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1

Three-dimensional visualization and control of electronic warfare (EW) payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of unmanned vehicles carrying tactical payloads in the battle-space has accelerated the need for user-friendly visualization with graphical interfaces to provide remote command and control. Often these platforms and payloads receive their control functions from command centers located half a world away via satellite communications. Operators require situational awareness tools capable of graphically presenting the remote battlefield asset positions and collected sensor data. Often these systems use 2D software mapping tools in conjunction with video for real time situational awareness. The Special Projects Group (SPG) in the Tactical Electronic Warfare Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has been developing an operator control interface called the Jammer Control Station (JCS) to provide 3D battle-space visualization with built-in, remote EW payload command and control (C2) capabilities. The JCS interface presents the operator with graphic depictions of both the platforms' states and the RF environment. Text based messaging between the JCS and the EW payload reduces the impact of the system on the available bandwidth. This paper will discuss the use of the SIMDIS 3-D visualization tool as a real-time command and control interface for electronic warfare (EW) payloads.

Kirsch, Patricia; Tremper, David; Cortesi, Roger

2008-04-01

2

High temperature superconducting filter technology for electronic warfare systems  

SciTech Connect

The modern battlefield electromagnetic environment is saturated with many microwave radar and communication signals. The density and sophistication of this environment makes it difficult for military electronic warfare (EW) systems to efficiently receive and respond to the microwave environment. Additionally, modem high duty cycle and frequency hopping emitters provide unique challenges to EW systems. The existence of only one of these modem emitters can easily saturate the receiver/processor -- effectively blinding the system to potentially lethal threat systems. The potential of superconducting filter technology to this EW system problem will be discussed.

Ryan, P.A. [Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

1997-06-01

3

Applications of magnetostatic wave technology to EW systems — An assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current magnetostatic wave technology applicable to EW systems is assessed. Some of the developments currently underway with dispersive and non-dispersive delay lines, tunable oscillators and bandpass filters are examined and projected performance three years from now is given. Various EW applications are then described based on these projections. This includes compressive receivers, “fast call” receivers, phased arrays, scanning receivers, and

Jesse Taub

1985-01-01

4

Warfare as a complex adaptive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nations have traditionally made war the way they make wealth. Throughout history, technology has played a key role in warfare and significantly impacted the way nations think about, plan and execute war. Examining the issues of precision strike and modern warfare in the information age we begin to understand that precision alone is not enough. Taking war a piece at

K. P. Schaaff; Frank T. Bossio

1996-01-01

5

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

6

Electronic warfare in the year 2000 and beyond  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of a design philosophy emphasizing integrated EW and integrated avionics are detailed. The discussion covers the hierarchy of EW system architecture, evolution of integrated systems, federated architecture, and transition to integrated systems. The performance of the joint surveillance target attack radar system during the operation Desert Storm is examined as an example of the integration approach. Finally, the future directions of electronic warfare systems are outlined. 6 refs.

Herskovitz, S.B.

1991-09-01

7

Monitoring and prediction in Early Warning Systems (EWS) for rapid mass movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid mass movements (RMM) pose a substantial risk to people and infrastructure. Reliable and cost-efficient measures have to be taken to reduce this risk. One of these measures includes establishing and advancing the State of Practice in the application of Early Warning Systems (EWS). EWS have been developed during the past decades and are rapidly increasing. In this document, we focus on the technical part of EWS, i.e. the prediction and timely recognition of imminent hazards, as well as on monitoring slopes at risk and released mass movements. Recent innovations in assessing spatial precipitation, as well as monitoring and modelling precursors, the triggering and deformation of RMM offer new opportunities for next-generation EWS. However, technical advancement can only be transferred into more reliable, operational EWS with an intense dialog between scientists, engineers and those in charge of warning. To this end, further experience with new comprehensive prototype systems jointly operated by scientists and practitioners will be essential.

Stähli, M.; Sättele, M.; Huggel, C.; McArdell, B. W.; Lehmann, P.; Van Herwijnen, A.; Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kos, A.; Or, D.; Springman, S. M.

2014-11-01

8

Robotics at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The robotics division of the San Diego Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center is very active in research and development. Its home page has a good deal of information about the many projects currently underway. There are several categories of robotic systems to browse, including autonomous land robots; unmanned ground, air, and undersea vehicles; and telepresence and virtual reality. Image and movie galleries show the operation and features of many of the center's robots, and a quarterly newsletter is also given on the site, describing the most recent activities and research conducted at the center.

2002-01-01

9

A C2 System for Future Aerospace Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future advances in Joint aerospace warfare depend largely on Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) solutions that enable new and enhanced forms of Command and Control (C2). The role of C2 in aerospace operations is to optimize the use of offensive and defensive resources to combat aerospace threats. NCW-enabled C2 will enhance time-critical aerospace operations by enabling the use of distributed warfare assets

Bonnie W. Young

10

Trends in electro-optical electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protection of military aircraft from hostile threats is paramount to ensure the survivability of aircrews, platforms, and mission success. While the threat environment continues to become more complex, shrinking defense budgets places new challenges on the development of electronic warfare (EW) systems. This paper presents the trends in electro-optical EW system development including 1) features, 2) affordability, 3) open architecture, 4) multi-functionality, 5) integrated avionics survivability equipment, and 6) enabling technologies for sensors, and optical sources. While these system attributes are not new, they have grown in importance in the design of EW systems. And, if treated correctly can have a beneficial symbiotic relationship to each other and to the airframe they support.

Smith, Carl R.; Grasso, Robert; Pledger, Jack; Murarka, Naveen

2012-09-01

11

[Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare].  

PubMed

Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, the high absorption of the liquid form through the skin or the vapor form on inhalation may cause substantial systemic effects. Here we analyze these effects, treatment of intoxication, and long-term sequelae, drawing on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:20109388

Pita, R; Vidal-Asensi, S

2010-01-01

12

Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS\\/TR-01\\/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from

E. C. Hudson; Gordon Johnson; Delbert C. Summey; Helmut H. Portmann Jr.

2004-01-01

13

Systems biology of Ewing sarcoma: a network model of EWS-FLI1 effect on proliferation and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent pediatric bone tumor. In most of the patients, a chromosomal translocation leads to the expression of the EWS-FLI1 chimeric transcription factor that is the major oncogene in this pathology. Relative genetic simplicity of Ewing sarcoma makes it particularly attractive for studying cancer in a systemic manner. Silencing EWS-FLI1 induces cell cycle alteration and ultimately leads to apoptosis, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are unclear. In this study, a network linking EWS-FLI1 to cell cycle and apoptosis phenotypes was constructed through an original method of network reconstruction. Transcriptome time-series after EWS-FLI1 silencing were used to identify core modulated genes by an original scoring method based on fitting expression profile dynamics curves. Literature data mining was then used to connect these modulated genes into a network. The validity of a subpart of this network was assessed by siRNA/RT-QPCR experiments on four additional Ewing cell lines and confirmed most of the links. Based on the network and the transcriptome data, CUL1 was identified as a new potential target of EWS-FLI1. Altogether, using an original methodology of data integration, we provide the first version of EWS-FLI1 network model of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. PMID:23935076

Stoll, Gautier; Surdez, Didier; Tirode, Franck; Laud, Karine; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei; Delattre, Olivier

2013-01-01

14

Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

2012-06-01

15

Warfare Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related\\u000a to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called “warfare ecology,”\\u000a (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research\\u000a directions and policy implications

Gary E. Machlis; Thor Hanson

16

Information warfare and the information systems security professional  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a government agency or business computer system is attacked, the response to such an attack will be based on the attacker. Will the attacker be a hacker, phreaker, cracker, just someone breaking in for fun? Will the attacker be an employee of a business competitor, in the case of an attack on a business system, or will it be

Gerald L. Kovacich

1997-01-01

17

Biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-07-01

18

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

19

Gallium arsenide enhances digital signal processing in electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The higher electron mobility and velocity of GaAs digital signal processing IC devices for electronic warfare (EW) allow operation times that are several times faster than those of ICs based on silicon. Particular benefits are foreseen for the response time and broadband capability of ECM systems. Many data manipulation methods can be implemented in emitter-coupled logic (ECL) GaAs devices, and digital GaAs RF memories are noted to show great promise for improved ECM system performance while encompassing microwave frequency and chirp signal synthesis, repeater jamming, and multiple false target generation. EW digital frequency synthesizers are especially in need of GaAS IC technology, since bandwidth and resolution have been limited by ECL technology to about 250 MHz.

Hoffman, B.; Apte, D.

1985-07-01

20

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLING SYSTEM USING FORCED CONVECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is the thermal analysis of a cooling system for a High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier by using forced convection. This cooling system is an integrated part of an Electronic Warfare (EW) suite in The Royal Norwegian Air Force's EW training aircraft. The analysis uses MSC\\/PATRAN for modeling and MSC\\/NASTRAN for the thermal analysis. Later

Jan Rune Nilssen

21

View the information-based battlefield environment system from network-centric warfare (NCW)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battlefield environment is a general designation for all kinds of objective things and conditions which surround battlefield and affect military actions. With the development of modern high technology, and information technology, traditional battlefield environment is developing in the both factors of space and constitutive, and takes on an integrated tendency. The U.S. military consider that the war of information age is NCW, and to successfully implement the theory of the NCW capabilities, the four domains of warfare-physical, information, cognitive, social, and their relationship must be understood. According to the theory of system, this paper puts forward the conception of Battlefield Environment System and its tetrahedron structure. The correlation of constitutive factors in Generalized Battlefield Environment System and the relationship between Generalized Battlefield Environment System and NCW are analyzed. Moreover, the spatial scope and constitutive factors of Specific Battlefield Environment System are also discussed.

Zhang, Chengbin; You, Xiong

2007-06-01

22

Sensor fusion with application to electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate, Survivability/Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Division mission is to provide affordable aircraft and ground electronic sensor/systems and signature management technologies which enhance survivability and lethality of US and International Forces. Since 1992, efforts have been undertaken in the area of Situational Awareness and Dominant Battlespace Knowledge. These include the Radar Deception and Jamming Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD), Survivability and Targeting System Integration, Integrated Situation Awareness and Targeting ATD, Combat Identification, Ground Vehicle Situational Awareness, and Combined Electronic Intelligence Target Correlation. This paper will address the Situational Awareness process as it relates to the integration of Electronic Warfare (EW) with targeting and intelligence and information warfare systems. Discussion will be presented on the Sensor Fusion, Situation Assessment and Response Management Strategies. Sensor Fusion includes the association, correlation, and combination of data and information from single and multiple sources to achieve refined position and identity estimates, and complete and timely assessments of situations and threats as well as their significance. Situation Assessment includes the process of interpreting and expressing the environmnet based on situation abstract products and information from technical and doctrinal data bases. Finally, Response Management provides the centralized, adaptable control of all renewable and expendable countermeasure assets resulting in optimization of the response to the threat environment.

Zanzalari, Robert M.; Van Alstine, Edward

1999-03-01

23

Environmental Warfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent discussions at the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament have focused on the use of artificial changes in the environment as a method of warfare. A far more urgent task is development of a specific ban on already available techniques of environmental damage and a general and complete disarmament. (BT)

Barnaby, Frank

1976-01-01

24

Biological Warfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following Web sites offer reliable information resources addressing biological warfare and related issues. The first Web site, from the Mayo Clinic, provides a brief overview of the agents commonly used in biological and chemical warfare -- such as anthrax, tularemia, and ricin (1). Links to related Mayo or CDC Web pages are also provided for further information. The next site contains a collection of articles on bioterrorism and bioweapons from the science news magazine NewScientist, spanning a range of about 4 years (2). Geneticists have determined which genes code for virulence in anthrax bacteria; the online version of Scientific American offers a recent article on this discovery (3). The Genetics Learning Center at the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics (University of Utah) takes a look a common misconceptions about biological warfare and provides and interesting overview of biological warfare programs in the US and beyond (4). The site also introduces Dark Winter, a fictional smallpox attack scenario staged by a collaboration of research organizations in June of 2001. Readers can find out more about Dark Winter in the following Web site from the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at John Hopkins University, one of the participating organizations (5). Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, a recently launched quarterly peer-reviewed journal, may be accessed online for free (6). The journal offers "multidisciplinary analyses and a vigorous exchange of perspectives that are essential to the formulation and implementation of successful strategies to diminish the threat of bioweapons." The last two sites are from MEDLINEplus, offering detailed information and numerous links of biological (7) and chemical (8) warfare.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

25

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

26

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-03-01

27

Current and Future Trends in Military Electronic Warfare Systems and the Role of Thin Films and Related Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern warfare has made impressive strides in the past century, especially in the areas of communications, RADAR and surveillance. On the opposite side of the coin are the military SIGINT (SIGnal INTelligence) systems which attempt to detect, copy, jam and geolocate signals emitted by radios, RADARs, etc. as a means of providing the commander with a reasonable visualization of the

Ernest Potenziani II

2006-01-01

28

Countersniper System for Urban Warfare AKOS L EDECZI, ANDR AS N ADAS, P ETER V OLGYESI, GY ORGY BALOGH,  

E-print Network

also resolve multiple simultaneous shots. These unique characteristics of the system are made possible and muzzle blast time of arrival data. 1. INTRODUCTION Experiences from recent military conflicts clearly indicate that the armies of developed countries will increasingly face asymmetric warfare in the future

Maróti, Miklós

29

Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

Lançon, F.

2011-06-01

30

Political representation Trench warfare  

E-print Network

Political representation Trench warfare Rational voting Candidate positioning Recap Mathematical vs science #12;Political representation Trench warfare Rational voting Candidate positioning Recap Themes;Political representation Trench warfare Rational voting Candidate positioning Recap Themes Mathematical

Gelman, Andrew

31

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE  

PubMed Central

The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

Beeston, John

1953-01-01

32

FCMAC-EWS: A bank failure early warning system based on a novel localized pattern learning and semantically associative fuzzy neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the banking industry, it is highly desirable to identify potential bank failure or high-risk banks. Successful early warning systems (EWS) would provide capabilities to avoid adverse financial repercussions and a massive bail out costs for the failing banks. Very often, these failures are due to financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been used to study failures of financial

G. S. Ng; C. Quek; H. Jiang

2008-01-01

33

Cyber Warfare Peacekeeping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and analyze a new concept in the field of cyber warfare - cyber warfare peacekeeping. We identify that in some parts of the world low intensity cyber warfare has been conducted for over three years. The PRC and Taiwan (among others) have established independent elements in their armed forces devoted to cyber warfare. Recent events have shown that

Thomas P. Cahill; Konstantin Rozinov; Christopher Mulé

2003-01-01

34

Information warfare-worthy jamming attack detection mechanism for wireless sensor networks using a fuzzy inference system.  

PubMed

The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes. PMID:22319307

Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S V

2010-01-01

35

Information Warfare-Worthy Jamming Attack Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Fuzzy Inference System  

PubMed Central

The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes. PMID:22319307

Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S. V.

2010-01-01

36

Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world events and the proliferation of nuclear weapons related technology have increased the kinds of nuclear threats to include intentionally dispersed radiation sources and fallout from tactical nuclear weapons used in the modern AirLand battlefield scenario. Consequently, a DoD area of increasing interest focuses on determining the shielding effectiveness of foreign and US armored vehicles to radiological warfare and fallout radiation threats. To demonstrate the applicability of MASH for analyzing dispersed radiation source problems, calculations have been completed for two distributed sources; a dispersed radiation environment simulated by a uniformly distributed {sup 60}Co source, and a {sup 235}U fission weapon fallout source. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the free-field, the inside of a steel-walled two-meter box, in a phantom standing in the free-field, and in a phantom standing in the two-meter box. The results indicate substantial radiation protection factors for the {sup 60}Co dispersed radiation source and the fallout source compared to the prompt radiation protection factors. The dose protection factors ranged from 40 to 95 for the two-meter box and from 55 to 123 for the mid-gut position of the phantom standing in the box. The results further indicate that a {sup 60}Co source might be a good first order approximation for a tactical fission weapon fallout protection factor analysis.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Smith, M.S.

1994-03-01

37

A review of current and future components for electronic warfare receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the role of conventional and new components in passive electronic warfare (EW) receivers. The various areas of EW are defined before restricting the discussion predominantly to the radar intercept problem at microwave frequencies. The operational parameters of conventional components are then reviewed including the multiplexer; crystal video, instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM), and scanning superheterodyne receivers. The significance

J. H. Collins; P. M. Grant

1981-01-01

38

Biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents. PMID:20358696

Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

2010-01-01

39

Antisubmarine warfare simulation on a minicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation has long been considered an effective technique in the area of military applications, especially in systems analysis and in personnel training programs. In this study, a simulation model designated as SEASIM (Surface Escort Antisubmarine Warfare Simulation) was developed to simulate an antisubmarine warfare engagement between surface escorts and an enemy submarine. The model development was sponsored by the Surface

John M. Arrigan; David M. Shao

1981-01-01

40

Future joint warfare analysis model designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a state-of-the-art simulation of joint warfare for analysis, to be developed as one component of the Joint Analytic Model Improvement Program recently approved by the Deputy Secretary of Defense. This paper describes the rationale, objectives, management, approach and status of JWARS.

William G. Lese Jr.; Jim Metzger

1995-01-01

41

Future joint warfare analysis model designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a state-of-the-art simulation of joint warfare for analysis, to be developed as one component of the Joint Analytic Model Improvement Program recently approved by the Deputy Secretary of Defense. This paper describes the rationale, objectives, management, approach and status of JWARS

J. Metzger

1995-01-01

42

Littoral Oceanography for Mine Mine Warfare  

E-print Network

Littoral Oceanography for Mine Warfare #12;Mine Warfare Different than other weapons systems Target to be there for it to work. Can be crude and still be VERY effective Requires advanced planning #12;US vs Mines · Of the 18 of mines #12;U.S. vs. MINES What It Takes To Go"Anytime, Anywhere" by Rear Adm. Horne, Proceedings, Jan

Chu, Peter C.

43

Data Mining Strategies for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents  

E-print Network

4 Data Mining Strategies for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Jeffrey. L. Solka1,2, Edward a classification system for the detection of various chemical warfare agents. The data were collected as part of the Naval Surface Warfare Center on simulant chemicals, which are designed to produce paper signatures sim

Solka, Jeff

44

Van-mounted UV-IR active\\/passive remote sensing system for chemical\\/biological warfare (CBW) and environmental applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-of-the-art, dual-use, mobile sensor suite has been developed incorporating both active, multi-wavelength, laser remote sensing technologies, as well as passive multispectral imaging systems. This paper discusses the current status and objectives of work ongoing at Battelle in the field of remote sensing for chemical\\/biological warfare (CBW) agents and environmental applications.

John P. Kurmer; Joseph Leonelli

1995-01-01

45

Lunch Seminar Cyber Warfare  

E-print Network

Lunch Seminar Cyber Warfare Seminar on cyber warfare with Katrin Nyman Metcalf, Professor and Head of a concerted cyber attack from a hostile state. The attack lead to a number of international measures, like the creation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. While efforts are made to estimate

Uppsala Universitet

46

Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

1988-01-01

47

Analytic tools for information warfare  

SciTech Connect

Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

1996-05-01

48

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

49

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

50

Zeros in ?+e-->W+?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We point out a misprint in the differential cross section for ?e-->W? reported recently by Ginzburg, Kotkin, Panfil, and Serbo. The corrected expression has a zero in accordance with the general formula derived earlier by Mikaelian. We plot the angular distributions for different values of ?, the anomalousmagnetic-moment parameter of the W. We suggest that the reaction ?e-->W? is an attractive way to measure ? because the distributions are sensitive to it and the zero exists only if ?=+1 as in the standard electroweak theory.

Mikaelian, Karnig O.

1984-09-01

51

Marketing as warfare, revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to encourage thinking beyond the limits of obsolete and superficial “warfare marketing” by exploring potentially useful lessons from modern military intelligence and strategy for marketing intelligence and planning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Key contemporary trends and approaches to strategy are identified in the literature, and used as the basis for discussion of the possibility of productive knowledge

Tomaž Kolar; Andrej Toporiši?

2007-01-01

52

Reflections on nuclear warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable.

J P Evans

1983-01-01

53

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased risk that civilian populations will be targets of domestic terrorism. Release of chemical warfare agents in these populations can cause a large number of casualties, with children being disproportionately affected. Chemical agents pose a significant risk to unprepared medical providers. Emergency medical personnel must be able to diagnose and manage victims of toxic exposures. This article

Rohit Shenoi

2002-01-01

54

Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Mainside, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithologic and geophysical logs of boreholes at 29 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the Mainside of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, consists of un-consolidated sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The upper 220 feet of these sediments are divided into five hydrogeologic units, including the (1) Columbia (water-table) aquifer, (2) upper confining unit, (3) upper confined aquifer, (4) Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit, and (5) Aquia aquifer. The Columbia aquifer in the study area is a local system that is not affected by regional pumping. Ground-water recharge occurs at topographic highs in the northern part of the Mainside, and ground-water discharge occurs at topographic lows associated with adjacent surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of ground-water flow in the upper confined and Aquia aquifers is toward the southwest and southeast, respectively. A downward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers in the shallow system, and stresses on the Aquia aquifer are indicated by heads that range between 2 and 12 feet below sea level. The ratio of median horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Columbia aquifer to median vertical hydraulic con-ductivity of the upper confining unit, however, is approximately 2,600:1; therefore, under natural- flow conditions, most water in the Columbia aquifer probably discharges to adjacent surface- water bodies. The composition and distribution of major ions vary in the Columbia aquifer. In general, water samples from wells located along the inland perimeter roads of the study area have chloride or a combination of chloride and sulfate as the dominant anions, and water samples from wells located in the interior of the study area have bicarbonate or a combination of bicarbonate and sulfate as the dominant anions. Sodium and calcium were the dominant cations in most samples. Dissolved solids and four inorganic constituents are present in water from the Columbia aquifer at concentrations that exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL's) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentration of dissolved solids exceed the SMCL of 500 milligrams per liter in 3 of 29 samples from the Columbia aquifer. An elevated concentration of sodium is present in one water sample, and elevated concentrations of chloride are present in two water samples. Concentrations of dissolved iron and manga-nese exceed the SMCL in 10 and 17 of 29 water samples, respectively, and are the most extensive water-quality problem with regard to inorganic constituents in the Columbia aquifer.

Harlow, G.E., Jr.; Bell, C.F.

1996-01-01

55

Electronic warfare technology: Trends and visions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, development of effective and affordable electronic warfare systems has become a difficult challenge which requires full exploitation of the most advanced technology. Recent history has demonstrated that cost, effectiveness and reliability factors have almost driven on-board self-protection electronic countermeasure (EC) systems to the edge of operational viability. The future must include aggressive and innovative use of new technology

Kenneth Helberg; Tony White; Kevin Geiger; Joseph Koesters; David Wilkes

1990-01-01

56

Design and capabilities of an enhanced naval mine warfare simulation framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) designed and implemented a new tool, The Rapid Mine Simulation System Enterprise Architecture (RMSSEA), to support existing naval mine warfare simulations and to provide enhanced future mine warfare capabilities. RMSSEA sup-ports existing physics-based models of Navy assets and threats in order to provide ship susceptibility and sweep effectiveness measures. The

Timothy E. Floore; George H. Gilman

2011-01-01

57

Kinematics of rotating panels of E-W faults in the San Andreas system: what can we tell from geodesy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sets of E- to NE-trending sinistral and/or reverse faults occur within the San Andreas system, and are associated with palaeomagnetic evidence for clockwise vertical-axis rotations. These structures cut across the trend of active dextral faults, posing questions as to how displacement is transferred across them. Geodetic data show that they lie within an overall dextral shear field, but the data are commonly interpreted to indicate little or no slip, nor any significant rate of rotation. We model these structures as rotating by bookshelf slip in a dextral shear field, and show that a combination of sinistral slip and rotation can produce the observed velocity field. This allows prediction of rates of slip, rotation, fault-parallel extension and fault-normal shortening within the panel. We use this method to calculate the kinematics of the central segment of the Garlock Fault, which cuts across the eastern California shear zone at a high angle. We obtain a sinistral slip rate of 6.1 ± 1.1 mm yr-1, comparable to geological evidence, but higher than most previous geodetic estimates, and a rotation rate of 4.0 ± 0.7° Myr-1 clockwise. The western Transverse Ranges transect a similar shear zone in coastal and offshore California, but at an angle of only 40°. As a result, the faults, which were sinistral when they were at a higher angle to the shear zone, have been reactivated in a dextral sense at a low rate, and the rate of rotation of the panel has decreased from its long-term rate of ˜5° to 1.6° ± 0.2° Myr-1 clockwise. These results help to resolve some of the apparent discrepancies between geological and geodetic slip-rate estimates, and provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanics of intracontinental transform systems.

Platt, J. P.; Becker, T. W.

2013-09-01

58

Inside Cyber Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of Jeffrey Carr’s work, Inside Cyber Warfare, follows upon our discussion in the previous issue of Interface, “Cyber War and U.S. Policy: Part I, Neo-realism.” That piece was informed in large part by a review of Richard A. Clarke and Robert Knake’s recent work, Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It.

Jeffrey Barlow

2010-01-01

59

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

60

Portable Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with Ion Mobility Spectrometry System for On-Site Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants in Water Samples  

PubMed Central

On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

2014-01-01

61

Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.  

PubMed

On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

2014-01-01

62

The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

Francis, Robert A.

2011-11-01

63

The impacts of modern warfare on freshwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and 'informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems. PMID:21904931

Francis, Robert A

2011-11-01

64

12 s pri ng 2012 undersea warfare The Transformation of Warfare  

E-print Network

revolutionized and transformed warfare. In a small book written at the dawn of the nuclear age, a group principal purpose must be to avert them."2 Nuclear weapons have extended the potential of warfare to a level12 s pri ng 2012 undersea warfare The Transformation of Warfare No discussion of deterrence

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

65

CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR TERRORISM/WARFARE  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR TERRORISM/WARFARE A BIBLIOGRAPHY Compiled by Greta E. Marlatt;CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR TERRORISM/WARFARE A BIBLIOGRAPHY Complied by Greta E. Marlatt With thanks 2003 1 #12;PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 2 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL TERRORISM/WARFARE

66

Submarine Warfare in the A Bibliography  

E-print Network

Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography Compiled by Michaele Lee Huygen 3D, 1966. p. 205. This bibliography is a revised edition of the bibliography Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries, 2003, which is in turn a revised and expanded version of Submarine Warfare in the 20

67

Biological Warfare and Scientific Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we approach the 21st century, the threat of nuclear Armageddon has lessened somewhat, but a new threat has emerged: biological warfare. The splitting of the atom eventually led to the detonation of atomic bombs, and the discovery of DNA may soon lead to the use of genetic weapons. This article argues that the scientific community has a responsibility to

David B. Resnik

1999-01-01

68

Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

Chesler, David J.

69

[Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].  

PubMed

Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

Seto, Yasuo

2009-01-01

70

Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in

ColarikAndrewM; Janczewski Lech D. Eng

2012-01-01

71

Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to characterize the hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia, which is located on the Potomac River in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The study provides a description of the hydrogeologic units, directions of ground-water flow, and back-ground water quality in the study area to a depth of about 100 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data were collected from 28 wells drilled for this study, from 3 existing wells, and from outcrops. The shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area consists of two fining-upward sequences of Pleistocene fluvial-estuarine deposits that overlie Paleocene-Eocene marine deposits of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. The surficial hydrogeologic unit is the Columbia aquifer. Horizontal linear flow of water in this aquifer generally responds to the surface topography, discharging to tidal creeks, marshes, and the Potomac River, and rates of flow in this aquifer range from 0.003 to 0.70 foot per day. The Columbia aquifer unconformably overlies the upper confining unit 12-an organic-rich clay that is 0 to 55 feet thick. The upper confining unit conformably overlies the upper confined aquifer, a 0- to 35-feet thick unit that consists of interbedded fine-grained to medium-grained sands and clay. The upper confined aquifer probably receives most of its recharge from the adjacent and underlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. Water in the upper confined aquifer generally flows eastward, northward, and northeastward at about 0.03 foot per day toward the Potomac River and Machodoc Creek. The Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit consists of glauconitic, fossiliferous silty fine-grained sands of the Nanjemoy Formation. Where the upper confined system is absent, the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is directly overlain by the Columbia aquifer. In some parts of the Explosive Experimental Area, horizontal hydraulic conductivities of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit and the Columbia aquifer are similar (from 10-4 to 10-2 foot per day), and these units effectively combine to form a thick (greater than 50 feet) aquifer. The background water quality of the shallow aquifer system is characteristic of ground waters in the Virginia Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Water in the Columbia aquifer is a mixed ionic type, has a median pH of 5.9, and a median total dissolved solids of 106 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper confined aquifer and Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is a sodium- calcium-bicarbonate type, and generally has higher pH, dissolved solids, and alkalinity than water in the Columbia aquifer. Water in the upper confined aquifer and some parts of the Columbia aquifer is anoxic, and it has high concentrations of dissolved iron, manganese, and sulfide.

Bell, C.F.

1996-01-01

72

Military History and Fourth Generation Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines ‘Fourth Generation Warfare’ (4GW), a theory of how warfare has evolved and is evolving, from the perspective of military history. The author makes three primary claims: 4GW advocates' boxing of history into ‘generations’ is logically and temporally inconsistent; 4GW authors misuse history by selectively choosing case studies and applying them out of context; and other arguments regarding

Timothy J. Junio

2009-01-01

73

[Psychology and psychopathology of information warfare].  

PubMed

Tension of information warfare as a form of modern war has a global character nowadays. Topicality of research of psychological reaction peculiarities and psychopathology phenomena developing during information warfare is determined by necessity of scientific development of the effective means of diagnosis and prophylaxis of these phenomena. The article is devoted to analytical review of modern articles about aim, goals and methods of information warfare, covering some signs of manipulative influence on people's mind. Authors set forward opinion about possible psychological peculiarities and psychopathological consequences of targeted aggressive information influence and also suggest some methods against this influence. PMID:25286568

Fisun, A Ia; Shamre?; Goncharenko, A Iu; Ovchinnikov, B V; Chermianin, S V

2014-06-01

74

Human Rights Watch: Chemical Warfare in Bosnia?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

75

Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project  

SciTech Connect

World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

Tzihor, A.

