GTRs), containing arsenical-based tearing and vomiting agents, and 4400 empty ton containers (TCs), some with lewisite

  14. DESI-MS\\/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. D’Agostino

    \\u000a Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products\\u000a from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface\\u000a of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass\\u000a spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A “dip

  15. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annetta Paule Watson; Fredrick G Dolislager

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate\\/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure

  16. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam H. Love; Christopher G. Bailey; M. Leslie Hanna; Saphon Hok; Alex K. Vu; Dennis J. Reutter; Ellen Raber

    2011-01-01

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen

  17. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2015-02-16

    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR. PMID:24985033

  18. Simplified anti-submarine warfare problem treated as a steady state Markov process

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.E.; Piacesi, R.

    1988-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the physics community in questions related to strategic nuclear force survivability. Markov processes represent a powerful method for quantifying such questions. In this paper the authors give an elementary introduction to Markov processes and chains followed by a simple anti-submarine warfare example in which the scenario of a surveillance-surge attack is treated as a steady state Markov process.

  19. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. The assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. These shops service the Mark 48 torpedo and the Mark 46 torpedo respectively. The five waste minimization options presented are volume reduction of contaminated clothing, automated cleaning of parts, automated fuel tank draining, modification of the deep sink draining schedule and recycling of mineral spirits.

  20. Illness experience of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A McCauley; Michael Lasarev; Diana Sticker; D. Gary Rischitelli; Peter S Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Background: During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents as the result of the detonation of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah.Methods: In 1999, we conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2918 Gulf War veterans from Oregon, Washington, California, North Carolina, and Georgia to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported medical diagnoses and hospitalizations among this

  1. Sensing technology for chemical-warfare agents and its evaluation using authentic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Seto; Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka; Kouichiro Tsuge; Isaac Ohsawa; Koji Matsushita; Hiroyuki Sekiguchi; Teruo Itoi; Kazumitsu Iura; Yasuhiro Sano; Shigeharu Yamashiro

    2005-01-01

    Some commercially available portable on-site detection equipment (detection paper, gas detection tube, ion mobility spectrometer, surface acoustic wavelength detector, flame photometric detector, gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer) were evaluated using authentic vaporized chemical-warfare agents, from the standpoint of their qualitative detection characteristics, detection limits, response time, frequency of false alarms and residubility on the devices. False alarms and the strong adsorption of

  2. Classification of chemical warfare agents using thick film gas sensor array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nak-Jin Choi; Jun-Hyuk Kwak; Yeon-Tae Lim; Tae-Hyun Bahn; Ky-Yeol Yun; Jae-Chang Kim; Jeung-Soo Huh; Duk-Dong Lee

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor thick film gas sensors based on tin oxide are fabricated and their gas response characteristics are examined for four simulant gases of chemical warfare agent (CWA)s. The sensing materials are prepared in three different sets such as impregnation, physical mixing (ball-milling) and co-precipitation method. Surface morphology, particle size, and specific surface area of fabricated sensing films are performed by

  3. Anaerobic toxicity and biodegradability of hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir I. Sklyar; Tatyana P. Mosolova; Irina A. Kucherenko; Natalya N. Degtyarova; Sergey D. Varfolomeyev; Sergey V. Kalyuzhnyi

    1999-01-01

    The toxicity and biodegradability of the main hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents were investigated under methanogenic\\u000a conditions. Among the tested substances, only MPhA does not have any toxic effect with regard to the aceticlastic methanogenic\\u000a activity. The toxicity of other compounds varied between moderate (TDG, mercaptoethanol) to strong (ethanolamine, diisobutyl\\u000a ester of MPhA). Biodegradability tests showed that all the

  4. Management of chemical warfare injuries (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping their skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.

  5. Bacterial release of arsenic ions and organoarsenic compounds from soil contaminated by chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Köhler, M; Hofmann, K; Völsgen, F; Thurow, K; Koch, A

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate possible participation of microorganisms in the release of soluble arsenical compounds from organoarsenic warfare agents in contaminated soil. A number of bacterial strains were isolated with high resistance against As3+ and As5+ ions which are able to degrade the water insoluble compounds triphenylarsine (TP) and triphenylarsineoxide (TPO). These strains belong to different genera of bacteria. Release of arsenic ions and soluble organoarsenic compounds from soil by the activity of autochthonic soil bacteria and a mixture of the isolated pure cultures was demonstrated by percolation experiments with undisturbed soil samples (core drills) from the contaminated site. This release increased after addition of nutrients (mineral nitrogen and phosphorus, sodium acetate and ethanol) and is nearly independent of the percolation temperature (5 degrees C and 22 degrees C). These results show that bacteria play an important role in the release of arsenical compounds from organoarsenic warfare agent contaminated soil. This release is limited by shortage of water and, above all, of nutrients for the microorganisms in the sandy forest soil. These results are important both for the management and security and possibly for bioremediation of military waste sites containing similar contaminations. Furthermore, this is the first report on bacterial degradation of organoarsenic warfare compounds. PMID:11100795

  6. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2

    E-print Network

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 dAR SERIES 10 CAIS STudEnTS ABRoAd 13 RESEARCh, puBlICATIonS And ouTREACh ACTIvITIES 14 ARABIC pRogRAM 15 CEn to Australia was sponsored by the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, ANU and the Centre for Dialouge, Monash

  7. The chimeric EWS-WT1 gene product in the desmoplastic small round cell tumor: Molecular detection and alternative transcripts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Gerald; E. de Alava; M. Ladanyi

    1994-01-01

    The desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a recently recognized aggressive type of primitive sarcoma occurring mainly in young males. Previous cytogenetic reports have identified a recurrent translocation in DSRCT, t(11;22)(p13;q12). We have recently shown that this translocation represents a rearrangement between the EWS and WT1 genes, normally located at 22q12 and 11p13, respectively, generating a fusion gene which

  8. Immunophenotype of Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors as Detected in Cases with EWS-WT1 Gene Fusion Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Zhang; John R. Goldblum; Bruce R. Pawel; Cyril Fisher; Teresa L. Pasha; Frederic G. Barr

    2003-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare tumor typically involving peritoneum. Although the histogenesis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor has yet to be elucidated, immunophenotypical and morphological analysis shows a characteristic divergent phenotype overlapping with other round cell tumors such as Ewing’s sarcoma\\/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, small cell mesothelioma, and carcinoma. Detection of the EWS-WT1 gene fusion is

  9. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2

    E-print Network

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 RE-buIldIng A STRong STATE AMIdST A STRong SoCIETy 4 ChInA'S EnTRy InTo CEnTRAl ASIA'S SouThERn TIER 5 SECuRITy All and Islamic Studies and the Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy conducted a training program for Afghan

  10. EWs, Escape Fractions & Kinematics of Ly? Emitters in COSMOS at 4 < z < 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallery, Ryan P.; Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Masters, D.; Kakazu, Y.; Ilbert, O.; Scarlata, C.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spectroscopically measured Ly? equivalent widths and escape fractions of 241 sources at 4EW for the sources in each co-added to decrease as the outflow velocity increase, and a weak trend of increasing mean Ly? FWHM increasing outflow velocity.

  11. Data fusion and theater undersea warfare - an oceanographer's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Aldinger; J. Kao

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Navy today is evolving to operate in a more complex and time-constrained mode than ever before. Effective employment of today's increasingly sophisticated weapons systems requires unprecedented coordination and an immediate, thorough, and shared understanding of the battlespace. Fortunately, as the Navy's mission has evolved, so has technology. Remarkable advances in sensor systems, broadband secure communications, image and signal

  12. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  13. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  14. THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A

    2006-10-23

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  15. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  16. The Role of Game Theory in Information Warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel N. Hamilton; Wendy L. Miller; Allen Ott; Sami Saydjari

    2002-01-01

    Protection of cyber assets is critical in today's corporate and military environment. Whether an attacker is a casual hacker or an organized terrorist group, it is crucial to be able to keep your system functional and secure. Game theory offers an array of promising techniques for aiding tactical analysis in this domain. In this paper, we identify the areas of

  17. A phylogenetic approach to assessing the targets of microbial warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Riley; C. M. Goldstone; J. E. Wertz; D. Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Bacteriocins are the most abundant and diverse defense systems in bacteria. As a result of the specific mechanisms of bacteriocin recognition and translocation into the target cell it is assumed that these toxins mediate intra-specific or population-level interactions. However, no published studies specifically address this question. We present here a survey of bacteriocin production in a collection of enteric bacteria

  18. Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric and desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in office media typically collected during a forensic investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. D’Agostino; J. R. Hancock; C. L. Chenier; C. R. Jackson Lepage

    2006-01-01

    Most prior analytical studies have dealt with the determination of chemical warfare agents in environmental or biological matrices that would typically be collected following battlefield use or in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention. These methods may be useful for some investigations, but may not be practical for indoor forensic investigations where chemical warfare agent use is suspected. There is

  19. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder. PMID:25056451

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions

    E-print Network

    Weber, Markus F; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonise new area, as well as the importance of inter-species interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin producing, sensitive, and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates, and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled...

