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Sample records for warfare ew systems

  1. Introduction to electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleher, D. C.

    A broad overview of electronic warfare (EW) is given, emphasizing radar-related EW applications. A broad perspective of the EW field is first given, defining EW terms and giving methods of EW threat analysis and simulation. Electronic support measures and electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems are described, stressing their application to radar EW. Radars are comprehensively discussed from a system viewpoint with emphasis on their application in weapon systems and their electronic counter-countermeasures capabilities. Some general topics in C3 systems are described, stressing communication systems, C3I systems, and air defense systems. Performance calculations for EW and radar systems are covered, and modern EW signal processing is described from an airborne ECM perspective. Future trends and technology in the EW world are considered, discussing such topics as millimeter-wave EW, low-observable EW technology, GaAs monolithic circuits, VHSIC, and AI.

  2. MIC polar discriminators and multifunction modules in EW systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelli, R.; Gasperini, S.; Quaglia, A.

    In the design of modern airborne and shipborne electronic warfare (EW) systems, problems arise with respect to weight, size, cost and repeatability demands. The approaches used to obtain solutions to those problems frequently involve the use of new structures, based on the development of integrated microwave subsystem and multifunction modules. The two most useful configurations are related to strip-line and microstrip designs. A Polar Frequency Discriminator (PFD) is a subsystem which relates its output angle with an input frequency. This subsystem includes a power splitter, a delay line, and a Polar Phase Discriminator (PPD) with four detectors. A PPD which includes three 3-dB hybrid couplers, and a power splitter is considered. Attention is given to the development of suitable PFDs, and the design of a mcirostrip broadband multifunction component. The component is used for a Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) in a ship-borne system.

  3. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  4. High-temperature superconductivity for avionic electronic warfare and radar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    The electronic warfare (EW) and radar communities expect to be major beneficiaries of the performance advantages high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) has to offer over conventional technology. Near term upgrades to system hardware can be envisioned using extremely small, high Q, microwave filters and resonators; compact, wideband, low loss, microwave delay and transmission lines; as well as, wideband, low loss, monolithic microwave integrated circuit phase shifters. The most dramatic impact will be in the far term, using HTS to develop new, real time threat identification and response strategy receiver/processing systems designed to utilize the unique high frequency properties of microwave and ultimately digital HTS. To make superconductivity practical for operational systems, however, technological obstacles need to be overcome. Compact cryogenically cooled subsystems with exceptional performance able to withstand rugged operational environments for long periods of time need to be developed.

  5. Electronic warfare in the year 2000 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Herskovitz, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    The advantages of a design philosophy emphasizing integrated EW and integrated avionics are detailed. The discussion covers the hierarchy of EW system architecture, evolution of integrated systems, federated architecture, and transition to integrated systems. The performance of the joint surveillance target attack radar system during the operation Desert Storm is examined as an example of the integration approach. Finally, the future directions of electronic warfare systems are outlined. 6 refs.

  6. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  7. Photometric Solution and Frequency Analysis of the oEA System EW Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Luo, Y. P.; Wang, K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the first photometric solution and frequency analysis of the neglected oscillating Algol-type (oEA) binary EW Boo. B- and V-band light curves of the star were obtained on 11 nights in 2014. Using the Wilson-Devinney code, the eclipsing light curves were synthesized and the first photometric solution was derived for the binary system. The results reveal that EW Boo could be a semi-detached system with the less-massive secondary component filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. Frequency analysis of residual light shows multi-mode pulsation with the dominant period at 0.01909 days. A preliminary mode identification suggests that the star could be pulsating in non-radial (l = 1) modes. The long-term orbital period variation of the system was also investigated for the first time. An improved orbital period and new ephemerides of the eclipsing binary are given. The O-C analysis indicates a secular period increasing at a rate of dP/dt=2.9× {{10}-7} days y{{r}-1}, which could be interpreted as mass transfer from the cooler secondary to the primary component.

  8. Photometric solution and frequency analysis of the oEA system EW Boo

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Wang, K.; Luo, Y. P.

    2015-03-01

    We present the first photometric solution and frequency analysis of the neglected oscillating Algol-type (oEA) binary EW Boo. B- and V-band light curves of the star were obtained on 11 nights in 2014. Using the Wilson–Devinney code, the eclipsing light curves were synthesized and the first photometric solution was derived for the binary system. The results reveal that EW Boo could be a semi-detached system with the less-massive secondary component filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. Frequency analysis of residual light shows multi-mode pulsation with the dominant period at 0.01909 days. A preliminary mode identification suggests that the star could be pulsating in non-radial (l = 1) modes. The long-term orbital period variation of the system was also investigated for the first time. An improved orbital period and new ephemerides of the eclipsing binary are given. The O−C analysis indicates a secular period increasing at a rate of dP/dt=2.9×10{sup −7} days yr{sup −1}, which could be interpreted as mass transfer from the cooler secondary to the primary component.

  9. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each. PMID:16610337

  10. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  11. A probabilistic approach of the Flash Flood Early Warning System (FF-EWS) in Catalonia based on radar ensemble generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, David; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Corral, Carles; Llort, Xavier; Velasco, Enrique

    2010-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are commonly identified as the most efficient tools in order to improve the preparedness and risk management against heavy rains and Flash Floods (FF) with the objective of reducing economical losses and human casualties. In particular, flash floods affecting torrential Mediterranean catchments are a key element to be incorporated within operational EWSs. The characteristic high spatial and temporal variability of the storms requires high-resolution data and methods to monitor/forecast the evolution of rainfall and its hydrological impact in small and medium torrential basins. A first version of an operational FF-EWS has been implemented in Catalonia (NE Spain) under the name of EHIMI system (Integrated Tool for Hydrometeorological Forecasting) with the support of the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC). Flash flood warnings are issued based on radar-rainfall estimates. Rainfall estimation is performed on radar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution (1km2 and 10 minutes) in order to adapt the warning scale to the 1-km grid of the EWS. The method is based on comparing observed accumulated rainfall against rainfall thresholds provided by the regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The so-called "aggregated rainfall warning" at every river cell is obtained as the spatially averaged rainfall over its associated upstream draining area. Regarding the time aggregation of rainfall, the critical duration is thought to be an accumulation period similar to the concentration time of each cachtment. The warning is issued once the forecasted rainfall accumulation exceeds the rainfall thresholds mentioned above, which are associated to certain probability of occurrence. Finally, the hazard warning is provided and shown to the decision-maker in terms of exceeded return periods at every river cell covering the whole area of Catalonia. The objective of the present work includes the

  12. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  13. GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.