1992-05-15

76

Chemical warfare agent detection using MEMS-compatible microsensor arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsensors have been fabricated consisting of TiO2 and SnO2 sensing films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on microelectromechanical systems array platforms. Response measurements from these devices to the chemical warfare (CW) agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and HD (sulfur mustard) at concentrations between 5 nmol\\/mol (ppb) and 200 ppb in dry air, as well as to CW agent simulants

Douglas C. Meier; Charles J. Taylor; Richard E. Cavicchi; Michael W. Ellzy; Kenneth B. Sumpter; Steve Semancik

2005-01-01

77

Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's  

PubMed Central

Background: Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. Results: The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P < 0.001, r = ? 0.33). So that the patients who had more than three organs involved had lower quality of life. 95.4% of our participants experienced another complication with respiratory complication and the ophthalmologic complications were the most frequent accompanying condition. Conclusions: The results imply that chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life. PMID:25031863

Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

78

ANTH 199: EVOLUTION OF WARFARE 1 ANTH 199: Evolution of Warfare  

E-print Network

ANTH 199: EVOLUTION OF WARFARE 1 ANTH 199: Evolution of Warfare CRN 16803 Instructor: Marcela of aggression and peace-making among non-human primates. We will also study evidence of violence (cannibalism will be encouraged to engage in discussions by using evidence presented in class, making inferences on what you

79

Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

2011-01-01

80

SANCnews: Top decays in QCD and EW sectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of the implementation of the decay t ? bf 1 bar f '1 into the SANC system ( f 1 is a massless fermion). The new aspect of the work is the combination of QCD and EW corrections. All calculations are done at the one-loop level in the Standard Model. We give a detailed account of the new procedure — the forming of a class of J AW, WA functions. These functions are related to the procedure of extraction of infrared and mass-shell singular divergences. The emphasis of this paper is on the presentation of numerical results for various approaches: complete one-loop calculations and different versions of pole approximations.

Bardin, D.; Bondarenko, S.; Christova, P.; Kalinovskaya, L.; Kolesnikov, V.; von Schlippe, W.

2010-03-01

81

Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

2014-11-01

82

Software Tool for Naval Surface Warfare Simulation and Training  

E-print Network

projects as well as several pointers to future work are also included. Keyworkds: naval surface warfareSoftware Tool for Naval Surface Warfare Simulation and Training Sergiu Dascalu* Sermsak Buntha for Naval Surface Warfare Simulation and Training Sergiu Dascalu* Sermsak Buntha* Daniela Saru** Narayan

Dascalu, Sergiu

83

Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

Davies, Philip H. J.

2002-01-01

84

Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity  

E-print Network

Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity Tama´s L. Cza´ra´n* , Rolf F. Hoekstra generating biodiversity and ecological mechanisms maintaining biodiversity seem to be diverse them- selves. Conventional explanations of biodiversity such as niche differentiation, density-dependent predation pressure

Czárán, Tamás

85

Magazine Coverage of Issues of Nuclear Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To see whether the subject matter of magazines of general circulation and the subject matter of public concern coincide, a study examined the volume of coverage of United States-Soviet relations, communism, and issues of nuclear warfare between the two nations in twentieth century popular magazines. The "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" in…

Jensen, Dwight William

86

Conventional analytical methods for chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods that are currently used for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agents are reviewed and classified by the number of dimensions of infor- mation they provide. Single-dimensional sensors target specific compounds or classes of compounds. Although they can be less expensive and more portable than multidimensional sensors, multidimensional sensors detect a broader threat spectrum with greater precision

Herbert H. Hill; Stephen J. Martin

2002-01-01

87

History of chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when

L. Szinicz

2005-01-01

88

Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

89

Asymmetric Information Warfare: Cyberterrorism Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorist attacks in recent years, particularly those of October 12, 2000 and September 11, 2001, along with war games such as Millennium Challenge have demonstrated forcefully that asymmetric warfare [THO01] with conventional weapons poses a challenge to existing defense and homeland security structures that have not been addressed satisfactorily. It appears only prudent to assume that such attacks, whether by

Stephen D. Wolthusen

2003-01-01

90

Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

2013-01-01

91

Chemical and Biological Warfare Should Defenses Be Researched and Deployed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

and and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article ~~n~~~~ ~~~t~~t~~~x~~~ti ~~~~~ discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential Germany.l weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects. EXISTING AND POTENTIAL (~AM~.1989;262:644-648) WEAPONS

Jane M Orient

92

The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry  

SciTech Connect

The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic goal of information warfare is then to destroy or defend the reliability (honesty) of communication networks. The handicap principle that governs the reliability (honesty) of animal communication networks can be considered as the nature s version of information warfare strategy because it is a product of natural selection. What is particularly interesting is to transfer the evolutionary game theory models [e.g., Sir Philip Sydney (SPS) game] for the handicap principle to the study of information warfare. In a broad perspective, we realize that the handicap principle may actually contradict the principle of asymmetry in asymmetric warfare. Anyway, not every species of animals has evolved expensive signaling equipments like male peacocks (whose exaggerated train is an example of handicap). Furthermore, the handicap principle is not only about communication, and it also embodies the spirits of cooperation and competition. In human societies, communication modulates cooperation and competition; so does in animal communication networks. Therefore, to evolve or maintain a sustainable communication network, the proper strategy should be to balance (modulate) the cooperation and competition with communication tools (information warfare tools), which is perhaps in contradiction with the asymmetric strategy. There might be a paradox in the strategy of asymmetric warfare, and whether or not information warfare can be used as an asymmetric tool is still an open question.

Ma, Zhanshan [University of Idaho] [University of Idaho; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL] [ORNL; Krings, Axel [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

93

Nuclear warfare: Survival. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning factors and systems influencing human vulnerability, security, and survival in nuclear warfare. References include studies of both civilians and military personnel. Nuclear-resistant materials and systems are also examined. A wide variety of studies and analyses, many of them based upon computerized simulations, are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-04-01

94

Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

95

Strong Interference and Spectrum Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a wireless system with multiple user- base pairs randomly distributed in some region, in which users try to greedily optimize their performance without any exchange of information between bases, and for which a fixed point is reached. This is a Nash equilibrium point for the system and corresponds to a simultaneous water filling solution. In this paper we

Otilia Popescu; Christopher Rose; Dimitrie C. Popescu

2004-01-01

96

Genomic EWS-FLI1 Fusion Sequences in Ewing Sarcoma Resemble Breakpoint Characteristics of Immature Lymphoid Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal translocations between the EWS gene and members of the ETS gene family are characteristic molecular features of the Ewing sarcoma. The most common translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) fuses the EWS gene to FLI1, and is present in 85–90% of Ewing sarcomas. In the present study, a specifically designed multiplex long-range PCR assay was applied to amplify genomic EWS-FLI1 fusion sites from as little as 100 ng template DNA. Characterization of the EWS-FLI1 fusion sites of 42 pediatric and young adult Ewing sarcoma patients and seven cell lines revealed a clustering in the 5? region of the EWS-breakpoint cluster region (BCR), in contrast to random distribution of breakpoints in the FLI1-BCR. No association of breakpoints with various recombination-inducing sequence motifs was identified. The occurrence of small deletions and duplications at the genomic junction is characteristic of involvement of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair system, similar to findings at chromosomal breakpoints in pediatric leukemia and lymphoma. PMID:23441188

Berger, Manfred; Dirksen, Uta; Braeuninger, Andreas; Koehler, Gabriele; Juergens, Heribert

2013-01-01

97

17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications  

E-print Network

17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications Problematic of many of the current schemes for biological and chemical defense (BWD and CWD) is that both defense systems are specific to certain chemicals or pathogens. Schemes that provide a more general defense

Mohanty, Saraju P.

98

Loss of p16 pathways stabilizes EWS/FLI1 expression and complements EWS/FLI1 mediated transformation.  

PubMed

Ewings sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNET) are characterized by the fusion of the N-terminus of the EWS gene to the C-terminus of a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. While such fusion proteins are thought to play dominant oncogenic roles, it is unlikely that a single genetic alteration by itself will support cellular transformation. Given that EWS/FLI1 is only able to transform immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts and that 30% of ES/PNET tumors contain a homozygous deletion of the p16 locus, it is likely that other genetic events are required for EWS/FLI1 oncogenesis. Here we describe a complementary mechanism utilized in the establishment ES/PNET tumors. EWS/FLI1 has the capacity to induce apoptosis and growth arrest in normal MEFs. Such effects prevent the establishment of stable expression of the protein in these cells. When expressed in p16, p19(ARF), or p53 deficient MEFs, the apoptotic and growth arrest effects are attenuated, creating a environment permissive for stable expression of the protein. While loss of a single tumor suppressor is sufficient to establish expression of EWS/FLI1, cellular transformation requires further genetic perturbation. PMID:11709708

Deneen, B; Denny, C T

2001-10-11

99

Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

Pickl, William C.

1988-01-01

100

75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Director, Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate, 2446...and OMB Number: Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate Sponsor...pursuing a career as a Navy Sea Air Land (SEAL), or Navy Special Warfare (NSW) Combatant Craft...

2010-02-10

101

75 FR 69032 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 334 Naval Surface Warfare Center...Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: United...shoreline of Naval Surface Warfare Center...within this danger zone. The proposed...shoreline of Naval Surface Warfare Center...the Middle Danger Zone; (5)...

2010-11-10

102

Pharmacokinetic modeling optimizes inhibition of the ‘undruggable’ EWS-FLI1 transcription factor in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors have long been deemed ‘undruggable’ targets for therapeutics. Enhanced recognition of protein biochemistry as well as the need to have more targeted approaches to treat cancer has rendered transcription factors approachable for therapeutic development. Since transcription factors lack enzymatic domains, the specific targeting of these proteins has unique challenges. One challenge is the hydrophobic microenvironment that affects small molecules gaining access to block protein interactions. The most attractive transcription factors to target are those formed from tumor specific chromosomal translocations that are validated oncogenic driver proteins. EWS-FLI1 is a fusion protein that results from the pathognomonic translocation of Ewing sarcoma (ES). Our past work created the small molecule YK-4-279 that blocks EWS-FLI1 from interacting with RNA Helicase A (RHA). To fulfill long-standing promise in the field by creating a clinically useful drug, steps are required to allow for in vivo administration. These investigations identify the need for continuous presence of the small molecule protein-protein inhibitor for a period of days. We describe the pharmacokinetics of YK-4-279 and its individual enantiomers. In vivo studies confirm prior in vitro experiments showing (S)-YK-4-279 as the EWS-FLI1 specific enantiomer demonstrating both induction of apoptosis and reduction of EWS-FLI1 regulated caveolin-1 protein. We have created the first rat xenograft model of ES, treated with (S)-YK-4-279 dosing based upon PK modeling leading to a sustained complete response in 2 of 6 ES tumors. Combining laboratory studies, pharmacokinetic measurements, and modeling has allowed us to create a paradigm that can be optimized for in vivo systems using both in vitro data and pharmacokinetic simulations. Thus, (S)-YK-4-279 as a small molecule drug is ready for continued development towards a first-in-human, first-in-class, clinical trial. PMID:24481407

Hong, S. Peter; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Monroe, Phillip; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Houghton, Peter; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

103

Modeling casualties in nuclear warfare. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the authors summarize the casualty criteria currently accepted for the estimation of casualties to the various nuclear environments. For the blast and thermal environments, comparisons are made with criteria currently used in the assessment of conventional weapon casualties. In the area of radiation effects, the report also includes a summary of performance degradation methodology developed in the DNA Intermediate Nuclear Dose Program and an indication of its relationship to the most recent radiation casualty criteria. Finally, the report concludes with a discussion of the application of these casualty criteria and models in nuclear warfare simulations.

Klopcic, J.T.; Watson, D.L.

1989-07-01

104

In vitro activity of the EWS oncogene transcriptional activation domain.  

PubMed

Aberrant chromosomal fusion of the Ewings sarcoma oncogene (EWS) to several different cellular partners gives rise to the Ewing's family of oncogenic proteins [EWS fusion proteins (EFPs)] and associated tumors (EFTs). EFPs are potent transcriptional activators dependent on the N-terminal region of EWS [the EWS activation domain (EAD)], and this function is thought to be central to EFT oncogenesis and maintenance. Thus, EFPs are promising therapeutic targets, and detailed molecular studies of the EAD will be pivotal for exploring this potential. For many reasons, the molecular mechanism of EAD action is poorly understood and one major obstacle to progress is the lack of an in vitro transcription assay. Using well-characterized EAD-dependent activators and soluble nuclear extracts, we have attempted to recapitulate EAD transcriptional activity in vitro. We report that while the EAD activates transcription strongly in vitro, the effect of EAD mutations is strikingly different from that observed in vivo. Our results therefore suggest that crude soluble extracts do not support bona fide EAD activity in vitro, and we discuss our findings in relation to future assay development and potential mechanisms of EAD action. PMID:19290668

Ng, King Pan; Li, Kim K C; Lee, Kevin A W

2009-04-01

105

Undiagnosed illnesses and radioactive warfare.  

PubMed

The internal contamination with depleted uranium (DU) isotopes was detected in British, Canadian, and United States Gulf War veterans as late as nine years after inhalational exposure to radioactive dust in the Persian Gulf War I. DU isotopes were also identified in a Canadian veteran's autopsy samples of lung, liver, kidney, and bone. In soil samples from Kosovo, hundreds of particles, mostly less than 5 microm in size, were found in milligram quantities. Gulf War I in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of DU deposited in the environment and 3-6 million grams of DU aerosol released into the atmosphere. Its legacy, Gulf War disease, is a complex, progressive, incapacitating multiorgan system disorder. The symptoms include incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletel and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affect changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lymphadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. Current understanding of its etiology seems far from being adequate. After the Afghanistan Operation Anaconda (2002), our team studied the population of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas, and identified civilians with the symptoms similar to those of Gulf War syndrome. Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 8 symptomatic subjects were collected by the following criteria: 1) the onset of symptoms relative to the bombing raids; 2) physical presence in the area of the bombing; and 3) clinical manifestations. Control subjects were selected among the sympotom-free residents in non-targeted areas. All samples were analyzed for the concentration and ratio of four uranium isotopes, (234)U, (235)U, (236)U and (238)U, by using a multicollector, inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry. The first results from the Jalalabad province revealed urinary excretion of total uranium in all subjects significantly exceeding the values in the nonexposed population. The analysis of the isotopic ratios identified non-depleted uranium. Studies of specimens collected in 2002 revealed uranium concentrations up to 200 times higher in the districts of Tora Bora, Yaka Toot, Lal Mal, Makam Khan Farm, Arda Farm, Bibi Mahro, Poli Cherki, and the Kabul airport than in the control population. Uranium levels in the soil samples from the bombsites show values two to three times higher than worldwide concentration levels of 2 to 3 mg/kg and significantly higher concentrations in water than the World Health Organization maximum permissible levels. This growing body of evidence undoubtedly puts the problem of prevention and solution of the DU contamination high on the priority list. PMID:14515407

Durakovi?, Asaf

2003-10-01

106

ISSUES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CYBERSECURITY IN NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to network centric warfare brings with it great promise for the effectiveness of future military operations. This promise arises from the capability for network centric warfare to empower individuals at all levels with vast amounts of relevant information and thereby lift the \\

Martin R. Stytz; Sheila B. Banks

107

Cyber-Warfare Threatens Corporations: Expansion into Commercial Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a review of information warfare literature from 1990 to mid-2005, this article presents a framework of 12 important trends. These trends demonstrate the transformation of information warfare from primarily a military issue into a major commercial issue as well. Corporate IS managers need to understand the growing cyberwar threats and implement appropriate strategies to mitigate risk.

Kenneth J. Knapp; William R. Boulton

2006-01-01

108

Information Warfare: IT Security Professionals To Steer Clear  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1945, just before the United States became the only nation in history to wage nuclear warfare against an opponent, a group of eminent physicists who worked on the super secret Manhattan Project expressed their anxiety about the atomic bomb becoming an accepted weapon for warfare. Those physicists included Albert Einstein, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Neils Bohr and Enrico Fermi. The

Wayne Madsen

2000-01-01

109

Chemical Warfare Agents: Emergency Medical and Emergency Public Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of exposure to chemical warfare agents has traditionally been considered a military issue. Several recent events have demonstrated that civilians may also be exposed to these agents. The intentional or unintentional release of a chemical warfare agent in a civilian community has the potential to create thousands of casualties, thereby overwhelming local health and medical resources. The resources

Richard J Brennan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Trueman W Sharp; Scott R Lillibridge

1999-01-01

110

PBT screening profile of chemical warfare agents (CWAs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been used and disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts have been dumped in the Baltic Sea following the disarmament of Germany after World War II causing environmental concerns. There is a data gap pertaining to chemical warfare agents, environmental properties not the least their aquatic toxicities. Given this gap and

Hans Sanderson; Patrik Fauser; Marianne Thomsen; Peter B. Sørensen

2007-01-01

111

The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative

Robert A. Francis

2011-01-01

112

NEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target  

E-print Network

NEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target Recognition QILIAN LIANG University of Texas-enabled electronic warfare (NEW) is the development of modeling and simulation efforts that explore the advantages. 0018-9251/10/$26.00 c° 2010 IEEE I. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION In current and future military

Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

113

The system dynamics of future warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the unification of Germany have led to a new world order in which political structures have undergone substantial realingnent. NATO has been at the centre of this process of change which has led to the collapse of Soviet communism and the liberation of eastern Europe. Defence Operational

J. Moffat

1996-01-01

114

Proteomic Analysis of the EWS-Fli-1 Interactome Reveals the Role of the Lysosome in EWS-Fli-1 Turnover.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly Fli-1. EWS-Fli-1 fusion accounts for 85% of cases. The growth and survival of Ewing sarcoma cells are critically dependent on EWS-Fli-1. A large body of evidence has established that EWS-Fli-1 functions as a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cell proliferation and transformation. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of the EWS-Fli-1 protein. We undertook a series of proteomic analyses to dissect the EWS-Fli-1 interactome. Employing a proximity-dependent biotinylation technique, BioID, we identified cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR) as a protein located in the vicinity of EWS-Fli-1 within a cell. CIMPR is a cargo that mediates the delivery of lysosomal hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to the endosome, which are subsequently transferred to the lysosomes. Further molecular cell biological analyses uncovered a role for lysosomes in the turnover of the EWS-Fli-1 protein. We demonstrate that an mTORC1 active-site inhibitor, torin 1, which stimulates the TFEB-lysosome pathway, can induce the degradation of EWS-Fli-1, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach to target EWS-Fli-1 for degradation. PMID:24999758

Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Hakala, Kevin; Weintraub, Susan T; Shiio, Yuzuru

2014-07-14

115

Nuclear warfare: Survival. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning factors and systems influencing human vulnerability, security, and survival in nuclear warfare. References include studies of both civilians and military personnel. Nuclear-resistant materials and systems are also examined. A wide variety of studies and analyses, many of them based upon computerized simulations, are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

116

Propulsion Systems Demand Accurate Property Data J.W. Magee, D.G. Friend, T.J. Bruno, M.L. Huber, E.W. Lemmon, A. Laesecke, R.A. Perkins, J.A.  

E-print Network

Propulsion Systems Demand Accurate Property Data J.W. Magee, D.G. Friend, T.J. Bruno, M.L. Huber, E% of the uncertainty in the propulsion system design. NIST used a gas chromatography­mass spectrometry source of uncertainty in propulsion system design. #12;

Magee, Joseph W.

117

Biological warfare: A problem waiting to happen. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare poses a significant threat to the United States. After early forays to develop a biological military capability, the US renounced the development, possession, and use of such weapons. Diplomatic initiatives resulted in the Biological Warfare Conventions of 1972 which attempted to establish an agreement to ban the stockpiling of weapons and all research toward offensive capabilities. The treaty was flawed, however, as there were no provisions for verification, inspection, or penalties. The US Dismantled its biological warfare program, while others discreetly continued to explore biological alternatives. Today the US faces a biological warfare threat from regional powers, developing Third World nations and terrorists groups. During Desert Storm, American forces were not prepared to operate in a biological environment.

Brotchie, C.F.

1993-04-15

118

Information warfare: peering inside Pandora’s postmodern box  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims to demonstrate how information warfare (IW) is being progressively domesticated and how it democratizes warfare. Briefly outlines the so-called Revolution in Military Affairs. Presents an overview of the various modalities of IW. Introduces the defining features of IW from both the attacker’s and the target’s perspective. Describes types of offence and defence. Assesses the extent to which IW and

Blaise Cronin

2001-01-01

119

Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

Denkba?, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

120

The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2007-05-01

121

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5 Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-18

122

Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.  

PubMed

The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System. PMID:17923293

Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

2007-10-01

123

SANC integrator in the progress: QCD and EW contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modules and packages for the one-loop calculations at the partonic level represent the first level of SANC output computer product. The next level represents Monte Carlo integrator mcsanc, realizing fully differential hadron level calculations (convolution with PDF) for the HEP processes at LHC. In this paper we describe the implementation into the framework mcsanc first set of processes: DY NC, DY CC, f_1 bar f'_1 to HW^ ± (Z) and single top production. Both EW and QCD NLO corrections are taken into account. A comparison of SANC results with those existing in the world literature is given.

Bardin, D.; Bondarenko, S.; Christova, P.; Kalinovskaya, L.; Rumyantsev, L.; Sapronov, A.; von Schlippe, W.

2012-11-01

124

Tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of the Ewing sarcoma RNA-binding protein EWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing family tumors result from the effects of chromosomal translocations that fuse the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) gene to various genes encoding transcription factors [1]. The resulting chimeric EWS fusion proteins are transcriptional activators with transforming potential that have received much study [2]. By contrast, the cellular function of somatic EWS remains obscure. EWS belongs to a family of RNA-binding proteins

Jason S. Felsch; Ernest G. Peralta

1999-01-01

125

Oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 activity is enhanced by RNA helicase A.  

PubMed

RNA helicase A (RHA), a member of the DEXH box helicase family of proteins, is an integral component of protein complexes that regulate transcription and splicing. The EWS-FLI1 oncoprotein is expressed as a result of the chromosomal translocation t(11;22) that occurs in patients with the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). Using phage display library screening, we identified an EWS-FLI1 binding peptide containing homology to RHA. ESFT cell lines and patient tumors highly expressed RHA. GST pull-down and ELISA assays showed that EWS-FLI1 specifically bound RHA fragment amino acids 630 to 1020, which contains the peptide region discovered by phage display. Endogenous RHA was identified in a protein complex with EWS-FLI1 in ESFT cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed both EWS-FLI1 and RHA bound to EWS-FLI1 target gene promoters. RHA stimulated the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1 regulated promoters, including Id2, in ESFT cells. In addition, RHA expression in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells stably transfected with EWS-FLI1 enhanced the anchorage-independent phenotype above that with EWS-FLI1 alone. These results suggest that RHA interacts with EWS-FLI1 as a transcriptional cofactor to enhance its function. PMID:16740692

Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Erkizan, Verda; Levenson, Amy; Abaan, Ogan D; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Cripe, Timothy P; Rice, Anna M; Lee, Sean Bong; Uren, Aykut

2006-06-01

126

Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

2007-02-01

127

?-PADs for detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Conventional methods of detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on chromogenic reactions are time and solvent intensive. The development of cost, time and solvent effective microfluidic paper based analytical devices (?-PADs) for the detection of nerve and vesicant agents is described. The detection of analytes was based upon their reactions with rhodamine hydroxamate and para-nitrobenzyl pyridine, producing red and blue colours respectively. Reactions were optimized on the ?-PADs to produce the limits of detection (LODs) as low as 100 ?M for sulfur mustard in aqueous samples. Results were quantified with the help of a simple desktop scanner and Photoshop software. Sarin achieved a linear response in the two concentration ranges of 20-100 mM and 100-500 mM, whereas the response of sulfur mustard was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 mM. Results were precise enough to establish the ?-PADs as a valuable tool for security personnel fighting against chemical terrorism. PMID:23086107

Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

2012-12-01

128

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

129

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

130

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

131

Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 229 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-03-01

132

Electrowetting (EW)-based valve combined with hydrophilic teflon microfluidic guidance in controlling continuous fluid flow.  

PubMed

Electrowetting (EW)-based techniques have been widely used in manipulating discrete liquid. However, few articles discussed the controlling of continuous fluid flow by using EW-based techniques. In this paper, an EW-based valve combined with plasma-modified Teflon surface, which serves as a microfluidic guidance, in controlling continuous fluid flow has been demonstrated. The plasma-modified Teflon surface is firstly demonstrated for confining continuous fluid flow. The EW-based microfluidic device possesses the functions of a valve and a microchannel without complex moving parts and grooved microchannels. The quantitative characteristics of the EW-based valve are also studied. Propylene carbonate (PC) is firstly demonstrated as the working liquid in the EW-based device because of its applications in parallel oligonucleotide synthesis. It is found that lower valve actuation voltage reduces the deterioration of the valve and improves the valve stability. PMID:15548880

Cheng, Ji-Yen; Hsiung, Lo-Chang

2004-12-01

133

33 CFR 165.1103 - Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.  

...false Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San...1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San...water adjacent to the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, bound by the...

2014-07-01

134

Development of quasi-three-dimensional compressible flow program by EWS (engineering-work-station)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CPU performance of the latest EWS is over 20 MFLOPS(Linpack). New quasi-three-dimensional compressible and viscous flow code is developed for turbomachinary airfoil design by EWS. Numerical results of transonic cascade flows of two AVER cases is compared with experimental data to validate the code. Although the CPU speed of latest EWS is little poor for design time, but enough for numerical study. That is not such a fatal problem, because the CPU speed of EWS is improving day by day. It is appreciated that improving the turbulence model is important for the accuracy of the cascade airfoil design.

Nomoto, Sukeharu; Tsuboi, Kazumasa; Kodama, Hidekazu

1992-12-01

135

EWS-WT1 oncoprotein activates neuronal reprogramming factor ASCL1 and promotes neural differentiation.  

PubMed

The oncogenic fusion gene EWS-WT1 is the defining chromosomal translocation in desmoplastic small round-cell tumors (DSRCT), a rare but aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with a high rate of mortality. EWS-WT1 functions as an aberrant transcription factor that drives tumorigenesis, but the mechanistic basis for its pathogenic activity is not well understood. To address this question, we created a transgenic mouse strain that permits physiologic expression of EWS-WT1 under the native murine Ews promoter. EWS-WT1 expression led to a dramatic induction of many neuronal genes in embryonic fibroblasts and primary DSRCT, most notably the neural reprogramming factor ASCL1. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that EWS-WT1 directly bound the proximal promoter of ASCL1, activating its transcription through multiple WT1-responsive elements. Conversely, EWS-WT1 silencing in DSRCT cells reduced ASCL1 expression and cell viability. Notably, exposure of DSRCT cells to neuronal induction media increased neural gene expression and induced neurite-like projections, both of which were abrogated by silencing EWS-WT1. Taken together, our findings reveal that EWS-WT1 can activate neural gene expression and direct partial neural differentiation via ASCL1, suggesting agents that promote neural differentiation might offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat DSRCT. PMID:24934812

Kang, Hong-Jun; Park, Jun Hong; Chen, WeiPing; Kang, Soo Im; Moroz, Krzysztof; Ladanyi, Marc; Lee, Sean Bong

2014-08-15

136

The EWS/ATF1 fusion protein contains a dispersed activation domain that functions directly.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring chromosomal fusion of the Ewings Sarcoma Oncogene (EWS) to distinct cellular transcription factors, produces aberrant transcriptional activators that function as dominant oncogenes. In Malignant Melanoma of Soft Parts the N-terminal region of EWS is fused to C-terminal region of the cAMP-inducible transcription factor ATF1. The EWS/ATF1 fusion protein binds to ATF sites present in cAMP-responsive promoters via the ATF1 bZIP domain and activates transcription constitutively in a manner that is dependent on an activation domain (EAD) present in EWS. To further define the requirements for trans-activation we have performed mutational analysis of EWS/ATF1 in mammalian cells and report several new findings. First, trans-activation by EWS/ATF1 does not require dimerisation with other ATF family members present in mammalian cells. Second, in contrast to the earlier suggestion of an allosteric role, the EAD can act directly. Third, determinants of trans-activation are dispersed throughout the EAD and cooperate synergistically to produce potent trans-activation. We also report that the region of EWS containing the EAD can activate transcription in Yeast. This latter finding might enable a genetic approach to understanding the mechanism of transcriptional activation by EWS and development of high-throughput screens for EWS inhibitors. PMID:9569031

Pan, S; Ming, K Y; Dunn, T A; Li, K K; Lee, K A

1998-03-26

137

SAW devices for military communications, radar, and EW systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the principles and applications of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is presented. Most SAW devices have been developed for use in the VHF and UHF bands (30 to 1000 MHz), and are limited at low frequencies by the size and cost of the substrates and at high frequencies by photolithographic resolution. A primary feature of the SAW

C. S. Hartmann; R. J. Kansy; W. D. Daniels; B. R. Potter

1982-01-01

138

78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center Interchange Humboldt-Toiyabe...lying within the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center and the Humboldt-Toiyabe...ahead to (801) 625-5800. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A.L. Richard,...

2013-05-21

139

The EWS–Oct-4 fusion gene encodes a transforming gene  

PubMed Central

The t(6;22)(p21;q12) translocation associated with human bone and soft-tissue tumours results in a chimaeric molecule fusing the NTD (N-terminal domain) of the EWS (Ewing's sarcoma) gene to the CTD (C-terminal domain) of the Oct-4 (octamer-4) embryonic gene. Since the N-terminal domains of EWS and Oct-4 are structurally different, in the present study we have assessed the functional consequences of the EWS–Oct-4 fusion. We find that this chimaeric gene encodes a nuclear protein which binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as the parental Oct-4 protein. Comparison of the transactivation properties of EWS–Oct-4 and Oct-4 indicates that the former has higher transactivation activity for a known target reporter gene containing Oct-4 binding. Deletion analysis of the functional domains of EWS–Oct-4 indicates that the EWS (NTD), the POU domain and the CTD of EWS–Oct-4 are necessary for full transactivation potential. EWS–Oct-4 induced the expression of fgf-4 (fibroblast growth factor 4) and nanog, which are potent mitogens as well as Oct-4 downstream target genes whose promoters contain potential Oct-4-binding sites. Finally, ectopic expression of EWS–Oct-4 in Oct-4-null ZHBTc4 ES (embryonic stem) cells resulted in increased tumorigenic growth potential in nude mice. These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(6;22) translocation is due to the EWS–Oct-4 chimaeric protein and that fusion of the EWS NTD to the Oct-4 DNA-binding domain produces a transforming chimaeric product. PMID:17564582

Lee, Jungwoon; Kim, Ja Young; Kang, In Young; Kim, Hye Kyoung; Han, Yong-Mahn; Kim, Jungho

2007-01-01

140

Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Web site offers an unclassified document for public review entitled Chemical Warfare Agent Issues During the Persian Gulf War. The introductory paragraph states, "This paper reflects the results of our multifaceted investigation into the Chemical Warfare (CW) issue, examining information on CW agent releases, Gulf war Iraqi CW deployments, and Iraqi chemical agents and weapons." One of the final paragraphs claims that the US still believes that Iraq did not use chemical weapons against Coalition forces. Although perhaps a difficult subject to read about, the one-page site does offer those interested a glimpse into one destructive use of science that humans have developed.