  2. Mass Spectrometry Applications for the Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers Resulting from Human Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Richard; Capacio, Benedict R.

    In recent years, a number of analytical methods using biomedical samples such as blood and urine have been developed for the verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents. The majority of methods utilize gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In a small number of cases of suspected human exposure to chemical warfare agents, biomedical specimens have been made available for testing. This chapter provides an overview of biomarkers that have been verified in human biomedical samples, details of the exposure incidents, the methods utilized for analysis, and the biomarker concentration levels determined in the blood and/or urine.

  3. The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: evidence for offensive biological warfare research in the third Reich.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    In January 1942, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and police in Nazi Germany, ordered the creation of an entomological institute to study the physiology and control of insects that inflict harm to humans. Founded in the grounds of the concentration camp at Dachau, it has been the focus of previous research, notably into the question of whether it was involved in biological warfare research. This article examines research protocols by the appointed leader Eduard May, presented here for the first time, which confirm the existence of an offensive biological warfare research programme in Nazi Germany. PMID:23787226

  4. In-line respeciation: an ion-exchange ion chromatographic method applied to the separation of degradation products of chemical warfare nerve agents in soil.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, W D; Crenshaw, M D

    1997-05-16

    The natural background of anions encountered when analyzing soil samples by ion chromatography (IC) present significant problems in the separation, detection and quantification of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA), the degradation products of sarin, a chemical warfare nerve agent. Using chemically-suppressed IC with conductivity detection, a commercially available ion-exchange column, and an isocratic binary eluent system, IMPA and MPA were determined in aqueous extracts of soil at sub-ppm (microgram/g) concentrations without the need for gradient elution or organic solvent eluent modifiers. Common soil anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate do not interfere with the analysis method due to the composition of the binary eluent allowing for greater mobilization of multivalent anions (e.g., MPA, carbonate, and sulfate) while monovalent anions (e.g., IMPA and nitrate) are relatively unaffected. Carbonate is selectively removed by in-line respeciation to bicarbonate. PMID:9203365

  5. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  6. Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonize new areas, as well as the importance of interspecies interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin-producing, sensitive and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled us to extrapolate these intricate interdependencies in terms of phenomenological biodiversity laws. Our mathematical analysis also suggested that cyclic dominance between strains is not a prerequisite for coexistence in competitive range expansions. Instead, robust three-strain coexistence required a balance between growth rates and either a reduced initial ratio of the toxin-producing strain, or a sufficiently short toxin range. PMID:24806706

  7. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  8. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  9. Using antisubmarine warfare experience to enhance unattended ground sensor (UGS) employment tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Stephen M.

    2002-08-01

    Present employment tactics for acoustic sensors in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) networks bear no resemblance to similar broadband acoustic sensor tactics for anti-submarine warfare. The tactical thought processes for the employment of both networks do not explain the differences even taking into account the variance in speed of sound in water and other environmental factors. The use of sonobouy experience appears to be a valid source of information on which to base tactical theory for acoustic sensor placement in the land warfare scenario. The development of tactical scenarios for land sensor operations requires knowledge of a set of factors parallel to the at sea scenario. Reverberation characteristics of local terrain, foliage attenuation of sound, weather background noise and other environmental issues must be considered in the placement of sensors to maximize effectiveness. Land-based sensors are being deployed in a single formation for both search and for track of targets. Examination of the operational experience of at sea deployment of acoustic sensors can greatly accelerate the deployment success of land-based unattended ground sensors in tactical situations.

  10. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  11. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  12. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

  13. Molecular dissection of the mechanism by which EWS/FLI expression compromises actin cytoskeletal integrity and cell adhesion in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Aashi; Hoffman, Laura M; Jensen, Christopher C; Lin, Yi-Chun; Grossmann, Allie H; Randall, R Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L; Welm, Alana L; Beckerle, Mary C

    2014-09-15

    Ewing sarcoma is the second-most-common bone cancer in children. Driven by an oncogenic chromosomal translocation that results in the expression of an aberrant transcription factor, EWS/FLI, the disease is typically aggressive and micrometastatic upon presentation. Silencing of EWS/FLI in patient-derived tumor cells results in the altered expression of hundreds to thousands of genes and is accompanied by dramatic morphological changes in cytoarchitecture and adhesion. Genes encoding focal adhesion, extracellular matrix, and actin regulatory proteins are dominant targets of EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional repression. Reexpression of genes encoding just two of these proteins, zyxin and ?5 integrin, is sufficient to restore cell adhesion and actin cytoskeletal integrity comparable to what is observed when the EWS/FLI oncogene expression is compromised. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we show that EWS/FLI-induced repression of ?5 integrin and zyxin expression promotes tumor progression by supporting anchorage-independent cell growth. This selective advantage is paired with a tradeoff in which metastatic lung colonization is compromised. PMID:25057021

  14. Mode Theory of Multi-Armed Spiral Antennas and Its Application to Electronic Warfare Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radway, Matthew J.

    Since their invention about 55 years ago, spiral antennas have earned a reputation for providing stable impedance and far-field patterns over multi-decade frequency ranges. For the first few decades these antennas were researched for electronic warfare receiving applications, primarily in the 2-18 GHz range. This research was often done under conditions of secrecy, and often by private contractors who did not readily share their research, and now have been defunct for decades. Even so, the body of literature on the two-armed variant of these antennas is rich, often leading non-specialists to the misconception that these antennas are completely understood. Furthermore, early work was highly experimental in nature, and was conducted before modern data collection and postprocessing capabilities were widespread, which limited the range of the studies. Recent research efforts have focused on extending the application of spirals into new areas, as well as applying exotic materials to `improve' their performance and reduce their size. While interesting results have been obtained, in most instances these were incomplete, often compromising the frequency independent nature of these antennas. This thesis expands the role of the multi-armed spiral outside of its traditional niche of receive-only monopulse direction finding. As a first step, careful study of the spiral-antenna mode theory is undertaken with particular attention paid to the concepts of mode filtering and modal decomposition. A technique for reducing the modal impedance of high arm-count spirals is introduced. The insights gained through this theoretical study are first used to improve the far-field performance of the coiled-arm spiral antenna. Specifically, expanding the number of arms on a coiled arm spiral from two to four while providing proper excitation enables dramatically improved broadside axial ratio and azimuthal pattern uniformity. The multiarming technique is then applied to the design of an antenna with exceptionally stable and clean radiation patterns without use of an absorbing cavity. The multiarming technique allows the spiral to retain its pattern integrity at frequencies well below those of comparable two-armed spiral antennas. A quadrifilar helix-type of end-loading is applied to the end of the spiral, resulting in dramatically-improved low-frequency gain. Careful application of resistive end-loading allows good impedance matching at frequencies as low as one-half of the Mode 1 cutoff frequency, while providing acceptable radiation efficiency due to effective use of the available antenna volume. A novel dual-layering technique for reducing the spiral's modal impedance is presented, allowing the antenna to present a good impedance match to a 50 ohm system. The third application of mode theory has been to exploit the wideband multi-mode capability of the multi-armed spiral antenna to implement a simple wide-band radiation pattern nulling technique on a multi-armed spiral antenna. It is shown that wideband nulling is possible and that, in contrast to traditional array antennas, grating lobes do not appear even over extremely wide bandwidths. Simple techniques for addressing the phenomenon of null rotation with frequency are discussed. Finally, mode theory has been used to analyze beamformer non-idealities. This has led to the revelation that the spectral distribution of beamformer errors is at least as important as the magnitude of those errors. Proper choice of beamformer topology can result in noticeable improvement in the antenna performance.