    PubMed

    Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

    2004-05-01

    Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi

  14. Countering GPS jamming and EW threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-09-01

    Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

  15. Gallium arsenide enhances digital signal processing in electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, B.; Apte, D.

    1985-07-01

    The higher electron mobility and velocity of GaAs digital signal processing IC devices for electronic warfare (EW) allow operation times that are several times faster than those of ICs based on silicon. Particular benefits are foreseen for the response time and broadband capability of ECM systems. Many data manipulation methods can be implemented in emitter-coupled logic (ECL) GaAs devices, and digital GaAs RF memories are noted to show great promise for improved ECM system performance while encompassing microwave frequency and chirp signal synthesis, repeater jamming, and multiple false target generation. EW digital frequency synthesizers are especially in need of GaAS IC technology, since bandwidth and resolution have been limited by ECL technology to about 250 MHz.

  16. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  17. Hazardous substance management system (HSMS): Full ``cradle to grave`` implementation at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

    SciTech Connect

    Krake, J.N.; Taylor, M.J.; Boss, R.D.; Senhen, L.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Hazardous Substance Management System (HSMS) is an automated system for `cradle to grave` tracking and managing of hazardous material (HM) and hazardous waste (HW). This paper describes the procedure for disposition of hazardous material as waste, the pilot transfer of hazardous waste, and how the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SSC SD) has successfully implemented HSMS to track HM and HW from cradle to grave.

  18. Sensor fusion with application to electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzalari, Robert M.; Van Alstine, Edward

    1999-03-01

    The Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate, Survivability/Camouflage, Concealment and Deception Division mission is to provide affordable aircraft and ground electronic sensor/systems and signature management technologies which enhance survivability and lethality of US and International Forces. Since 1992, efforts have been undertaken in the area of Situational Awareness and Dominant Battlespace Knowledge. These include the Radar Deception and Jamming Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD), Survivability and Targeting System Integration, Integrated Situation Awareness and Targeting ATD, Combat Identification, Ground Vehicle Situational Awareness, and Combined Electronic Intelligence Target Correlation. This paper will address the Situational Awareness process as it relates to the integration of Electronic Warfare (EW) with targeting and intelligence and information warfare systems. Discussion will be presented on the Sensor Fusion, Situation Assessment and Response Management Strategies. Sensor Fusion includes the association, correlation, and combination of data and information from single and multiple sources to achieve refined position and identity estimates, and complete and timely assessments of situations and threats as well as their significance. Situation Assessment includes the process of interpreting and expressing the environmnet based on situation abstract products and information from technical and doctrinal data bases. Finally, Response Management provides the centralized, adaptable control of all renewable and expendable countermeasure assets resulting in optimization of the response to the threat environment.

  19. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Mohammad, M. Malek; Jaafari, E.; Mobashery, A.

    2015-03-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2-10.8 μm tunable CO2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl-methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution.

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Environmental Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Frank

    1976-01-01

    Recent discussions at the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament have focused on the use of artificial changes in the environment as a method of warfare. A far more urgent task is development of a specific ban on already available techniques of environmental damage and a general and complete disarmament. (BT)

  3. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lançon, F.

    2011-06-01

    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  4. The Early Warning System(EWS) as First Stage to Generate and Develop Shake Map for Bucharest to Deep Vrancea Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, G.; Ionescu, C.; Marmureanu, A.; Grecu, B.; Cioflan, C.

    2007-12-01

    EWS made by NIEP is the first European system for real-time early detection and warning of the seismic waves in case of strong deep earthquakes. EWS uses the time interval (28-32 seconds) between the moment when earthquake is detected by the borehole and surface local accelerometers network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area, to deliver timely integrated information in order to enable actions to be taken before a main destructive shaking takes place. Early warning system is viewed as part of an real-time information system that provide rapid information, about an earthquake impeding hazard, to the public and disaster relief organizations before (early warning) and after a strong earthquake (shake map).This product is fitting in with other new product on way of National Institute for Earth Physics, that is, the shake map which is a representation of ground shaking produced by an event and it will be generated automatically following large Vrancea earthquakes. Bucharest City is located in the central part of the Moesian platform (age: Precambrian and Paleozoic) in the Romanian Plain, at about 140 km far from Vrancea area. Above a Cretaceous and a Miocene deposit (with the bottom at roundly 1,400 m of depth), a Pliocene shallow water deposit (~ 700m thick) was settled. The surface geology consists mainly of Quaternary alluvial deposits. Later loess covered these deposits and the two rivers crossing the city (Dambovita and Colentina) carved the present landscape. During the last century Bucharest suffered heavy damage and casualties due to 1940 (Mw = 7.7) and 1977 (Mw = 7.4) Vrancea earthquakes. For example, 32 high tall buildings collapsed and more then 1500 people died during the 1977 event. The innovation with comparable or related systems worldwide is that NIEP will use the EWS to generate a virtual shake map for Bucharest (140 km away of epicentre) immediately after the magnitude is estimated

  5. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  6. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  7. Information Warfare-Worthy Jamming Attack Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Fuzzy Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes. PMID:22319307

  8. Information warfare-worthy jamming attack detection mechanism for wireless sensor networks using a fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S V

    2010-01-01

    The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes. PMID:22319307

  9. Joint Robotics Program (JRP)-supported efforts at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SSC San Diego) is conducting a number of robotic research, development, evaluation, fielding, and combat-support missions and projects in support of Joint Robotics Program (JRP) goals. These include: Man-Portable Robotic System, Unmanned Surface Vessel, Automatically Deployed Communication Relays, Autonomous UAV Mission System, Robotic Systems Pool, Family of Integrated Rapid Response Equipment, and the Technology Transfer project. This paper summarizes the recent accomplishments and current status of these efforts, many of which are individually presented in more detail elsewhere at this conference.