2002-01-01

141

Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectroscopy for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Simulants  

E-print Network

Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectroscopy for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Simulants spectroscopy device is demonstrated for the on-chip spectroscopic determination of chemical warfare simulant Remote Sensing 1. Introduction The threat posed by nerve agents in chemical warfare to soldiers

Chen, Ray

142

History 285 Western Warfare Since 1789 Carr Room 240  

E-print Network

of the eighteenth century, ranging from the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars to the current wars Revolution I: The Transition to Modern Warfare," in Charles Townshend, ed., The Oxford History of Modern War (Oxford, 2005), 20-39. Jeremy Black, "The Military Revolution II: Eighteenth Century War," in Charles

McShea, Daniel W.

143

Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de' Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terror- ist use of biological

Mark Wheelis

2002-01-01

144

Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

Cooper, Martha

145

Cyber-warfare seen through a mariner's spyglass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is now an essential tool in the everyday conduct of commercial life. The ability of terrorists to conduct cyber-warfare is largely unknown, but the potential for the disruption of life worries many policymakers. In searching for precedent to anticipate the potential impact of a cyber-war, it is important to identify modes of conflict that are useful both against

J. Laprise

2006-01-01

146

INFORMATION WARFARE AND THE FUTURE OF THE SPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of the new ICTs on the collection of covert intelligence and covert political actions undertaken by national intelligence agencies. It is argued that there exist two distinct doctrines in the literatures of intelligence and information warfare concerning the future relative importance of information from human sources ('agents') and technical methods (signal interception, overhead imagery and

Philip H. J. Davies

1999-01-01

147

Final MTI Data Report: Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center  

SciTech Connect

During the period from February 2001 to August 2002, paved-surface (tarmac) temperatures were collected at the Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center. This effort was led by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), with the assistance of base personnel, as part of SRTC's ground truth mission for the U.S. Department of Energy's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite.

Parker, M.J.

2003-03-17

148

SURVIVABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

To tests and provide a comprehensive, integrated list of survival rates of biological warfare agents' survival of landfill conditions. Research into the permanence of the final disposal contaminated building debris of the inactivated or active agent of terrorism is being exam...

149

Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated

Wente; William Baker

2005-01-01

150

Summary of the psychological effects of tactical nuclear warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological component of the response of combat troops to tactical nuclear warfare is a troublesome variable which plagues military planners and commanders responsible for the preparation of the armed forces for the eventuality that nuclear weapons might one day be used in armed conflict. The devastating physical effects of nuclear weapons have been extensively documented and the biological response

Sessions

1984-01-01

151

Stealth and the changing role of electronic warfare  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of stealth in a combat environment and how electronic warfare has changed to complement stealth survivability and improve combat effectiveness is presented. Attention is given to providing better pilot-situation awareness using passive sensors, multispectral in design, that do not emit energy.

Way, G.W. (Lockheed Sanders, Inc., Nashua, NH (United States))

1992-08-01

152

BIOMATERIALS FOR MEDIATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and

Alan J. Russell; Jason A. Berberich; G ´ eraldine; F. Drevon

2003-01-01

153

Terahertz electronics for chemical and biological warfare agent detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of solid-state electronics within the terahertz frequency regime is reviewed and assessed. Recent developments in chemical and biological science are presented that provide important insight and motivations for future uses of THz electronics in spectroscopic sensing. Finally, the impact of new advances in nanotechnology and molecular physics on the detection of chemical and biological warfare agents is addressed

D. Woolard; R. Kaul; R. Suenram; A. Hight Walke; T. Globus; A. gSamuels

1999-01-01

154

Detection of chemical warfare agents using nanostructured metal oxide sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of thick-film chemical sensors based on various semiconductor metal oxides to reliably detect chemical warfare agents has been studied. Nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) powders were used as initial materials for the sensors’ fabrication. The thick films were prepared using a simple drop-coating technique accompanied with in situ annealing of the deposited films by a heater that is

Alexey A. Tomchenko; Gregory P. Harmer; Brent T. Marquis

2005-01-01

155

Analytical separation techniques for the determination of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the determination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is an important area of application in analytical chemistry. Chromatographic, capillary electrophoretic and mass spectrometric techniques are primarily used for the identification and quantification of a broad field of classical CWAs in environmental samples and neutralization masses, obtained after destruction of CWAs. This overview is illustrative for the state of the art

Edwin W. J Hooijschuur; Charles E Kientz; Udo A. Th Brinkman

2002-01-01

156

Robotics for Future Land Warfare: Modular Self ReconfigurableRobots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The face of modern land warfare is changing rapidly. Defence organisations around the world must be con- stantly adjusting and improving just to maintain a comparative advantage over their opponents. Robotics is one particular area attracting growing interest amongst a number of countries. Most of their work is following along the conventional lines of designing specialised robots to perform specifictasks.

Craig Eldershaw; Mark Yim; David Duff; Kimon Roufas; Ying Zhang

157

Networked enabled sensors for the future soldier in urban warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Urban Warfare, the enemy is at close range; snipers are almost always present; stress is extremely high; and the opposing force is frequently indistinguishable from the civilian population. On-going events in the Middle East and the general rise in world-wide terrorism has shown that small cells of \\

Clive L. Edwards; Colin Robinson

2004-01-01

158

The future of armoured warfare: Prospects for the tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its advent during the First World War, the tank has had both proponents of its dominance in warfare and also its detractors. With the end of the Cold War and new emerging operational doctrines, it has again come under scrutiny. In this challenging article, Dr Stone argues that current confidence in the role of the tank is misplaced due

John Stone

1996-01-01

159

Future Armoured warfare: The case for the tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

As rockets and aircraft can now destroy armoured fighting vehicles the tank has been rendered more vulnerable—but is it obsolete? The author looks at the future for the tank in armoured warfare and asks if the tank's days may be numbered.

Richard Swinburn KCB

1992-01-01

160

Information Warfare: Legal & Ethical Challenges of the Next Global Battleground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Internet and particularly the World-Wide-Web has accelerated the perception of a global society dependent on information technology. As a consequence, profound problems of international law and ethics have emerged which have increasingly been drawing the attention of public policy makers and international security experts, especially those concerned about the future of warfare. A new form of

William Yurcik

1997-01-01

161

Cutaneous manifestations of biological warfare and related threat agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

he specter of biological warfare (BW) looms large in the minds of many Americans. The US government has required that emergency response teams in more than 100 American cities be trained by the year 2001 to recognize and contain a BW attack. The US military is requiring active duty soldiers to receive immunization against anthrax. Dermatologists need not feel helpless

MAJ Thomas; W. McGovern; George W. Christopher; Edward M. Eitzen; Arch Dermatol

1999-01-01

162

Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber resources to information protection tasks. The first section of the paper introduces the cyber warfare simulation challenge and the reasons for its importance. The second section contains background information related to our research. The third section contains a discussion of the information ring technique and its use for simulating cyber attacks. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for research.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2011-06-01

163

Cyber Warfare and the Crime of Aggression: The Need for Individual Accountability on Tomorrow’s Battlefield  

Microsoft Academic Search

As cyberspace matures, the international system faces a new challenge in confronting the use of force. Non-State actors continue to grow in importance, gaining the skill and the expertise necessary to wage asymmetric warfare using non-traditional weaponry that can create devastating real-world consequences. The international legal system must adapt to this battleground and provide workable mechanisms to hold aggressive actors

Jonathan A. Ophardt

2010-01-01

164

Surface-immobilization of molecules for detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Fabrication of nanoscale molecular assemblies with advanced functionalities is an emerging field. These systems provide new perspectives for the detection and degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The main concern in this context is the design and fabrication of "smart surfaces" able to immobilize functional molecules which can perform a certain function or under the input of external stimuli. This review addresses the above points dealing with immobilization of various molecules on different substrates and describes their adequacy as sensors for the detection of CWAs. PMID:24998209

Bhowmick, Indrani; Neelam

2014-09-01

165

A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3740 (United States)

2009-03-10

166

A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

2009-03-01

167

A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

2008-08-01

168

RNA helicase A activity is inhibited by oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1.  

PubMed

RNA helicases impact RNA structure and metabolism from transcription through translation, in part through protein interactions with transcription factors. However, there is limited knowledge on the role of transcription factor influence upon helicase activity. RNA helicase A (RHA) is a DExH-box RNA helicase that plays multiple roles in cellular biology, some functions requiring its activity as a helicase while others as a protein scaffold. The oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1 requires RHA to enable Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncogenesis and growth; a small molecule, YK-4-279 disrupts this complex in cells. Our current study investigates the effect of EWS-FLI1 upon RHA helicase activity. We found that EWS-FLI1 reduces RHA helicase activity in a dose-dependent manner without affecting intrinsic ATPase activity; however, the RHA kinetics indicated a complex model. Using separated enantiomers, only (S)-YK-4-279 reverses the EWS-FLI1 inhibition of RHA helicase activity. We report a novel RNA binding property of EWS-FLI1 leading us to discover that YK-4-279 inhibition of RHA binding to EWS-FLI1 altered the RNA binding profile of both proteins. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 modulates RHA helicase activity causing changes in overall transcriptome processing. These findings could lead to both enhanced understanding of oncogenesis and provide targets for therapy. PMID:25564528

Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Schneider, Jeffrey A; Sajwan, Kamal; Graham, Garrett T; Griffin, Brittany; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Youbi, Sarah E; Kallarakal, Abraham; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Casey, John L; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

2015-01-30

169

RGG-boxes of the EWS oncoprotein repress a range of transcriptional activation domains.  

PubMed

The Ewings Sarcoma Oncoprotein (EWS) interacts with several components of the mammalian transcriptional and pre-mRNA splicing machinery and is also found in the cytoplasm and even on the cell surface. The apparently diverse cellular functions of EWS are, however, not well characterized. EWS harbours a potent N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (the EAD) that is revealed in the context of oncogenic EWS-fusion proteins (EFPs) and a C-terminal RNA-binding domain (RBD) that recruits pre-mRNA splicing factors and may couple transcription and splicing. In contrast to EFPs, the presumed transcriptional role of normal EWS remains enigmatic. Here, we report that multiple RGG-boxes within the RBD are necessary and sufficient for cis-repression of the EAD and that RGG-boxes can also repress in-trans, within dimeric partners. Lys can functionally substitute for Arg, indicating that the basic nature of the Arg side chain is the critical determinant of RGG-box-mediated repression. In addition to the EAD, RGG-boxes can repress a broad range of activation domains (including those of VP16, E1a and CREB), but repression can be alleviated by the simultaneous presence of more than one activation domain. We therefore propose that a key function of RGG boxes within native EWS is to restrict promiscuous activation by the EAD while still allowing EWS to enter functional transcription complexes and participate in other transactions involving pre-mRNAs. PMID:15743974

Alex, Deepa; Lee, Kevin A W

2005-01-01

170

EW-7197 inhibits hepatic, renal, and pulmonary fibrosis by blocking TGF-?/Smad and ROS signaling.  

PubMed

Fibrosis is an inherent response to chronic damage upon immense apoptosis or necrosis. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) signaling plays a key role in the fibrotic response to chronic liver injury. To develop anti-fibrotic therapeutics, we synthesized a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-? type I receptor kinase (ALK5), EW-7197, and evaluated its therapeutic potential in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) mouse, bile duct ligation (BDL) rat, bleomycin (BLM) mouse, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse models. Western blot, immunofluorescence, siRNA, and ChIP analysis were carried out to characterize EW-7197 as a TGF-?/Smad signaling inhibitor in LX-2, Hepa1c1c7, NRK52E, and MRC5 cells. In vivo anti-fibrotic activities of EW-7197 were examined by microarray, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and a survival study in the animal models. EW-7197 decreased the expression of collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), fibronectin, 4-hydroxy-2, 3-nonenal, and integrins in the livers of CCl4 mice and BDL rats, in the lungs of BLM mice, and in the kidneys of UUO mice. Furthermore, EW-7197 extended the lifespan of CCl4 mice, BDL rats, and BLM mice. EW-7197 blocked the TGF-?1-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), collagen, and ?-SMA in LX-2 cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) isolated from mice. Moreover, EW-7197 attenuated TGF-?- and ROS-induced HSCs activation to myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. The mechanism of EW-7197 appeared to be blockade of both TGF-?1/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling to exert an anti-fibrotic activity. This study shows that EW-7197 has a strong potential as an anti-fibrosis therapeutic agent via inhibition of TGF-?-/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling. PMID:25487606

Park, Sang-A; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Shin; Lee, Seon-Joo; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Dae-Kee; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

2014-12-01

171

Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research Captain Jeff Kline, USN (ret)  

E-print Network

§ Future Unmanned Naval Systems (FUNS) War game Competition § Sponsored by NPS Chair for Undersea Warfare Systems Education and Research 5 § Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems (AUWS) Warfare Innovation Workshop and BATTELLE § Concept generation for the deployment of unmanned systems in a future South China Sea scenario

172

Report on Biological Warfare Defense Vaccine Research & Development Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 190-page .pdf document, dated July 2001 but released online September 7, 2001 by the US Department of Defense (DoD), gives the latest status of biological warfare defense vaccine development. The DoD assembled a panel of experts in the scientific, regulatory, and industrial aspects of vaccine production and in federal procurement to review the topic. They concluded that the scope and complexity of the DoD biological warfare defense vaccine requirements were too great for either the DoD or the pharmaceutical industry to accomplish alone. The first part of this online report is an executive summary from the DoD, followed by the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act For Fiscal Year 2001, and finally the independent panel's full report, Department of Defense Acquisition of Vaccine Production, of December 2000. Sections of the dense, 167-page report include financial and personnel resource requirements, policies, findings, and recommendations.

2001-01-01

173

Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa  

PubMed Central

On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de’ Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de’ Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event. PMID:12194776

2002-01-01

174

Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.  

PubMed

Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds. PMID:17547305

Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

2007-05-01

175

Surface detection of chemical warfare agent simulants and degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants as well as their degradation and hydrolysis products were detected from surfaces using thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS). CWA simulant materials that closely mimic the chemical structures of real CWA G\\/V-type nerve and S-type vesicant simulants were used in this study. Reduced mobility constants (K0) in air were reported for 20 compounds studied. Spectra

Abu B. Kanu; Paul E. Haigh; Herbert H. Hill

2005-01-01

176

Scatterable Sensor Networks for Network Centric Warfare Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the utility of realistic, time and scale-constrained sensor networks in cooperation with semi-autonomous robots as envisioned in future Network-Centric Warfare. The particular application chosen is a networked minefield based roughly on the United States Military Family of Scatterable Mines (FASCAM) with similar emplacement and planning techniques. Algorithms for sensor network operation and sensor network control are provided.

Kenneth E. Viall

2007-01-01

177

The EWS/FLI Oncogene Drives Changes in Cellular Morphology, Adhesion, and Migration in Ewing Sarcoma.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma is a tumor of the bone and soft tissue caused by the expression of a translocation-derived oncogenic transcription factor, EWS/FLI. Overt metastases are associated with a poor prognosis in Ewing sarcoma, but patients without overt metastases frequently harbor micrometastatic disease at presentation. This suggests that the metastatic potential of Ewing sarcoma exists at an early stage during tumor development. We have therefore explored whether the inciting oncogenic event in Ewing sarcoma, EWS/FLI, directly modulates tumor cell features that support metastasis, such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytoarchitecture. We used an RNAi-based approach in patient-derived Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Although we hypothesized that EWS/FLI might induce classic metastatic features, such as increased cell adhesion, migration, and invasion (similar to the phenotypes observed when epithelial malignancies undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during the process of metastasis), surprisingly, we found the opposite. Thus, EWS/FLI expression inhibited the adhesion of isolated cells in culture and prevented adhesion in an in vivo mouse lung assay. Cell migration was similarly inhibited by EWS/FLI expression. Furthermore, EWS/FLI expression caused a striking loss of organized actin stress fibers and focal adhesions and a concomitant loss of cell spreading, suggesting that EWS/FLI disrupts the mesenchymal phenotype of a putative tumor cell-of-origin. These data suggest a new paradigm for the dissemination and metastasis of mesenchymally derived tumors: these tumors may disseminate via a "passive/stochastic" model rather than via an "active" epithelial-to-mesenchymal type transition. In the case of Ewing sarcoma, it appears that the loss of cell adhesion needed to promote tumor cell dissemination might be induced by the EWS/FLI oncogene itself rather than via an accumulation of stepwise mutations. PMID:23050043

Chaturvedi, Aashi; Hoffman, Laura M; Welm, Alana L; Lessnick, Stephen L; Beckerle, Mary C

2012-02-01

178

GLI1 Is a Direct Transcriptional Target of EWS-FLI1 Oncoprotein*S?  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is an undifferentiated neoplasm of the bone and soft tissue. ESFT is characterized by a specific chromosomal translocation occurring between chromosome 22 and (in most cases) chromosome 11, which generates an aberrant transcription factor, EWS-FLI1. The function of EWS-FLI1 is essential for the maintenance of ESFT cell survival and tumorigenesis. The Hedgehog pathway is activated in several cancers. Oncogenic potential of the Hedgehog pathway is mediated by increasing the activity of the GLI family of transcription factors. Recent evidence suggests that EWS-FLI1 increases expression of GLI1 by an unknown mechanism. Our data from chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter studies indicated GLI1 as a direct transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1. Expression of EWS-FLI1 in non-ESFT cells increased GLI1 expression and GLI-dependent transcription. We also detected high levels of GLI1 protein in ESFT cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of GLI1 protein function decreased proliferation and soft agar colony formation of ESFT cells. Our results establish GLI1 as a direct transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1 and suggest a potential role for GLI1 in ESFT tumorigenesis. PMID:19189974

Beauchamp, Elspeth; Bulut, Gulay; Abaan, Ogan; Chen, Kevin; Merchant, Akil; Matsui, William; Endo, Yoshimi; Rubin, Jeffrey S.; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Üren, Aykut

2009-01-01

179

GLI1 is a direct transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1 oncoprotein.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is an undifferentiated neoplasm of the bone and soft tissue. ESFT is characterized by a specific chromosomal translocation occurring between chromosome 22 and (in most cases) chromosome 11, which generates an aberrant transcription factor, EWS-FLI1. The function of EWS-FLI1 is essential for the maintenance of ESFT cell survival and tumorigenesis. The Hedgehog pathway is activated in several cancers. Oncogenic potential of the Hedgehog pathway is mediated by increasing the activity of the GLI family of transcription factors. Recent evidence suggests that EWS-FLI1 increases expression of GLI1 by an unknown mechanism. Our data from chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter studies indicated GLI1 as a direct transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1. Expression of EWS-FLI1 in non-ESFT cells increased GLI1 expression and GLI-dependent transcription. We also detected high levels of GLI1 protein in ESFT cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of GLI1 protein function decreased proliferation and soft agar colony formation of ESFT cells. Our results establish GLI1 as a direct transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1 and suggest a potential role for GLI1 in ESFT tumorigenesis. PMID:19189974

Beauchamp, Elspeth; Bulut, Gulay; Abaan, Ogan; Chen, Kevin; Merchant, Akil; Matsui, William; Endo, Yoshimi; Rubin, Jeffrey S; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Uren, Aykut

2009-04-01

180

Identification of a tripartite import signal in the Ewing Sarcoma protein (EWS)  

SciTech Connect

The Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) protein is a ubiquitously expressed RNA processing factor that localises predominantly to the nucleus. However, the mechanism through which EWS enters the nucleus remains unclear, with differing reports identifying three separate import signals within the EWS protein. Here we have utilized a panel of truncated EWS proteins to clarify the reported nuclear localisation signals. We describe three C-terminal domains that are important for efficient EWS nuclear localization: (1) the third RGG-motif; (2) the last 10 amino acids (known as the PY-import motif); and (3) the zinc-finger motif. Although these three domains are involved in nuclear import, they are not independently capable of driving the efficient import of a GFP-moiety. However, collectively they form a complex tripartite signal that efficiently drives GFP-import into the nucleus. This study helps clarify the EWS import signal, and the identification of the involvement of both the RGG- and zinc-finger motifs has wide reaching implications.

Shaw, Debra J.; Morse, Robert; Todd, Adrian G. [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom)] [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); Eggleton, Paul [Inflammation and Musculoskeletal Disease, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom) [Inflammation and Musculoskeletal Disease, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); MRC Immunochemistry Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Lorson, Christian L. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Young, Philip J., E-mail: philip.young@pms.ac.uk [Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Exeter EX1 2LU (United Kingdom)

2009-12-25

181

Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

Fish, Janet D.

2014-05-01

182

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

183

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

184

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

185

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

186

Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

187

Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States)] [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)] [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)

2014-01-15

188

Bronchial leiomyoma in a chemical warfare victim—a causative agent or an incidental finding: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Bronchial leiomyoma is one of the rarest benign tumors of the lower respiratory system, compromising less than 2% of reported benign pulmonary tumors. Chemical warfare is a known cause of chronic pulmonary diseases in soldiers who survives of the chemical wars. Most of these patients are chronically under treatment by respiratory drugs and acute exacerbations of their symptoms prompt for investigations for diagnosis of a new complication in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report we present a 43 y/o male chemical warfare victim who was under treatment for his respiratory disease for near 20 years but at last bronchial leiomyoma was diagnosed as the cause of exacerbation of his symptoms. He was undergone right thoracotomy and sleeve resection of left main bronchus. Severe adhesions plus lymphadenitis in the mediastinum might be due to the effects of prior inflammatory process. DISCUSSION Because of rarity of this tumor, bronchial leiomyoma in this patient may be the result of previous exposure to nitrogen mustard but the exact relationship remained to be confirmed. CONCLUSION Although the association between chemical warfare and lung neoplasias has not been well understood, it is the first time that a bronchial leiomyoma is reported in a nitrogen mustard survivor. PMID:22705579

Behesthirouy, Samad; Kakaei, Farzad; Azhough, Ramin; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

2012-01-01

189

PROPHET and future signal warfare decision aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision aids, even well designed ones, have demonstrated a wide range of utility and effectiveness when employed in the operational environment. The development and employment of the PROPHET HF propagation assessment system was observed for over a decade. Recent studies indicate that some of the early assumptions on how the module was to be employed were invalid. Although it uniquely

Robert B. Rose

1989-01-01

190

Multisensor fusion, communications and information warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Todays fusion problems are chiefly concerned with organizational and procedural issues. The technology they employ is mostly available state-of-the-art. The future brings a new set of concerns centered about issues that are more technical in nature. Future military command and control and weapons systems will likely be more distributed, more automated and smarter. They will probably include an advanced form

D. Schutzer

1983-01-01

191

Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

2002-12-01

192

Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described. PMID:23277066

Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

2013-01-01

193

An hsRPB4/7-dependent yeast assay for trans-activation by the EWS oncogene.  

PubMed

Chromosomal fusions of the N-terminal region of the Ewings Sarcoma Oncogene (EWS-Activation-Domain, EAD) to the DNA-binding domains of a variety of cellular transcription factors, produce oncogenic proteins (EWS-fusion proteins (EFPs)) that cause a variety of malignancies. The EAD can act as a potent transcriptional activation domain and is required for the oncogenic activity of EFPs. Previous studies demonstrating a physical interaction between the EAD and the human RNA Polymerase II subunit hsRPB7 suggest a crucial role for RPB7 and its partner, RPB4, in EAD function. Homologues of hsRPB4/7 exist in S. cerevisiae, and here we describe an RPB4/7-dependent yeast assay for EAD-mediated trans-activation. Conditional yeast strains lacking RPB4 are defective for trans-activation by a Gal4/EAD fusion protein at the permissive temperature. Introduction of hsRPB4 alone is unable to rescue trans-activation, while a combination of hsRPB4 and hsRPB7 significantly rescues activity. These findings provide the first functional evidence for a direct role of the RPB4/7 complex in EAD-mediated trans-activation. In addition, the yeast assay provides a tractable system for further molecular analysis of EAD and RPB4/7 action. PMID:11313895

Zhou, H; Lee, K A

2001-03-22

194

A review of "English Warfare." by Mark Charles Fissel  

E-print Network

is rewarded. For example, Fissel highlights the relatively little-known fact that Elizabeth sent more men to the wars than her bellicose father. Her reasons were also more compelling than those of Henry VIII: the genuine defence of the realm and protestant... from the greatest commanders of the age, including Henry of Navarre, Maurice of Nassau, and Gustavus Adolphus. They became equally adept at siege warfare, and showed great skill in making the new siege works, based on the so-called trace italienne...

Ian Gentles

2002-01-01

195

Portable Raman device for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a compact, self-contained, cost effective, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTs) for screening a wide variety of chemical and biological agents for homeland defense applications. The instrument is a fully-integrated, tunable, "point-and-shoot" Raman monitor based on solid-state acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. It also consists of a 830-nm diode laser for excitation, and an avalanche photodiode for detection. Evaluation of this instrument has been performed by analyzing several standard samples and comparing the results those obtained using a conventional Raman system. In addition to system evaluation, this paper will also discuss potential applications of the RAMiTs for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents.

Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Martin, Matthew E.; Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Mobley, Joel; Cullum, Brian M.; Wintenberg, Alan; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

2005-04-01

196

A repetitive element containing a critical tyrosine residue is required for transcriptional activation by the EWS\\/ATF1 oncogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal fusion of the N-terminal region of the Ewings Sarcoma Oncogene (EWS-activation-domain, EAD) to the DNA-binding domains of a variety of cellular transcription factors produce oncogenic proteins (EWS-fusion proteins (EFPs)) that cause distinct malignancies. In EFPs, the EAD acts as a potent transcriptional activation domain and this ability is repressed in the context of normal, non-tumorigenic, EWS. Trans-activation by the

Liang Feng; Kevin A W Lee; KAW Lee

2001-01-01

197

Integrated nuclear and conventional theater warfare simulation (inwars) documentation. Part I. Synopsis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume constitutes the Synopsis Component of the Integrated Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) documentation. It provides an overview of the simulation in terms of unique features, inputs and outputs, and modes of application. The INWARS representation of theater warfare and its software implementation are then synopsized. INWARS has been developed to provide a tool for investigating interactions

J. R. Aldrich; J. B. Gilmer

1980-01-01

198

Violence With a Conscience: Religiosity and Moral Certainty as Predictors of Support for Violent Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Emerging research on the moral licensing effect implies that increasing a person's moral certainty may decrease concerns about the moral consequences of violent warfare. Therefore, if religion increases moral certainty, then it may also contribute to support for violent warfare. The present experiment tested the extent to which religion's contribution to moral certainty explains participants' support for the United

Moira Shaw; Stephanie A. Quezada; Michael A. Zárate

2011-01-01

199

Abstract: In today's technology, cyber warfare threats stem from not only script kiddies and those  

E-print Network

D2.1 Abstract: In today's technology, cyber warfare threats stem from not only script kiddies who's goal include classified secrets, technological secrets, and war and global dominance through and continuous identification to combat the cyber warfare threat. We also show the continued evolution

Tappert, Charles

200

Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous

A. L. Simonian; T. A. Good; S.-S. Wang; J. R. Wild

2005-01-01

201

Protecting Buildings from Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Attacks a long journey  

E-print Network

Editorial Protecting Buildings from Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Attacks ­ a long journey possible forms of terrorism, including airborne/aerosolized chemical and biological warfare agent (CBWA by chemical agents, such as modern nerve- gas chemical agents, is not less severe than biological agents

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

202

Using I-TRIZ for failure prediction in e-surveillance and interception intelligence systems: The case of Information Overload as a potentialweapon of the weak' in future information warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mostly considered with terrorist organizations in mind, we predict on theoretical grounds (and on initial tentative field assessments) potential failures in e-surveillance and interception intelligence systems. We use TRIZ (the Russian acronym for the Theory of Creative\\/Inventive Problem Solving) procedures to examine the problem from the perspective of an enemy who may want to deceive and avoid e-surveillance systems. We

Yonathan Mizrachi

203

Requirements for a future EWS - Cyber Defence in the internet of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of new technologies and services as well as trillions of devices and petabytes of data to be processed and transferred in the Internet of the Future mean that we have to deal with new threats and vulnerabilities, in addition to handle the remaining old ones. Together with the rise of Cyber Warfare and the resulting impact on the

Mario Golling; Bjorn Stelte

2011-01-01

204

An introduction to the physics of underwater sound and their application to passive anti-submarine warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The need has been recognized for a thorough understanding of the basic principles of underwater sound, as the primary phenomenon governing the application of passive antisubmarine warfare. The author describes the basics of underwater acoustics and its association with the undersea warfare effort. He presents some highlights of the present state-of-the-art applications in passive antisubmarine warfare

D. K. Roderick

1988-01-01

205

Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

2014-01-01

206

Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials  

PubMed Central

Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

2014-01-01

207

Possible long term effects of chemical warfare using visual evoked potentials.  

PubMed

Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

2014-09-01

208

ew animals reach their hundredth birthday. But, although plants have not  

E-print Network

powers. They enable plants to grow and produce new organs throughout lifetimes that can span hundredsF ew animals reach their hundredth birthday. But, although plants have in the mountains of western North America -- are several thousand years old. Plants can achieve these amazing

Weigel, Detlef

209

www.unh.edu (Search: "Positive Exercise") ew research from the  

E-print Network

exercise intervention" in the journal Memory. The researchers examined the effects of remembering pastwww.unh.edu (Search: "Positive Exercise") N ew research from the University of New Hampshire shows that a positive memory about exercise increases the likeli- hood that you will repeat the exercise. The new

Kim, Duck O.