  15. A novel EWS-WT1 gene fusion product in desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a potent transactivator of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haim Werner; Gila Idelman; Moran Rubinstein; Patrick Pattee; Srinivasa R. Nagalla; Charles T. Roberts Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a primitive sarcoma characterized by a recurrent chromosomal translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), which fuses the 5? exons of the EWS gene to the 3? exons of the WT1 gene. EWS-WT1 chimeras are heterogeneous as a result of fusions of different regions of the EWS gene to the WT1 gene. We report here a rare and

  16. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    DOEpatents

    Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  17. 2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  18. CIS 6370 COMPUTER DATA SECURITY President Obama has declared computer network warfare to be one of the highest

    E-print Network

    Richman, Fred

    CIS 6370 COMPUTER DATA SECURITY President Obama has declared computer network warfare to be one write reports to those who can find the flaws, see the attacks, and secure the networks. Security as basic knowledge of object-oriented design. Overview of technical aspects of data and network security

  19. Quantum cascade laser based techniques for the detection of explosives, chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. N. Patel

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide occurrence of terrorist activities has made it imperative to use the best available technology for identifying and defeating terrorism involving improvised explosive devices (IED), chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Early and unequivocal detection of the explosives, CWAs and TICs require highly sensitive measurement techniques that are not confused by the presence of the multitude of

  20. Distributed Real-Time Data ow: An Execution Paradigm for Image Processing and Anti-Submarine Warfare Applications

    E-print Network

    Jeffay, Kevin

    Distributed Real-Time Data ow: An Execution Paradigm for Image Processing and Anti-Submarine signal processing applications, such as those found in anti-submarine warfare and image processing by the Navy's standard signal processor, the AN UYS- 2A | used in detection of submarines. The Navy has spent

  1. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Haffenden; T. Kimmell

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known

  2. An investigation into the Practicality Of Using a stage four Hilbert Curve Fractal Antenna for electronic warfare applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia M. Gibney; Wayne S. T. Rowe

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the practicality of using a fractal shape to generate a multi-band antenna that can be used for electronic warfare applications. Currently fractal antennas are used in a multitude of applications such as RFID tags, wireless communication devices such as mobile phones and GPS receivers, and filters. The feasibility of extending the operational frequency range of a fractal

  3. AC 2007-2158: THE ROLE OF INFORMATION WARFARE IN INFORMATION ASSURANCE EDUCATION: A LEGAL AND ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Hoernecke; Thad Gillispie; Benjamin Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Typically, information assurance (IA) professionals utilize information warfare (IW) techniques learned in professional development,courses when performing vulnerability and security assessments. With cyber crime on the rise, both government and industry have come to relyon academia to properly train future IA professionals, reducing the need for professional developmental,courses. This presents a topic for debate since there is some disagreement if

  4. An inventory of wargaming models for special warfare: Candidate applications for the infusion of human performance data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Burton; W. W. Banks; E. E. Schultz; T. E. Berghage

    1988-01-01

    The material contained in this compendium has been drawn from many sources in an attempt to define the number and types of small group combat simulation models which currently exist. The emphasis placed on this particular effort was to identify combat simulation models which are oriented or could be oriented toward special warfare involving highly trained, light, mobile forces. These

  5. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annetta Paule Watson; Dennis M Opresko; Robert A Young; Veronique Hauschild

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs.

  6. Distributed RealTime Dataflow: An Execution Paradigm for Image Processing and AntiSubmarine Warfare Applications

    E-print Network

    Distributed Real­Time Dataflow: An Execution Paradigm for Image Processing and Anti­Submarine signal processing applications, such as those found in anti­submarine warfare and image processing, and yet it has no way to guarantee that the hard real­time processing require­ ments of these anti­submarine

  7. Effects of wearing protective chemical warfare-combat clothing on human performance. Final report, Sep 89Aug 91

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Taylor; J. Orlansky

    1991-01-01

    U.S. Department of Defense studies to measure performance decrements associated with wearing chemical warfare (CW) protective combat clothing indicate that heat stress produced seriously degraded human performance. Even when heat stress is not a significant factor, performance of many combat, combat support, and combat service support tasks is degraded. In most field studies, many crews of combat units became operationally

  8. Copyright -World Automation Congress (WAC) 2006, July 24-26, Budapest, Hungary SIMULATION SOFTWARE FOR NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE TRAINING

    E-print Network

    Dascalu, Sergiu

    designed JTLS-JCATS to train combatant commanders for emergency operations [4]. Several other researchers FOR NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE TRAINING Sergiu Dascalu, University of Nevada, Reno, USA, dascalus and developed algorithms for its execution. These algorithms include intercepting an enemy target platform

  9. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. E. Kientz

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are discussed in several applications, new developments and trends based on a review of the literature published since 1990. Apart from new

  10. Separation and identification of some chemical warfare degradation products using electrospray high resolution ion mobility spectrometry with mass selected detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Reid Asbury; Ching Wu; William F Siems; Herbert H Hill

    2000-01-01

    High resolution electrospray ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used to analyze chemical warfare degradation products from liquid samples. For each degradation product analytical figures of merit for the technique were determined and each response ion was identified by mass spectrometry. From these data, reduced mobility constants (K0) for a number of compounds were calculated for the first time. The detection

  11. Amphibious warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This book introduces and analyzes all aspects of amphibious combat and strategy in the light of the most up-to-date theory and information. Contents are: Introduction. The concept. The naval and air commander's problems. The land force commander's problems. Integrated command and control. Command ships and communications. Naval and air close support. Planning and choices of beaches. The logistics of a build-up in the beachhead. Some long-term developments. Bibliography. Index.

  12. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life of Chemical Warfare Victims: An Assessment with the Use of a Specific Tool

    PubMed Central

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. Objective: This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL. PMID:24719824

  14. Wargame system modeling and CLIPS-based rule description method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Tan; Wei Wang; Maojun Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Compared with other large-scale warfare simulation systems, wargame, as a traditional type of warfare simulation, has the advantages of low cost, convenience, practicability, etc. This paper discusses the system structure and class model based on “Future: Korea War” which is a product of U.S. “One Small Step” company's Millennium Wars series strategic-level wargames, and designs wargame umpire rule description method

  15. Determination of chemical warfare agents and related compounds in environmental samples by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popiel, Stanis?aw; Sankowska, Monika

    2011-11-25

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is an increasingly common method of sample isolation and enhancement. SPME is a convenient and simple sample preparation technique for chromatographic analysis and a useful alternative to liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction. SPME is speed and simply method, which has been widely used in environmental analysis because it is a rather safe method when dealing with highly toxic chemicals. A combination of SPME and gas chromatography (GC) permits both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic industrial compounds, pesticides and chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including their degradation products, in air, water and soil samples. This work presents a combination of SPME and GC methods with various types of detectors in the analysis of CWAs and their degradation products in air, water, soil and other matrices. The combination of SPME and GC methods allows for low detection limits depending on the analyte, matrix and detection system. Commercially available fibers have been mainly used to extract CWAs in headspace analysis. However, attempts have been made to introduce new fiber coatings that are characterized by higher selectivities towards different analytes of interest. Environmental decomposition of CWAs leads to the formation of more hydrophilic products. These compounds may be isolated from samples using SPME and analyzed using GC however, they must often be derivatized first to produce good chromatography. In these cases, one must ensure that the SPME method also meets the same needs. Otherwise, it is helpful to use derivatization methods. SPME may also be used with fieldportable mass spectrometry (MS) and GC-MS instruments for chemical defense applications, including field sampling and analysis. SPME fibers can be taken into contaminated areas to directly sample air, headspaces above solutions, soils and water. PMID:22015307

  16. [Toxicological effects of weapons of mass destruction and noxious agents in modern warfare and terrorism].

    PubMed

    Vucemilovi?, Ante

    2010-06-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) best portray the twisted use of technological achievements against the human species. Despite arm control efforts, WMD threat continues to exist and even proliferate. This in turn calls for improvement in defensive measures against this threat. The modern soldier is exposed to a number of chemical, biological, and radiological agents in military and peace operations, while civilians are mainly exposed to terrorist attacks. Regardless of origin or mode of action, WMDs and other noxious agents aim for the same - to make an organism dysfunctional. Because their effects are often delayed, these agents are hard to spot on time and treat. This review presents a biomedical aspect of agents used in warfare and terrorism, including polonium-210, depleted uranium, salmonella, anthrax, genetically modified bacteria, cobweb-like polymer fibre, sarin, and mustard gas. PMID:20587400

  17. The two sides of warfare: an extended model of altruistic behavior in ancestral human intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-09-01

    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (a) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve for defenses than for attacks. (b) Risk aversion, deterrence, and the interplay of migration levels and brutality can change evolutionary dynamics substantially. (c) Unexpectedly, one occasional simulation outcome is a dynamically stable state of "tolerated intergroup theft," raising the question as to whether corresponding patterns also exist in real intergroup conflicts. Finally, possible implications for theories of the coevolution of bellicosity and altruism in humans are discussed. PMID:24928285

  18. Anti-environmental warfare: protecting the environment during wartime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.O.

    1992-06-19

    This paper analyzes the operational impact resulting from the growing legal and political concerns over the environment during wartime. Current international law and national policies are examined to determine their potential effect on Rules of Engagement, and the resulting operational impact on means and methods of warfare. As illustrated during the recent Persian Gulf War, coalition leaders will be operationally constrained by political demands to protect the environment, and to mitigate ecological destruction caused by an opposing force. These constraints will effect how offensive action is conducted against environmentally sensitive industries including nuclear, chemical and petroleum. Commanders must adhere to the current environmental policies and place more emphasis on the principles of discrimination and military necessity in selecting and striking targets. Concurrently, commanders must balance protecting the environment and the requisite minimum casualties to obtain the objectives and preserve public support.