  10. Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Smith, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world events and the proliferation of nuclear weapons related technology have increased the kinds of nuclear threats to include intentionally dispersed radiation sources and fallout from tactical nuclear weapons used in the modern AirLand battlefield scenario. Consequently, a DoD area of increasing interest focuses on determining the shielding effectiveness of foreign and US armored vehicles to radiological warfare and fallout radiation threats. To demonstrate the applicability of MASH for analyzing dispersed radiation source problems, calculations have been completed for two distributed sources; a dispersed radiation environment simulated by a uniformly distributed {sup 60}Co source, and a {sup 235}U fission weapon fallout source. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the free-field, the inside of a steel-walled two-meter box, in a phantom standing in the free-field, and in a phantom standing in the two-meter box. The results indicate substantial radiation protection factors for the {sup 60}Co dispersed radiation source and the fallout source compared to the prompt radiation protection factors. The dose protection factors ranged from 40 to 95 for the two-meter box and from 55 to 123 for the mid-gut position of the phantom standing in the box. The results further indicate that a {sup 60}Co source might be a good first order approximation for a tactical fission weapon fallout protection factor analysis.

  11. Testbed for distributed scenario simulations with EW and its effects on C2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tydén, L.; Wigren, C.; Andersson, H.; Olsson, S.

    2007-04-01

    The paper will present a simulation testbed in which a scenario can be setup, simulated and evaluated and where planning tools, electronic warfare (EW) components and command and control (C2) functionality can be integrated. The testbed is HLA (high level architecture) compliant, allows for a distributed simulation with dynamically configurable federates, and can also be used for testing actual equipment in a simulated scenario. One of the key components in the testbed is a set of planning tools that can be used to show ranges for sensors, jamming and communication systems. These tools can be used not only for planning the mission (e.g. best route) but can also be used during the mission to show the location of possible threats or the range of own equipment (sensor, jamming, communication) in different situations. During a mission these tools can be used to support the decisions of what actions to take in different situations. One goal with developing the planning tools in the testbed is to learn how to use planning tools in real life scenarios. Therefore, the planning tools are constantly developed and tested with respect to technical and tactical use. Also technical and tactical aspects of current and future EW and C2 equipment can be tested and developed in the testbed.

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and evaluation of personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other Published Searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Van-mounted UV-IR active/passive remote sensing system for chemical/biological warfare (CBW) and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmer, John P.; Leonelli, Joseph

    1995-02-01

    A state-of-the-art, dual-use, mobile sensor suite has been developed incorporating both active, multi-wavelength, laser remote sensing technologies, as well as passive multispectral imaging systems. This paper discusses the current status and objectives of work ongoing at Battelle in the field of remote sensing for chemical/biological warfare (CBW) agents and environmental applications.

  14. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  15. Information warfare analysis capability

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, J.

    1998-11-18

    With the rapid growth of global computing and communications, information security is a critical issue in all national infrastructure protection discussions. The purpose of our LDRD project-the Information Operations, Warfare, and Assurance (IOWA) initiative-is to advance the enabling core technologies of this field. Special emphasis is placed on computer networks and telecommunication systems. During FY 1998, we developed (1) techniques for identifying the topology of large, complex computer networks, (2) data representation models for these systems, (3) high-performance methods for visualizing the resulting complex models, (4) automated analysis methods for processing large network representations, (5) specialized search techniques for isolating vulnerabilities, (6) a foundation for simulating network operation, and (7) an assessment methodology for determining the consequences of system component failure or disruption.

  16. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  17. Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Selvanathan, Saravana P; Graham, Garrett T; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Dirksen, Uta; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G; Dakic, Aleksandra; Yu, Songtao; Liu, Xuefeng; Paulsen, Michelle T; Ljungman, Mats E; Wu, Cathy H; Lawlor, Elizabeth R; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron-exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of γ-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4-279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4-279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code. PMID:25737553

  18. Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Selvanathan, Saravana P.; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Dirksen, Uta; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G.; Dakic, Aleksandra; Yu, Songtao; Liu, Xuefeng; Paulsen, Michelle T.; Ljungman, Mats E.; Wu, Cathy H.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron–exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of γ-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4–279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4–279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code. PMID:25737553

  19. Analytic tools for information warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  20. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  1. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-07-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  2. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  3. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Mainside, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow, G.E., Jr.; Bell, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Lithologic and geophysical logs of boreholes at 29 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the Mainside of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, consists of un-consolidated sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The upper 220 feet of these sediments are divided into five hydrogeologic units, including the (1) Columbia (water-table) aquifer, (2) upper confining unit, (3) upper confined aquifer, (4) Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit, and (5) Aquia aquifer. The Columbia aquifer in the study area is a local system that is not affected by regional pumping. Ground-water recharge occurs at topographic highs in the northern part of the Mainside, and ground-water discharge occurs at topographic lows associated with adjacent surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of ground-water flow in the upper confined and Aquia aquifers is toward the southwest and southeast, respectively. A downward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers in the shallow system, and stresses on the Aquia aquifer are indicated by heads that range between 2 and 12 feet below sea level. The ratio of median horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Columbia aquifer to median vertical hydraulic con-ductivity of the upper confining unit, however, is approximately 2,600:1; therefore, under natural- flow conditions, most water in the Columbia aquifer probably discharges to adjacent surface- water bodies. The composition and distribution of major ions vary in the Columbia aquifer. In general, water samples from wells located along the inland perimeter roads of the study area have chloride or a combination of chloride and sulfate as the dominant anions, and water samples from wells located in the interior of the study area have bicarbonate or a combination of bicarbonate and sulfate as the dominant anions. Sodium and calcium were the dominant cations in most samples. Dissolved solids and four inorganic constituents are present in water from the

  4. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  5. A review of current and future components for electronic warfare receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. H.; Grant, P. M.

    1981-05-01

    This paper addresses the role of conventional and new components in passive electronic warfare (EW) receivers. The various areas of EW are defined before restricting the discussion predominantly to the radar intercept problem at microwave frequencies. The operational parameters of conventional components are then reviewed including the multiplexer; crystal video, instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM), and scanning superheterodyne receivers. The significance of modularity, digital control, and hybrid combinations of components is highlighted. A brief description follows of the operational Cutlass EW equipment. New components based on surface-acoustic waves (SAW) and acoustooptic (AO) Bragg cells are then presented and their particular importance in channelized receivers, IFM's, and microscan receivers noted. Finally, a number of conclusions are drawn covering likely trends in EW receivers and the need for continuing development of large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits for signal sorting and overall digital management.