210

The Oncogenic EWS-FLI1 Protein Binds In Vivo GGAA Microsatellite Sequences with Potential Transcriptional Activation Function  

PubMed Central

The fusion between EWS and ETS family members is a key oncogenic event in Ewing tumors and important EWS-FLI1 target genes have been identified. However, until now, the search for EWS-FLI1 targets has been limited to promoter regions and no genome-wide comprehensive analysis of in vivo EWS-FLI1 binding sites has been undertaken. Using a ChIP-Seq approach to investigate EWS-FLI1-bound DNA sequences in two Ewing cell lines, we show that this chimeric transcription factor preferentially binds two types of sequences including consensus ETS motifs and microsatellite sequences. Most bound sites are found outside promoter regions. Microsatellites containing more than 9 GGAA repeats are very significantly enriched in EWS-FLI1 immunoprecipitates. Moreover, in reporter gene experiments, the transcription activation is highly dependent upon the number of repeats that are included in the construct. Importantly, in vivo EWS-FLI1-bound microsatellites are significantly associated with EWS-FLI1-driven gene activation. Put together, these results point out the likely contribution of microsatellite elements to long-distance transcription regulation and to oncogenesis. PMID:19305498

Boeva, Valentina; Zynovyev, Andrei; Barillot, Emmanuel; Delattre, Olivier

2009-01-01

211

Multiple Aromatic Side Chains within a Disordered Structure Are Critical for Transcription and Transforming Activity of EWS Family Oncoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal translocations involving the N-terminal ?250 residues of the Ewings sarcoma (EWS) oncogene produce a group of EWS fusion proteins (EFPs) that cause several distinct human cancers. EFPs are potent transcriptional activators and interact with other proteins required for mRNA biogenesis, indicating that EFPs induce tumorigenesis by perturbing gene expression. Although EFPs were discovered more than a decade ago, molecular

King Pan Ng; Gary Potikyan; Rupert O. V. Savene; Christopher T. Denny; Vladimir N. Uversky; Kevin A. W. Lee

2007-01-01

212

Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: Vapor pressure and boiling point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3±1.9K, about 7K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7±5.1K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water.

Horn, Hans W.; Swope, William C.; Pitera, Jed W.

2005-11-01

213

Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: vapor pressure and boiling point.  

PubMed

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3+/-1.9 K, about 7 K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7+/-5.1 K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15 K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water. PMID:16321097

Horn, Hans W; Swope, William C; Pitera, Jed W

2005-11-15

214

Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

2012-06-01

215

Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch  

SciTech Connect

A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic University, New York 11201 (United States); Othmer Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences and Engineering, Polytechnic University, New York 11201 (United States)

2005-02-01

216

Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

2000-04-12

217

The impact of warfare on the soil environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.

2013-12-01

218

A major E-W directed fault zone in the Gibraltar Strait? An approach through onshore-offshore correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gibraltar Strait is the neck between the southern Europe and northern Africa tips that links the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It consists in an ENE-WSW directed trough of rugged topography down to -800 m depth that straddles and erodes the Gibraltar Arc system. This trough comes to an end against the Camarinal Sill, NNE-SSW directed, which reaches less than 100m depth and connects both Spanish and Moroccan shelves. The basement of this Sill is mainly composed of Flysch Trough Units. These units are part of the Betic-Rif external zones and are formed by deep-water siliciclastic rocks early Cretaceous to early Miocene in age. Their thrusting and folding during Miocene times represent the main building episode of the Gibraltar Arc accretionary prism, and contributes to the isolation of the Mediterranean Sea at 5,6Ma. It is generally accepted that the Mediterranean flooding after the Messinian salinity crisis was induced by the local immersion of relieves of the Betic-Rif mountains at the Gibraltar site. Nevertheless, the causes and mode proposed for the opening of the Gibraltar Straits, are still an open question: topographic lowering by tectonic collapse, regressive erosion of a stream that was flowing toward the dessicated Mediterranean basin, eustatic rise of the Atlantic or a combination of these factors are generally evoked for the origin of the Gibraltar Strait. We present a structural interpretation of the Camarinal Sill and its relationship with both the Moroccan and Spanish shelves, based on morphological analysis of ultra high-resolution bathymetry. Our 3D map shows complex and abrupt relieves and the distribution and orientation of highs, crests, scarps and small closed basins permit to characterize three zones bounded by two main E-W directed morphological lineaments that cross the Camarinal Sill. In the Sill central zone, E-W to ENE-WSW directed linear features separate highs and lows with a step-like geometry. According to the sea-floor sampling data, the highs correspond to Flysch type rocks and the lows to recent sediments. Moreover, it is frequent to observe how N-S directed crests are segmented and displaced by small E-W to ENE-WSW directed lineaments. We compare the submarine topography of the Camarinal Sill with the structural features observed on land. As a whole, the Camarinal Sill represents a NNW-SSE directed high (between isobaths 90 and 300m), whose direction is similar to the structural trend of the Gibraltar Arc system on both shores in the Gibraltar area. Accordingly, it probably reflects a tectonic heritage and its primary origin could be related with the shortening structures associated with the mountain front development in the Flysch Trough Units. Onshore, on both margins and near the coastline, conjugated strike-slip fault systems and/or high angle-normal faults that cut the previous fold-and-thrust system were mapped. In particular, in the Spanish branch of the Gibraltar Strait, the kinematic indicators along one of these faults, the Tarifa fault, shows an oblique movement, with both dextral and normal components. To conclude, we suggest that the linear features observed offshore and that cross the Camarinal Sill, together with the faults recognized onshore, can be interpreted as a major fault zone, broadly E-W directed. This fault zone seems to control the position of the relative basement highs and depressions and can be responsible for, or contribute to, the opening of the Gibraltar Strait after the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It is also a good candidate as a zone of channelling and strong erosion during the water-infill of the Mediterranean Sea. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by projects RNM-3713, RNM- 215, CTM2009-07715, CGL2009-11384, CGL2008-03474-E/BTE and CSD2006-00041.

Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Comas, Menchu; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Luján, María.

2010-05-01

219

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

1991-02-11

220

. ....... ": ---..e:."_W CONTRACT REPORT A-76-1  

E-print Network

, Arlcansas October 1976 Final R.port Approved For Public R.I....; Distribution Unllmit.d PIIPlred for Office by Mobility and Environmental Systems Laboralory U. S. Army Engin..r Waterways Experiment Station P. O. Box. MONITORING AGENCY NAME a AODRESS(1t alll"t.." ftom ControlllnfJ Ollie") IS. SECURITY CLASS. (ol/hl. r.port

US Army Corps of Engineers

221

Microwave Neural Net-Antenna Array for Electronic Warfare Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave Neural Networks are introduced. These are microwave subsystems, designed on basis of the emerging Artificial Neural Network Theory, that together with inhomogeneous antenna arrays, are able to perform identification tasks of radar emitters, in real time. A model is presented and its properties are commented.

A. D. Macedo Filho; L. A. L. S. Cardoso

1990-01-01

222

Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

Not Available

1993-04-01

223

The Fate and Transport of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants in Complex Matrices.  

E-print Network

??Experiments to determine the fate and transport of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP), O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (OSDEMP), and 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES)… (more)

Daphney, Cedrick M.

2008-01-01

224

Fluoride removal in the presence of organophosphates: application to chemical warfare agent destruction  

E-print Network

FLUORIDE REMOVAL IN TFIE PRESENCE OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES: APPLICATION TO CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT DESTRUCTION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ERIC WENAAS Submiued to the Oflice ol Graduate Studies ol' Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTFR OF SCIFNCE August 1996 Major Subject: Civil Engineering FLUORIDE REMOVAL IN THE PRESENCE OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES: APPLICATION TO CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT DESTRUCTION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ERIC WENAAS Submitted...

Wenaas, Christopher Eric

1996-01-01

225

Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning  

SciTech Connect

Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL

2010-01-01

226

Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, “L-Gel”, consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone™, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of

Ellen Raber; Raymond McGuire

2002-01-01

227

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media  

SciTech Connect

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

1992-07-01

228

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media  

SciTech Connect

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

1992-07-01

229

Current algebra based effective chiral theory of mesons and a new EW theory  

E-print Network

A current algebra based effective chiral theory of pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector mesons is reviewed. A new mechanism generating the masses and guage fixing terms of gauge boson is revealed from this effective theory. A EW theory without Higgs is proposed. The masses and gauge fixing terms of W and Z are dynamically generated. Three heavy scalar fields are dynamically generated too. They are ghosts.

Bing An Li

2005-09-08

230

BACTERIAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE—The Current Status  

PubMed Central

For fourteen years public attention has been focused so sharply on atomic weapons as to lose sight of other, less spectacular but equally significant advances in the art of warfare. In the shadows cast by brilliant research in nuclear physics are hidden startling advances in the field of chemical and biological weapons. These weapons, as now developed, are not only capable of producing mass casualties quite comparable with those of atomic bombs, but they also possess certain advantages which may make them the weapons of choice for an unscrupulous enemy. If war should come, it is the medical profession which will have the sole responsibility for protecting the citizens of California against these weapons, and we can therefore delay no longer in acquainting ourselves with their potentialities and characteristics. In this task, we are working under two serious handicaps. The first is that our classical medical training affords little appreciation of the real danger, and the second is the cloak of secrecy surrounding the entire subject. PMID:18732324

Coggins, Cecil H.

1960-01-01

231

Performance effects of chemical warfare antidotes: A perspective  

SciTech Connect

The threat that enemy forces may use chemical warfare against United States military troops has caused the medical research and development community to find effective antidotes. Particularly in the case of nerve agent poisoning, the timely use of antidote therapies represents the key to survival in contaminated environments. Current training doctrine instructs soldiers how to recognize the symptoms of nerve agent exposure, and then how to counteract the life-threatening effects with the administration of atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride. However, these compounds can produce performance degrading effects on their own even when no chemical agent is present. Particularly in the case of the aviator, who is expected to exercise very precise control over an inherently complex vehicle such as a helicopter, the impact of self-administered antidotes should be fully appreciated. The present review briefly summarizes what is known about the actions and performance effects of both atropine and pralidoxime chloride, and recommendations are made concerning the need for additional research.

Caldwell, J.A.

1992-07-01

232

Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.  

PubMed

Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

2015-01-13

233

Detection of chemical warfare simulants using Raman excitation at 1064 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for material identification. The technique is sensitive to primary and higher ordered molecular structure and can be used to identify unknown materials by comparison with spectral reference libraries. Additionally, miniaturization of opto-electronic components has permitted development of portable Raman analyzers that are field deployable. Raman scattering is a relatively weak effect compared to a competing phenomenon, fluorescence. Even a moderate amount of fluorescence background interference can easily prevent identification of unknown materials. A long wavelength Raman system is less likely to induce fluorescence from a wider variety of materials than a higher energy visible laser system. Compounds such as methyl salicylate (MS), diethyl malonate (DEM), and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are used as chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants for development of analytical detection strategies. Field detection of these simulants however poses unique challenges because threat identification must be made quickly without the turnaround time usually required for a laboratory based analysis. Fortunately, these CWA simulants are good Raman scatterers, and field based detection using portable Raman instruments is promising. Measurements of the CWA simulants were done using a 1064 nm based portable Raman spectrometer. The longer wavelength excitation laser was chosen relative to a visible based laser systems because the 1064 nm based spectrometer is less likely to induce fluorescence and more suitable to a wider range of materials. To more closely mimic real world measurement situations, different sample presentations were investigated.

Dentinger, Claire; Mabry, Mark W.; Roy, Eric G.

2014-05-01

234

New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN(+) using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents. PMID:21242103

Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

2011-03-01

235

Promoters containing ATF-binding sites are de-regulated in cells that express the EWS/ATF1 oncogene.  

PubMed

Chromosomal translocations that fuse the N-terminal region of the Ewings sarcoma oncogene (EWS) to the C-terminal region (including the DNA-binding domain) of the cellular transcription factor ATF1 are associated with a tumour type termed malignant melanoma of soft parts (MMSP). It is envisioned that transformation by the EWS/ATF1 fusion protein results from aberrant transcriptional regulation of genes that are normally regulated by ATF1. To examine this hypothesis we have expressed exogenous EWS-ATF1 in JEG3 cells and tested its ability to activate several promoters that contain binding sites for ATF1. We show that EWS-ATF1 is a strong constitutive activator of some promoters tested but represses others. Significantly, the ability of particular promoters to be activated by EWS/ATF1 in JEG3 cells correlates with promoter activity in two MMSP-derived cell lines (SU-CCS-1 and DTC1). Our results therefore provide evidence that endogenous EWS/ATF1 can de-regulate transcription and that this capacity may contribute to transformation in MMSP. PMID:7753552

Brown, A D; Lopez-Terrada, D; Denny, C; Lee, K A

1995-05-01

236

Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia.  

PubMed

In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic. PMID:25045182

Nord, Catharina

2014-07-01

237

Toxicogenomic studies of human neural cells following exposure to organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent VX.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds represent an important group of chemical warfare nerve agents that remains a significant and constant military and civilian threat. OP compounds are considered acting primarily via cholinergic pathways by binding irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase, an important regulator of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Many studies over the past years have suggested that other mechanisms of OP toxicity exist, which need to be unraveled by a comprehensive and systematic approach such as genome-wide gene expression analysis. Here we performed a microarray study in which cultured human neural cells were exposed to 0.1 or 10 ?M of VX for 1 h. Global gene expression changes were analyzed 6, 24, and 72 h post exposure. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes has revealed many genes, networks and canonical pathways that are related to nervous system development and function, or to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In particular, the neuregulin pathway impacted by VX exposure has important implications in many nervous system diseases including schizophrenia. These results provide useful information valuable in developing suitable antidotes for more effective prevention and treatment of, as well as in developing biomarkers for, VX-induced chronic neurotoxicity. PMID:23440544

Gao, Xiugong; Lin, Hsiuling; Ray, Radharaman; Ray, Prabhati

2013-05-01

238

Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 ?m diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-?m microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

2005-11-01

239

Transitioning mine warfare to network-centric sensor analysis: future PMA technologies & capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to outline the requisite technologies and enabling capabilities for network-centric sensor data analysis within the mine warfare community. The focus includes both automated processing and the traditional humancentric post-mission analysis (PMA) of tactical and environmental sensor data. This is motivated by first examining the high-level network-centric guidance and noting the breakdown in the process of distilling actionable requirements from this guidance. Examples are provided that illustrate the intuitive and substantial capability improvement resulting from processing sensor data jointly in a network-centric fashion. Several candidate technologies are introduced including the ability to fully process multi-sensor data given only partial overlap in sensor coverage and the ability to incorporate target identification information in stride. Finally the critical enabling capabilities are outlined including open architecture, open business, and a concept of operations. This ability to process multi-sensor data in a network-centric fashion is a core enabler of the Navy's vision and will become a necessity with the increasing number of manned and unmanned sensor systems and the requirement for their simultaneous use.

Stack, J. R.; Guthrie, R. S.; Cramer, M. A.

2009-05-01

240

Chiral Separation of G-type Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents via Analytical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(–) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(–) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. Chirality 26:817–824, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Chirality published by John Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25298066

Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

2014-01-01

241

Nanowire-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for chemical warfare simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hand-held instruments capable of spectroscopic identification of chemical warfare agents (CWA) would find extensive use in the field. Because CWA can be toxic at very low concentrations compared to typical background levels of commonly-used compounds (flame retardants, pesticides) that are chemically similar, spectroscopic measurements have the potential to reduce false alarms by distinguishing between dangerous and benign compounds. Unfortunately, most true spectroscopic instruments (infrared spectrometers, mass spectrometers, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers) are bench-top instruments. Surface-acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are commercially available in hand-held form, but rely on a handful of functionalized surfaces to achieve specificity. Here, we consider the potential for a hand-held device based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using templated nanowires as enhancing substrates. We examine the magnitude of enhancement generated by the nanowires and the specificity achieved in measurements of a range of CWA simulants. We predict the ultimate sensitivity of a device based on a nanowire-based SERS core to be 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than a comparable SAW system, with a detection limit of approximately 0.01 mg m-3.

Hoffmann, J. A.; Miragliotta, J. A.; Wang, J.; Tyagi, P.; Maddanimath, T.; Gracias, D. H.; Papadakis, S. J.

2012-06-01

242

Chiral separation of G-type chemical warfare nerve agents via analytical supercritical fluid chromatography.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(-) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(-) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. PMID:25298066

Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

2014-12-01

243

78 FR 31909 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Military Readiness Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...land training areas; fixed and mobile land targets, and control facilities; Threat Electronic Warfare (EW), Early Warning Radars and Surface to Air Missile systems and emulators; and instrumentation facilities. The DoN is inviting the U.S. Bureau...

2013-05-28

244

Beyond the General Belgrano and Sheffield: Lessons in Undersea and Surface Warfare from the Falkland Islands Conflict  

E-print Network

1 Beyond the General Belgrano and Sheffield: Lessons in Undersea and Surface Warfare from 1998 #12;2 Beyond the General Belgrano and Sheffield: Lessons in Undersea and Surface Warfare from one of the first opportunities to use nuclear submarines in real combat. As a result, hundreds

Pratt, Vaughan

245

Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading Matthew D. Shawkey, Shreekumar R. Pillai and Geoffrey E. Hill  

E-print Network

Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading bacteria Matthew D. Shawkey, Shreekumar R. Pillai and Geoffrey E. Hill Shawkey, M. D., Pillai, S. R. and Hill, G. E. 2003. Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading bacteria. Á/ J. Avian Biol. 34: 345Á/349. Anti

Shawkey, Matthew

246

NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

2007-02-01

247

China as peer competitor. Trends in nuclear weapons, space, and information warfare  

SciTech Connect

Here, Lt. Col Kathryn L. Gauthier analyzes the potential for China to emerge as a peer competitor of the US in the coming decades. First, she examines two traditional pillars of national strength--China's status as a nuclear weapons state and as a space power. Second, she then explores China's growing focus on information warfare (IW) as a means to wage asymmetric warfare against a technologically advanced adversary. Third, the author carefully examines the status of the three programs highlights areas of concern and potential conflict with the US, and analyzes the implications of these issues for the US.

Gauthier, K.L.

1999-07-01

248

Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents  

DOEpatents

A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN); Sanders, Charlene A. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-05-27

249

A small molecule blocking oncogenic protein EWS-FLI1 interaction with RNA helicase A inhibits growth of Ewing's sarcoma.  

PubMed

Many sarcomas and leukemias carry nonrandom chromosomal translocations encoding tumor-specific mutant fusion transcription factors that are essential to their molecular pathogenesis. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) contain a characteristic t(11;22) translocation leading to expression of the oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is a disordered protein that precludes standard structure-based small-molecule inhibitor design. EWS-FLI1 binding to RNA helicase A (RHA) is important for its oncogenic function. We therefore used surface plasmon resonance screening to identify compounds that bind EWS-FLI1 and might block its interaction with RHA. YK-4-279, a derivative of the lead compound from the screen, blocks RHA binding to EWS-FLI1, induces apoptosis in ESFT cells and reduces the growth of ESFT orthotopic xenografts. These findings provide proof of principle that inhibiting the interaction of mutant cancer-specific transcription factors with the normal cellular binding partners required for their oncogenic activity provides a promising strategy for the development of uniquely effective, tumor-specific anticancer agents. PMID:19584866

Erkizan, Hayriye V; Kong, Yali; Merchant, Melinda; Schlottmann, Silke; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S; Yuan, Linshan; Abaan, Ogan D; Chou, Tsu-Hang; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Brown, Milton L; Uren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

2009-07-01

250

BCL11B Is Up-Regulated by EWS/FLI and Contributes to the Transformed Phenotype in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The EWS/FLI translocation product is the causative oncogene in Ewing sarcoma and acts as an aberrant transcription factor. EWS/FLI dysregulates gene expression during tumorigenesis by abnormally activating or repressing genes. The expression levels of thousands of genes are affected in Ewing sarcoma, however, it is unknown which of these genes contribute to the transformed phenotype. Here we characterize BCL11B as an up-regulated EWS/FLI target that is necessary for the maintenance of transformation in patient derived Ewing sarcoma cells lines. BCL11B, a zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a transcriptional repressor in Ewing’s sarcoma and contributes to the EWS/FLI repressed gene signature. BCL11B repressive activity is mediated by the NuRD co-repressor complex. We further demonstrate that re-expression of SPRY1, a repressed target of BCL11B, limits the transformation capacity of Ewing sarcoma cells. These data define a new pathway downstream of EWS/FLI required for oncogenic maintenance in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:23527175

Wiles, Elizabeth T.; Lui-Sargent, Bianca; Bell, Russell; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

251

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the main site, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1992. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the Navy with hydrogeologic data to meet the requirements of a Spill Contingency Plan. This report describes the ground-water observation-well network, hydro- geologic, and water-quality data collected between August 1992 and September 1993. The report includes a description of the locations and con- struction of 35 observation wells on the Main Site. Hydrologic data include lithologic core samples, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and tide data. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

Bell, Clifton F.; Bolles, Thomas P.; Harlow, George E.

1994-01-01

252

Rapid and sensitive detection of biological warfare agents using time-resolved fluorescence assays.  

PubMed

We have achieved sensitive, rapid and reproducible detection of three biological threat agents in a variety of biological and environmental matrices using the DELFIA time-resolved fluorometry (TRF) assay system (Perkin-Elmer Life Sciences, Akron, OH). Existing ELISA assays for the detection of Francisella tularensis, Clostridium botulinum A/B neurotoxin (BotNT A/B), and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) were converted to TRF assays. They use 100 microl of positive control or unknown per test well and require just over 2 h to run. Fluorescent signal read time is a fraction of a second per well. The assay format consists of a capture ELISA utilizing a biotinylated capture antibody, prebound to a streptavidin-coated 96-well plate and a lanthanide (Europium, Eu3+)-labeled detector antibody. The bound Eu-labeled detector antibody produces a fluorescent signal upon the addition of an enhancement solution. The signal results from the dissociation of the Europium from the antibody, creating a micelle, thus amplifying the signal nearly one million-fold. Sensitivities achieved by these assays were between 4 and 20 pg/ml in buffer. Additionally, we have tested this system in different matrices such as serum, urine, dirt, and sewage. Concentration curves generated from standard solutions produced a wide linear range making serial dilutions of unknown samples unnecessary. DELFIA TRF assays are significantly better in terms of sensitivity, linear range, and run time than standard capture ELISAs and should facilitate early detection of potential biological warfare agents in clinical and environmental samples. PMID:12009202

Peruski, Anne Harwood; Johnson, Linwood Hill; Peruski, Leonard Francis

2002-05-01

253

Department of Defense Analysis Degree: MS in Defense Analysis (Irregular Warfare)  

E-print Network

) Organizational Design for Special Operations (DA) History of Special Operations (DA) Regional Seminar in Guerrilla Warfare (DA) Organizational Design for Special Operations (DA) Computer Network Attack and Defense (DA) History of Special Operations (DA) Jihadist Information Operations (DA) Conflict in Cyberspace

254

DESI-MS/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A "dip and shoot" method was also developed for the rapid sampling and DESI-MS analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by simply dipping fused silica, stainless steel or SPME tips into the organic or aqueous samples. Replicate analyses were completed within several minutes under ambient conditions with no sample pre-treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput. The developed sample handling and analysis method was applied to the determination of chemical warfare agent content in samples containing unknown chemical and/or biological warfare agents. Ottawa sand was spiked with sulfur mustard, extracted with water and autoclaved to ensure sterility. Sulfur mustard was completely hydrolysed during the extraction/autoclave step and thiodiglycol was identified by DESI-MS, with analyses generally being completed within 1 min using the "dip and shoot" method.

D'Agostino, Paul A.

255

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such

R. A. Jenkins; M. V. Buchanan; R. Merriweather; R. H. Ilgner; T. M. Gayle; J. H. Moneyhun; A. P. Watson

1992-01-01

256

The development of a sensor array for the detection and recognition of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we studied a device based on array of six different sensors with surface acoustic wave for detections and recognition of three chemical warfare agents (Chloropicrin, Soman and Lewisite). The sensors are “delay line” type with a center frequency of 69.4 MHz. It presents an original algorithm to identify the nature and concentration of gas from a finite

I. Bucur; S. Serban; A. Surpateanu; N. Cupcea; C. Viespe; C. Grigoriu; C. Toader; N. Grigoriu

2010-01-01

257

Detection of chemical warfare agents using surface acoustic wave sensors with different polymer coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave sensors (SAWS) with polymer based sensitive films were developed for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As polymers were used polybutadiene, polyisoprene, polydimethylsiloxane and polyethylenimine. The sensor was ldquodelay linerdquo type, deposited on quartz substrate, with 69.4 MHz central frequency. As CWAs were tested chloropicrin, hydrogen cyanide, soman and lewisite. The study compared sensor sensitivity, limit of

Cristian Viespe; Constantin Grigoriu; Constantin Toader; Nicoleta Grigoriu

2009-01-01

258

The rules of microbial warfare: aspects in bacteriocins ecology and evolution  

E-print Network

The rules of microbial warfare: aspects in bacteriocins ecology and evolution Osnat Gillor Dept lineages of Bacteria. Numerous studies suggest these potent proteins serve to mediate microbial interactions and may even play a role in maintaining microbial diversity. Colicins produced by E. coli have

Novoplansky, Ariel

259

Simplified anti-submarine warfare problem treated as a steady state Markov process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in the physics community in questions related to strategic nuclear force survivability. Markov processes represent a powerful method for quantifying such questions. In this paper the authors give an elementary introduction to Markov processes and chains followed by a simple anti-submarine warfare example in which the scenario of a surveillance-surge attack is treated as a

G. E. Marsh; R. Piacesi

1988-01-01

260

Chemical warfare - biological defense research obligations. Annual report, 1 October 1985-30 September 1986  

SciTech Connect

Partial Contents include: Chemical Research; Lethal Chemical Program; Incapacitating Chemical Program; Defensive Equipment Program; Physical Protection Investigations; Warning and Detection Investigations; Medical Defense Against Chemical Agents; Chemical Decontaminating Material; Collective Protection Concepts; Chemical Detection and Warning Material; Medical Chemical Defense Life Support Material; Training Support; Simulant Test Support; Management and Support; Biological Defense Research; Medical Defense Against Biological Warfare.

Not Available

1986-09-30

261

Probability models for theater nuclear warfare. Final report, June 1988September 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes specific probabilistic approaches to address several major problems associated with the representation of tactical nuclear warfare at the theater level. The first problem is identifying the locations of small units (potential nuclear targets) such as companies or battalions within theater-level conventional scenarios or model outputs. Current approaches to identifying these small unit locations fail to take into

Youngren

1989-01-01

262

An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

2013-01-01

263

WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

264

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

265

Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

Lebedev, Albert T. [Organic Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

2005-09-01

266

Utilizing a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma for chemical\\/biological warfare agent decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. An innovative approach to the decontamination of chemical and\\/or biological warfare agents is described. This recently developed technology involves utilizing a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) as the decontaminant\\/sterilant. The plasma provides a very powerful but environmentally safe oxidizing and disinfecting technique without the use of strong chemicals (chlorine bleach) or high

M. R. McLean; J. R. Roth

1998-01-01

267

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues ISSUE NO. 26 DECEMBER 1994 Quarterly Journal of the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament Ratifications 30 Recent Publications 31­32 ASIA PACIFIC SEMINAR ON THE NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL

Sussex, University of

268

Bacterial release of arsenic ions and organoarsenic compounds from soil contaminated by chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to investigate possible participation of microorganisms in the release of soluble arsenical compounds from organoarsenic warfare agents in contaminated soil.A number of bacterial strains were isolated with high resistance against As3+ and As5+ ions which are able to degrade the water insoluble compounds triphenylarsine (TP) and triphenylarsineoxide (TPO). These strains belong to different genera

Manfred Köhler; Klaus Hofmann; Fernando Völsgen; Kerstin Thurow; Andreas Koch

2001-01-01

269

Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of optical techniques for the detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in real-world conditions. We analyze the problem of detecting a target species in the presence of a multitude of interferences that are often stochastic and we provide a broadly applicable technique for evaluating the sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP), and probability

Michael E. Webber; Michael Pushkarsky; C. Kumar N. Patel

2005-01-01

270

PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

271

Derivatisation reactions in the chromatographic analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products is an important component of verification of compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention. Gas and liquid chromatography, particularly combined with mass spectrometry, are the major techniques used to detect and identify chemicals of concern to the Convention. The more polar analytes, and some of the more reactive or highly volatile

Robin M Black; Bob Muir

2003-01-01

272

Possible immediate and long-term health effects following exposure to chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents of chemical warfare continue to pose a threat to human life. Organophosphorus compounds are possibly the best known and most used agents in recent times. These are known to produce acute ill health and death and, probably equally important, many diverse delayed effects, many of which are not clinically nor pathologically well defined. The immediate and delayed effects of

L Karalliedde; H Wheeler; R Maclehose; V Murray

2000-01-01

273

Chemical warfare agent and high explosive identification by spectroscopy of neutron-induced gamma rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondestructive assay method to identify chemical warfare (CW) agents and high explosive (HE) munitions was tested with actual chemical agents and explosives. The assay method exploits the gamma radiation produced by neutron interactions inside a container or munition to identify the elemental composition of its contents. The characteristic gamma-ray signature of the chemical elements chlorine, phosphorus, and sulfur were

A. J. Caffrey; J. D. Cole; R. J. Gehrke; R. C. Greenwood

1992-01-01

274

Decontamination issues for chemical and biological warfare agents: How clean is clean enough?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this assessment is to determine what level of cleanup will be required to meet regulatory and stakeholder needs in the case of a chemical and\\/or biological incident at a civilian facility. A literature review for selected, potential chemical and biological warfare agents shows that dose information is often lacking or controversial. Environmental regulatory limits or other industrial

Ellen Raber; Alfred Jin; Kathleen Noonan; Ray McGuire; Robert D. Kirvel

2001-01-01

275

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues ISSUE NO. 32 JUNE 1996 Quarterly Journal of the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament. Undisclosed weapons pro- grammes have been discovered, chemical and biological weapons production sites have

Sussex, University of

276

In vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diphenylarsinic acid [DPAs(V)], a degradation product of diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, both of which were developed as chemical warfare agents, was investigated in terms of its capacity to induce cytotoxic effects, numerical and structural changes of chromosomes, and abnormalities of centrosome integrity and spindle organizations in conjunction with the effects of glutathione (GSH) depletion. DPAs(V) had toxic effects on cultured human

Takafumi Ochi; Toshihide Suzuki; Hideo Isono; Toshikazu Kaise

2004-01-01

277

A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

2007-01-01

278

Darwins soldiers: Gender, evolution and warfare in Them! and Forbidden Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic 1950s sf films Them! (1954) and Forbidden Planet (1956) draw on Darwinist plots of future warfare and sexual selection to represent men as natural soldiers and masters of technology, limiting the roles of women to romantic interests for the military men. However, they differ from other contemporary films in their representation of the roles women should play in

Patrick B. Sharp

2008-01-01

279

Nucleic acid approaches for detection and identification of biological warfare and infectious disease agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare agents are the most problematic of the weapons of mass destruction and terror. Both civilian and military sources predict that over the next decade the threat from proliferation of these agents will increase significantly. In this review we summarize the state of the art in detection and identification of biological threat agents based on PCR technology with emphasis

Dmitri Ivnitski; Daniel J. O'Neil; Anthony Gattuso; Roger Schlicht; Michael Calidonna; Rodney Fisher

2003-01-01

280

Classical Deception Techniques and Perception Management vs. the Four Strategies of Information Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of deception techniques for intelligence operations, strategic and tactical deception in war, politics, business and media manipulation is well established and well documented. This paper analyses established deception techniques in the context of the four canonical strategies of Information Warfare, to establish an information theoretical and game theoretical framework for future modelling and analysis.