  19. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators. PMID:25133545

  20. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

    1997-12-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

  1. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K. [United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  2. A ew Method for the Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Aerosol Contract Final Report

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control National Institute for Occupational Safety........................................... 16 Aerosol Instrumentation .................................................................................................. 20 Sampling System

  3. Major Glen A. Catania, US Air Force Lieutenant Colonel John A. Hamilton, Jr., US Army Captain. J. David Rosen, US Air Force Captain John Melear, US Navy CINC Interoperability Program Office\\/Joint Forces Program Office Office of the Chief Engineer (05J) Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper will address the important role of architecture planning for ensuring system interoperability in a network-centric coalition environment. As US forces become more dependent upon coalition partners to support crises around the globe, systems interoperability becomes a major concern. This problem is more acute in the Pacific theater, where the US has no equivalent to NATO to address such

  4. Small blue round cell tumor of the interosseous membrane bearing a t(2;22)(q34;q12)\\/EWS-CREB1 translocation: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Pacheco; Douglas E Horsman; Malcolm M Hayes; Paul W Clarkson; Hassan Huwait; Torsten O Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The group of small blue round cell tumors encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterized by primitive appearing round cells with few distinguishing histologic features. RESULTS: We report the case of a small blue round cell tumor with an EWS gene rearrangement detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis that mimicked Ewing sarcoma, but with unusual histology and

  5. NWO/EW reg.nr. NWO-2002 1 GRANT APPLICATION FORM NWO

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Peter

    of cancer in patients may profit considerably from deploying medical decision-support systems incorporatingBayes. Since it is expected to be essential to exploit background knowledge to guide data-mining and learning) Classification Datamining and Datawarehousing (2.2); Reasoning Systems (2.7); Heuristic Algorithms (5.5). NOAG

  6. In-situ derivatisation of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mui Tiang Sng; Wei Fang Ng

    1999-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the extraction of degradation products of chemical warfare agents from water and for in-situ derivatisation prior to analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). With this new procedure, degradation products of the chemical warfare agents can be analysed and identified without going through laborious sample preparation. Parameters such as fiber selection, pH, salt content,

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Development of a new electronic neutron imaging system 1 This SBIR Phase II program is supported by the Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, under Contract No. N00244-95-C-0436. 1 2 Distribution statement – approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S Brenizer; H. Berger; K. M Gibbs; P. Mengers; C. T Stebbings; D. Polansky; D. J Rogerson

    1999-01-01

    An electronic neutron imaging camera system was developed for use with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons in applications that include nondestructive inspection of explosives, corrosion, turbine blades, electronics, low Z components, etc. The neutron images are expected to provide information to supplement that available from X-ray tests. The primary camera image area was a 30×30cm field-of-view with a spatial resolution

  14. Deception and intelligence failure: Anglo?German preparations for U?boat warfare in the 1930s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Maiolo

    1999-01-01

    This essay examines the key role played by intelligence and deception in the interactive process of British and German preparations in the 1930s for U?boat warfare. It argues that the Royal Navy (RN) employed the general perception of ASDIC (sonar) as an ‘antidote’ to the submarine to mislead potential foes about the state of its anti?submarine defences. This British campaign

  15. An Evolution in Military Affairs: Civil-Military Relations in an Age of Unconventional Warfare & Catastrophic Terror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex S. Wilner

    Modern catastrophic terrorism is re-shaping the nature and scope of international conflict and organized warfare, and is, in a direct yet often overlooked manner, challenging the traditional theoretical assumptions that underpin existing notions of Western Civil-Military Relations. Certain counter-terrorism strategies may catalyze an unforeseen process that subverts the stability of civil-military relations and surreptitiously threatens the (internal) security of Western

  16. Distributed Real-Time Dataow: An Execution Paradigm for Image Processing and AntiSubmarine Warfare Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Goddard; K. Jeffay

    1996-01-01

    The central thesis of this project is that real-time scheduling theory can becombined with dataflow methodologies to bound latency and memory utilization of distributed signal processing applications, such as those found in anti-submarine warfare and image processing. To this end, we propose a new real-time dataflow paradigm that is based on the Navy's Processing Graph Method (PGM) [5], which is

  17. Express analysis of explosives, chemical warfare agents and drugs with multicapillary column gas chromatography and ion mobility increment spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor A. Buryakov

    2004-01-01

    Description of a gas chromatograph designed for express analysis of explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate), chemical warfare agents (mustard gas, lewisite, sarin) and drugs (heroin, cocaine hydrochloride, crack) is given. The devices comprises a multicapillary chromatographic column and an ion mobility increment spectrometer (MCC–IMIS). The main analytical characteristics of an IMIS (estimated detection limit (DL), linear dynamic range (LDR), speed

  18. Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlene A. Sanders; Miguel Rodriguez; Elias Greenbaum

    2001-01-01

    Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable

  19. The 9\\/11 Commission Report and the reframing of the ‘war on terror’ as a new type of warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn Torok

    2011-01-01

    As we approach the tenth anniversary of 9\\/11, it is vital to explore how the ‘war on terror’ initiated in late 2001 has been reframed as a new type of warfare, especially in light of The 9\\/11 Commission Report (9\\/11CR) recommendations released in mid-2004. Conceptualising the war on terror as a form of biopolitics, it is considered a new kind

  20. Fate of the Chemical Warfare Agent VX in Asphalt: A Novel Approach for the Quantitation of VX in Organic Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gura; N. Tzanani; M. Hershkovitz; R. Barak; S. Dagan

    2006-01-01

    VX is one of the most toxic chemical warfare agents. Its low volatility and its persistence in the environment raise the issue\\u000a of long-term exposure risks, either by inhalation or by transdermal penetration. Therefore, a topic of acute interest is the\\u000a fate of VX in preservative environmental surfaces. In this work, the fate of VX in asphalt pavement, a suspected

  1. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-02-20

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

  2. Binary Lenses in OGLE-III EWS Database. Seasons 2002--2003

    E-print Network

    M. Jaroszynski; A. Udalski; M. Kubiak; M. Szymanski; G. Pietrzynski; I. Soszynski; K. Zebrun; O. Szewczyk; L. Wyrzykowski

    2004-08-17

    We present 15 binary lens candidates from OGLE-III Early Warning System database for seasons 2002-2003. We also found 15 events interpreted as single mass lensing of double sources. The candidates were selected by visual light curves inspection. Examining the models of binary lenses of this and our previous study (10 caustic crossing events of OGLE-II seasons 1997-1999) we find one case of extreme mass ratio binary (q ~ 0.005) and the rest in the range 0.1systems and binary stars. There is no strong discrepancy between the expected and the observed distributions of mass ratios and separations for binary stars.

  3. Aeromedical evacuation of biological warfare casualties: a treatise on infectious diseases on aircraft.

    PubMed

    Withers, M R; Christopher, G W

    2000-11-01

    A basic understanding of the transmission and isolation of infections would be essential to the safe and effective aeromedical evacuation (AE) of biological warfare (BW) casualties. First, the airframe as microbial environment is considered, and relevant preventive and disinfecting measures are discussed. A survey of past infectious disease transmission on civilian aircraft (including tuberculosis, influenza, measles, smallpox, and viral hemorrhagic fevers) is presented, and the communicability and stability of likely BW agents is described. A brief history of U.S. military aeromedical evacuation (as it relates to contagious diseases and U.S. Air Force BW doctrine) is also outlined. Special containment procedures (especially as used by the U.S. Army Aeromedical Isolation Team) are described. Finally, international legal and regulatory aspects of the AE of BW casualties are considered, and some unanswered questions and suggestions for future research are offered. It is concluded that, given adequate foresight, expertise, and resources, the AE of even contagious BW casualties could be safely and effectively accomplished. PMID:11143422

  4. Use of doubly labeled water technique in soldiers training for jungle warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes-Ewan, C.H.; Morrissey, B.L.; Gregg, G.C.; Waters, D.R. (Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Scottsdale, Tasmania (Australia))

    1989-07-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to estimate the energy expended by four members of an Australian Army platoon (34 soldiers) engaged in training for jungle warfare. Each subject received an oral isotope dose sufficient to raise isotope levels by 200-250 ({sup 18}O) and 100-120 ppm ({sup 2}H). The experimental period was 7 days. Concurrently, a factorial estimate of the energy expenditure of the platoon was conducted. Also, a food intake-energy balance study was conducted for the platoon. Mean daily energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method was 4,750 kcal (range 4,152-5,394 kcal). The factorial estimate of mean daily energy expenditure was 4,535 kcal. Because of inherent inaccuracies in the food intake-energy balance technique, we were able to conclude only that energy expenditure, as measured by this method, was greater than the estimated mean daily intake of 4,040 kcal. The doubly labeled water technique was well tolerated, is noninvasive, and appears to be suitable in a wide range of field applications.