  6. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and evaluation of personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other Published Searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. The Physics of Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics isn't always abstract. It is true that the examples and applications in this warfare class practically wrote themselves, but I wanted more for my students. I wanted them to embrace the iterative nature of scientific understanding. I wanted them to yearn for the breakthroughs that lead to paradigm shifts. I wanted them to demand experimental verification of each novel idea. This paper discusses the formation and implementation of a conceptual physics course, full of in-class demonstrations and solidly rooted in the context of humankind's ever-evolving methods of waging war.

  8. EWS-FLI1 causes neuroepithelial defects and abrogates emigration of neural crest stem cells.

    PubMed

    Coles, Edward G; Lawlor, Elizabeth R; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2008-09-01

    The most frequently occurring chromosomal translocation that gives rise to the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is the chimeric fusion gene EWS-FLI1 that encodes an oncogenic protein composed of the N terminus of EWS and the C terminus of FLI1. Although the genetic basis of ESFT is fairly well understood, its putative cellular origin remains to be determined. Previous work has proposed that neural crest progenitor cells may be the causative cell type responsible for ESFT. However, surprisingly little is known about the expression pattern or role of either wild-type EWS or wild-type FLI1 in this cell population during early embryonic development. Using the developing chick embryo as a model system, we identified EWS expression in emigrating and migratory neural crest stem cells, whereas FLI1 transcripts were found to be absent in these populations and were restricted to developing endothelial cells. By ectopically expressing EWS-FLI1 or wild-type FLI1 in the developing embryo, we have been able to study the cellular transformations that ensue in the context of an in vivo model system. Our results reveal that misexpression of the chimeric EWS-FLI1 fusion gene, or wild-type FLI1, in the developing neural crest stem cell population leads to significant aberrations in neural crest development. An intriguing possibility is that misexpression of the EWS-FLI1 oncogene in neural crest-derived stem cells may be an initiating event in ESFT genesis. PMID:18556509

  9. Chemical warfare detectors worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Corriveau, J.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide information on the principal technologies used to detect and identify chemical warfare (CW) agents. Detectors of harmful CW agents may be grouped into three major categories based on their operating principles. The three technologies involved are biochemical, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and flame photometry (FP). Once a chemical agent has been detected by one of these means, the presence must often be {open_quotes}confirmed{close_quotes} by a second test that is based on a different technology. Two major means of confirming the presence of a chemical agent are mass spectrometry (MS) and {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} wet chemistry.

  10. Portable Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with Ion Mobility Spectrometry System for On-Site Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

  11. Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

  12. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  13. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  14. The evolution of human warfare.

    PubMed

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution. PMID:22081837

  15. An EW technology research of jamming IR imaging guided missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiu-qin; Rong, Hua; Liang, Jing-ping; Chen, Qi; Chen, Min-rong

    2009-07-01

    The IR-Imaging-Guided Weapons have been playing an important role in the modern warfare by means of select attacking the vital parts of targets with the features of highly secret attacking, high precision, and excellent anti-jamming capability ,therefore, they are viewed to be one of the promising precisely guided weapons ,receiving great concern through out the world. This paper discusses the characteristics of IR-Imaging guidance systems at the highlight of making a study of correlated technologies of jamming IR-Imaging-Guided Weapons on the basis of elaborating the operational principles of IR-Imaging-guided Weapons.

  16. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Liu; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A.

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. {yields} The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. {yields} While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. {yields} This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  17. MSW devices for EW receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. D.

    A compressive electronic warfare receiver has been constructed using a magnetostatic wave (MSW) dispersive delay line and filter bank. Attention is presently given to the performance characteristics and potentialities of these devices with respect to dynamic range, probability of signal detection, and digital processing. Phase error and amplitude response improvements are noted to be required in order to achieve the full potential of this approach; in particular, the video outputs from a 1-GHz bandwidth delay line cannot be adequately processed by means of current electronic techniques.

  18. The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Robert A.

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  19. The impacts of modern warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Francis, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and 'informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems. PMID:21904931

  20. An EWS-FLI1-Induced Osteosarcoma Model Unveiled a Crucial Role of Impaired Osteogenic Differentiation on Osteosarcoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Komura, Shingo; Semi, Katsunori; Itakura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Hirofumi; Ohno, Takatoshi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary EWS-FLI1, a multi-functional fusion oncogene, is exclusively detected in Ewing sarcomas. However, previous studies reported that rare varieties of osteosarcomas also harbor EWS-ETS family fusion. Here, using the doxycycline-inducible EWS-FLI1 system, we established an EWS-FLI1-dependent osteosarcoma model from murine bone marrow stromal cells. We revealed that the withdrawal of EWS-FLI1 expression enhances the osteogenic differentiation of sarcoma cells, leading to mature bone formation. Taking advantage of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, we also show that sarcoma-derived iPSCs with cancer-related genetic abnormalities exhibited an impaired differentiation program of osteogenic lineage irrespective of the EWS-FLI1 expression. Finally, we demonstrate that EWS-FLI1 contributed to secondary sarcoma development from the sarcoma iPSCs after osteogenic differentiation. These findings demonstrate that modulating cellular differentiation is a fundamental principle of EWS-FLI1-induced osteosarcoma development. This in vitro cancer model using sarcoma iPSCs should provide a unique platform for dissecting relationships between the cancer genome and cellular differentiation. PMID:26997645

  1. An EWS-FLI1-Induced Osteosarcoma Model Unveiled a Crucial Role of Impaired Osteogenic Differentiation on Osteosarcoma Development.