C. Kopp

281

44 times of minimum and first ephemeris for the EW star FZ Orionis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FZ Ori is an under-studied star. The 1.597? day period, given in the GCVS (1969) is erroneous. This conclusion is supported by the present analysis of 1229 visual estimates made by the author in 111 nights from 1976 to 1982. 44 minima (standard deviation 13.5 mn) have been observed, leading to the following ephemeris: Min I = hel. JD 2,444,024.4583(+/-14) + 0.3999866(+/-18) E (95% level of confidence for the error bands). FZ Ori is an EW-type star. Owing to the great number of observations, it has been possible to discriminate the primary minima from the secondary ones, despite their rather close amplitudes. The range of the v-variations is a rough estimation. The probable v-magnitudes are: Max 10.7, Min I 11.3, Min II 11.25.

Figer, A.

1983-03-01

282

Escherichia coli biosensors for environmental, food industry and biological warfare agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has the objective to research and develop a plastic optical fiber biosensor based taper and mPOF LPG techniques to detect Escherichia coli by measurements of index of refraction. Generally, cell detection is crucial in microbiological analysis of clinical, food, water or environmental samples. However, methods current employed are time consuming, taking at least 72 hours in order to produce reliable responses as they depend on sample collection and cell culture in controlled conditions. The delay in obtaining the results of the analysis can result in contamination of a great number of consumers. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) biosensors consist in a viable alternative for rapid and inexpensive scheme for cells detection. A study the sensitivity of these sensors for microbiological detection, fiber Tapers and Long Period Grating (LPG) both in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) were realized as possible candidates to take part of a biosensor system to detect Escherichia coli in water samples. In this work we adopted the immunocapture technique, which consists of quantifying bacteria in a liquid sample, attract-ing and fixing the bacteria on the surface of the polymer optical fiber, by the antigen-antibody reaction. The results were obtained by optical setup that consists in a side of the fiber a LED coupled to a photodetector through a POF with the taper in the middle of it. On the other side of the POF a photodetector receives this light producting a photocurrent. The output voltage is fed into the microcontroller A/D input port and its output data is sent via USB to a LabView software running in a microcomputer. The results showed the possibility of the POF in biosensor application capable to detect E. coli for environmental and food industry and for detecting and identifying biological-warfare agents using a very rapid response sensor, applicable to field detection prototypes.

Allil, R. C. S. B.; Werneck, M. M.; da Silva-Neto, J. L.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; Wandermur, G. L.; Rambauske, D. C.

2013-06-01

283

Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Chemical warfare agents are potential threats to military personnel and civilians. The potential for associated traumatic injuries is significant. Damage control surgery could expose medical personnel to agents contaminating the wounds. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate efficacy of surgical decontamination and assess exposure risk to attending personnel. Methods: Weanling pigs were randomly assigned to 2 of 4 debridement tools (scalpel, Bovie® knife, Fugo Blade®, and Versajet™ Hydrosurgery System). Penetrating traumatic wounds were created over the shoulder and thigh and then exposed to liquid sulfur mustard (HD) for 60 minutes. Excisional debridement of the injuries was performed while vapors over each site were collected. Gas chromatography was used to measure HD in samples of collected vapors. Unbound HD was quantified in presurgical wound swabs, excised tissues, and peripheral tissue biopsies following solvent extraction. Results: Excisional debridement produced agent-free wound beds (surgical decontamination). A significant amount of HD vapor was detected above the surgical fields with each tool. Apart from the Versajet™ producing significantly lower levels of HD detected over thigh wounds compared with those treated using the scalpel, there were no differences in the amount of agent detected among the tools. All measured levels significantly exceeded established safety limits. Vesicating levels of unbound HD were extracted from excised tissue. There was no measured lateral spreading of HD beyond the surgical margins. Conclusions: There is significant occupational exposure risk to HD during surgical procedures designed to stabilize agent-contaminated wounds. If appropriate protective measures are taken, surgical decontamination is both effective and safe. PMID:18716652

Graham, John S.; Gerlach, Travis W.; Logan, Thomas P.; Bonar, James P.; Fugo, Richard J.; Lee, Robyn B.; Coatsworth, Matthew A.

2008-01-01

284

Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.  

PubMed

Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

2012-01-01

285

Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

2012-01-01

286

Ultra wide band (UWB) systems and their implications to electromagnetic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra Wide Band (UWB) systems have received considerable interest in recent years as a system that might offer technical improvements in conventional electronic systems. Defence applications of UWB signals include communication radar, electronic intelligence and electronic warfare. Defence radio and radar systems will require signals free from interception exploitation and interference. The electronic warfare sequence of measures, countermeasures, counter-countermeasures leads

D. C. Pande

1999-01-01

287

Characterisation of Systems of Systems Failures Robert Alexander; Martin Hall-May; Tim Kelly; University of York; York, England  

E-print Network

commonplace, for example Controlled Airspace and Network Centric Warfare. The increasing role of such systems accident, engineers have worked to prevent similar accidents occurring in the future. Although. Examples of such systems are Air Traffic Control and Network Centric Warfare. These examples feature mobile

Kelly, Tim

288

Modeling of Debris Deposition on an Extrusion Filter Medium E.W. Jenkins and C.L. Cox  

E-print Network

media and size distributions for debris particles [1.]. The mass flow rate through the filter at any, and the equation that models particle deposition. The mass balance and particle transport equations are adjustedModeling of Debris Deposition on an Extrusion Filter Medium E.W. Jenkins and C.L. Cox Clemson

Jenkins, Lea

289

A repetitive element containing a critical tyrosine residue is required for transcriptional activation by the EWS/ATF1 oncogene.  

PubMed

Chromosomal fusion of the N-terminal region of the Ewings Sarcoma Oncogene (EWS-activation-domain, EAD) to the DNA-binding domains of a variety of cellular transcription factors produce oncogenic proteins (EWS-fusion proteins (EFPs)) that cause distinct malignancies. In EFPs, the EAD acts as a potent transcriptional activation domain and this ability is repressed in the context of normal, non-tumorigenic, EWS. Trans-activation by the EAD is therefore a specific characteristic of EFPs and it is thought that EFPs induce tumorigenesis via improper transcriptional activation of cellular genes. Functional elements required for transcriptional activation are dispersed throughout the EAD, as are thirty-one copies of a Degenerate Hexapeptide Repeat (DHR, consensus SYGQQS). This suggests that the EAD contains a highly reiterated functional element related to DHRs. Here we show that in the context of EWS/ATF1, the EFP that causes malignant melanoma of soft parts, trans-cooperation by small regions of the EAD ( approximately 30 residues) results in potent transcriptional activation dependent on the conserved tyrosine residues present in DHRs. These findings provide the first evidence for a role of DHRs in EAD-mediated trans-activation and demonstrate that the EAD represents a novel tyrosine-dependent transcriptional activation domain. PMID:11464282

Feng, L; Lee, K A

2001-07-12

290

Suppression of FOXO1 is responsible for a growth regulatory repressive transcriptional sub-signature of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The Ewing sarcoma (ES) EWS-FLI1 chimeric oncoprotein is a prototypic aberrant ETS transcription factor with activating and repressive regulatory functions. We report that EWS-FLI1-repressed promoters are enriched in forkhead box (FOX) recognition motifs, and identify FOXO1 as a EWS-FLI1-suppressed regulator orchestrating a major subset of EWS-FLI1-repressed genes. In addition to FOXO1 regulation by direct promoter binding of EWS-FLI1, its subcellular localization and activity is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2- and AKT-mediated phosphorylation downstream of EWS-FLI1. Restoration of nuclear FOXO1 expression in ES cells impaired proliferation and significantly reduced clonogenicity. Gene-expression profiling revealed a significant overlap between EWS-FLI1-repressed and FOXO1-activated genes. As a proof of principle for a potential therapeutic application of our findings, the treatment of ES cell lines with methylseleninic acid (MSA) reactivated endogenous FOXO1 in the presence of EWS-FLI1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced massive cell death dependent on FOXO1. In an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, MSA increased FOXO1 expression in the tumor paralleled by a significant decrease in ES tumor growth. FOXO1 reactivation by small molecules may therefore serve as a promising strategy for a future ES-specific therapy. PMID:23995784

Niedan, S; Kauer, M; Aryee, D N T; Kofler, R; Schwentner, R; Meier, A; Pötschger, U; Kontny, U; Kovar, H

2014-01-01

291

Stand-off spectroscopy for the detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most desirable configuration for detection of toxic chemicals utilises the maximum distance between detector and hazard. This approach minimises the contamination of equipment or personnel. Where the target chemical is an involatile liquid, indirect detection of the liquid contamination is made difficult by inherently low vapour pressure. In this instance, direct detection of the chemical hazard is the best approach. Recent technology developments have allowed spectroscopic systems to provide multiple options for the stand-off detection of involatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Two different stand-off spectroscopic systems, based upon IR absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques are described here. The Negative Contrast Imager (NCI) is based upon an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal. This crystal has a fanned grating design and wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the PPLN crystal within the 1064 nm pump beam. This approach enables the production of shortwave and midwave IR radiation (1.5 - 1.8 ?m and 2.6 - 3.8 ?m, respectively), which is scanned across the scene of interest. Target materials that have an absorption feature commensurate with the wavelength of incoming radiation reduce the intensity of returned signal, resulting in dark pixels in the acquired image. This method enables location and classification of the target material. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy allows target chemicals to be identified at range through comparison of the acquired signature relative to a spectral database. In this work, we used a Raman system based upon a 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser source and a proprietary InGaAsP camera system. Utilisation of a longer excitation wavelength than most conventional stand-off detection systems (e.g. 532 or 785 nm) enables reduction of fluorescence from both the surface and the deposited chemicals, thereby revealing the Raman spectrum. NCI and Raman spectroscopy are able to detect CWAs on surfaces at distances of 2 - 10 metres and have potential to detect over longer ranges. We report the successful identification of at least 60 ?l of nitrogen mustard at a distance of a 2 m and 10 m using NCI and Raman spectroscopy.

Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Stothard, David J. M.; Dunn, Malcolm H.; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth; Cox, Rick; Williams, Brad; Russell, Matt

2012-10-01

292

Multiple aromatic side chains within a disordered structure are critical for transcription and transforming activity of EWS family oncoproteins.  

PubMed

Chromosomal translocations involving the N-terminal approximately 250 residues of the Ewings sarcoma (EWS) oncogene produce a group of EWS fusion proteins (EFPs) that cause several distinct human cancers. EFPs are potent transcriptional activators and interact with other proteins required for mRNA biogenesis, indicating that EFPs induce tumorigenesis by perturbing gene expression. Although EFPs were discovered more than a decade ago, molecular analysis has been greatly hindered by the repetitive EWS activation domain (EAD) structure, containing multiple degenerate hexapeptide repeats (consensus SYGQQS) with a conserved tyrosine residue. By exploiting total gene synthesis, we have been able to systematically mutagenize the EAD and determine the effect on transcriptional activation by EWS/ATF1 and cellular transformation by EWS/Fli1. In both assays, we find the following requirements for EAD function. First, multiple tyrosine residues are essential. Second, phenylalanine can effectively substitute for tyrosine, showing that an aromatic ring can confer EAD function in the absence of tyrosine phosphorylation. Third, there is little requirement for specific peptide sequences and, thus, overall sequence composition (and not the degenerate hexapeptide repeat) confers EAD activity. Consistent with the above findings, we also report that the EAD is intrinsically disordered. However, a sensitive computational predictor of natural protein disorder (PONDR VL3) identifies potential molecular recognition features that are tyrosine-dependent and that correlate well with EAD function. In summary we have uncovered several molecular features of the EAD that will impact future studies of the broader EFP family and molecular recognition by complex intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:17202261

Ng, King Pan; Potikyan, Gary; Savene, Rupert O V; Denny, Christopher T; Uversky, Vladimir N; Lee, Kevin A W

2007-01-01

293

DNA-binding and transcriptional activation properties of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein resulting from the t(11;22) translocation in Ewing sarcoma.  

PubMed Central

The 5' half of the EWS gene has recently been described to be fused to the 3' regions of genes encoding the DNA-binding domain of several transcriptional regulators, including ATF1, FLI-1, and ERG, in several human tumors. The most frequent occurrence of this situation results from the t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosome translocation specific for Ewing sarcoma (ES) and related tumors which joins EWS sequences to the 3' half of FLI-1, which encodes a member of the Ets family of transcriptional regulators. We show here that this chimeric gene encodes an EWS-FLI-1 nuclear protein which binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as the wild-type parental FLI-1 protein. We further show that EWS-FLI-1 is an efficient sequence-specific transcriptional activator of model promoters containing FLI-1 (Ets)-binding sites, a property which is strictly dependent on the presence of its EWS domain. Comparison of the properties of the N-terminal activation domain of FLI-1 to those of the EWS domain of the fusion protein indicates that EWS-FLI-1 has altered transcriptional activation properties compared with FLI-1. These results suggest that EWS-FLI-1 contributes to the transformed phenotype of ES tumor cells by inducing the deregulated and/or unscheduled activation of genes normally responsive to FLI-1 or to other close members of the Ets family. ES and related tumors are characterized by an elevated level of c-myc expression. We show that EWS-FLI-1 is a transactivator of the c-myc promoter, suggesting that upregulation of c-myc expression is under control of EWS-FLI-1. Images PMID:8164678

Bailly, R A; Bosselut, R; Zucman, J; Cormier, F; Delattre, O; Roussel, M; Thomas, G; Ghysdael, J

1994-01-01

294

75 FR 3901 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and supporting documents. Single copies of the ROD will be made available upon request by contacting EIS Team Lead, Mrs. Carmen Ferrer, Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division, Code CX06, 110 Vernon Avenue, Panama City, FL...

2010-01-25

295

Global Security: Asymmetric Threats The modules in this class introduce transnational, asymmetric threats/warfare, from terror organizations  

E-print Network

(to include Cyber Infrastructure) 2. Banking 3. Public Health 4. Transportation (to Include Maritime & Asymmetric Warfare 3. From Fourth Generation to Hybrid War Learning Outcomes from taking both modules

Rhode Island, University of

296

Thickness-dependent pinning in a superconductor thin film Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, Bethesda, Maryland 20817  

E-print Network

Thickness-dependent pinning in a superconductor thin film D. Agassia Naval Surface Warfare Center properties, is critical for the success of future efforts. In this work we consider another possible source

Pennycook, Steve

297

analysis has been applied in many contexts, including nuclear warfare planning (Dalkey and Helmer 1963), energy planning  

E-print Network

analysis has been applied in many contexts, including nuclear warfare planning (Dalkey and Helmer is an attempt to achieve some future condi- tion that is desirable to the decision maker (Keeney 1996b

Mitchell, Mike

298

How clean is clean enough? Recent developments in response to threats posed by chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent terrorist events underscore the urgent need to develop a comprehensive set of health-protective cleanup standards and effective decontamination technologies for use in the restoration of civilian facilities. Accurate scientific information remains limited in the area of biological warfare agents. However, new guidelines and calculated cleanup values are emerging for initial re-entry and long-term reoccupation following use of chemical warfare

Ellen Raber; Tina M Carlsen; Karen J Folks; Robert D Kirvel; Jeffrey I Daniels; Kenneth T Bogen

2004-01-01

299

Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.  

PubMed

In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR. PMID:24985033

Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

2015-02-16

300

Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen

Adam H. Love; Christopher G. Bailey; M. Leslie Hanna; Saphon Hok; Alex K. Vu; Dennis J. Reutter; Ellen Raber

2011-01-01

301

Simplified anti-submarine warfare problem treated as a steady state Markov process  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing interest in the physics community in questions related to strategic nuclear force survivability. Markov processes represent a powerful method for quantifying such questions. In this paper the authors give an elementary introduction to Markov processes and chains followed by a simple anti-submarine warfare example in which the scenario of a surveillance-surge attack is treated as a steady state Markov process.

Marsh, G.E.; Piacesi, R.

1988-12-01

302

Anaerobic toxicity and biodegradability of hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity and biodegradability of the main hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents were investigated under methanogenic\\u000a conditions. Among the tested substances, only MPhA does not have any toxic effect with regard to the aceticlastic methanogenic\\u000a activity. The toxicity of other compounds varied between moderate (TDG, mercaptoethanol) to strong (ethanolamine, diisobutyl\\u000a ester of MPhA). Biodegradability tests showed that all the

Vladimir I. Sklyar; Tatyana P. Mosolova; Irina A. Kucherenko; Natalya N. Degtyarova; Sergey D. Varfolomeyev; Sergey V. Kalyuzhnyi

1999-01-01

303

Sensing technology for chemical-warfare agents and its evaluation using authentic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some commercially available portable on-site detection equipment (detection paper, gas detection tube, ion mobility spectrometer, surface acoustic wavelength detector, flame photometric detector, gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer) were evaluated using authentic vaporized chemical-warfare agents, from the standpoint of their qualitative detection characteristics, detection limits, response time, frequency of false alarms and residubility on the devices. False alarms and the strong adsorption of

Yasuo Seto; Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka; Kouichiro Tsuge; Isaac Ohsawa; Koji Matsushita; Hiroyuki Sekiguchi; Teruo Itoi; Kazumitsu Iura; Yasuhiro Sano; Shigeharu Yamashiro

2005-01-01

304

Classification of chemical warfare agents using thick film gas sensor array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor thick film gas sensors based on tin oxide are fabricated and their gas response characteristics are examined for four simulant gases of chemical warfare agent (CWA)s. The sensing materials are prepared in three different sets such as impregnation, physical mixing (ball-milling) and co-precipitation method. Surface morphology, particle size, and specific surface area of fabricated sensing films are performed by

Nak-Jin Choi; Jun-Hyuk Kwak; Yeon-Tae Lim; Tae-Hyun Bahn; Ky-Yeol Yun; Jae-Chang Kim; Jeung-Soo Huh; Duk-Dong Lee

2005-01-01

305

Illness experience of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents as the result of the detonation of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah.Methods: In 1999, we conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2918 Gulf War veterans from Oregon, Washington, California, North Carolina, and Georgia to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported medical diagnoses and hospitalizations among this

Linda A McCauley; Michael Lasarev; Diana Sticker; D. Gary Rischitelli; Peter S Spencer

2002-01-01

306

The BARC biosensor applied to the detection of biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bead ARray Counter (BARC) is a multi-analyte biosensor that uses DNA hybridization, magnetic microbeads, and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors to detect and identify biological warfare agents. The current prototype is a table-top instrument consisting of a microfabricated chip (solid substrate) with an array of GMR sensors, a chip carrier board with electronics for lock-in detection, a fluidics cell and

R. L. Edelstein; C. R. Tamanaha; P. E. Sheehan; M. M. Miller; D. R. Baselt; L. J. Whitman; R. J. Colton

2000-01-01

307

The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.  

PubMed

The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence. PMID:11720378

Bruwer, A

2001-01-01

308

[Chemical treatment and decomposition technique of the chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals].  

PubMed

The old Japanese army developed several chemical warfare agents on Ohkuno Island in Seto inland sea, Hiroshima Japan, during the period between 1919 and 1944. These chemical agents including yperite (mustard; irritating agent), lewisite (irritating agent), diphenylchloroarsine (DA; vomiting agent), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC; vomiting agent) and other poisonous gases were manufactured to be used in China. After World War II, the old Japanese army abandoned or dumped these agents into seas inside or outside of Japan and interior of China. Rather than being used for terrorism, these chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals may cause injury to some workers at the digging site of abandoned chemical weapons. Moreover, the leakage of chemical agents or an explosion of the bomb may result in environmental pollution, as a result, it is highly possible to cause serious health damage to the residents. There are still many abandoned or dumped warfare agents in Japan and China, therefore chemical agents containing arsenic are needed to be treated with alkaline for decomposition or to decompose with oxidizing agent. Presently, a large quantity of chemical agents and the contaminated soil are processed by combustion, and industrial waste is treated with sulfur compounds as the insoluble sulfur arsenic complex. This report describes the methods for the disposal of these organic arsenic agents that have been implemented until present and examines the future prospects. PMID:19122436

Kaise, Toshikazu; Kinoshita, Kenji

2009-01-01

309

Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial demonstration of this technology in a 'stand alone' environment was undertaken at the NIFC in November 2011 using a data set comprised of 140,000 documents. Recently the system has been modified to include a secure authentication mechanism based on a Kerberos ticketing framework and this has now been integrated onto the NIFC Battlefield Information, Collection, and Exploitation System (BICES) network. In summary, the paper discusses the CWP project; the two key technologies (i.e., Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms) developed within the US UK ITA research program; how these have been integrated into the NIFC BICES; and future plans for the program.

Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

2013-05-01

310

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE Effects of METOC factors on EW systems against low detectable targets in a  

E-print Network

model predictions in chem/bio attack response / Kenneth L. Davidson ... [et al.] Davidson, Kenneth L An examination of two synthetic aperture radar wind retrieval models during NORCSEX '95 Hart, James Brian. #12 and an examination of katabatic winds as a triggering mechanism Wos, Kenneth A. #25 C1833 1992 Effects

311

EWS/FLI and its Downstream Target NR0B1 Interact Directly to Modulate Transcription and Oncogenesis in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Most Ewing's sarcomas harbor chromosomal translocations that encode fusions between EWS and ETS family members. The most common fusion, EWS/FLI, consists of an EWSR1-derived strong transcriptional activation domain fused, in frame, to the DNA binding domain-containing portion of FLI1. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant transcription factor to regulate genes that mediate the oncogenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. One of these regulated genes, NR0B1, encodes a co-repressor protein, and likely plays a transcriptional role in tumorigenesis. However, the genes that NR0B1 regulates and the transcription factors it interacts with in Ewing's sarcoma are largely unknown. We used transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify genes that are regulated by NR0B1, and compared these data to similar data for EWS/FLI. While the transcriptional profile overlapped as expected, we also found that the genome-wide localization of NR0B1and EWS/FLI overlapped as well, suggesting that they regulate some genes coordinately. Further analysis revealed that NR0B1 and EWS/FLI physically interact. This protein-protein interaction is likely to be relevant for Ewing's sarcoma development because mutations in NR0B1 that disrupt the interaction have transcriptional consequences and also abrogate oncogenic transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that EWS/FLI and NR0B1 physically interact, coordinately modulate gene expression, and mediate the transformed phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:19920188

Kinsey, Michelle; Smith, Richard; Iyer, Anita K.; McCabe, Edward R.B.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2009-01-01

312

QCD NLO and EW NLO corrections to t t bar H production with top quark decays at hadron collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higgs boson production associated with a top quark pair is an important process in studying the nature of the newly discovered Higgs boson at the LHC. In this letter, we report on our calculations including the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD and NLO electroweak corrections to the pp ? t t bar H process in the standard model. We present the integrated cross sections at the 14 TeV LHC and even at the future proton-proton colliders with ?{ s} = 33 and 100TeV. Our calculation includes the top quark subsequent decays by adopting the narrow width approximation. The kinematic distributions of Higgs boson and top quark decay products at the LHC are provided. We find that the O (?s`2 ?ew2) corrections are quantitatively comparable with the O (?s3 ?ew) corrections in some kinematic region.

Zhang, Yu; Ma, Wen-Gan; Zhang, Ren-You; Chen, Chong; Guo, Lei

2014-11-01

313

MMSP tumor cells expressing the EWS/ATF1 oncogene do not support cAMP-inducible transcription.  

PubMed

Malignant Melanoma of Soft Parts (MMSP) is associated with the EWS/ATF1 fusion protein that arises due to chromosomal fusion of the Ewings Sarcoma oncogene (EWS) and the cellular transcription factor ATF1. EWS/ATF1 can activate several cAMP-inducible promoters, suggesting that cellular transformation in MMSP might involve constitutive activation of cAMP-inducible promoters. To assess this possibility we have examined the status of the cAMP-signaling pathway in the available MMSP-derived cell lines (DTC1 and Su-ccs-1) and find that both cell lines share several features. First, in contrast to previous effects observed in transient assays, three chromosomal promoters containing ATF binding sites are not constitutively activated by endogenous EWS/ATF1 in MMSP cells. Second, all the components that are known to be required for cAMP-inducible transcription are present. Third, phosphorylation of the cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) can be efficiently induced by cAMP. Fourth, cAMP is unable to activate transcription, as assessed by a GAL4/ATF1 reporter assay and analysis of the c-fos and adenovirus early promoters. Thus, cell lines derived from MMSP have a block to cAMP-signaling that lies downstream of CREB phosphorylation. In light of the cAMP-responsiveness of almost all mammalian cell types, our findings suggest that the inability to respond to cAMP might be an important feature of MMSP cells. PMID:9546434

Li, K K; Lee, K A

1998-03-12

314

Morphoproteomic Profiling of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Pathway in Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (EWS/WT1), Ewing’s Sarcoma (EWS/FLI1) and Wilms’ Tumor(WT1)  

PubMed Central

Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare sarcoma in adolescents and young adults. The hallmark of this disease is a EWS-WT1 translocation resulting from apposition of the Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS) gene with the Wilms’ tumor (WT1) gene. We performed morphoproteomic profiling of DSRCT (EWS-WT1), Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS-FLI1) and Wilms’ tumor (WT1) to better understand the signaling pathways for selecting future targeted therapies. Methodology This pilot study assessed patients with DSRCT, Wilms’ tumor and Ewing’s sarcoma. Morphoproteomics and immunohistochemical probes were applied to detect: p-mTOR (Ser2448); p-Akt (Ser473); p-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204); p-STAT3 (Tyr 705); and cell cycle-related analytes along with their negative controls. Principal Findings In DSRCT the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is constitutively activated by p-Akt (Ser 473) expression in the nuclear compartment of the tumor cells and p-mTOR phosphorylated on Ser 2448, suggesting mTORC2 (rictor+mTOR) as the dominant form. Ewing’s sarcoma had upregulated p-Akt and p-mTOR, predominantly mTORC2. In Wilm’s tumor, the mTOR pathway is also activated with most tumor cells moderately expressing p-mTOR (Ser 2448) in plasmalemmal and cytoplasmic compartments. This coincides with the constitutive activation of one of the downstream effectors of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, namely p-p70S6K (Thr 389). There was constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway p-ERK 1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) expression in the Wilms tumor and metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma, but not in the DSRCT. Conclusion Morphoproteomic tumor analyses revealed constitutive activation of the mTOR pathway as evidenced by: (a) expression of phosphorylated (p)-mTOR, p-p70S6K; (b) mTORC 2 in EWS and DSRCT; (c) ERK signaling was seen in the advanced setting indicating these as resistance pathways to IGF1R related therapies. This is the first morphoproteomic study of such pathways in these rare malignancies and may have potential therapeutic implications. Further study using morphoproteomic assessments of these tumors are warranted. PMID:23922674

Jiang, Yunyun; Buryanek, Jamie; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea

2013-01-01

315

PTPL1 is a direct transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1 and modulates Ewing's Sarcoma tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Ewing's Sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by a translocation t(11:22) forming an aberrant transcription factor EWS-FLI1. Protein tyrosine phosphatase L1 (PTPL1) was identified as a gene upregulated by EWS-FLI1 in transfected cells by microarray. Our results show that PTPL1 is a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1 both by chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter activation studies. We demonstrate that PTPL1 is highly expressed in ESFT cells and patient tumors compared with normal tissues, with a trend towards higher expression in metastatic versus primary tumors. Reduction of PTPL1 protein in ESFT cells correlated with a significant reduction in both monolayer and soft-agar cell growth. In addition, these PTPL1-reduced cells were more sensitive to etoposide-induced apoptosis than the controls. We therefore report a novel transcriptional activation of a phosphatase involved in the oncogenesis of ESFT. Increasing interest in specific phosphatase inhibitors would allow PTPL1 to be evaluated as a therapeutic target in ESFT. PMID:15782144

Abaan, Ogan D; Levenson, Amy; Khan, Osman; Furth, Priscilla A; Uren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

2005-04-14

316

Small molecule selected to disrupt oncogenic protein EWS-FLI1 interaction with RNA Helicase A inhibits Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Many sarcomas and leukemias carry non-random chromosomal translocations encoding mutant fusion transcription factors that are essential to their molecular pathogenesis. These novel, tumor-specific proteins provides a unique opportunity for the development of highly selective anticancer drugs that has yet to be exploited. A particularly clear example is provided by Ewing's Sarcoma Family Tumors (ESFT) which contain a characteristic t(11;22) translocation leading to expression of the oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is a disordered protein that precluded standard structure-based small molecule inhibitor design. Using surface plasmon resonance screening, we discovered a lead compound, NSC635437. A derivative compound, YK-4-279, blocks RHA binding to EWS-FLI1, induces apoptosis in ESFT cells, and reduces the growth of ESFT orthotopic xenografts. These findings provide proof of principle that inhibiting the interaction of mutant cancer-specific transcription factors with the normal cellular binding partners required for their oncogenic activity provides a promising strategy for the development of uniquely effective, tumor-specific anticancer agents. PMID:19584866

Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Kong, Yali; Merchant, Melinda; Schlottmann, Silke; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Abaan, Ogan D.; Chou, Tsu-hang; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Brown, Milton L.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

2009-01-01

317

The Future of International Warfare: Toward a Global Security Community?  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the absence of war among democracies is assumed to be indicative of a pluralistic security community as defined by Karl Deutsch, this does not necessarily justify the expectation that the future will be less and less war-prone. This would only be the case if the democratization of the interstate system is expected to continue. On theoretical grounds the conditions

Wolf-Dieter Eberwein

1995-01-01

318

Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.  