  5. Characterization of chemical warfare G-agent hydrolysis products by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    The United States and its allies have been increasingly challenged by terrorism, and since the September 11, 2001 attacks and the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, homeland security has become a national priority. The simplicity in manufacturing chemical warfare agents, the relatively low cost, and previous deployment raises public concern that they may also be used by terrorists or rogue nations. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g. part-per-billion) of chemical agents, as might be found in poisoned water. Since trace quantities of nerve agents can be hydrolyzed in the presence of water, we have expanded our studies to include such degradation products. Our SERS-active medium consists of silver or gold nanoparticles incorporated into a sol-gel matrix, which is immobilized in a glass capillary. The choice of sol-gel precursor allows controlling hydrophobicity, while the porous silica network offers a unique environment for stabilizing the SERS-active metals. Here we present the use of these metal-doped sol-gels to selectively enhance the Raman signal of the hydrolyzed products of the G-series nerve agents.

  6. Evolution of human longevity, population pressure and the origins of warfare.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Robin

    2005-01-01

    In a protected environment, humans have the longest lifespan of all primates. However, during the emergence of Homo sapiens from pre-hominids, the expectation of life at birth would have been quite low. On the basis of reasonable assumptions, an average expectation of life of less than 20 years is sufficient to maintain a population of hunter-gatherers. As individuals became better adapted to their environment, the mortality rate would gradually decrease, and this would result in the survival of more offspring to adulthood. Thus, the population will increase, and one of the consequences in human evolution is the migration of human communities to many new habitats. The development of agriculture provided a more reliable source of food, and stimulated further the increase in population size. Villages became towns, and then cities, states and empires arose which had very large populations, and competed for land and other resources. Armies were raised and were often at war. All this was due to population pressure, as Malthus had realised more than 200 years ago. However, neither he, nor any of the others who discussed warfare, understood that the demographic changes that produced large human populations was a steady increase in the expectation of life at birth. This inevitably occurred at the same time as man gradually gained more control over his environment, and achieved far more reproductive success than is seen in hunter-gatherers living in a harsh, stressful environment. PMID:16463113

  7. Assessment of Sleep Disruption and Sleep Quality in Naval Special Warfare Operators.

    PubMed

    Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K; Drummond, Sean P A; Larson, Gerald E; Potterat, Eric G

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about sleep in elite military populations who are exposed to higher operational demands, unpredictable training, deployment, and mission cycles. Twenty-nine Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operators wore an actiwatch for an 8-day/7-night period for objective sleep assessment and completed a nightly sleep log. A total of 170 nights of actigraphically recorded sleep were collected. When comparing objectively versus subjectively recorded sleep parameter data, statistically significant differences were found. Compared with sleep log data, actigraphy data indicate NSW Operators took longer to fall asleep (an average of 25.82 minutes), spent more time awake after sleep onset (an average of 39.55 minutes), and demonstrated poorer sleep efficiency (83.88%) (ps < 0.05). Self-reported sleep quality during the study period was 6.47 (maximum score = 10). No relationships existed between the objectively derived sleep indices and the self-reported measure of sleep quality (rs = -0.29 to 0.09, all ps > 0.05). Strong inter-relationships existed among the subjectively derived sleep indices (e.g., between self-reported sleep quality and sleep efficiency; r = 0.61, p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to objectively and subjectively quantify sleep among NSW Operators. These findings suggest sleep maintenance and sleep efficiency are impaired when compared to normative population data. PMID:26126252

  8. Identification of chemical warfare agents using a portable microchip-based detection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic-Duran, K.; Swallow, A.; Sexton, B. A.; Glenn, F.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. A portable microchip electrophoresis (ME) device with contactless conductivity (CCD) detection was developed for the in situ identification of CWA and their degradation products. A 10mM MES/His, 0.4mM CTAB - based separation electrolyte accomplished the analysis of Sarin (GB), Tabun( GA) and Soman (GD) in less than 1 min, which is the fastest screening of nerve agents achieved with portable ME and CCD based detection methods to date. Reproducibility of detection was successfully demonstrated on simultaneous detection of GB (200ppm) and GA (278ppm). Reasonable agreement for the four consecutive runs was achieved with the mean peak time for Sarin of 29.15s, and the standard error of 0.58s or 2%. GD and GA were simultaneously detected with their degradation products methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) and O-Ethyl Phosphorocyanidate (GAHP and GAHP1) respectively. The detection limit for Sarin was around 35ppb. To the best of our knowledge this is the best result achieved in microchip electrophoresis and contactless conductivity based detection to date.

  9. Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.

    2014-05-01

    The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 ?l were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

  10. Global physics: from percolation to terrorism, guerilla warfare and clandestine activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2003-12-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism with worldwide range of destruction. It is argued to result from the first worldwide percolation of passive supporters. They are people sympathetic to the terrorism cause but without being involved with it. They just do not oppose it in case they could. This scheme puts suppression of the percolation as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Acting on the population is shown to be useless. Instead a new strategic scheme is suggested to increase the terrorism percolation threshold and in turn suppress the percolation. The relevant associated space is identified as a multi-dimensional social space including both the ground earth surface and all various independent flags displayed by the terrorist group. Some hints are given on how to shrink the geographical spreading of terrorism threat. The model apply to a large spectrum of clandestine activities including guerilla warfare as well as tax evasion, corruption, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution and black markets.

  11. Northeast Pacific Geomagnetic And Environmental Change During The Last 140 Kyr Recorded By Deep-Sea Sediment Core EW9504-17PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, C.; Stoner, J. S.; Mix, A. C.; VanLaningham, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent paleo-geomagnetic observations as well as modeling studies highlighted the role of regional structures in organizing the geomagnetic field, and quest for better global coverage of quality magnetic records. Continuous high-fidelity paleomagnetic records covering the past few hundred thousand years are rare in the northeast Pacific region. Progressive alternating field demagnetization of natural remanence and laboratory-induced magnetization on u-channel samples from a 15-m piston core EW9504-17PC (42.24°N, 125.89°W, 2671 m water depth) yielded continuous paleointensity and paleo-secular variation, as well as environmental change record of the past ~140 kyr in the northeast Pacific region. Magnetic concentration parameters (magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic and isothermal remanences) and the ratios between them that are indicative of magnetic grain sizes, apparently correlate with glacial/interglacial variations, with higher concentration and finer magnetic grains occur during the glacial intervals. These observations are consistent with previous Ar and Nd isotopes based provenance study result that glacial intervals in this core might be associated with an enhanced contribution from the Cascade volcanic arc. Despite the potential changes in sediment sources, relative paleointensity (RPI) estimates of EW9504-17PC, on age model constrained by benthic oxygen isotope as well as correlation to nearby radiocarbon-dated sediment core, agree well with other worldwide RPI records including the GLOPIS-75 and the PISO-1500 global RPI stacks. Component inclinations of EW9504-17PC also show features that can be correlated to inclination record from the Fish Lake in Oregon. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path estimated using EW9504-17PC data of the last ~25 kyr (on transferred radiocarbon ages) averaged using a one thousand year time window appears to have longitudinal preferential. This nonsymmetrical distribution of VGPs has also been observed from records elsewhere during younger time intervals, and is consistent with the existence of competing geomagnetic flux lobes at recurrent locations.

  12. M em ory for Item s and M em ory for R elations in the Procedural/D eclarative M em ory Fram ew ork

    E-print Network

    Poldrack, Russ

    M em ory for Item s and M em ory for R elations in the Procedural/D eclarative M em ory Fram ew ork ard Eichenbaum Boston U niversity, U SA A m ajor area of research in m em ory and am nesia concerns the item specificity of im plicit m em ory. In this paper w e address several issues about the nature of im

  13. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTrE nEwS 2

    E-print Network

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTrE nEwS 2 Conf) ISSn 1322 0462 ThE AfghAnISTAn ConflICT: AuSTrAlIA'S rolE The Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies held of critical concern for the future of the Afghan state and Australia's commitment. The difficulties of both

  14. A portable Vis-NIR spectrometer to determine soluble solids content in Gannan navel orange by LS-SVM and EWs selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yande; Pan, Yuanyuan; Ouyang, Aiguo; Sun, Xudong; Zhang, Hailiang

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine soluble solids content (SSC) of intact Gannan navel orange by a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with the optical fiber in the wavelength range of 551~950nm. The effective wavelength regions (EWs) were chosen from the spectra pro-processed by second derivative by interval partial least square (iPLS) and backward interval partial least square (Bipls). Then the partial least square (PLS) and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models were developed with EWs. 60 unknown samples were used to evaluate the performance of them. The LS-SVM model was better than others with EWs chosen by Bilps. The correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for LS-SVM (Bipls) were 0.86 and 0.55°Brix. The results showed that the portable NIR combination with LS-SVM was a feasible method to determine SSC of intact Gannan navel orange nondestructively.