    PubMed

    Komura, Shingo; Semi, Katsunori; Itakura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Hirofumi; Ohno, Takatoshi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-12

    EWS-FLI1, a multi-functional fusion oncogene, is exclusively detected in Ewing sarcomas. However, previous studies reported that rare varieties of osteosarcomas also harbor EWS-ETS family fusion. Here, using the doxycycline-inducible EWS-FLI1 system, we established an EWS-FLI1-dependent osteosarcoma model from murine bone marrow stromal cells. We revealed that the withdrawal of EWS-FLI1 expression enhances the osteogenic differentiation of sarcoma cells, leading to mature bone formation. Taking advantage of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, we also show that sarcoma-derived iPSCs with cancer-related genetic abnormalities exhibited an impaired differentiation program of osteogenic lineage irrespective of the EWS-FLI1 expression. Finally, we demonstrate that EWS-FLI1 contributed to secondary sarcoma development from the sarcoma iPSCs after osteogenic differentiation. These findings demonstrate that modulating cellular differentiation is a fundamental principle of EWS-FLI1-induced osteosarcoma development. This in vitro cancer model using sarcoma iPSCs should provide a unique platform for dissecting relationships between the cancer genome and cellular differentiation. PMID:26997645

  2. Gauge-Higgs EW and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase 𝜃H in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for 𝜃H < 0.1, and predicts Z‧ bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  3. Fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Burnworth, Mark; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Along with biological and nuclear threats, chemical warfare agents are some of the most feared weapons of mass destruction. Compared to nuclear weapons they are relatively easy to access and deploy, which makes them in some aspects a greater threat to national and global security. A particularly hazardous class of chemical warfare agents are the nerve agents. Their rapid and severe effects on human health originate in their ability to block the function of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is vital to the central nervous system. This article outlines recent activities regarding the development of molecular sensors that can visualize the presence of nerve agents (and related pesticides) through changes of their fluorescence properties. Three different sensing principles are discussed: enzyme-based sensors, chemically reactive sensors, and supramolecular sensors. Typical examples are presented for each class and different fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents are summarized and compared. PMID:17705326

  4. Development of a gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system for on-site detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kakegawa, Ken; Aida, Mari; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Seto, Yasuo; Okino, Akitoshi

    2015-06-01

    A gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system was developed to realize a mobile on-site analytical device for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this system, the plasma source was directly connected to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The plasma can be generated with ambient air, which is drawn into the discharge region by negative pressure in the mass spectrometer. High-power density pulsed plasma of 100 kW could be generated by using a microhollow cathode and a laboratory-built high-intensity pulsed power supply (pulse width: 10-20 μs; repetition frequency: 50 Hz). CWAs were desorbed and protonated in the enclosed space adjacent to the plasma source. Protonated sample molecules were introduced to the mass spectrometer by airflow through the discharge region. To evaluate the analytical performance of this device, helium and air plasma were directly irradiated to CWAs in the gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system and the protonated molecules were analyzed by using an ion-trap mass spectrometer. A blister agent (nitrogen mustard 3) and nerve gases [cyclohexylsarin (GF), tabun (GA), and O-ethyl S-2-N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)] in solution in n-hexane were applied to the Teflon rod and used as test samples, after solvent evaporation. As a result, protonated molecules of CWAs were successfully observed as the characteristic ion peaks at m/z 204, 181, 163, and 268, respectively. In air plasma, the limits of detection were estimated to be 22, 20, 4.8, and 1.0 pmol, respectively, which were lower than those obtained with helium plasma. To achieve quantitative analysis, calibration curves were made by using CWA stimulant dipinacolyl methylphosphonate as an internal standard; straight correlation lines (R(2) = 0.9998) of the peak intensity ratios (target per internal standard) were obtained. Remarkably, GA and GF gave protonated dimer ions, and the ratios of the protonated dimer ions to the protonated

  5. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  6. Environmental assessment, aircraft chemical warfare survivability test program, Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-01

    The proposed project, the Aircraft Chemical Warfare Survivability Test Program at Patuxent River Naval Air Station, involves the testing and development of aircraft systems and operating procedures for use in an environment contaminated with chemical/biological warfare agents. The tests will be performed in accordance with a directive from the chief of Naval Operations to obtain and maintain the capability to operate in a chemically-contaminated environment. These tests will be performed under outdoor, warm-weather conditions on a dredge disposal area and adjacent runways to simulate the conditions under which a real-life threat would be encountered.

  7. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  8. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to characterize the hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia, which is located on the Potomac River in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The study provides a description of the hydrogeologic units, directions of ground-water flow, and back-ground water quality in the study area to a depth of about 100 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data were collected from 28 wells drilled for this study, from 3 existing wells, and from outcrops. The shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area consists of two fining-upward sequences of Pleistocene fluvial-estuarine deposits that overlie Paleocene-Eocene marine deposits of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. The surficial hydrogeologic unit is the Columbia aquifer. Horizontal linear flow of water in this aquifer generally responds to the surface topography, discharging to tidal creeks, marshes, and the Potomac River, and rates of flow in this aquifer range from 0.003 to 0.70 foot per day. The Columbia aquifer unconformably overlies the upper confining unit 12-an organic-rich clay that is 0 to 55 feet thick. The upper confining unit conformably overlies the upper confined aquifer, a 0- to 35-feet thick unit that consists of interbedded fine-grained to medium-grained sands and clay. The upper confined aquifer probably receives most of its recharge from the adjacent and underlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. Water in the upper confined aquifer generally flows eastward, northward, and northeastward at about 0.03 foot per day toward the Potomac River and Machodoc Creek. The Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit consists of glauconitic, fossiliferous silty fine-grained sands of the Nanjemoy Formation. Where the upper confined system is absent, the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is directly overlain by the Columbia aquifer. In some parts of

  9. Electronic warfare - The next 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, T. G.

    1985-07-01

    On the basis of current trends, it is projected that the EW systems available by the year 2000, including avionics, will be distinguished by their compatibility with stealthy vehicular platforms, high adaptability to combat scenarios, vehicle-conformal containers, and multifunction characteristics. Transmitters and receivers will perhaps be contained within a single IC, and AI techniques may be able to yield such capabilities as instantaneous signal digitalization. Fusion of electronic units will allow a single system to accommodate navigation, identification, communications, countermeasures, and fire control functions. VHSIC and GaAs electronics appear to be the two most fundamental technological bases for the aforementioned developments. The adaptive response of these systems is noted to radically depend on the pace of software development.