PubMed

Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents. PMID:19891216

Brown, Mark

2009-10-01

319

Facility monitoring of chemical warfare agent simulants in air using an automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Vapors of four chemical warfare agent (CWA) stimulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), diethyl malonate (DEM), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate (MeS), were detected, identified, and quantitated using a fully automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. Samples were ionized using a glow discharge electron ionization (GDEI) source, and ions were mass analyzed with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer. A dual-tube thermal desorption system was used to trap compounds on 50:50 Tenax TA/Carboxen 569 sorbent before their thermal release. The sample concentrations ranged from low parts per billion [ppb] to two parts per million [ppm]. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.26 to 5.0 ppb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented for each analyte. A sample of CEES at low ppb concentration was combined separately with two interferents, bleach (saturated vapor) and diesel fuel exhaust (1%), as a way to explore the capability of detecting the simulant in an environmental matrix. Also investigated was a mixture of the four CWA simulants (at concentrations in air ranging from 270 to 380 ppb). Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral data were used to identify and quantify the individual components. PMID:21504010

Smith, Jonell N; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

2011-05-30

320

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

1995-01-01

321

Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

Watson, A.P.

2003-07-24

322

Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations. PMID:23532782

Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

2013-06-01

323

THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

SciTech Connect

Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

Martin, A

2006-10-23

324

Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.

2013-06-01

325

Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division at Warminster Environmental Materials Program. Phase 1. Interim report, October 1989-May 1992  

SciTech Connect

With the recent increase in awareness about the environment, there is an expanding concern of the deleterious effects of current materials and processes. Federal, state and local environmental agencies such as the EPA, State Air Resource Boards and local Air Quality Management Districts (AQMD) have issued legislation that restrict or prohibit the use and disposal of hazardous materials. National and local laws like the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and AQMD regulations are examples of rules that govern the handling and disposal of hazardous materials and waste. The Department of Defense (DoD), in support of this effort, has identified the major generators of hazardous materials and hazardous waste to be maintenance depots and operations, particularly cleaning, pretreating, plating, painting and paint removal processes. Reductions of waste in these areas has been targeted as a primary goal in the DOD. The Navy is committed to significantly reducing its current hazardous waste generation and is working to attain a near zero discharge of hazardous waste by the year 2000. In order to attain these goals, the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division at Warminster has organized and is carrying out a comprehensive program in cooperation with the Naval Air Systems Command, the Air Force and the Department of Energy that deal with the elimination or reduction of hazardous materials. .... Environmental materials, Organic coatings, Inorganic pretreatments, Paint removal techniques, Cleaners, CFC'S.

Spadafora, S.J.; Hegedus, C.R.; Clark, K.J.; Eng, A.T.; Pulley, D.F.

1992-06-24

326

Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions  

E-print Network

Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonise new area, as well as the importance of inter-species interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin producing, sensitive, and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates, and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled...

Weber, Markus F; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

2014-01-01

327

Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. The most important bacterial warfare agents - review.  

PubMed

There are three most important bacterial causative agents of serious infections that could be misused for warfare purposes: Bacillus anthracis (the causative agent of anthrax) is the most frequently mentioned one; however, Fracisella tularensis (causing tularemia) and Yersinia pestis (the causative agent of plague) are further bacterial agents enlisted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention into the category A of potential biological weapons. This review intends to summarize basic information about these bacterial agents. Military aspects of their pathogenesis and the detection techniques suitable for field use are discussed. PMID:19826916

Pohanka, M; Skládal, P

2009-01-01

328

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

329

Low-power microsensors for explosives and nerve warfare agents using silicon nanodots and nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline porous silicon films (nanodots) and polymeric silicon wires (nanowires) have been used to detect chemicals in gas and liquid phase. Transduction mechanisms using quantum confinement derived photoluminescence and optical reflectivity have been used. Photoluminescence intensity is modulated by energy or electron transfer induced quenching, and a shift of the Fabry-Perot reflectivity fringes from thin nanocrystalline films occurs upon molecular absorption. Examples of irreversible detection and reversible sensing modes for explosives, nerve warfare agents, and various odors of commercial interest will be provided. A catalyst can be incorporated into the nanomaterials to provide specificity for the analyte of interest.

Sailor, Michael J.; Trogler, William C.; Letant, Sonia; Sohn, Honglae; Content, Stephane; Schmedake, Thomas A.; Gao, Jun; Zmolek, Peter; Link, Jamie R.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Xu, Fang; Shames, Paul E.

2001-09-01

330

Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder. PMID:25056451

Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

2014-09-15

331

(An Evolution Scheme of the Military Surveillance System Using Wireless Sensor Network)  

E-print Network

Network [3]. 1. 1 . 2. 1997 " 2010(Joint Vision 2010)" (FCS : Future Combat System]. " (Network Centric Warfare)" , [6][7]. / ISR IREMBASS(Improved Remotely Monitored, "Network Centric Warfare: Background and Oversight Issue for Congress," CRS Report for Congress, Jun. 2004

332

Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

Langry, K; Horn, J

1999-11-05

333

Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions  

PubMed Central

Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonize new areas, as well as the importance of interspecies interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin-producing, sensitive and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled us to extrapolate these intricate interdependencies in terms of phenomenological biodiversity laws. Our mathematical analysis also suggested that cyclic dominance between strains is not a prerequisite for coexistence in competitive range expansions. Instead, robust three-strain coexistence required a balance between growth rates and either a reduced initial ratio of the toxin-producing strain, or a sufficiently short toxin range. PMID:24806706

Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

2014-01-01

334

Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions.  

PubMed

Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonize new areas, as well as the importance of interspecies interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin-producing, sensitive and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled us to extrapolate these intricate interdependencies in terms of phenomenological biodiversity laws. Our mathematical analysis also suggested that cyclic dominance between strains is not a prerequisite for coexistence in competitive range expansions. Instead, robust three-strain coexistence required a balance between growth rates and either a reduced initial ratio of the toxin-producing strain, or a sufficiently short toxin range. PMID:24806706

Weber, Markus F; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

2014-07-01

335

Selfishness, warfare, and economics; or integration, cooperation, and biology.  

PubMed

The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. It is necessary to discuss the explaining power of the dominant paradigm. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. In addition to the discussion on the validity of natural selection, modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related to the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown that constitute the major planet's gene pool. They play a fundamental role in evolution since their sequences are capable of integrating into the genomes in an "infective" way and become an essential part of multicellular organisms. They have content with "biological sense" i.e., they appear as part of normal life processes and have a serious role as carrier elements of complex genetic information. Antibiotics are cell signals with main effects on general metabolism and transcription on bacterial cells and communities. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes (parasites, mutualists, synergists, amensalists) as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that are normally understood as parasites are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drive the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is the result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial, virus, and eukaryotic DNA and it is the result of the interaction of its own genome with the genome of its microbiota, and their metabolism are intertwined (as a "superorganism") along evolution. The darwinian paradigm had its origin in the free market theories and concepts of Malthus and Spencer. Then, nature was explained on the basis of market theories moving away from an accurate explanation of natural phenomena. It is necessary to acknowledge the limitations of the dominant dogma. These new interpretations about biological processes, molecules, roles of viruses in nature, and microbial interactions are remarkable points to be considered in order to construct a solid theory adjusted to the facts and with less speculations and tortuous semantic traps. PMID:22919645

Salvucci, Emiliano

2012-01-01

336

Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric and desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in office media typically collected during a forensic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prior analytical studies have dealt with the determination of chemical warfare agents in environmental or biological matrices that would typically be collected following battlefield use or in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention. These methods may be useful for some investigations, but may not be practical for indoor forensic investigations where chemical warfare agent use is suspected. There is

P. A. D’Agostino; J. R. Hancock; C. L. Chenier; C. R. Jackson Lepage

2006-01-01

337

Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection and 60, 90 and 140 m for cyclohexane detection. The prototype systems consisted of a Raman spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector (for CW measurements) and an I-CCD camera with time-gated electronics (for pulsed laser measurements), a reflecting telescope, a fiber optic assembly, a single-line CW laser source (514.5, 488.0, 351.1 and 363.8 nm) and a frequency-doubled single frequency Nd:YAG 532 nm laser (5 ns pulses at 10 Hz). The telescope was coupled to the spectrograph using an optical fiber, and filters were used to reject laser radiation and Rayleigh scattering. Two quartz convex lenses were used to collimate the light from the telescope from which the telescope-focusing eyepiece was removed, and direct it to the fiber optic assembly. To test the standoff sensing system, the Raman Telescope was used in the detection of liquid TIC: benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and carbon disulfide. Other compounds studied were CWAS: dimethylmethyl phosphonate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-(butylamino)-ethanethiol. Relative Raman scattering cross sections of liquid CWAS were measured using single-line sources at 532.0, 488.0, 363.8 and 351.1 nm. Samples were placed in glass and quartz vials at the standoff distances from the telescope for the Remote Raman measurements. The mass of DMMP present in water solutions was also quantified as part of the system performance tests.

Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

2010-09-01

338

Mass Spectrometry Applications for the Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers Resulting from Human Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a number of analytical methods using biomedical samples such as blood and urine have been developed for the verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents. The majority of methods utilize gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In a small number of cases of suspected human exposure to chemical warfare agents, biomedical specimens have been made available for testing. This chapter provides an overview of biomarkers that have been verified in human biomedical samples, details of the exposure incidents, the methods utilized for analysis, and the biomarker concentration levels determined in the blood and/or urine.

Smith, J. Richard; Capacio, Benedict R.

339

Causes of inpatient death for patients with warfare-related limb trauma and logistic regression analysis of the risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To explore the causes and risk factors of inpatient death for patients with warfare-related limb trauma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective study involving 339 patients with warfare-related limb trauma who were admitted to our hospital from 1998\\u000a to 2002 was conducted. Autopsy was performed for 15 cases who died in order to investigate the cause of death. Furthermore,\\u000a based on the clinical features

C. Z. Cheng; D. H. Zhao; Q. Y. Li; H. Y. Qu; B. C. Chen; Z. D. Lin

340

Detailed investigation of the radical-induced destruction of chemical warfare agent simulants in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The persistence of delivered chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in a variety of environmental matrices is of serious concern to both the military and civilian populations. Ultimately understanding all of the degradation pathways of the various CWAs in different environmental matrices is essential for determining whether native processes would offer sufficient decontamination of a particular material or if active chemical decontamination is required. Whereas much work on base-promoted chemical degradation has been reported, additional remediation strategies such as the use of advanced oxidation or reduction process free radical treatments may also be a viable option. We have examined here the primary kinetics and reaction mechanisms for an extensive library of chemical warfare agent simulants with the oxidizing hydroxyl radical and reducing hydrated electrons in water. From these values, it is seen that the reductive destruction occurs primarily through a single mechanism, consisting of hydrated electron capture at the phosphorus group with subsequent elimination, whereas hydroxyl radical oxidation shows two separate reaction mechanisms, dependent on the aqueous pK(a) of the leaving group. PMID:20469938

Abbott, Amberashley; Sierakowski, Tim; Kiddle, James J; Clark, Kristin K; Mezyk, Stephen P

2010-06-10

341

Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.  

PubMed

Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons. PMID:24035908

Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

2013-11-25

342

An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

2013-08-01

343

Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2010-11-15

344

Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

2007-05-01

345

Medieval warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ivy A. CORFIS & Michael WOLFE, eds, The Medieval City Under Siege, Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, 1995, 292 p.John FRANCE, Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994, xv + 425 p.Philip A. HAIGH, The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses, Alan Sutton, Gloucester, 1995, 206 p.Ann HYLAND, The Medieval

Sean McGlynn

1997-01-01

346

IRLooK: an advanced mobile infrared signature measurement, data reduction, and analysis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared signature measurement capability has a key role in the electronic warfare (EW) self protection systems' development activities. In this article, the IRLooK System and its capabilities will be introduced. IRLooK is a truly innovative mobile infrared signature measurement system with all its design, manufacturing and integration accomplished by an engineering philosophy peculiar to ASELSAN. IRLooK measures the infrared signatures of military and civil platforms such as fixed/rotary wing aircrafts, tracked/wheeled vehicles and navy vessels. IRLooK has the capabilities of data acquisition, pre-processing, post-processing, analysis, storing and archiving over shortwave, mid-wave and long wave infrared spectrum by means of its high resolution radiometric sensors and highly sophisticated software analysis tools. The sensor suite of IRLooK System includes imaging and non-imaging radiometers and a spectroradiometer. Single or simultaneous multiple in-band measurements as well as high radiant intensity measurements can be performed. The system provides detailed information on the spectral, spatial and temporal infrared signature characteristics of the targets. It also determines IR Decoy characteristics. The system is equipped with a high quality field proven two-axes tracking mount to facilitate target tracking. Manual or automatic tracking is achieved by using a passive imaging tracker. The system also includes a high quality weather station and field-calibration equipment including cavity and extended area blackbodies. The units composing the system are mounted on flat-bed trailers and the complete system is designed to be transportable by large body aircraft.

Cukur, Tamer; Altug, Yelda; Uzunoglu, Cihan; Kilic, Kayhan; Emir, Erdem

2007-04-01

347

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

348

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

349

Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need. PMID:19891215

Brown, Mark

2009-10-01

350

Molecular dissection of the mechanism by which EWS/FLI expression compromises actin cytoskeletal integrity and cell adhesion in Ewing sarcoma.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma is the second-most-common bone cancer in children. Driven by an oncogenic chromosomal translocation that results in the expression of an aberrant transcription factor, EWS/FLI, the disease is typically aggressive and micrometastatic upon presentation. Silencing of EWS/FLI in patient-derived tumor cells results in the altered expression of hundreds to thousands of genes and is accompanied by dramatic morphological changes in cytoarchitecture and adhesion. Genes encoding focal adhesion, extracellular matrix, and actin regulatory proteins are dominant targets of EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional repression. Reexpression of genes encoding just two of these proteins, zyxin and ?5 integrin, is sufficient to restore cell adhesion and actin cytoskeletal integrity comparable to what is observed when the EWS/FLI oncogene expression is compromised. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we show that EWS/FLI-induced repression of ?5 integrin and zyxin expression promotes tumor progression by supporting anchorage-independent cell growth. This selective advantage is paired with a tradeoff in which metastatic lung colonization is compromised. PMID:25057021

Chaturvedi, Aashi; Hoffman, Laura M; Jensen, Christopher C; Lin, Yi-Chun; Grossmann, Allie H; Randall, R Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L; Welm, Alana L; Beckerle, Mary C

2014-09-15

351

Geophysical investigation at Mustard Gas Burial Ground, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, Indiana. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical investigation was conducted at the Mustard Gas Burial Ground (MGBG) at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, IN. The MGBG, an approximately 2-acre area, is a former Solid Waste Management Unit. The objective of the investigation was to detect and delineate anomalies indicating the locations of buried structures, objects, or disturbed zones associated with past hazardous

J. L. Llopis; K. J. Sjostrom; W. L. Murphy

1997-01-01

352

Smart Warriors: A Rationale for Educating Air Force Academy Cadets in the History of Science, Technology, and Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial pedagogical issue facing instructors of History of Science and Technology (HST) at a military institution like the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is enhancing the judgment of cadets through education so that they can make informed and intelligent decisions as officers. Fundamental understanding of relationships between HST and warfare provides much needed context for making decisions in

William J. Astore

2003-01-01

353

An investigation into the Practicality Of Using a stage four Hilbert Curve Fractal Antenna for electronic warfare applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the practicality of using a fractal shape to generate a multi-band antenna that can be used for electronic warfare applications. Currently fractal antennas are used in a multitude of applications such as RFID tags, wireless communication devices such as mobile phones and GPS receivers, and filters. The feasibility of extending the operational frequency range of a fractal

Julia M. Gibney; Wayne S. T. Rowe

2011-01-01

354

The Generals and the Germs: The Army Leadership's Response to Nixon's Review of Chemical and Biological Warfare Policies in 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1969 President Richard Nixon took the unprecedented step of unilaterally eliminating an entire class of weapons, biological warfare agents, and retaining only a defensive research program. He also limited the nation's chemical weapons efforts to retaliation. Little research has been done into the policy review that led to the decisions, particularly the role of the Army, which oversaw the

David I. Goldman

2009-01-01

355

Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are discussed in several applications, new developments and trends based on a review of the literature published since 1990. Apart from new

Ch. E. Kientz

1998-01-01

356

Separation and identification of some chemical warfare degradation products using electrospray high resolution ion mobility spectrometry with mass selected detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution electrospray ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used to analyze chemical warfare degradation products from liquid samples. For each degradation product analytical figures of merit for the technique were determined and each response ion was identified by mass spectrometry. From these data, reduced mobility constants (K0) for a number of compounds were calculated for the first time. The detection

G. Reid Asbury; Ching Wu; William F Siems; Herbert H Hill

2000-01-01

357

A multi-agent architecture for modelling and simulation of small military unit combat in asymmetric warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s armed forces, which have a new perspective of combat, are trying to use high-end technologies to improve their capabilities especially in combat and asymmetric warfare. Complexity is the real word to define the future war environment, which will need information about multi dimensional needs. With a continuous increase in the complexity and tempo on the modern battlefield; new demands

Ibrahim Cil; Murat Mala

2010-01-01

358

Distributed Real-Time Data ow: An Execution Paradigm for Image Processing and Anti-Submarine Warfare Applications  

E-print Network

Distributed Real-Time Data ow: An Execution Paradigm for Image Processing and Anti-Submarine signal processing applications, such as those found in anti-submarine warfare and image processing by the Navy's standard signal processor, the AN UYS- 2A | used in detection of submarines. The Navy has spent

Jeffay, Kevin

359

Speed of adaptation and genomic footprints of host-parasite coevolution under arms race and trench warfare dynamics.  

PubMed

Coevolution between hosts and their parasites is expected to follow a range of possible dynamics, the two extreme cases being called trench warfare (or Red Queen) and arms races. Long-term stable polymorphism at the host and parasite coevolving loci is characteristic of trench warfare, and is expected to promote molecular signatures of balancing selection, while the recurrent allele fixation in arms races should generate selective sweeps. We compare these two scenarios using a finite size haploid gene-for-gene model that includes both mutation and genetic drift. We first show that trench warfare do not necessarily display larger numbers of coevolutionary cycles per unit of time than arms races. We subsequently perform coalescent simulations under these dynamics to generate sequences at both host and parasite loci. Genomic footprints of recurrent selective sweeps are often found, whereas trench warfare yield signatures of balancing selection only in parasite sequences, and only in a limited parameter space. Our results suggest that deterministic models of coevolution with infinite population sizes do not predict reliably the observed genomic signatures, and it may be best to study parasite rather than host populations to find genomic signatures of coevolution, such as selective sweeps or balancing selection. PMID:24749791

Tellier, Aurélien; Moreno-Gámez, Stefany; Stephan, Wolfgang

2014-08-01

360

Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs.

Annetta Paule Watson; Dennis M Opresko; Robert A Young; Veronique Hauschild

2006-01-01

361

Health-Related Quality of Life of Chemical Warfare Victims: An Assessment with the Use of a Specific Tool  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. Objective: This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL. PMID:24719824

Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

2014-01-01

362

Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

2002-06-01

363

Transcriptional induction of cholinesterase expression and protection against chemical warfare nerve agents.  

PubMed

We investigated whether transcriptional inducers could enhance the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in cell lines to achieve protection against organophosphate (OP) poisoning. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase that de-condenses chromatin and increases the binding of transcription factors and mRNA synthesis, induced three- to four-fold extracellular and 8-10-fold intracellular AChE expression at the optimal dose of 165-333 nM in Neuro 2A cells. Pre-treatment with TSA protected against OP exposure. Thus, transcriptional inducers, such as TSA, up-regulate AChE, which then can scavenge the OP and protect the cells from OP-induced toxicity, and are potential novel ways to treat chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure. PMID:16429504

Nambiar, M P; Curtin, B F; Pal, Nabaneeta; Compton, J R; Doctor, B P; Gordon, R K

2005-12-15

364

The art of antibacterial warfare: Deception through interference with quorum sensing-mediated communication.  

PubMed

Almost a century on from the discovery of penicillin, the war against bacterial infection still rages compounded by the emergence of strains resistant to virtually every clinically approved antibiotic and the dearth of new antibacterial agents entering the clinic. Consequently there is renewed interest in drugs which attenuate virulence rather than bacterial growth. Since the metaphors of warfare are often used to describe the battle between pathogen and host, we will describe in such a context, the molecular communication (quorum sensing) mechanisms used by bacteria to co-ordinate virulence at the population level. Recent progress in exploiting this information through the design of anti-virulence deception strategies that disrupt quorum sensing through signal molecule inactivation, inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis or the blockade of signal transduction and their advantages and disadvantages are considered. PMID:24823895

Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia; Williams, Paul

2014-08-01

365

Chemistry of destroying chemical warfare agents in flame. Technical project report, April 1994-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to increase our understanding of flame chemistry of organophosphorus compounds (OPC). This class of chemicals includes chemical warfare agents. (CWAs) such as the nerve agents GB GD and VX, stockpiles of which in the United States and Former Soviet Union are scheduled for destruction by incineration or other technologies. Although high CWA destruction efficiency has been demonstrated in incinerator tests in the U.S. it is necessary to improve technology for achievement higher efficiency and lower level of pollutants. The knowledge of detailed destruction chemistry of the CWA and simulants can be obtained by studying the structure of flames, doped with simulants and CWA and by the development of the combustion model which will include the chemical mechanism of destroying CWA in flame. Alkyl phosphates and alkyl phosphonates are typical organophosphorus compounds, that are simulants of sarin.

Korobeinichev, O.P.; Chernov, A.A.; Shvartsberg, V.M.; Il`in, S.B.; Mokrushin, V.V.

1995-05-01

366

Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.  

PubMed

Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators. PMID:25133545

Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

2014-09-16

367

Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries. PMID:23293972

Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

2013-01-01

368

Reconstructing exposures from the UK chemical warfare agent human research programme.  

PubMed

The UK government has carried out a research programme studying military capability under conditions of chemical warfare at a facility at Porton Down, Wiltshire, since World War I. In 2001 the Ministry of Defence commissioned a cohort study to investigate the long-term health effects on military veterans of their participation in this programme. We assessed the availability and quality of exposure assessment data held in the archive at Porton Down for the purpose of this study. This involved looking in detail at exposure data in a sample of 150 veterans and undertaking a general review of all available records held in the archive. These sources suggested that the Porton Down records were largely complete and included sufficient identifying information for linkage with service personnel data and with national mortality and cancer registration records. Servicemen usually had multiple tests so data were most readily available in a test-wise format, allowing subsequent aggregation of tests by individual. The name of the chemical used in each test could be determined for most tests and most of the named chemicals could be categorized into major groups for epidemiological analyses. For the major groups (vesicants and nerve agents), quantitative data were available on exposure and on acute toxicity. Standardization will be required of the several different units which were used. Based on this study, exposure assessment for the cohort study of Porton Down veterans will involve abstraction of the name of the chemical used in each test, with quantitative data on exposure and acute toxicity for vesicants and nerve agents. Our results here show that experimental records at Porton Down offer a unique and valuable resource for reconstructing the chemical exposures used in this research programme. The resulting cohort study has the potential to provide information which will assist in understanding the long-term health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure on these veterans. PMID:17602209

Keegan, Tj; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mj; Fletcher, T; Brooks, C; Doyle, P; Maconochie, Nes; Carpenter, Lm; Venables, Km

2007-07-01

369

Salivary hormone response to 12-week block-periodized training in naval special warfare operators.  

PubMed

Oliver, JM, Abt, JP, Sell, TC, Beals, K, Wood, DE, and Lephart, SM. Salivary hormone response to 12-week block-periodized training in naval special warfare operators. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 66-73, 2015-Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operators are expected to maintain a high degree of physical readiness requiring continual operational training. The physiological and psychological demands associated with operational training can result in physiological consequences evidenced by hormonal alterations justifying the need for periodized training to maintain or improve physical readiness. This study examined the pattern and time course of hormone changes during 12-week block-periodized training program (BP) in NSW Operators undergoing routine training. Eighteen NSW Operators (31 ± 6 years, 86.6 ± 9.0 kg, 176.2 ± 5.9 cm, 17.5 ± 6.5% fat) participated in a 12-week BP during routine operational training. Salivary free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol (C) were obtained at 4 time points coincident with changes in intensity and volume. In the second block of training in which intensity and volume were increased, FT and C increased by 20.3 ± 7.4 and 20.8 ± 9.9%, respectively. Free testosterone and C returned to baseline values concomitant with the decrease in intensity and volume at the conclusion of the third block of training. No significant differences were observed in FT-to-C ratio over the course of training. DHEA-S increased 23.1 ± 11.0% following block 1, with a further increase observed following block 2 (57.0 ± 17.4%). Our data indicate training following BP produces a pattern and time course of hormone changes congruent with changes in intensity and volume suggesting BP as a potential training model for NSW Operators and other Special Forces Operators involved in operational training. PMID:25029010

Oliver, Jonathan M; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Beals, Kim; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

2015-01-01

370

A 100 m laser strainmeter system in the Kamioka Mine, Japan, for precise observations of tidal strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 100m laser strainmeter system was installed in a deep tunnel about 1000m below the ground surface in Kamioka, Gifu, Japan in 2003. The system consists of three types of independent interferometers: (1) an EW linear strainmeter of the Michelson type with unequal arms, (2) an NS–EW differential strainmeter of the Michelson type with equal arms and (3) an NS

Shuzo Takemoto; Hideo Momose; Akito Araya; Wataru Morii; Junpei Akamatsu; Masatake Ohashi; Akiteru Takamori; Shinji Miyoki; Takashi Uchiyama; Daisuke Tatsumi; Toshihiro Higashi; Souichi Telada; Yoichi Fukuda

2006-01-01

371

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

372

An Analysis of Heterogeneity in Futuristic Unmanned Vehicle Systems  

E-print Network

Warfare (Alberts et al., 1999) and the Future Combat System (FCS) (Feickert, 2005) that require capabilities. For example, the military has proposed future operational concepts such as Network Centric

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

373

nEW HOriZOnS in EnginEEring rESEarcH Cross-Cutting Research Themes in the UW-Madison College of Engineering  

E-print Network

nEW HOriZOnS in EnginEEring rESEarcH Cross-Cutting Research Themes in the UW-Madison College selected as leaders for the majority of the research thrusts in the new Wisconsin Institutes for Discovery on new product development time, production lead-time; flexibility in responding to changes in demand

Sheridan, Jennifer

374

In-situ derivatisation of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical procedure was developed for the extraction of degradation products of chemical warfare agents from water and for in-situ derivatisation prior to analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). With this new procedure, degradation products of the chemical warfare agents can be analysed and identified without going through laborious sample preparation. Parameters such as fiber selection, pH, salt content,

Mui Tiang Sng; Wei Fang Ng

1999-01-01

375

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

376

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

377

Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-07-01

378

Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated thermal desorption (ATD)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of selected chemical warfare (CW) agents. Suitable methods were developed for analytes of high volatility to low volatility. The less volatile CW agents required the purchase and installation of a high-temperature valve upgrade kit allowing valve temperatures of up to 260°C to be reached. The limit of

Wendy A. Carrick; David B. Cooper; Bob Muir

2001-01-01

379

Detection performance of a portable ion mobility spectrometer with 63 Ni radioactive ionization for chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection performance of a portable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) (SABRE 4000, Smiths Detection) with 63Ni ionization, air purification, and reduced ion mobility measurements using calibrants was investigated for vapors of chemical\\u000a warfare agents. In a matter of several seconds, the SABRE 4000 enabled tentative identification of sarin, soman, cyclohexylsarin,\\u000a tabun, and nitrogen mustard 3, each with a limit of

Shintaro Yamaguchi; Ryuji Asada; Shintaro Kishi; Ryoji Sekioka; Nobuyoshi Kitagawa; Kenichi Tokita; Soichiro Yamamoto; Yasuo Seto

2010-01-01

380

Mortality Follow-up of Veterans who Participated in Military Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Testing Between 1962 and 1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1962 and 1972, several thousand U.S. Navy personnel participated in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). These tests potentially exposed participants to either active chemical or biological warfare agents or their simulants. This study examined mortality risk associated with participating in SHAD tests by comparing the cause-specific mortality of 4927 SHAD veterans to that of 10,927 other Navy veterans.

Han K. Kang; Tim Bullman

2009-01-01

381

Express analysis of explosives, chemical warfare agents and drugs with multicapillary column gas chromatography and ion mobility increment spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Description of a gas chromatograph designed for express analysis of explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate), chemical warfare agents (mustard gas, lewisite, sarin) and drugs (heroin, cocaine hydrochloride, crack) is given. The devices comprises a multicapillary chromatographic column and an ion mobility increment spectrometer (MCC–IMIS). The main analytical characteristics of an IMIS (estimated detection limit (DL), linear dynamic range (LDR), speed

Igor A. Buryakov

2004-01-01

382

Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable

Charlene A. Sanders; Miguel Rodriguez; Elias Greenbaum

2001-01-01

383

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

2002-02-20

384

Non-contact detection of chemical warfare simulant triethyl phosphate using PM-IRRAS.  

PubMed

Polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) was employed to detect the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant triethyl phosphate (TEP) on gold, as well as on US military paint, i.e., chemical agent resistant coating (CARC). The targeted CWAs (G and V-series nerve agents) are characterized by phosphoric group vibrations present in the 1200 cm(-1) region. TEP displays two prominent peaks at 1268 cm(-1) and 1036 cm(-1) corresponding to P=O and (P)-O-C vibrations, respectively. A droplet of TEP solution in cyclohexane was deposited on gold and CARC substrates and after solvent evaporation PM-IRRAS spectra were collected in the 1200 cm(-1) region. The integrated peak area of the PO and (P)OC vibrations was used to construct calibration curves and to determine the experimental limit of detection (LoD). In the case of gold as the substrate the estimated LoD of ~0.48 ?g and 1.23 ?g was obtained for the P=O and (P)-O-C vibrations, respectively. In the case of CARC, a LoD of 24 ?g was determined. These detection limits are at least 3 orders of magnitude lower than the typical lethal dose of G and V-series nerve agents, demonstrating potential of PM-IRRAS for non-contact detection of these CWAs. PMID:22769035

Kycia, Annia H; Vezvaie, Mansoor; Zamlynny, Vlad; Lipkowski, Jacek; Petryk, Michael W P

2012-08-01

385

The deployment of ethnographic sciences and psychological warfare during the suppression of the Mau Mau rebellion.  