  15. Soft tissue Ewing sarcoma--peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor with atypical clear cell pattern shows a new type of EWS-FEV fusion transcript.

    PubMed

    Llombart-Bosch, A; Pellín, A; Carda, C; Noguera, R; Navarro, S; Peydró-Olaya, A

    2000-09-01

    This study describes a new case of Ewing sarcoma (ES)-peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) with unusual phenotype and fusion gene structure. The tumor located in the inguinal area of a 15-year-old boy showed a highly aggressive behavior with hematogenous metastases after intensive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant, causing death 28 months after diagnosis. The tumor displayed a clear cell pattern, and several neuroectodermal markers proved positive both in the original tumor and in xenografts. This neuroectodermal character was confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, cytogenetically the tumor has an unusual chromosomal rearrangement, t(2;22)(q13;q22,t(3;18)(p21;q23); representing a new EWS-FEV fusion type in which exon 7 of EWS gene is fused with exon 2 of FEV gene. This is the third published study of an ES-pPNET showing EWS-FEV fusion described, but it is the first study of a tumor with the aforementioned fusion points. These findings support the genetic and morphologic heterogeneity existing within the group of ES-pPNET tumors. PMID:10976720

  16. Vapour breakthrough behaviour of carbon tetrachloride - A simulant for chemical warfare agent on ASZMT carbon: A comparative study with whetlerite carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Shah, Dilip K.; Mahato, T. H.; Roy, A.; Yadav, S. S.; Srivas, S. K.; Singh, Beer

    2013-06-01

    ASZMT and whetlerite carbon was prepared by impregnation of active carbon with ammonical salts of Cu (II), Ag (I), Zn (II), Mo (VI), TEDA and Cu (II), Ag (I), Cr (VI), NaOH, C5H5N respectively using incipient wetness technique. Thereafter, impregnated carbon systems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and surface characterization techniques. Impregnated carbon systems were evaluated under dynamic conditions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) vapour that was used as a simulant for the persistent chemical warfare agents for testing breakthrough times of filter cartridges and canisters of gas masks in the national approval test of respirators. The protective potential of ASZMT carbon was compared with the whetlerite carbon which is presently used in NBC filtration system. The effect of CCl4 concentration, test flow rate, temperature and relative humidity on the breakthrough behaviour of the impregnated carbon systems has also been studied. The study clearly indicated that the whetlerite carbon possessed breakthrough time greater than ASZMT carbon. However, ASZMT carbon provided adequate protection against CCl4 vapours and can be used as an alternative to whetlerite carbon that contain Cr(VI), which is reported to be carcinogenic and having lesser shelf life. The study indicated the breakthrough time of impregnated carbon systems were found to decrease with the increase of the CCl4 concentration and flow rate. The variation in temperature and relative humidity did not significantly affect the breakthrough behaviour of impregnated carbon systems at high vapour concentration of CCl4 whereasbreak through time of impregnated carbon systems reduced by an increase of relative humidity at low CCl4 vapour concentration.

  17. GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Tung; Hiok Chai Quek; P. Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress.

  18. Methyl salicylate: a reactive chemical warfare agent surrogate to detect reaction with hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Salter, W Bruce; Owens, Jeffery R; Wander, Joseph D

    2011-11-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeS) has a rich history as an inert physical simulant for the chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard and soman, where it is used extensively for liquid- and vapor-permeation testing. Here we demonstrate possible utility of MeS as a reactivity simulant for chlorine-based decontaminants. In these experiments MeS was reacted with sodium hypochlorite varying stoichiometry, temperature, reaction time, and pH. No colored oxidation products were observed; however, chlorination of the aromatic ring occurred ortho (methyl 3-chlorosalicylate) and para (methyl 5-chlorosalicylate) to the position bearing the -OH group in both the mono- and disubstituted forms. The monosubstituted para product accumulated initially, and the ortho and 3,5-dichloro products formed over the next several hours. Yields from reactions conducted below pH 11 declined rapidly with decreasing pH. Reactions run at 40 °C produced predominantly para substitution, while those run at 0 °C produced lower yields of ortho- and para-substituted products. Reactions were also carried out on textile substrates of cotton, 50/50 nylon-cotton, and a meta aramid. The textile data broadly reproduced reaction times and stoichiometry observed in the liquid phase, but are complicated by physical and possibly chemical interactions with the fabric. These data indicate that, for hypochlorite-containing neutralizing agents operating at strongly alkaline pH, one can expect MeS to react stoichiometrically with the hypochlorite it encounters. This suggests utility of MeS in lieu of such highly hazardous surrogates as monochloroalkyl sulfides as a simulant for threat scenarios involving the stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard. Specifically, the extent of coverage of the simulant on a fabric by the neutralizing agent can be directly measured. Similar reactivity toward other halogen oxidizing agents is likely but remains to be demonstrated. PMID:21981047

  19. Salivary hormone response to 12-week block-periodized training in naval special warfare operators.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Beals, Kim; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operators are expected to maintain a high degree of physical readiness requiring continual operational training. The physiological and psychological demands associated with operational training can result in physiological consequences evidenced by hormonal alterations justifying the need for periodized training to maintain or improve physical readiness. This study examined the pattern and time course of hormone changes during 12-week block-periodized training program (BP) in NSW Operators undergoing routine training. Eighteen NSW Operators (31 ± 6 years, 86.6 ± 9.0 kg, 176.2 ± 5.9 cm, 17.5 ± 6.5% fat) participated in a 12-week BP during routine operational training. Salivary free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol (C) were obtained at 4 time points coincident with changes in intensity and volume. In the second block of training in which intensity and volume were increased, FT and C increased by 20.3 ± 7.4 and 20.8 ± 9.9%, respectively. Free testosterone and C returned to baseline values concomitant with the decrease in intensity and volume at the conclusion of the third block of training. No significant differences were observed in FT-to-C ratio over the course of training. DHEA-S increased 23.1 ± 11.0% following block 1, with a further increase observed following block 2 (57.0 ± 17.4%). Our data indicate training following BP produces a pattern and time course of hormone changes congruent with changes in intensity and volume suggesting BP as a potential training model for NSW Operators and other Special Forces Operators involved in operational training. PMID:25029010

  20. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new and promising option. PMID:24091052

  1. A knowledge- and model-based system for automated weaning from mechanical ventilation: technical description and first clinical application.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Dirk; Mersmann, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz; Elke, Gunnar; Semmel-Griebeler, Thomas; Noll, Oliver; Pulletz, Sven; Zick, Günther; David, Matthias; Heinrichs, Wolfgang; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    To describe the principles and the first clinical application of a novel prototype automated weaning system called Evita Weaning System (EWS). EWS allows an automated control of all ventilator settings in pressure controlled and pressure support mode with the aim of decreasing the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory load takes inspired fraction of oxygen, positive end-expiratory pressure, pressure amplitude and spontaneous breathing activity into account. Spontaneous breathing activity is assessed by the number of controlled breaths needed to maintain a predefined respiratory rate. EWS was implemented as a knowledge- and model-based system that autonomously and remotely controlled a mechanical ventilator (Evita 4, Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany). In a selected case study (n = 19 patients), ventilator settings chosen by the responsible physician were compared with the settings 10 min after the start of EWS and at the end of the study session. Neither unsafe ventilator settings nor failure of the system occurred. All patients were successfully transferred from controlled ventilation to assisted spontaneous breathing in a mean time of 37 ± 17 min (± SD). Early settings applied by the EWS did not significantly differ from the initial settings, except for the fraction of oxygen in inspired gas. During the later course, EWS significantly modified most of the ventilator settings and reduced the imposed respiratory load. A novel prototype automated weaning system was successfully developed. The first clinical application of EWS revealed that its operation was stable, safe ventilator settings were defined and the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation was decreased. PMID:23892513

  2. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings. PMID:25775244

  3. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 189 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper. PMID:26043177

  5. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. January 1983-September 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 83-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in the series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 164 citations with title list and subject index.)

  6. Research on the interaction of hydrogen-bond acidic polymer sensitive sensor materials with chemical warfare agents simulants by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper. PMID:26043177

  7. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1983-29 September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in the first year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and and performance that will be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. The presence and absence of correlations between social behavior and performance on two operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are reported as are the effects of caffeine (as a control) and atropine on the social and performance variables.