  10. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  11. Inactivation of EWS reduces PGC-1α protein stability and mitochondrial homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Hong-Jun; Lee, Yun Kyung; Kang, Hyeog; Kim, Jihyun; Chung, Jay H.; Chang, Ji Suk; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    EWS (Ewing sarcoma) encodes an RNA/ssDNA binding protein that is frequently rearranged in a number of different cancers by chromosomal translocations. Physiologically, EWS has diverse and essential roles in various organ development and cellular processes. In this study, we uncovered a new role of EWS in mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism. Loss of EWS leads to a significant decrease in mitochondria abundance and activity, which is caused by a rapid degradation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ Coactivator (PGC-1α), a central regulator of mitochondria biogenesis, function, and cellular energy metabolism. EWS inactivation leads to increased ubiquitination and proteolysis of PGC-1α via proteasome pathway. Complementation of EWS in Ews-deficient cells restores PGC-1α and mitochondrial abundance. We found that expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase, FBXW7 (F-box/WD40 domain protein 7), is increased in the absence of Ews and depletion of Fbxw7 in Ews-null cells restores PGC-1α expression and mitochondrial density. Consistent with these findings, mitochondrial abundance and activity are significantly reduced in brown fat and skeletal muscles of Ews-deficient mice. Furthermore, expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, respiration and fatty acid β-oxidation genes is significantly reduced in the liver of Ews-null mice. These results demonstrate a novel role of EWS in mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis by controlling PGC-1α protein stability, and further implicate altered mitochondrial and energy metabolism in cancers harboring the EWS translocation. PMID:25918410

  12. First field identification of the Cuonadong dome in southern Tibet: implications for EW extension of the North Himalayan gneiss dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Guangming; Wang, Genhou; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Linkui; Dong, Suiliang; Liang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    -NHGD). The NS-NHGD developed by a dominantly N-S contraction and locally extensional regime and keep a close relationship to the South Tibetan Detachment System, whereas the EW-NHGD formed by an E-W extensional deformation along the north-south-trending rifts.

  13. Nonlinear Analysis for Event Forewarning (NLAfEW)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-23

    The NLAfEW computer code analyses noisy, experimental data to forewarn of adverse events. The functionality of the analysis is a follows: It removes artifacts from the data, converts the continuous data value to discrete values, constructs time-delay embedding vectors, comparents the unique nodes and links in one graph, and determines event forewarning on the basis of several successive occurrences of one (or more) of the dissimilarity measures above a threshold.

  14. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  15. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

  16. Environmental mimics of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Claborn, David M

    2004-12-01

    There are several natural and artificial factors that mimic the effects of chemical warfare agents, thereby causing unwarranted alarm and confusion on the battlefield. Symptoms associated with chemical warfare include paralysis, muscle tremors, heavy salivation, severe burns, blistering, and corrosive skin injuries among others. Similar symptoms can be produced from a variety of environmental sources, artificial and natural. This article reviews several published and unpublished examples of environmental factors that produce syndromes similar to those caused by these agents. Examples of such mimics include pesticides, blistering exudates from insects and plants, various types of bites, and naturally occurring diseases. The potential for confusion caused by these factors is discussed and means of discriminating between warfare agents and naturally occurring events are identified. Recommendations for the use of this information and for needed research are also discussed. PMID:15646185

  17. Ewing sarcoma EWS protein regulates midzone formation by recruiting Aurora B kinase to the midzone.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyewon; Turkalo, Timothy K; Nelson, Kayla; Folmsbee, Stephen Sai; Robb, Caroline; Roper, Brittany; Azuma, Mizuki

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant bone cancer that primarily occurs in children and adolescents. Eighty-five percent of Ewing sarcoma is characterized by the presence of the aberrant chimeric EWS/FLI1 fusion gene. Previously, we demonstrated that an interaction between EWS/FLI1 and wild-type EWS led to the inhibition of EWS activity and mitotic dysfunction. Although defective mitosis is considered to be a critical step in cancer initiation, it is unknown how interference with EWS contributes to Ewing sarcoma formation. Here, we demonstrate that EWS/FLI1- and EWS-knockdown cells display a high incidence of defects in the midzone, a midline structure located between segregating chromatids during anaphase. Defects in the midzone can lead to the failure of cytokinesis and can result in the induction of aneuploidy. The similarity among the phenotypes of EWS/FLI1- and EWS siRNA-transfected HeLa cells points to the inhibition of EWS as the key mechanism for the induction of midzone defects. Supporting this observation, the ectopic expression of EWS rescues the high incidence of midzone defects observed in Ewing sarcoma A673 cells. We discovered that EWS interacts with Aurora B kinase, and that EWS is also required for recruiting Aurora B to the midzone. A domain analysis revealed that the R565 in the RGG3 domain of EWS is essential for both Aurora B interaction and the recruitment of Aurora B to the midzone. Here, we propose that the impairment of EWS-dependent midzone formation via the recruitment of Aurora B is a potential mechanism of Ewing sarcoma development. PMID:25483190

  18. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  19. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  20. Magazine Coverage of Issues of Nuclear Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight William

    To see whether the subject matter of magazines of general circulation and the subject matter of public concern coincide, a study examined the volume of coverage of United States-Soviet relations, communism, and issues of nuclear warfare between the two nations in twentieth century popular magazines. The "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" in…

  1. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  2. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  3. Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

  4. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhanshan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic

  5. Porous biodegradable EW62 medical implants resist tumor cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, O; Ventura, Y; Goldman, J; Vago, R; Aghion, E

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have been widely investigated for biodegradable medical applications. However, the shielding of harmful cells (eg. bacteria or tumorous cells) from immune surveillance may be compounded by the increased porosity of biodegradable materials. We previously demonstrated the improved corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of a novel EW62 (Mg-6%Nd-2%Y-0.5%Zr)) magnesium alloy by rapid solidification followed by extrusion (RS) compared to its conventional counterpart (CC). The present in vitro study evaluated the influence of rapid solidification on cytotoxicity to murine osteosarcoma cells. We found that CC and RS corrosion extracts significantly reduced cell viability over a 24-h exposure period. Cell density was reduced over 48 h following direct contact on both CC and RS surfaces, but was further reduced on the CC surface. The direct presence of cells accelerated corrosion for both materials. The corroded RS material exhibited superior mechanical properties relative to the CC material. The data show that the improved corrosion resistance of the rapidly solidified EW62 alloy (RS) resulted in a relatively reduced cytotoxic effect on tumorous cells. Hence, the tested alloy in the form of a rapidly solidified substance may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effect towards cancerous and normal cells. PMID:26838879

  6. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. PMID:23719340

  7. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  8. A novel type of EWS-CHOP fusion gene in myxoid liposarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Yoshito . E-mail: ymatsui@sb4.so-net.ne.jp; Ueda, Takafumi; Kubo, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Okamoto, Mina; Myoui, Akira; Kakunaga, Shigeki; Yasui, Natsuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2006-09-22

    The cytogenetic hallmark of myxoid type and round cell type liposarcoma consists of reciprocal translocation of t(12;16)(q13;p11) and t(12;22)(q13;q12), which results in fusion of TLS/FUS and CHOP, and EWS and CHOP, respectively. Nine structural variations of the TLS/FUS-CHOP chimeric transcript have been reported, however, only two types of EWS-CHOP have been described. We describe here a case of myxoid liposarcoma containing a novel EWS-CHOP chimeric transcript and identified the breakpoint occurring in intron 13 of EWS. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence showed that exon 13 of EWS was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. Genomic analysis revealed that the breaks were located in intron 13 of EWS and intron 1 of CHOP.