PubMed

This essay provides readers with a critical analysis of the ethnographic sciences and the psychological warfare used by the British and Kenyan colonial regimes during the suppression of the Mau Mau rebellion. In recent years, several survivors of several detention camps set up for Mau Mau suspects during the 1950s have brought cases in British courts, seeking apologies and funds to help those who argue about systematic abuse during the times of "emergency." The author illustrates that the difficulties confronting Ndiku Mutua and other claimants stem from the historical and contemporary resonance of characterizations of the Mau Mau as devilish figures with deranged minds. The author also argues that while many journalists today have commented on the recovery of "lost" colonial archives and the denials of former colonial administrators, what gets forgotten are the polysemic ways that Carothers, Leakey, and other social agents co-produced all of these pejorative characterizations. Kenyan settlers, administrators, novelists, filmmakers and journalists have helped circulate the commentaries on the "Mau Mau" mind that continue to influence contemporary debates about past injustices. PMID:23728849

Hasian, Marouf

2013-09-01

386

The BARC biosensor applied to the detection of biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

The Bead ARray Counter (BARC) is a multi-analyte biosensor that uses DNA hybridization, magnetic microbeads, and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors to detect and identify biological warfare agents. The current prototype is a table-top instrument consisting of a microfabricated chip (solid substrate) with an array of GMR sensors, a chip carrier board with electronics for lock-in detection, a fluidics cell and cartridge, and an electromagnet. DNA probes are patterned onto the solid substrate chip directly above the GMR sensors, and sample analyte containing complementary DNA hybridizes with the probes on the surface. Labeled, micron-sized magnetic beads are then injected that specifically bind to the sample DNA. A magnetic field is applied, removing any beads that are not specifically bound to the surface. The beads remaining on the surface are detected by the GMR sensors, and the intensity and location of the signal indicate the concentration and identity of pathogens present in the sample. The current BARC chip contains a 64-element sensor array, however, with recent advances in magnetoresistive technology, chips with millions of these GMR sensors will soon be commercially available, allowing simultaneous detection of thousands of analytes. Because each GMR sensor is capable of detecting a single magnetic bead, in theory, the BARC biosensor should be able to detect the presence of a single analyte molecule. PMID:10945455

Edelstein, R L; Tamanaha, C R; Sheehan, P E; Miller, M M; Baselt, D R; Whitman, L J; Colton, R J

2000-01-01

387

Evaluation of protective ointments used against dermal effects of nitrogen mustard, a vesicant warfare agent.  

PubMed

Mustard, a vesicant warfare agent, has cytotoxic, mutagenic, and cytostatic effects via alkylation of DNA and inhibition of DNA replication. Since symptoms appear following a latent period, it can cause some subacute and chronic effects to occur and delay in the treatment. Therefore, the main approach should be the use of protective preparation to reduce the skin toxicity. Thus, this study was conducted in guinea pigs (350-400 g) shaved in areas of 10 x 10 cm. Mechlorethamine HCl (100 mg), a nitrogen mustard derivative, in ethanol was applied by spraying on hairless regions where previously prepared pharmaceutical topical formulations were medicated before. The experimental regions of the animals were kept preserved from environmental factors. Forty-eight hours after the application of the protective ointments and mechlorethamine consecutively, skin-damaging effects were macroscopically evaluated in terms of erythema formation, ulceration, necrosis, and inflammation occurrences. Then, punch biopsy was performed from these damaged sites for histopathological evaluation. Although numerous topical formulations were prepared and tested for protection, according to microscopic examination of the pathologic sections, tissue specimen treated with the ointment containing the mixture of zinc oxide, zinc chloride, dimethylpolysiloxane in a base of petroleum jelly was determined as being the most effective protective against skin injury caused by the vesicant agent. PMID:15724846

Kenar, Levent; Karayilano?lu, Turan; Yuksel, Altan; Gunhan, Omer; Kose, Songul; Kurt, Bulent

2005-01-01

388

Inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with chemical warfare agents exposure.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWA) including sulfur mustard (SM) were commonly used in Iran-Iraq war. Respiratory problems are the greatest cause of long-term disability among people who had combat exposure to SM. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been accepted as the imaging modality of choice in these patients. We used expiratory HRCT findings in comparison to inspiratory HRCT for demonstration of pulmonary damage in these patients. HRCT in deep inspiration as well as full expiration was performed in 473 patients with a history of chemical gas exposure during the war and the results were compared. The study was prospective during 1 yr. Of 473 patients, 366 (77.38%) showed normal HRCT in deep inspiration; however, on corresponding expiratory cuts, 263 (71.86%) had abnormalities. The most frequent abnormal finding in expiration was patchy air trapping (77.77%). We conclude that exposure to SM causes pulmonary complications resulting in disability in the affected patients; however, HRCT in inspiration is normal in most of the affected patients. Expiratory HRCT showed patchy air trapping as the most common finding, which is suggestive of small air way diseases such as bronchiolitis obliterans; therefore it is recommended to do HRCT both in deep inspiration and full expiration in patients with a history of CWA exposure. PMID:18368621

Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Sedighi, Nahid; Moradi, Zahra

2008-03-01

389

Identification of chemical warfare agents using a portable microchip-based detection device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. A portable microchip electrophoresis (ME) device with contactless conductivity (CCD) detection was developed for the in situ identification of CWA and their degradation products. A 10mM MES/His, 0.4mM CTAB - based separation electrolyte accomplished the analysis of Sarin (GB), Tabun( GA) and Soman (GD) in less than 1 min, which is the fastest screening of nerve agents achieved with portable ME and CCD based detection methods to date. Reproducibility of detection was successfully demonstrated on simultaneous detection of GB (200ppm) and GA (278ppm). Reasonable agreement for the four consecutive runs was achieved with the mean peak time for Sarin of 29.15s, and the standard error of 0.58s or 2%. GD and GA were simultaneously detected with their degradation products methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) and O-Ethyl Phosphorocyanidate (GAHP and GAHP1) respectively. The detection limit for Sarin was around 35ppb. To the best of our knowledge this is the best result achieved in microchip electrophoresis and contactless conductivity based detection to date.

Petkovic-Duran, K.; Swallow, A.; Sexton, B. A.; Glenn, F.; Zhu, Y.

2011-12-01

390

Stem-loop oligonucleotide beacons as switches for amplifying-fluorescent-polymer-based biological warfare sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors that are exceptionally sensitive with real-time outputs and minimal consumption of reagents are needed to continuously monitor air and water against bioterrorist incidents. Amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) provide exceptionally sensitive real-time reagentless sensor platforms as applied to detection of nitroaromatic explosives. This platform technology has the potential to be adapted to detect biological warfare (BW) agents by covalently attaching the 5" end of stem-loop molecular beacons to AFP as DNA hybridization signal transduction switches. Molecular beacons with loop sequences specific for sequence signatures of a target BW agent are configured with a quencher on the end of the 3" arm of the stem-loop. The AFP is quenched in the absence of target DNA, but upon hybridization with target the stem is melted, the duplex loop extended, and the AFP dequenched. This signal transduction is reversible upon removal of the target sequence with the molecular beacon reforming the stem-loop conformation. Proof-of-concept research has demonstrated that molecular beacons for signature sequences of Francisella tularensis result in correct identification of the presence of this agent in samples, but no false positives were seen with Escherichia coli.

Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R.; Moon, Joong Ho; Hancock, Lawrence F.

2003-09-01

391

Phase I study of a topical skin protectant against chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Vesicants and some nerve agents penetrate exposed skin, mainly through the sensitive integration areas of the personal protective equipment. Therefore, improving dermal barrier with a topical agent should reduce the threat of exposure. A topical skin protectant lotion (IB1) was developed to improve protection against chemical warfare agents. Preclinical studies in several animal models have proven the protective efficacy of IB1. Here we present the results of a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind phase I clinical study, performed with 34 healthy volunteers. The study tested the safety of repeated applications, including ruling out transdermal permeation of magnesium, which may lead to a dangerous blood magnesium level, since the lotion contains magnesium sulfate. Other objectives included detection of dermatological adverse effects, assessment of application convenience, and effect on daily activities. Importantly, no serious adverse effects were recorded and the lotion did not interfere with daily tasks. There were no significant differences in magnesium levels between the placebo and the study groups in any of the applications. No toxic levels of magnesium were found in either group. We conclude that IB1 is probably safe, easily self-applied, and does not cause any significant inconvenience. Therefore, IB1 can be considered as an adjunctive chemical, biological, and radio-nuclear (CBRN) protective aid to field soldiers. PMID:19216298

Eisenkraft, Arik; Krivoy, Amir; Vidan, Aviv; Robenshtok, Eyal; Hourvitz, Ariel; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Markel, Gal

2009-01-01

392

Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications. PMID:25289459

Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

2014-11-25

393

Soil phytoremediation from the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent, yperite.  

PubMed

A plant-based bioremediation (phytoremediation) strategy has been developed and shown to be effective for the clean-up of soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent (CWA), yperite. The method involves exploiting the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to intensify the phytoremediation. For determination of the yperite breakdown products, gas chromatography is used. Soil and plant samples were analysed with a gas chromatograph fitted with an atomic emission detector. The method of standard-free determination was employed to identify sulphur-containing substances (SCSs). A series of soil tests was conducted, which showed that the level of SCSs decreased 4, 8, and more than 20-fold compared with that found in contaminated soil. This decrease was dependent upon the IAA concentrations used for plant treatment. The treated plants accumulated 2.7 to 2.9-fold larger amounts of the SCSs than did the untreated plants. Owing to its simplicity, environmental safety and inexpensiveness, the method can be recommended for the restoration of soil fertility in areas of storage and destruction of blister CWAs. PMID:19005833

Zakharova, E A; Kosterin, P V; Brudnik, V V; Shcherbakov, A A; Ponomaryov, A A; Shcherbakova, L F; Mandich, V G; Fedorov, E E; Ignatov, V V

2000-01-01

394

Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.  

PubMed

Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study. PMID:24603112

Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kate?ina; Slabotínský, Ji?í; Kutláková, Kate?ina Mamulová; Studentová, So?a; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

2014-04-30

395

Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 ?l were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.

2014-05-01

396

Mid-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging of unknown chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of a stand-off chemical detector to distinguish two different chemical warfare agents is demonstrated in this paper. Using Negative Contrast Imaging, based upon IR absorption spectroscopy, we were able to detect 1 ?l of VX, sulfur mustard and water on a subset of representative surfaces. These experiments were performed at a range of 1.3 metres and an angle of 45° to the surface. The technique employed utilises a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal that generated 1.4 - 1.8 ?m (shortwave) and 2.6 - 3.6 ?m (midwave) infrared radiation (SWIR and MWIR, respectively). The MgO:PPLN crystal has a fanned grating design which, via translation through a 1064 nm pump beam, enables tuning through the SWIR and MWIR wavelength ranges. The SWIR and MWIR beams are guided across a scene via a pair of raster scanned mirrors allowing detection of absorption features within these spectral regions. This investigation exploited MWIR signatures, as they provided sufficient molecular information to distinguish between toxic and benign chemicals in these proof-of-concept experiments.

Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Guicheteau, Jason; Emge, Darren; Ruxton, Keith; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth T.

2013-05-01

397

Genomics and proteomics in chemical warfare agent research: recent studies and future applications.  

PubMed

Medical research on the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been ongoing for nearly 100 years, yet these agents continue to pose a serious threat to deployed military forces and civilian populations. CWAs are extremely toxic, relatively inexpensive, and easy to produce, making them a legitimate weapon of choice for terrorist organizations. While the mechanisms of action for many CWAs have been known for years, questions about their molecular effects following acute and chronic exposure remain largely unanswered. Global approaches that can pinpoint which cellular pathways are altered in response to CWAs and characterize long-term toxicity have not been widely used. Fortunately, innovations in genomics and proteomics technologies now allow for thousands of genes and proteins to be identified and subsequently quantified in a single experiment. Advanced bioinformatics software can also help decipher large-scale changes observed, leading to mapping of signaling pathways, functional characterization, and identification of potential therapeutic targets. Here we present an overview of how genomics and proteomics technologies have been applied to CWA research and also provide a series of questions focused on how these techniques could further our understanding of CWA toxicity. PMID:20708669

Everley, Patrick A; Dillman, James F

2010-10-20

398

Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.  

PubMed

Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. PMID:21944706

Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

2011-11-30

399

Projectile Identification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army plans for the needs of future warfare to retain its technological superiority. Future Combat Systems (FCS) is a major effort designed to meet this need. FCS includes multiple automated fire weapons. On current systems, a human typically enters information about each projectile loaded. This is a slow process, placing the soldier and the weapon in danger. Cybernet

Glenn J. Beach; Charles J. Cohen; Gary Moody; Martha Henry

2003-01-01

400

76 FR 323 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWAR), Building 33, Cloud Room, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, California 92152...Microprocessor Project 6. Autonomous Vehicle Project 7. Cloud Computing, Technology and Security Issues Thursday,...

2011-01-04

401

[Detection of EWS-/FLI-1 gene fusion transcripts by RT-PCR as a tool in the diagnosis of tumors of the Ewing sarcoma group].  

PubMed

Recent cloning of the chromosome breakpoint regions of the reciprocal chromosomal t(11;22) (q24;q12) has revealed that the breakpoints were localized within the EWS gene (Ewings sarcoma gene) on chromosome 22 and the FLI-1 gene on chromosome 11. Thus, molecular genetic techniques were applicable for the detection of this genetic aberration, which occurs as a consistent feature of the Ewings tumor family. By reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in 78% of Ewings sarcoma derived cell lines, and in 91% of primary Ewings tumor tissue t(11;22) specific EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcripts were detected. Furthermore, in bone marrow samples from an Ewings sarcoma patient contaminating tumor cells could be shown by RT-PCR. Our results indicate that molecular genetic detection of the t(11;22) translocation opens a new modality for the differential diagnosis and the staging of Ewings tumor patients. PMID:7533989

Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B; Schäfer, K L; Dantcheva, R; Blasius, S; van Valen, F; Burdach, S; Winkelmann, W; Jürgens, J; Böcker, W

1994-01-01

402

Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.  

PubMed

One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals. PMID:16856738

Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

2006-07-01

403

Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.  

PubMed

Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new and promising option. PMID:24091052

Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

2013-12-01

404

Neuroprotective effects of imidazenil against chemical warfare nerve agent soman toxicity in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

The chemical warfare nerve agent, soman irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to hypercholinergy and seizures which trigger glutamate toxicity and status epilepticus ultimately resulting in neuropathology and neurobehavioral deficits. The standard emergency treatment comprising of anticholinergic, AChE reactivator and anticonvulsant does not completely protect against soman toxicity. We have evaluated imidazenil, a new anticonvulsant imidazo benzodiazepine with high affinity and intrinsic efficacy at ?5-, ?2-, and ?3- but low intrinsic efficacy at ?1-containing GABA(A) receptors and is devoid of cardiorespiratory depression, sedative/hypnoitc and amnestic actions and does not elicit tolerance and dependence liabilities unlike diazepam, for protection against soman toxicity. Guinea pigs implanted with bipotential radiotelemetry probes for recording EEG and ECG were administered with 26 ?g/kg pyridostigmine bromide 30 min prior to 2× LD(50) soman exposure and 1 min later treated with a combination of 2mg/kg atropine sulfate and 25mg/kg 2-pralidoxime and various doses of imidazenil. Intramuscular administration of imidazenil, dose-dependently protected against 2× LD(50) of soman toxicity up to 1mg/kg. Further increase in the dose of imidazenil to 2.5mg/kg was less effective than 1mg/kg probably due to non-specific actions at sites other than GABA(A) receptors. Compared to vehicle group, 1mg/kg imidazenil treatment showed optimal increase in survival rate, reduction in behavioral manifestations and high power of EEG spectrum as well as neuronal necrosis. These data suggest that imidazenil is an effective anticonvulsant for medical countermeasure against soman-induced toxicity. PMID:22245390

Wang, Ying; Oguntayo, Samuel; Wei, Yanling; Wood, Elisa; Brown, Ammon; Jensen, Neil; Auta, James; Guiodotti, Alessandro; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

2012-03-01

405

78 FR 58524 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Navy Training and Testing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...anti-surface warfare; anti- submarine warfare; mine warfare; naval special warfare; major training activities; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) testing; anti-surface warfare testing; anti-submarine warfare testing; Naval Sea...

2013-09-24

406

Vapour breakthrough behaviour of carbon tetrachloride - A simulant for chemical warfare agent on ASZMT carbon: A comparative study with whetlerite carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASZMT and whetlerite carbon was prepared by impregnation of active carbon with ammonical salts of Cu (II), Ag (I), Zn (II), Mo (VI), TEDA and Cu (II), Ag (I), Cr (VI), NaOH, C5H5N respectively using incipient wetness technique. Thereafter, impregnated carbon systems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and surface characterization techniques. Impregnated carbon systems were evaluated under dynamic conditions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) vapour that was used as a simulant for the persistent chemical warfare agents for testing breakthrough times of filter cartridges and canisters of gas masks in the national approval test of respirators. The protective potential of ASZMT carbon was compared with the whetlerite carbon which is presently used in NBC filtration system. The effect of CCl4 concentration, test flow rate, temperature and relative humidity on the breakthrough behaviour of the impregnated carbon systems has also been studied. The study clearly indicated that the whetlerite carbon possessed breakthrough time greater than ASZMT carbon. However, ASZMT carbon provided adequate protection against CCl4 vapours and can be used as an alternative to whetlerite carbon that contain Cr(VI), which is reported to be carcinogenic and having lesser shelf life. The study indicated the breakthrough time of impregnated carbon systems were found to decrease with the increase of the CCl4 concentration and flow rate. The variation in temperature and relative humidity did not significantly affect the breakthrough behaviour of impregnated carbon systems at high vapour concentration of CCl4 whereasbreak through time of impregnated carbon systems reduced by an increase of relative humidity at low CCl4 vapour concentration.

Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Shah, Dilip K.; Mahato, T. H.; Roy, A.; Yadav, S. S.; Srivas, S. K.; Singh, Beer

2013-06-01

407

Updated 7-12 E. Anne Sandel  

E-print Network

and oversight responsibility for the cost, schedule, and performance of surface ship, submarine, and Marine Ship and Submarine Combat Systems, Missiles, Radars, Launchers, Electronic Warfare (EW) systems, Anti-Submarine and Submarine design and production. In 1988, she joined the Engineering Directorate of the Naval Sea Systems

408

M em ory for Item s and M em ory for R elations in the Procedural/D eclarative M em ory Fram ew ork  

E-print Network

ever, as we hope to m ake clear here, progress on this front M E M O R Y , 1 99 7, 5 (1 /2 ), 1 31 ±17M em ory for Item s and M em ory for R elations in the Procedural/D eclarative M em ory Fram ew ork ard Eichenbaum Boston U niversity, U SA A m ajor area of research in m em ory and am nesia concerns

Poldrack, Russ

409

High resolution bathymetric survey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, (SSC-San Diego), California was selected by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (UK MoD) to design, develop and integrate a bathymetric navigation survey system aboard a survey ship that was designed specifically for deep water operations. In 1998, an operational survey system, installed aboard HMS Scott, was delivered to the United

S. J. Dunham; J. T. Handal; T. Peterson; M. O'Brien

2004-01-01

410

On-site analysis of old deposited chemical warfare agents by combined use of ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The factory site of an old mustard gas plant was investigated with on-site analysis methods. Using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry a lot of degradation products of mustard gas could be detected. Sulfur mustard was found in one soil sample and in ceramic material of a bunker used for storage of the produced warfare agents. Concentrations of the mustard gas are in the sub ppb level. The results of ion mobility and mass spectrometry agreed in 95 % of the investigated samples.

Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doering, H.R. [Bruker-Saxonia Analytik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Flachowsky, J. [Environmental Research Center Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig (Germany); Loudon, A. [Bruker-Franzen Analytik GmbH, Bremen (Germany)

1995-12-31

411

Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

2010-05-01

412

Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 189 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

413

Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which consisted of developing an understanding of the cyberwarfare environment and categorizing offensive cyberwarfare strategies and techniques. In the second phase of the research project, which is the centerpiece of this paper, we developed and refined the system software architecture and system design and developed and revised a knowledge base design. In the third phase, which will be the subject of future research reports, we will implement a prototype CW OPFOR and test and evaluate its performance within realistic experiments. The second phase of the CW OPFOR research project is a key step; one that will determine the scalability, utility, and maintainability of the CWOPFOR. For the CW OPFOR, software development and knowledge acquisition must be key activities and must be conducted so that the CW OPFOR has the ability to adapt and incorporate research results and cyberbattlespace insights. This paper will discuss the key aspects of these two parallel knowledge base design efforts as well as discuss the CW OPFOR software architecture and design. The paper is organized as follows. Section One presents a discussion concerning the motivation for the CW OPFOR project, the need for the capability, and the expected results. Section Two contains a discussion of background material. Section Three contains an overview discussion of the CW OPFOR knowledge base design and the key design choices and alternatives considered at each choice. Section Four contains a discussion of conclusions and future work.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2005-03-01

414

A knowledge- and model-based system for automated weaning from mechanical ventilation: technical description and first clinical application.  

PubMed

To describe the principles and the first clinical application of a novel prototype automated weaning system called Evita Weaning System (EWS). EWS allows an automated control of all ventilator settings in pressure controlled and pressure support mode with the aim of decreasing the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory load takes inspired fraction of oxygen, positive end-expiratory pressure, pressure amplitude and spontaneous breathing activity into account. Spontaneous breathing activity is assessed by the number of controlled breaths needed to maintain a predefined respiratory rate. EWS was implemented as a knowledge- and model-based system that autonomously and remotely controlled a mechanical ventilator (Evita 4, Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany). In a selected case study (n = 19 patients), ventilator settings chosen by the responsible physician were compared with the settings 10 min after the start of EWS and at the end of the study session. Neither unsafe ventilator settings nor failure of the system occurred. All patients were successfully transferred from controlled ventilation to assisted spontaneous breathing in a mean time of 37 ± 17 min (± SD). Early settings applied by the EWS did not significantly differ from the initial settings, except for the fraction of oxygen in inspired gas. During the later course, EWS significantly modified most of the ventilator settings and reduced the imposed respiratory load. A novel prototype automated weaning system was successfully developed. The first clinical application of EWS revealed that its operation was stable, safe ventilator settings were defined and the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation was decreased. PMID:23892513

Schädler, Dirk; Mersmann, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz; Elke, Gunnar; Semmel-Griebeler, Thomas; Noll, Oliver; Pulletz, Sven; Zick, Günther; David, Matthias; Heinrichs, Wolfgang; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

2014-10-01

415

Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1983-29 September 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work accomplished in the first year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and and performance that will be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. The presence and absence of correlations between social behavior and performance on two operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are reported as are the effects of caffeine (as a control) and atropine on the social and performance variables.

Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

1984-10-01

416

Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.  

SciTech Connect

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2006-01-01

417

A guide to the selection of personal protective equipment for use in responding to a release of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was potentially as great a threat as from transportation and the final demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a civilian community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warface munitions. An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with any HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and detection equipment used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel. FEMA requested that ORNL create training materials for CSEPP participants. These training materials were to provide information on a variety of topics and answer questions that a typical CSEPP participant might ask, including the following: how did the Army select the CSEPP recommended ensemble (i.e., protective clothing, respiratory equipment, and detection equipment); how does the CSEPP participant know this ensemble is the right PPE for chemical warfare agents and will actually protect him; what are the concept of operations and work rules? Does one need to know what the CSEPP concept of operations and work rules include? This report describes the training document ORNL created.

Foust, C.B.

1997-10-01

418

Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) is hosting a Pacific Rim Innovation Symposium on October 10-11, 2012, at the SPAWAR Center in San Diego, Ca., for junior leaders from E-5 to O-5. The event is scheduled to start at 12:00  

E-print Network

Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) is hosting a Pacific Rim Innovation Symposium on October 10 power in future conflicts and solicit ideas to address current Pacific Fleet challenges. The second day Warfare Development CommandNavy Warfare Development Command Pacific Rim Innovation SymposiumPacific Rim

419

Use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in enviornmental samples  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful analytical techniques for elucidating the molecular structure of organic compounds. In environmental samples, the identification and detection of chemical warfare related compounds is best accomplished using high field high resolution NMR. This paper describes the experimental procedures.

Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

420

Detection of the chemical warfare agents bis-(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine (HN-1) and tris-(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN-3) in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the method development and validation for detection of the chemical warfare agents HN-1 and HN-3 in air using C8 solid-phase extraction disks followed by liquid desorption and analysis by gas chromatography. The method is contrasted to the standard approach which uses solid sorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography.

Richard L. Cheicante; H. Dupont Durst; Jill L. Ruth

1999-01-01

421

Rapid screening procedures for the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents using positive and negative ion liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative screening procedures have been developed for the rapid detection and identification of the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents in aqueous samples and extracts, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). Previously reported screening procedures, which used positive APCI or electrospray ionisation (ESI), were modified by using LC conditions that allowed acquisition of

Robert W Read; Robin M Black

1999-01-01

422

War gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. January 1970-January 1988 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-January 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning non-quick war gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. Analyses and comparative evaluations, based upon computerized simulations, are considered as are manuals and specification for the various computer programs employed. Stage 64 and Satan II and III are covered prominently. (This updated bibliography contains 356 citations, 36 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-01-01

423

Health assessment for Naval Undersea Warfare Station, Keyport, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WA1170023419. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Undersea Warfare Station Site (NUW) has been proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List. Preliminary on-site sampling results from the Keyport Landfill have identified chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury, and phthalates. Shellfish sampled from the intertidal flats identified various phthalates. Preliminary soil and sediment sampling results from the Van Meter Road area identified arsenic (16 ppm), cadmium (2 ppm), chromium (69 ppm), lead(36 ppm), and mercury (100 ppb). Preliminary sediment-sampling results from Liberty Bay identified lead (8 to 160 ppm), mercury (40 to 190 ppb), cadmium (130 to 970 ppb), and chromium (21 to 43 ppm). In addition, heavy metals were identified in shellfish. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances.

Not Available

1988-09-01

424

EZH2 is a mediator of EWS/FLI1 driven tumor growth and metastasis blocking endothelial and neuro-ectodermal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Ewing tumors (ET) are highly malignant, localized in bone or soft tissue, and are molecularly defined by ews/ets translocations. DNA microarray analysis revealed a relationship of ET to both endothelium and fetal neural crest. We identified expression of histone methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste, Drosophila, Homolog 2 (EZH2) to be increased in ET. Suppressive activity of EZH2 maintains stemness in normal and malignant cells. Here, we found EWS/FLI1 bound to the EZH2 promoter in vivo, and induced EZH2 expression in ET and mesenchymal stem cells. Down-regulation of EZH2 by RNA interference in ET suppressed oncogenic transformation by inhibiting clonogenicity in vitro. Similarly, tumor development and metastasis was suppressed in immunodeficient Rag2?/??C?/? mice. EZH2-mediated gene silencing was shown to be dependent on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Subsequent microarray analysis of EZH2 knock down, HDAC-inhibitor treatment and confirmation in independent assays revealed an undifferentiated phenotype maintained by EZH2 in ET. EZH2 regulated stemness genes such as nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), as well as genes involved in neuroectodermal and endothelial differentiation (EMP1, EPHB2, GFAP, and GAP43). These data suggest that EZH2 might have a central role in ET pathology by shaping the oncogenicity and stem cell phenotype of this tumor. PMID:19289832

Richter, Günther H. S.; Plehm, Stephanie; Fasan, Annette; Rössler, Sabine; Unland, Rebekka; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M.; Hotfilder, Marc; Löwel, Diana; von Luettichau, Irene; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kovar, Heinrich; Staege, Martin S.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Burdach, Stefan

2009-01-01

425

Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of diesel electric submarines has impacted undersea warfare (USW) world wide. They are acoustically nearly undetectable, but can be detected by their periscope or snorkel. Since the US Navy has no diesel electric submarine, the Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS) is being developed to meet the requirement for an inexpensive readily available periscope detection target for the training

Stan Rollins; Richard Knutson; Hung Vo; Steve Ebner

1998-01-01

426

77 FR 60678 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Navy Training and Testing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...training and testing activities: amphibious warfare; anti- surface warfare; anti-submarine warfare; mine warfare; naval special warfare; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) testing; Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) testing; Space...

2012-10-04

427

77 FR 60679 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Navy Training and Testing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...training and testing activities: amphibious warfare; anti-surface warfare; anti- submarine warfare; mine warfare; naval special warfare; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) testing; Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) testing; Space...

2012-10-04

428

Mass of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed by Pump-and-Treat, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1996-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pump and Treat (P&T) remediation is the primary technique used to contain and remove trichloroethylene (TCE) and its degradation products cis 1-2,dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) from groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. Three methods were used to determine the masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed from groundwater by the P&T system since it became fully operational in 1996. Method 1, is based on the flow volume and concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater that entered the P&T building as influent. Method 2 is based on withdrawal volume from each active recovery well and the concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in the water samples from each well. Method 3 compares the maximum monthly amount of TCE, cDCE, and VC from Method 1 and Method 2. The greater of the two values is selected to represent the masses of TCE, cDCE and VC removed from groundwater each month. Previously published P&T monthly reports used Method 1 to determine the mass of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed. The reports state that 8,666 pounds (lbs) of TCE, 13,689 lbs of cDCE, and 2,455 lbs of VC were removed by the P&T system during 1996-2010. By using Method 2, the mass removed was determined to be 8,985 lbs of TCE, 17,801 lbs of cDCE, and 3,056 lbs of VC removed, and Method 3, resulted in 10,602 lbs of TCE, 21,029 lbs of cDCE, and 3,496 lbs of VC removed. To determine the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater, the individual masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC (determined using Methods 1, 2, and 3) were converted to numbers of moles, summed, and converted to pounds of original TCE. By using the molar conversion the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater by Methods 1, 2, and 3 was 32,381 lbs, 39,535 lbs, and 46,452 lbs, respectively, during 1996-2010. P&T monthly reports state that 24,805 lbs of summed TCE, cDCE, and VC were removed from groundwater. The simple summing method underestimates the mass of original TCE removed by the P&T system.

Lacombe, Pierre J.