  8. Miocene (~12 Ma) transition from E-W to N-S syn-convergence normal faulting in the central Himalayas (Ama Drime range).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, P. H.; Kali, E.; Arnaud, N.; Mahéo, G.; Boutonnet, E.; Xiaohan, Liu; Liu, Dunyi; Li, Haibing; Liu-Zeng, Jing

    2009-04-01

    In the high Himalayan range, near the transition to the Tibetan plateau, at least two generations of syn-convergence normal faults have been described. The oldest one corresponds to a major orogen parallel (~E-W) normal fault termed the South Tibet Detachment (STD) while the younger one corresponds to orogen perpendicular (~N-S) active normal faults similar to those observed thorough South and Central Tibet. The timing of activation and end of each of these fault systems has major bearings on the mechanical models of geodynamic evolution of the India-Asia convergence zone. Just North of the highest stretch of the Himalayan range, comprised between the Chomolongma and KanchenJunga summits, rocks of the Himalayan crystalline slab are exhumed in the 6500 m high Ama Drime range. This range is a horst bounded on both sides by preeminent N-S active faults: the Kartha fault to the west and the Dinggye fault to the east. Both of these faults show steep (dip ~35-65°) brittle fault planes and quartzitic cataclasites. In the footwall of both faults outcrop shallower (dip ~30-45°) ductile mylonites showing evidences for normal shear sense. These N-S faults clearly offset the STD. In the core of the range outcrop orthogneiss and migmatites embedding amphibolite layers that belong to the Lower Himalayan Crystalline series and that have been buried to a depth of ~60 km (1.7 GPa). Our study that combines structural and petrographic analysis of the mylonites with U-Pb, Ar/Ar and U/He geochronology, indicates that the Dinggye shear zone has been activated prior to 11 Ma ago and that rocks rapidly cooled below ~300°C at ~10Ma. Data from the Kharta shear zone are more dispersed but are also compatible with exhumation starting ~12 Ma ago. The lower temperature thermo-chronometers [(U-Th)/He apatite] confirm apparent exhumation rates of about 1 mm/yr in the last 5 Myr for the whole range (Jessup et al., 2008). Total exhumation linked with the Kharta and Dinggye Faults and shear zones is on the order of 2 to 4 kbar (7 to 15 km), and could have taken place in two separate phases, the youngest one starting ~5 Ma ago. East of the Ama Drime, in the hanging wall of the Dinggye fault, the STD separates Paleozoic Tethyan series at the top from High Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) micaschists and leucogranites at the bottom. The STD dips ~5-15° to the North. Immediately below the STD, the HHC is highly deformed in the STD shear zone, lineations trend NE and the shear senses indicate top to the N motion. P-T paths constrained by garnet isopleths in the HHC micashists show decompression and cooling from ~5 kbar (~18 km) and ~650°C, after an initial heating phase. U/Pb dating of Monazite and zircons in both deformed and undeformed leucogranites suggest that ductile deformation lasted until at least ~16 Ma but ended prior to ~15Ma in the STD shear zone a few meters below the detachment. Ar/Ar micas ages span between ~15 and 13 Ma indicating rapid cooling down to below ~300°C at that time. These data are interpreted as reflecting ~4 kbar (~15km) of exhumation along the STD and STD shear zone prior to ~13 Ma. Such timing for the end of motion along the STD system fits particularly well with the ~12Ma timing of initiation of the crosscutting Kharta and Dinggye faults. We thus propose that the local direction of extension switched from N-S to E-W at ~12.5 Ma in the Ama Drime area. It is not yet clear if such switch occurred synchronously at the scale of the orogen (i.e. from the Thakkhola to the Yadong grabbens). Such switch should be taken into account in mechanical models of the Himalaya - Tibet orogeny.

  9. A guide to the selection of personal protective equipment for use in responding to a release of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1997-10-01

    Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was potentially as great a threat as from transportation and the final demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a civilian community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warface munitions. An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with any HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and detection equipment used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel. FEMA requested that ORNL create training materials for CSEPP participants. These training materials were to provide information on a variety of topics and answer questions that a typical CSEPP participant might ask, including the following: how did the Army select the CSEPP recommended ensemble (i.e., protective clothing, respiratory equipment, and detection equipment); how does the CSEPP participant know this ensemble is the right PPE for chemical warfare agents and will actually protect him; what are the concept of operations and work rules? Does one need to know what the CSEPP concept of operations and work rules include? This report describes the training document ORNL created.

  10. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  11. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507), unemployment (effect size = 0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect to GSI (P < 0.001). Conclusion The study showed that severe ophthalmologic complications in chemical survivors are accompanied with destructive effects on psychological health status. Appropriate management may improve psychological health status in these patients. PMID:22494523

  12. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 ?m to 12 ?m. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household liquid. This capability, deployed at airports and other public places, will go a long way towards increasing public safety and minimizing inconveniences faced in airline travel.

  13. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoa G. Nguyen; Robin Laird; Greg Kogut; John Andrews; Barbara Fletcher; Todd Webber; Rich Arrieta; H. R. Everett

    2009-01-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously

  14. A COMMON COCKPIT TRAINING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Ludwig; CDR Henry Jackson

    The Naval Air Systems Command is introducing a new helicopter, the MH-60R (Romeo), for anti-submarine warfare and other uses. There are three crewmembers: the pilot, the airborne tactical officer (ATO), and a sensor operator (SO). The SO will be responsible for interpreting and managing a large variety of sensors. These sensors will be used to detect and track all ships,

  15. Closed tube sample introduction for gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry analysis of water contaminated with a chemical warfare agent surrogate compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Erickson; Ashish Tripathi; Waleed M. Maswadeh; A. Peter Snyder; Philip A. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a proven technology for detection of vapor phase chemical warfare agents. The technology is suitable for field portable instrumentation due to its small size, high sensitivity, speed of analysis, and low power consumption. However, it suffers from a limited dynamic range and potential difficulties in identifying compounds in complex matrices. The use of gas chromatography

  16. Partisan and Anti-Partisan Warfare in German-Occupied Europe, 1939–1945: Views from Above and Lessons for the Present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Shepherd; Juliette Pattinson

    2008-01-01

    This introductory article begins by sketching the general historical background of partisan and anti-partisan warfare in German-occupied Europe. It then briefly outlines the state of available primary sources, and the often heated, controversial character of the historiographical debates which are taking place within this area. It then considers, at some length, the lessons which the five articles presented, offer for

  17. Factors influencing the sustained-performance capabilities of 155-mm howitzer sections in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments. Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Rauch; L. E. Banderet; W. J. Tharion; I. Munro; A. R. Lussier

    1986-01-01

    Factors that limit the performance capabilities of sustained artillery operations in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments were studied. The results show that perceptions of psychological (mental) fatigue, rather than perceptions of muscular fatigue, were primary factors affecting sustained artillery performance. Furthermore, variations in these psychological states were correlated with artillery task performance during the period. In the simulated chemical

  18. War gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. January 1970-January 1988 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning non-quick war gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. Analyses and comparative evaluations, based upon computerized simulations, are considered as are manuals and specification for the various computer programs employed. Stage 64 and Satan II and III are covered prominently. (This updated bibliography contains 356 citations, 36 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Rapid screening procedures for the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents using positive and negative ion liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W Read; Robin M Black

    1999-01-01

    Qualitative screening procedures have been developed for the rapid detection and identification of the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents in aqueous samples and extracts, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). Previously reported screening procedures, which used positive APCI or electrospray ionisation (ESI), were modified by using LC conditions that allowed acquisition of

  20. Discrimination of chemical warfare simulants via multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John J.; Farrell, Mikella E.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2014-02-01

    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) is used to detect several chemical warfare simulants, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, with high specificity. The spectral bandwidth of the femtosecond laser pulse used in these studies is sufficient to coherently and simultaneously drive all the vibrational modes in the molecule of interest. Evidence shows that MCARS is capable of overcoming common sensitivity limitations of spontaneous Raman scattering, thus allowing for the detection of the target material in milliseconds with standard, uncooled universal serial bus spectrometers as opposed to seconds with cooled, intensified CCD-based spectrometers. In addition, the obtained MCARS spectrum of the investigated sample provides multiple unique signatures. These signatures are used in an off-line multivariate statistical analysis allowing for the material's discrimination with high fidelity.