  9. Terror warfare and the medicine of peace.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, C

    1998-03-01

    Terror warfare's goal is to defeat political opposition by controlling populations through the fear of brutality. Mozambique's 1976-92 war stands as a prime example of this military strategy: over one million people, the vast majority of whom were civilians, were killed. Half of these casualties were children. Fully one-half of the population was directly affected by the war, and one-quarter had to flee their homes. As devastating as terror warfare is, it is destined to fail. People ultimately resist, and they do so in complex and creative ways. Rebuilding war-destroyed worlds, healing the wounds of violence, and crafting concepts of self-identity based on resistance to aggression become powerful conflict-resolution strategies among the average citizenry. The creative resources that Mozambicans developed to survive and end a very brutal war are among the most sophisticated I have seen anywhere in the world. Their war was against violence itself. PMID:9527976

  10. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Kenneth; Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  11. Biological Warfare: Implications for Antimicrobial Use.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Ethan; Levi, Itzhak

    2002-02-01

    Biological warfare is intended to incapacitate a large number of individuals at a single exposure, creating epidemic-type disease, death, and social chaos. The organisms with potential for immediate use as bacteriologic weapons are Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia pestis, and Vibrio cholera, all necessitating antibiotic therapy for a cure. It is reasonable, therefore, to assume that a biological attack, or even a hoax, would requiure thousands of individuals over a large area to begin antibiotic therapy. Issues such as antibiotic availability, logistical problems in antibiotic distribution, development of drug resistance, side effects influencing the individual, and adverse effects on the community due to the impact of mass therapy on the ecology, make biological warfare the most apocalyptic scenario for the creation of a "postantibiotic era." PMID:11853654

  12. Multi-sensor fusion, communications and information warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutzer, D.

    1983-12-01

    Todays fusion problems are chiefly concerned with organizational and procedural issues. The technology they employ is mostly available state-of-the-art. The future brings a new set of concerns centered about issues that are more technical in nature. Future military command and control and weapons systems will likely be more distributed, more automated and smarter. They will probably include an advanced form of information warfare where sensing, information exchange, jamming, deception, and misinformation will be capable of being managed and orchestrated from a total mission objective perspective. As a result, the future fusion process will be required to handle and process on orders of magnitude increase in the volume and diversity of input data, faster. It will need to produce a great variety of information to feed automated C2 and weapons systems data bases through more interactive and responsive interfaces than exist today. At the same time it needs to analyze this data at a deeper level of understanding than ever before, scrutinizing and drawing inferences and conclusions about ones adversaries underlying beliefs, readiness, intentions and future actions from what is often times a suspect and spotty data base. Finally, these conclusions and inferences need to be presented in a clear, concise, honest, but convincing and timely manner. This paper presents a unified framework from which the necessary information may be fused, managed and presented to support command in such a future information warfare environment and discusses the associated technical challenges. This paper reviews various ongoing research programs that are addressing these challenges.

  13. Warfare-related secondary anterior cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza; Ebrahimi, Azin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cranial bone defects secondary to global war cranial defects pose a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of alloplastic reconstructions of cranial bone with titanium mesh and fat graft after warfare-related cranial trauma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients at the plastic and reconstructive surgery ward of our hospital underwent anterior cranioplasty with titanium mesh with or without fat grafts from lower abdominal wall. Inclusion criteria were anterior cranial bone defect due to warfare injuries, the mean age of these patients was 31 years (range, 23–48 years). Ninety-five percent were male, and 5% were female. Average follow-up was 12 months. Fat grafts were used to help obliterate endocranial dead spaces. Results: Twenty-five patients (71%) had more than 0.5 cm dead space under cranial defects, and we used fat graft under the titanium mesh. The majority groups of patients (80%) were injured as a result of previous explosive device blasts with or without neurosurgical procedures in the past. The average patient age was 31 years, and 95% of patients were male. The mean anterior cranial defect size was 6 cm × 8 cm, and there were no wound infection or flap necrosis after operations. Conclusion: We recommend this procedure (titanium mesh with or without fat graft) for warfare injured cranial defects in secondary anterior cranial reconstructions. Fat grafts eliminates dead space and reduce secondary complications. PMID:27563609

  14. EWS represses cofilin 1 expression by inducing nuclear retention of cofilin 1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Kuwahara, I; Matsumoto, K

    2014-06-01

    In Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), the proto-oncogene EWS that encodes an RNA-binding protein is fused by chromosomal translocation to the gene encoding one of the E-twenty six (ETS) family of transcription factors, most commonly friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI-1). Although EWS/FLI-1 chimeric proteins are necessary for carcinogenesis, additional events seem to be required for transformation to occur. We have previously reported that a protein product of an EWS mRNA target, whose expression is negatively regulated by EWS but not by EWS/FLI-1, contributes to ESFT development. However, the mechanism by which EWS represses protein expression remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that overexpression of full-length EWS repressed protein expression and induced nuclear retention of reporter mRNAs in a tethering assay. In contrast, when a mutant lacking the EWS C-terminal nuclear localization signal (classified as a PY-NLS) was expressed, reporter protein expression was upregulated, and the number of cells exporting reporter mRNA to the cytoplasm increased. EWS binds to the 3'-untranslated region in another mRNA target, cofilin 1 (CFL1), and negatively regulates the expression of CFL1. Overexpression of EWS induced nuclear retention of CFL1 mRNA. Furthermore, ESFT cell proliferation and metastatic potential were suppressed by small interfering RNA-mediated CFL1 knockdown. Together, our findings suggest that EWS induces nuclear retention of CFL1 mRNA, thereby suppressing expression of CFL1, and that CFL1 promotes development of ESFT. Targeting CFL1 might therefore provide another novel approach for treatment of this aggressive disease. PMID:23831569