2011-01-01

429

Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents  

DOEpatents

A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.

2013-04-02

430

EWS/FLI1 regulates EYA3 in Ewing's sarcoma via modulation of microRNA-708, resulting in increased cell survival and chemoresistance  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive pediatric cancer of the bone and soft tissue, in which patients whose tumors have a poor histological response to initial chemotherapy have a poor overall prognosis. Therefore, it is important to identify molecules involved in resistance to chemotherapy. Herein, we demonstrate that the DNA-repair protein and transcriptional cofactor, EYA3, is highly expressed in Ewing's sarcoma tumor samples and cell lines compared with mesenchymal stem cells, the presumed cell of origin of Ewing's sarcoma, and that it is regulated by the EWS/FLI1 fusion protein transcription factor. We further demonstrate that EWS/FLI1 mediates upregulation of EYA3 via repression of miR-708, a microRNA that targets the EYA3 3?UTR, rather than by binding the EYA3 promoter directly. Importantly, we demonstrate that high levels of EYA3 significantly correlate with low levels of miR-708 in Ewing's sarcoma samples, suggesting that this miR-mediated mechanism of EYA3 regulation holds true in human cancers. Because EYA proteins are important for cell survival during development, we examine, and demonstrate, that loss of EYA3 decreases survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Most importantly, knockdown of EYA3 in Ewing's sarcoma cells leads to sensitization to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma, and as expected, after chemotherapeutic treatment, EYA3 knockdown cells repair DNA damage less effectively than their control counterparts. These studies identify EYA3 as a novel mediator of chemoresistance in Ewing's sarcoma and define the molecular mechanisms of both EYA3 overexpression and of EYA3-mediated chemoresistance. PMID:22723308

Robin, Tyler P; Smith, Anna; McKinsey, Erin; Reaves, Lisa; Jedlicka, Paul; Ford, Heide L.

2012-01-01

431

How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

Foust, C.B.

1999-05-01

432

Application of liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry, to the analysis and identification of degradation products of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative screening procedure was developed for the detection of the hydrolysis and related products of chemical warfare agents using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. A mixed C8\\/C18 reversed-phase column gave acceptable chromatography for the range of acidic, neutral and basic analytes. Detection limits for pure standards were less than 0.2 ng injected for the simple hydrolysis

Robin M. Black; Robert W. Read

1997-01-01

433

Direct Quantification of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds at Low ppt Levels: Comparing Active Capillary Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Ionization and Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents. Well-defined analyte gas phase concentrations were generated by a pressure-assisted nanospray with consecutive thermal evaporation and dilution. Identification was achieved by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The most abundant fragment ion intensity of each compound was used for quantification. For DBDI and SESI, absolute gas phase detection limits in the low ppt range (in MS/MS mode) were achieved for all compounds investigated. Although the sensitivity of both methods was comparable, the active capillary DBDI sensitivity was found to be dependent on the applied AC voltage, thus enabling direct tuning of the sensitivity and the in-source fragmentation, which may become a key feature in terms of field applicability. Our findings underline the applicability of DBDI and SESI for the direct, sensitive detection and quantification of several CWA types and their degradation products. Furthermore, they suggest the use of DBDI in combination with hand-held instruments for CWAs on-site monitoring. PMID:25427190

Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

2015-01-01

434

Geophysical investigation at Mustard Gas Burial Ground, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, Indiana. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A geophysical investigation was conducted at the Mustard Gas Burial Ground (MGBG) at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, IN. The MGBG, an approximately 2-acre area, is a former Solid Waste Management Unit. The objective of the investigation was to detect and delineate anomalies indicating the locations of buried structures, objects, or disturbed zones associated with past hazardous waste burial at the MGBG. The locations of these objects are needed so they can be excavated for removal to a permanent treatment or disposal site. Frequency and time domain electromagnetic (EM) along with magnetic survey methods were used at the MGBG. All the surveys performed at the MGBG indicated an anomalous area approximately 10 ft in diameter centered on Station 255 on Line 130. The estimated depth of the anomaly, based on results of the transient EM surveys, is 1 to 2 ft. The anomaly is presumed to be ferrous in nature since it was detected by the magnetometer. An additional, 2- to 3-ft diameter anomaly, caused by a small metallic object was detected by the transient EM surveys.

Llopis, J.L.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Murphy, W.L.

1997-06-01

435

Decomposition of 2-chloroethylethylsulfide on copper oxides to detoxify polymer-based spherical activated carbons from chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

For the decomposition of chemical warfare agents, a hybrid material concept was applied. This consists of a copper oxide-containing phase as a component with reactive functionality supported on polymer-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) as a component with adsorptive functionality. A corresponding hybrid material was prepared by impregnation of PBSAC with copper(II)nitrate and subsequent calcination at 673K. The copper phase exists predominantly as copper(I)oxide which is homogeneously distributed over the PBSAC particles. The hybrid material containing 16 wt.% copper on PBSAC is capable of self-detoxifying the mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES) at room temperature. The decomposition is related to the breakthrough behavior of the reactant CEES, which displaces the reaction product ethylvinylsulfide (EVS). This leads to a combined breakthrough of CEES and EVS. The decomposition of CEES is shown to occur catalytically over the copper-containing PBSAC material. Thus, the hybrid material can even be considered to be self-cleaning. PMID:24140529

Fichtner, S; Hofmann, J; Möller, A; Schrage, C; Giebelhausen, J M; Böhringer, B; Gläser, R

2013-11-15

436

Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

1995-01-01

437

Smart Warriors: A Rationale for Educating Air Force Academy Cadets in the History of Science, Technology, and Warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial pedagogical issue facing instructors of History of Science and Technology (HST) at a military institution like the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is enhancing the judgment of cadets through education so that they can make informed and intelligent decisions as officers. Fundamental understanding of relationships between HST and warfare provides much needed context for making decisions in the complex technical milieu cadets inhabit. A related goal is to instill in cadets a critical attitude towards technology. Getting cadets to examine the value of new weapons technology is sometimes difficult, however. Cadets identify closely with the Air Force and the technology of flight; a critical attitude towards this technology may seem unhealthy to them, or even a form of betrayal or institutional disloyalty. Cadets nevertheless need to gain an appreciation for the context of HST, especially the dialectical interaction of science and technology with military doctrine. This paper discusses the experience of helping cadets to meet such challenges in learning HST in the context of professional military training.

Astore, William J.

438

Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An automated thermal desorption (ATD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of selected chemical warfare (CW) agents. Suitable methods were developed for analytes of high volatility to low volatility. The less volatile CW agents required the purchase and installation of a high-temperature valve upgrade kit allowing valve temperatures of up to 260 degrees C to be reached. The limit of detection was 50 ng on the tube for most CW agents in full scan. Chloropicrin exhibited some temperature dependence, with detection limits improving as ATD temperatures were decreased below 150 degrees C. A sample storage trial was undertaken to establish the most suitable storage environment for CW agents adsorbed onto Tenax TA. Temperature and time of storage were found to influence recovery of analytes with best recoveries being observed after 1 day storage in a freezer (-12 degrees C). This method was evaluated during a trial of procedures for sampling and identification of chemical agents at Porton Down, UK. Sulfur mustard was detected downwind of a simulated exploded munition. PMID:11519809

Carrick, W A; Cooper, D B; Muir, B

2001-08-01

439

CF-18 AN/ALQ-126B-MG 13 IIP interface to the DREO Electronic Warfare Engagement Simulation Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AN/ALQ-126B is the radar jammer carried aboard CF-18 fighter aircraft to jam non-coherent pulsed radars. The jammer is software programmable and capable of generating a variety of radar countermeasures signals. To evaluate the effectiveness of radar jammers and jamming techniques, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa has developed the Electronic Warfare Engagement Simulation Facility (EWESF). The fundamental concepts of electronic countermeasures effectiveness evaluation are described along with the EWESF layout, the AN/ALQ-126B radar jammer, and the jammer interface to the EWESF to jam the MG-13 IIP air intercept radar. Some of the advantages and drawbacks of the configuration are discussed. The EWESF serves as a test bed for operating the jammer and testing its responses on different types of experimental radars. The test configuration is also useful for the CF-18 Integrated Support Station (ISS) project where open-loop jamming tests using new countermeasures techniques may be performed as they are developed. Some limitations of the present test configuration are discussed as well as several modifications to improve the performance and user friendliness of the EWESF. These options include upgrading the scenario control computers and software, upgrading the tracking radar, and adding a continuous target angle motion capability.

Loo, James; Labeaume, Serge

1992-11-01

440

Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase 1.  

PubMed

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been described as an efficient catalytic bioscavenger due to its ability to hydrolyze organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). It is the future most promising candidate as prophylactic medical countermeasure against highly toxic OPs and CWNAs. Most of the studies conducted so far have been focused on the hydrolyzing potential of PON1 against nerve agents, sarin, soman, and VX. Here, we investigated the hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ?25-40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80-250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ?30-60 times and ?200-260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure. PMID:21040699

Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Biggemann, Lionel; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

2010-12-01

441

AAIB Bulletin No: 2/2005 Ref: EW/C2003/08/11 Category: 1.1 Aircraft Type and Registration: Airbus A320-200, C-FTDF  

E-print Network

of the BSCU. Two safety recommendations were made to the aircraft manufacturer regarding improved warnings13 AAIB Bulletin No: 2/2005 Ref: EW/C2003/08/11 Category: 1.1 INCIDENT Aircraft Type hours Information Source: Aircraft Accident Report Form submitted by the pilot plus additional inquiries

Ladkin, Peter B.

442

Littoral environmental reconnaissance using tactical imagery from unmanned aircraft systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic nature of littoral regions requires a reconnaissance approach that can rapidly quantify environmental conditions. Inadequate estimation of these conditions can have substantial impacts on the performance of Naval systems. Given that expeditionary warfare operations can occur over timescales on the order of hours, exploitation of video imagery from tactical vehicles such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has proved

K. Todd Holland; David M. Lalejini; Steven D. Spansel; Robert A. Holman

2010-01-01

443

A major EW directed fault zone in the Gibraltar Strait? An approach through onshore-offshore correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gibraltar Strait is the neck between the southern Europe and northern Africa tips that links the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It consists in an ENE-WSW directed trough of rugged topography down to -800 m depth that straddles and erodes the Gibraltar Arc system. This trough comes to an end against the Camarinal Sill, NNE-SSW directed, which reaches

Ana Crespo-Blanc; Menchu Comas; Juan Carlos Balanyá; María. Luján

2010-01-01

444

Rapid and sensitive detection of biological warfare agents using time-resolved fluorescence assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have achieved sensitive, rapid and reproducible detection of three biological threat agents in a variety of biological and environmental matrices using the DELFIA time-resolved fluorometry (TRF) assay system (Perkin-Elmer Life Sciences, Akron, OH). Existing ELISA assays for the detection of Francisella tularensis, Clostridium botulinum A\\/B neurotoxin (BotNT A\\/B), and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) were converted to TRF assays.

Anne Harwood Peruski; Linwood Hill Johnson III; Leonard Francis Peruski Jr

2002-01-01

445

APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam

Edgar A. Rhodes; Charles W. Peters

1993-01-01

446

The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.  

PubMed

Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol. PMID:23258738

Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

2015-01-01

447

Status of miniature integrated UV resonance fluorescence and Raman sensors for detection and identification of biochemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) is the most sensitive method of detection of biological material including microorganisms, virus', and cellular residues. LINF is also a sensitive method of detection for many non-biological materials as well. The specificity with which these materials can be classified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths. Higher levels of specificity can be obtained using Raman spectroscopy but a much lower levels of sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy has traditionally been employed in the IR to avoid fluorescence. Fluorescence rarely occurs at wavelength below about 270nm. Therefore, when excitation occurs at a wavelength below 250nm, no fluorescence background occurs within the Raman fingerprint region for biological materials. When excitation occurs within electronic resonance bands of the biological target materials, Raman signal enhancement over one million typically occurs. Raman sensitivity within several hundred times fluorescence are possible in the deep UV where most biological materials have strong absorption. Since the Raman and fluorescence emissions occur at different wavelength, both spectra can be observed simultaneously, thereby providing a sensor with unique sensitivity and specificity capability. We will present data on our integrated, deep ultraviolet, LINF/Raman instruments that are being developed for several applications including life detection on Mars as well as biochemical warfare agents on Earth. We will demonstrate the ability to discriminate organic materials based on LINF alone. Together with UV resonance Raman, higher levels of specificity will be demonstrated. In addition, these instruments are being developed as on-line chemical sensors for industrial and municipal waste streams and product quality applications.

Hug, William F.; Bhartia, Rohit; Taspin, Alexandre; Lane, Arthur; Conrad, Pamela; Sijapati, Kripa; Reid, Ray D.

2005-11-01

448

Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.  

PubMed

A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. PMID:24211802

Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

2014-01-01

449

Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

2008-01-01

450

Redox warfare between airway epithelial cells and Pseudomonas: Dual oxidase versus pyocyanin  

PubMed Central

The importance of reactive oxygen species-dependent microbial killing by the phagocytic cell NADPH oxidase has been appreciated for some time, although only recently has an appreciation developed for the partnership of lactoperoxidase with related dual oxidases (Duox) within secretions of the airway surface layer. This system produces mild oxidants designed for extracellular killing that are effective against several airway pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bulkhoderia cepacia, and Pseudononas aeruginosa. Establishment of chronic pseudomonas infections involves adaptations to resist oxidant-dependent killing by expression of a redox-active virulence factor, pyocyanin, that competitively inhibits epithelial Duox activity by consuming intracellular NADPH and producing superoxide, thereby inflicting oxidative stress on the host. PMID:18979077

Rada, Balázs; Leto, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

451

Two-Body Convection in the Mantle of the Earth: E/W Asymmetry, Under Astronomically Determined Tilt in g  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under purely geocentric gravity, over time displacement under mantle convection is globally symmetrical, resulting in zero net lithosphere rotation. The effect is here explored of substituting the asymmetric Earth-Moon field, gconv, prevalent in actuality. The gravity responsible for mantle convection is defined as the vector sum of a vertical component and the day-averaged attraction of masses lagging tidal equilibrium. The increasingly accurately measured lunar recession may then be used to delimit the internal field in terms of the secular luni-tidal interval of the Earth as a whole, some 600 seconds [1], without having to identify tidal components i.e. separate marine from body tides. In context the astronomic phase-lag may be viewed as a global isostatic anomaly, in which the longitude circles marking Earth's gravimetric figure are located east of those describing its perpetually unattained equilibrium figure by some 89 km at the Equator. Reference the hydrostatic ellipsoid gconv is tilted by the astronomically delimited amount, albeit that the phase lag is attributable in part to the convection itself. As with the convection, the tectonic significance of its asymmetry is determinable geodetically. Using present art-state a strategically located GPS grid [2] would provide continuously more precise separation of the asymmetric component of surface displacement. In developing plate-motion models including members of the Nuvel series, it would be logical to follow up rather than discard the set permitting minor asymmetrical convection sans net torque, such as an element of net-lithosphere-rotation relative to plumes. To conserve system angular-momentum, this may be the only valid set. Characteristics of the convection to be expected accord with 'paradoxical' features of plate tectonics under purely radial gravity, including: difficulty in closing plate-motion circuits; net-lithosphere-rotation refce. hot-spots, sans net torque; geotectonic maps ranging from Wegener to the present day [3], identifying a 'global tectonic polarity'; and westward drift, of which the asymmetry may be regarded as its engine. In sum, Earth's mantle is subject to three non-reversing force systems acting in the direction of causing net surface-west horizontal displacement, namely: I, Weak and tectonically insignificant forces ('tidal drag'), in unison constituting GH Darwin's tidal retarding couple; II, The forces inducing cumulative vorticity (TVI) [4] in an imperfectly elastic mantle, under passage of tidal M2. The operation of this system is ineluctable, and based on stress and energy consumption is likely to be significant, but its quantification requires separation of the marine from the bodily tidal energy dissipation utilizing secondary effects [4,5]; and III, Buoyancy-forces under convection now recognized as fundamental in geotectonics; - as normally modeled, greatly superadiabatic and dissipative, but within a field gconv minutely west-tilted, rather than artifically devoid of the Moon. Asymmetry of its internal gravity is unique to the asynchronous member of Kuiper's Earth-Moon double planet. The asymmetry distinguishes Earth's steady-state convection from the episodic regime of its moonless and almost non-rotating 'identical twin', Venus. Refs: [1] Tuoma, J. and J. Wisdom, 1994. Astron. J. 108(5) 1943-1961. [2] RCB, 2002. Episodes: J. Int. Geosc. 25(3), in pr. [3] Doglioni, C., 1993. J. Geol. Soc. 150, 991-1002. [4] RCB, 2000. Tectonic Consequences of Earth's Rotation (Oxford UP) s.4.3. [5] Lambeck, K., 1988. Geophysical Geodesy: The Slow Deformations of the Earth (Oxford UP) s. 11.3.

Bostrom, R. C.

2002-12-01

452

Specialized insulin is used for chemical warfare by fish-hunting cone snails.  

PubMed

More than 100 species of venomous cone snails (genus Conus) are highly effective predators of fish. The vast majority of venom components identified and functionally characterized to date are neurotoxins specifically targeted to receptors, ion channels, and transporters in the nervous system of prey, predators, or competitors. Here we describe a venom component targeting energy metabolism, a radically different mechanism. Two fish-hunting cone snails, Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, have evolved specialized insulins that are expressed as major components of their venoms. These insulins are distinctive in having much greater similarity to fish insulins than to the molluscan hormone and are unique in that posttranslational modifications characteristic of conotoxins (hydroxyproline, ?-carboxyglutamate) are present. When injected into fish, the venom insulin elicits hypoglycemic shock, a condition characterized by dangerously low blood glucose. Our evidence suggests that insulin is specifically used as a weapon for prey capture by a subset of fish-hunting cone snails that use a net strategy to capture prey. Insulin appears to be a component of the nirvana cabal, a toxin combination in these venoms that is released into the water to disorient schools of small fish, making them easier to engulf with the snail's distended false mouth, which functions as a net. If an entire school of fish simultaneously experiences hypoglycemic shock, this should directly facilitate capture by the predatory snail. PMID:25605914

Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Gajewiak, Joanna; Karanth, Santhosh; Robinson, Samuel D; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Douglass, Adam D; Schlegel, Amnon; Imperial, Julita S; Watkins, Maren; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Yandell, Mark; Li, Qing; Purcell, Anthony W; Norton, Raymond S; Ellgaard, Lars; Olivera, Baldomero M

2015-02-10

453

Design and Fabrication of a MEMS Capacitive Chemical Sensor System  

E-print Network

monitoring, industrial hazard detection and sensing of chemical warfare agents. Micro-electro- mechanicalDesign and Fabrication of a MEMS Capacitive Chemical Sensor System Vishal Saxena, Todd J. Plum element is a parallel plate capacitor using a chemically sensitive polymer as the dielectric. In presence

Baker, R. Jacob

454

Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides using a C18 Hilic column. Critical isomeric compounds can be confirmed by LC-MS/MS experiments, after detecting the N-oxides from the neutral loss scanning method. PMID:24553657

Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S

2014-08-01

455

An Adaptive Broadband Mobile Ad-Hoc Radio Backbone System; DARPA NetCentric Demonstration - Ft. Benning, GA, January 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel autonomously adaptive networked radio system that provides a broadband tactical mobile backbone to enable netcentric warfare. The system was successfully demonstrated to seamlessly interconnect multiple heterogeneous networked radio systems during the DARPA NetCentric (NC) demonstration at Ft. Benning, GA in January 2006, serving as the high availability terrestrial backbone link between dismount units that were

Scott Seidel; Tim Krout; Larry Stotts

2006-01-01

456

Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.  

PubMed

A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). PMID:24835029

Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

2014-08-01

457

Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).  

PubMed

Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Hoe-Chee, C; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

2014-08-01

458

Maintenance and Restoration of Immune System Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The immune system is our own personal biological warfare machine used to defend the body against infection. Complexity in\\u000a the immune system arises because of the lack of any long term stability in the pool of pathogenic organisms. These have the\\u000a ability to mutate and alter their ability to invade the host. As a consequence our immune system has to

Richard Aspinall; Wayne A. Mitchell

459

Emergency destruction system for recovered chemical munitions  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a transportable system for destroying recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions. The system uses shaped charges to access the agent and burster followed by chemical neutralization to destroy them. The entire process takes place inside a sealed pressure vessel. In this paper, they review the design, operation, and testing of a prototype system capable of containing up to one pound of explosive.

Shepodd, T.J.; Stofleth, J.H.; Haroldsen, B.L.

1998-04-01

460

A New Generation of Tactical Action Officer Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stottler Henke is developing for the US Navy's Surface Warfare Officer's School (SWOS) a new generation of Tactical Action Officer (TAO) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), interfaced to the Generic Reconfigurable Training System (GRTS). The GRTS TAO ITS allows TAO students to interact naturally using spoken language to command and query simulated entities corresponding to other crew members and off-ship personnel.

Richard Stottler; Susan Panichas

2006-01-01

461

Comparison of sensor systems designed using multizone, zonal, and CFD data for protection of indoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is mostly by intuition and experience rather than by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, the proper selection of an indoor airflow model is needed. Various indoor airflow models exist in the literature, from complex computational fluid

Y. Lisa Chen; Jin Wen

2010-01-01

462

Mobile munitions assessment system development  

SciTech Connect

The United States has been involved in the development, testing, storage and disposal of chemical weapons since World War I. As a result, there are numerous sites which contain the presence of chemical warfare materiel. This materiel is in the form of buried surplus munitions, munitions that did not detonate during testing and other forms. These items pose a significant human health and environmental hazard and must be disposed of properly. The US Army was tasked by the Department of Defense with the remediation of all non-stockpile chemical warfare materiel. To help comply with this tasking, the Army Project Manager for Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel is sponsoring the development of a Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS). The system is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Dugway Proving Ground. The purpose of the system is to inspect suspect munitions and containers, identify the fill, evaluate the fuzing and firing train and analyze samples from the surrounding area to determine if chemical warfare materiel is present. The information gained from the application of the MMAS and other systems is intended to be used to establish the best method to handle and dispose of a given munition and its contents.

Rowe, L.C. [Department of the Army, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Watts, K.D. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jorgensen, C.L. [Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States)

1996-05-01

463

Hydraulic and solute-transport properties and simulated advective transport of contaminated ground water in a fractured rock aquifer at the Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds, predominantly trichloroethylene and its degradation products, have been detected in ground water at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. An air-stripping pump-and-treat system has been in operation at the NAWC since 1998. An existing ground-water-flow model was used to evaluate the effect of a change in the configuration of the network of recovery wells in the pump-and-treat system on flow paths of contaminated ground water. The NAWC is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer composed of dipping layers of sedimentary rocks of the Lockatong and Stockton Formations. Hydraulic and solute-transport properties of the part of the aquifer composed of the Lockatong Formation were measured using aquifer tests and tracer tests. The heterogeneity of the rocks causes a wide range of values of each parameter measured. Transmissivity ranges from 95 to 1,300 feet squared per day; the storage coefficient ranges from 9 x 10-5 to 5 x 10-3; and the effective porosity ranges from 0.0003 to 0.002. The average linear velocity of contaminated ground water was determined for ambient conditions (when no wells at the site are pumped) using an existing ground-water-flow model, particle-tracking techniques, and the porosity values determined in this study. The average linear velocity of flow paths beginning at each contaminated well and ending at the streams where the flow paths terminate ranges from 0.08 to 130 feet per day. As a result of a change in the pump-and-treat system (adding a 165-foot-deep well pumped at 5 gallons per minute and reducing the pumping rate at a nearby 41-foot-deep well by the same amount), water in the vicinity of three 100- to 165-foot-deep wells flows to the deep well rather than the shallower well.

Lewis-Brown, Jean C.; Carleton, Glen B.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.

2006-01-01

464

Insect Chemical Warfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussion of the Bombardier beetle's chemical defense, detailing the explosive qualities of the chemicals, where the beetle is found, a bit about distribution, and what the chemicals do to people. There's also a bit about insects in the news detailing the beetle's role in the ongoing religious debate as it pertains to how such an animal might evolve, with an aside about a Richard Dawkin's demonstration.

0002-11-30

465

The future: Armoured warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonel Daukes discusses the role of armoured forces in the Land Battle of the future. He argues that die changed situation in Europe has necessitated a swing in emphasis away from linear concepts and towards the use of conventional forces, approaching a more fluid operational doctrine. He predicts that armoured forces will be increasingly integrated with other arms and recognises

C D Daukes BA

1991-01-01

466

N*ews from COSY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COSY, a storage and cooler synchrotron, which is fed by an injector cyclotron, is operated at Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany). It provides phase space cooled polarized or unpolarized beams of protons and deuterons with momenta between 0.3 and 3.7 GeV/c for internal experiments and to external target stations. The major experimental facilities, used for the ongoing physics program, are ANKE and WASA (internal) and TOF (external). A new internal target station to investigate polarization build-up by spin-filtering (PAX) has recently been commissioned. COSY is the machine for hadron spin physics on a world-wide scale, which in recent times is also used for tests in conjunction with plans to build a dedicated storage ring for electric dipole moment (EDM) measurements of proton, deuteron and 3He. In this contribution selected experimental results from the N*-program are presented.

Ströher, Hans

2012-04-01

467

Geophysical investigation at solid waste management units 14\\/00 and 17\\/04, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, Indiana. Final report, 15-17 November 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical surveys were conducted at solid waste management units (SWMU`s) 14100 and 17104, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, Indiana. The purpose of the surveys was (1) to detect and delineate the locations of lithium batteries reported to be buried in SWMU 14100 and (2) to detect and delineate the locations of electrical capacitors reported to be buried at

J. L. Llopis; M. K. Sharp

1996-01-01

468

Sulfur mustard: Its continuing threat as a chemical warfare agent, the cutaneous lesions induced, progress in understanding its mechanism of action, its long-term health effects, and new developments for protection and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century, it has reemerged in the past decade as a major threat around the world. SM is an agent that is easily produced even in underdeveloped countries and for which there is no effective therapy. This agent is a potential threat not only on

Kathleen J Smith; Charles G Hurst; Robert B Moeller; Henry G Skelton; Frederick R Sidell

1995-01-01

469

The Honeywell\\/DND helicopter integrated navigation system (HINS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of prototype of a high-performance, fault-tolerant navigation system for Canada's anti-submarine-warfare helicopter is discussed. HINS consists of three primary navigation subsystems (an F 3INS, a five channel P-code GPS (global positioning system), and a Doppler velocity sensor) and three secondary sensors (a strapdown magnetometer, a vertical gyro, and an air data system). The system is designed to blend

G. West-Vukovich; J. Zywiel; B. M. Scherzinger; H. Russell; S. Burke

1989-01-01

470

Vertically Integrated MEMS SOI Composite Porous Silicon-Crystalline Silicon Cantilever-Array Sensors: Concept for Continuous Sensing of Explosives and Warfare Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on arrays of cantilevers made of crystalline silicon (c-Si), using SOI wafers as the starting material and using bulk micromachining. The arrays are subsequently transformed into composite porous silicon-crystalline silicon cantilevers, using a unique vapor phase process tailored for providing a thin surface layer of porous silicon on one side only. This results in asymmetric cantilever arrays, with one side providing nano-structured porous large surface, which can be further coated with polymers, thus providing additional sensing capabilities and enhanced sensing. The c-Si cantilevers are vertically integrated with a bottom silicon die with electrodes allowing electrostatic actuation. Flip Chip bonding is used for the vertical integration. The readout is provided by a sensitive Capacitance to Digital Converter. The fabrication, processing and characterization results are reported. The reported study is aimed towards achieving miniature cantilever chips with integrated readout for sensing explosives and chemical warfare agents in the field.

Stolyarova, Sara; Shemesh, Ariel; Aharon, Oren; Cohen, Omer; Gal, Lior; Eichen, Yoav; Nemirovsky, Yael

471

U.S. military role in countering the biological and chemical warfare threat: Attacking the enemy`s will. Final report  

SciTech Connect

One of the greatest challenges facing the US military today in the post-Cold War Era is countering the proliferation of biological and chemical weapons (BCW). Known adversaries of the United States currently possess such weapons and will most likely employ them in future conflicts based on the perceived attractiveness associated with BCW. The US military can and must play an active role in deterring the proliferation and potential employment of these horrific weapons. Attacking the adversary`s will to possess or employ them is the singular, long lasting solution to a growing global crisis. The US military`s principal means of attacking this will is to negate the attractiveness of obtaining or already possessing a biological and chemical warfare capability.

Kraft, J.E.

1998-02-13

472

Application of Blind Source Separation to a Novel Passive Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The location of emitter by passive sensor arrays has received considerable attention in recent years. It is important in Electronic\\u000a Warfare (EW) system. To solve the problems of a passive location method based on broadcast & television signals, this paper\\u000a proposes a novel locating approach mainly based on Blind Source Separation (BSS). It realizes the signal separation, echo\\u000a extraction, and

Gaoming Huang; Luxi Yang; Zhenya He

2004-01-01

473

Specificity enhancement by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry--a valuable tool for differentiation and identification of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

The use of chemical warfare agents has become an issue of emerging concern. One of the challenges in analytical monitoring of the extremely toxic 'V'-type chemical weapons [O-alkyl S-(2-dialkylamino)ethyl alkylphosphonothiolates] is to distinguish and identify compounds of similar structure. MS analysis of these compounds reveals mostly fragment/product ions representing the amine-containing residue. Hence, isomers or derivatives with the same amine residue exhibit similar mass spectral patterns in both classical EI/MS and electrospray ionization-MS, leading to unavoidable ambiguity in the identification of the phosphonate moiety. A set of five 'V'-type agents, including O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (RVX) and O-ethyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VM) were studied by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/MS, utilizing a QTRAP mass detector. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans and multistage MS(3) experiments were carried out. Based on the results, possible fragmentation pathways were proposed, and a method for the differentiation and identification of structural isomers and derivatives of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents was obtained. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans at various collision energies provided information-rich spectra, although many of the product ions obtained were at low abundance. Employing MS(3) experiments enhanced the selectivity for those low abundance product ions and provided spectra indicative of the different phosphonate groups. Study of the fragmentation pathways, revealing some less expected structures, was carried out and allowed the formulation of mechanistic rules and the determination of sets of ions typical of specific groups, for example, methylphosphonothiolates versus ethylphosphonothiolates. The new group-specific ions elucidated in this work are also useful for screening unknown 'V'-type agents