  1. Vapor-liquid equilibria from the triple point up to the critical point for the new generation of TIP4P-like models: TIP4P\\/Ew, TIP4P\\/2005, and TIP4P\\/ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vega; J. L. F. Abascal; I. Nezbeda

    2006-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibria of three recently proposed water models have been computed using Gibbs-Duhem simulations. These models are TIP4P\\/Ew, TIP4P\\/2005, and TIP4P\\/ice and can be considered as modified versions of the TIP4P model. By design TIP4P reproduces the vaporization enthalpy of water at room temperature, whereas TIP4P\\/Ew and TIP4P\\/2005 match the temperature of maximum density and TIP4P\\/ice the melting temperature

  2. THE SUBMARINE REVIEW FIXED SONAR SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    THE SUBMARINE REVIEW 1 APRIL 2011 FIXED SONAR SYSTEMS THE HISTORY AND FUTURE OF THE UNDEWATER Undersea Warfare Department Executive Summary One of the most challenging aspects of Anti-Submarine War water and intended to monitor the growing submarine threat of the Soviet Union. SOSUS provided cueing

  3. Challenges of Networks as a Weapon System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Pomfret

    2007-01-01

    The US Navy has developed the FORCEnet concept to be able to compete and win in the Network Centric Operations and Warfare environment. This paper addresses the challenges of moving from the stove-piped collection of networks to a weapon system architecture comprised of networks that collect, analyze, synchronize, and disseminate information from the networks as a combat capability and networked

  4. TCDL - an expert system language for wargaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Sowers; Paul E. Rubin

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of the Tactical Control Directive Language (TCDL). TCDL is a special-purpose language designed for use within the Enhanced Naval Warfare Gaming System (ENWGS). It was developed to support the concept of Tactical Control Directives (TCDs) and to allow their use within the wargaming model. A TCD is a possibly complex series of actions

  5. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1984-29 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in the second year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and performance that wil be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. Performance scores on three operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are presented and correlations between the social and performance variables are examined. The effects of atropines on several of the social and performance measures are reported as are data from plasma hormone assays for cortisol and prolactin.

  6. On the Analysis of Environmental Risks Associated with the Possible Leakage of Chemical Warfare Agents During Transportation and Disposal of Munitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Vasilyev

    The work shows that environmental risks associated with various mechanisms of leakage of chemical warfare agents (CWA) into\\u000a the environment at small temperature variations are probable in the conditions of storage, transportation and destruction\\u000a of the CWA-filled munitions. A considerable degree of integrity loss in munitions becomes possible during heating to several\\u000a tens of degrees higher than the storing temperature

  7. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  8. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dorandeu; L. Taysse; I. Boudry; A. Foquin; F. Hérodin; J. Mathieu; S. Daulon; C. Cruz; G. Lallement

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin.

  9. Application of liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry, to the analysis and identification of degradation products of chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin M. Black; Robert W. Read

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative screening procedure was developed for the detection of the hydrolysis and related products of chemical warfare agents using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. A mixed C8\\/C18 reversed-phase column gave acceptable chromatography for the range of acidic, neutral and basic analytes. Detection limits for pure standards were less than 0.2 ng injected for the simple hydrolysis

  10. Cyberspace and Networked Systems - Paradigms for Security and Dynamic Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Repperger; M. W. Haas; J. T. McDonald; R. L. Ewing

    2008-01-01

    A variety of issues are discussed related to cyberspace warfare and network systems. Present systems are now highly distributed, yet may be extremely vulnerable. Means of developing performance, vulnerability and dynamic response to several types of cyber attacks are considered. It is seen that both the architecture of a distributed network and the characteristics of the constituent nodes that control

  11. Direct quantification of chemical warfare agents and related compounds at low ppt levels: comparing active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization and secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents. Well-defined analyte gas phase concentrations were generated by a pressure-assisted nanospray with consecutive thermal evaporation and dilution. Identification was achieved by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The most abundant fragment ion intensity of each compound was used for quantification. For DBDI and SESI, absolute gas phase detection limits in the low ppt range (in MS/MS mode) were achieved for all compounds investigated. Although the sensitivity of both methods was comparable, the active capillary DBDI sensitivity was found to be dependent on the applied AC voltage, thus enabling direct tuning of the sensitivity and the in-source fragmentation, which may become a key feature in terms of field applicability. Our findings underline the applicability of DBDI and SESI for the direct, sensitive detection and quantification of several CWA types and their degradation products. Furthermore, they suggest the use of DBDI in combination with hand-held instruments for CWAs on-site monitoring. PMID:25427190

  12. AAIB Bulletin No: 2/2005 Ref: EW/C2003/08/11 Category: 1.1 Aircraft Type and Registration: Airbus A320-200, C-FTDF

    E-print Network

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    13 AAIB Bulletin No: 2/2005 Ref: EW/C2003/08/11 Category: 1.1 INCIDENT Aircraft Type hours Information Source: Aircraft Accident Report Form submitted by the pilot plus additional inquiries and data analysis by the AAIB and the aircraft operator Synopsis The aircraft was landing on Cardiff

  13. Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conference, October 2001. Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conference

    E-print Network

    Tecuci, Gheorghe

    of the 2001 IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conference Copyright 2001 APPLICATION OF DISCIPLE TO DECISION University Dr., Fairfax, VA, USA 22030 2 Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center D4121, 53560 Hull Street, San. This process, called knowledge acquisition (KA), has become a bottleneck in the development of AI-based systems

  14. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  15. An inventory of wargaming models for special warfare: Candidate applications for the infusion of human performance data

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, H.D.; Banks, W.W.; Schultz, E.E.; Berghage, T.E.

    1988-11-01

    The material contained in this compendium has been drawn from many sources in an attempt to define the number and types of small group combat simulation models which currently exist. The emphasis placed on this particular effort was to identify combat simulation models which are oriented or could be oriented toward special warfare involving highly trained, light, mobile forces. These descriptions and characterizations of the different simulation models should be viewed with the goal of infusing human performance data and human performance models into candidate simulation models to enhance both fidelity and realism. We feel that this listing will be of direct benefit to military and civilian scientists who are interested in identifying candidate combat simulation models which can be targeted for enhancement with appropriate human performance data. Few existing models reviewed were found to incorporate laboratory or field data drawn from the behavioral sciences or human performance literature. Several models did incorporate human performance assumptions which were found to be incongruent with real world data about how people behave under various environmental conditions and both physical and cognitive stress.

  16. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs at Area C, Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at Area C of the former Naval Air Warfare Center in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa., in support of hydrogeological investigations conducted by the Navy to address ground-water contamination in the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were collected, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were made, and borehole television surveys were run in seven boreholes ranging from 31 to 75 feet deep. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to identify fractures and the location of possible water-bearing zones. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to identify fractures that were water-bearing zones. Natural-gamma and single-point-resistance logs were used to correlate lithology across the area. Elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were measured in water samples from wells with water-bearing zones in the interval of the aquifer where monitor well HN-23A is screened. Water samples from wells with water-bearing zones above or below this interval had substantially lower concentrations of PCE. Wells screened in this interval yielded less than 0.5 gallon per minute, indicating that the interval has low permeability; this may account for the small areal extent and slow migration of PCE.

  17. Effects of wearing protective chemical warfare-combat clothing on human performance. Final report, Sep 89-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.L.; Orlansky, J.

    1991-08-01

    U.S. Department of Defense studies to measure performance decrements associated with wearing chemical warfare (CW) protective combat clothing indicate that heat stress produced seriously degraded human performance. Even when heat stress is not a significant factor, performance of many combat, combat support, and combat service support tasks is degraded. In most field studies, many crews of combat units became operationally ineffective due to voluntary withdrawal of individual crew members. Many combined arms, field studies, and laboratory studies indicate that when CW-protective combat clothing is worn performance is seriously degraded for (1) the detection of targets, engagement time, accuracy of fire, and (2) manual dexterity tasks; and that (3) a variety of psychological effects are created. Further, the degree of performance degradation varied with the tasks performed. Training in CW-protective combat clothing permits learning to modify procedures and consequently reduce negative effects, provided heat stress is not a significant factor. A growing body of evidence indicates there is inadequate training in the use of CW-protective combat clothing. A critical need exists for more and better training of skills needed under CW conditions.

  18. Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conference Copyright 2001

    E-print Network

    Bowman, Michael

    Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conference Copyright 2001 APPLICATION MS 4A5, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, VA, USA 22030 2 Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center D4121 to solve problems, and to represent them in the knowledge base of the system to be built. This knowledge

  19. A major EW directed fault zone in the Gibraltar Strait? An approach through onshore-offshore correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Crespo-Blanc; Menchu Comas; Juan Carlos Balanyá; María. Luján

    2010-01-01

    The Gibraltar Strait is the neck between the southern Europe and northern Africa tips that links the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It consists in an ENE-WSW directed trough of rugged topography down to -800 m depth that straddles and erodes the Gibraltar Arc system. This trough comes to an end against the Camarinal Sill, NNE-SSW directed, which reaches

  20. Sensor planning: perception of intelligent nodes and network-centric warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward B. Dawidowicz; Alexander M. Meystel

    2003-01-01

    The sensory planning in terms of deployment, asset allocation and sensory interpretation remains a difficult set of problems. The critical areas, where sensors serve as replacement for human observers, require continuous coverage. Their placement, management, and information processing requires careful planning. The need for effective intelligent systems to addressing these problems is apparent. Such systems require Multi-Resolutional Decision Making to