  15. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  16. Pharmacokinetic modeling optimizes inhibition of the ‘undruggable’ EWS-FLI1 transcription factor in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. Peter; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Monroe, Phillip; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Houghton, Peter; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors have long been deemed ‘undruggable’ targets for therapeutics. Enhanced recognition of protein biochemistry as well as the need to have more targeted approaches to treat cancer has rendered transcription factors approachable for therapeutic development. Since transcription factors lack enzymatic domains, the specific targeting of these proteins has unique challenges. One challenge is the hydrophobic microenvironment that affects small molecules gaining access to block protein interactions. The most attractive transcription factors to target are those formed from tumor specific chromosomal translocations that are validated oncogenic driver proteins. EWS-FLI1 is a fusion protein that results from the pathognomonic translocation of Ewing sarcoma (ES). Our past work created the small molecule YK-4-279 that blocks EWS-FLI1 from interacting with RNA Helicase A (RHA). To fulfill long-standing promise in the field by creating a clinically useful drug, steps are required to allow for in vivo administration. These investigations identify the need for continuous presence of the small molecule protein-protein inhibitor for a period of days. We describe the pharmacokinetics of YK-4-279 and its individual enantiomers. In vivo studies confirm prior in vitro experiments showing (S)-YK-4-279 as the EWS-FLI1 specific enantiomer demonstrating both induction of apoptosis and reduction of EWS-FLI1 regulated caveolin-1 protein. We have created the first rat xenograft model of ES, treated with (S)-YK-4-279 dosing based upon PK modeling leading to a sustained complete response in 2 of 6 ES tumors. Combining laboratory studies, pharmacokinetic measurements, and modeling has allowed us to create a paradigm that can be optimized for in vivo systems using both in vitro data and pharmacokinetic simulations. Thus, (S)-YK-4-279 as a small molecule drug is ready for continued development towards a first-in-human, first-in-class, clinical trial. PMID:24481407

  17. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  18. Chemical warfare. Nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Holstege, C P; Kirk, M; Sidell, F R

    1997-10-01

    The threat of civilian and military casualties from nerve agent exposure has become a greater concern over the past decade. After rapidly assessing that a nerve agent attack has occurred, emphasis must be placed on decontamination and protection of both rescuers and medical personnel from exposure. The medical system can become rapidly overwhelmed and strong emotional reactions can confuse the clinical picture. Initially, care should first be focused on supportive care, with emphasis toward aggressive airway maintenance and decontamination. Atropine should be titrated, with the goal of therapy being drying of secretions and the resolution of bronchoconstriction and bradycardia. Early administration of pralidoxime chloride maximizes antidotal efficacy. Benzodiazepines, in addition to atropine, should be administered if seizures develop. Early, aggressive medical therapy is the key to prevention of the morbidity and mortality associated with nerve agent poisoning. PMID:9330846

  19. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments. PMID:16604725

  20. Undiagnosed illnesses and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Asaf

    2003-10-01

    The internal contamination with depleted uranium (DU) isotopes was detected in British, Canadian, and United States Gulf War veterans as late as nine years after inhalational exposure to radioactive dust in the Persian Gulf War I. DU isotopes were also identified in a Canadian veteran's autopsy samples of lung, liver, kidney, and bone. In soil samples from Kosovo, hundreds of particles, mostly less than 5 microm in size, were found in milligram quantities. Gulf War I in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of DU deposited in the environment and 3-6 million grams of DU aerosol released into the atmosphere. Its legacy, Gulf War disease, is a complex, progressive, incapacitating multiorgan system disorder. The symptoms include incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletel and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affect changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lymphadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. Current understanding of its etiology seems far from being adequate. After the Afghanistan Operation Anaconda (2002), our team studied the population of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas, and identified civilians with the symptoms similar to those of Gulf War syndrome. Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 8 symptomatic subjects were collected by the following criteria: 1) the onset of symptoms relative to the bombing raids; 2) physical presence in the area of the bombing; and 3) clinical manifestations. Control subjects were selected among the sympotom-free residents in non-targeted areas. All samples were analyzed for the concentration and ratio of four uranium isotopes, (234)U, (235)U, (236)U and (238)U, by using a multicollector, inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry. The first results from the Jalalabad province revealed urinary excretion of total uranium in all subjects significantly exceeding the values in the nonexposed population

  1. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  2. Chemical warfare materiel: Unique regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; King, J.F.; Watson, A.P.

    2000-04-01

    The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous wastes facilities. Based on the definition found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare material (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA pollutants for contaminants but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes. in those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM.

  3. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM. PMID:10667941

  4. Three-dimensional visualization of buildings for urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoennessen, Ulrich; Gross, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    Future conflicts will probably lead the armed forces also into regions, for which topographical data are missing as well as out of date. Here IMINT must support the planning and transaction of military operations through improved target recognition in combination with topographical information. High-resolution LIDAR data, multi-spectral image data and GIS with orthorectified elevation data, combined with 3Dimage maps with high geometrical and spatial precision integrated in a network (Smart Sensor Web, SSW), open new additional possibilities of the reconnaissance. To improve reconnaissance, we investigate the 3D-modeling of built up areas including texturing and visualization for the observer. In a future joint-sensor system the information of several sensors should be used in common and should also be combined with non-imaging knowledge (Rapid Terrain Visualization, RTV). By this, the technology is a key technology for military applications in urban warfare and in the battle against terrorism.

  5. Therapeutic opportunities in Ewing sarcoma: EWS-FLI inhibition via LSD1 targeting.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Emily R; Pishas, Kathleen I; Saund, Ranajeet S; Lessnick, Stephen L

    2016-04-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary pediatric bone tumor, often diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. A pathognomonic reciprocal chromosomal translocation results in a fusion gene coding for a protein which derives its N-terminus from a FUS/EWS/TAF15 (FET) protein family member, commonly EWS, and C-terminus containing the DNA-binding domain of an ETS transcription factor, commonly FLI1. Nearly 85% of cases express the EWS-FLI protein which functions as a transcription factor and drives oncogenesis. As the primary genomic lesion and a protein which is not expressed in normal cells, disrupting EWS-FLI function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma. However, transcription factors are notoriously difficult targets for the development of small molecules. Improved understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms employed by EWS-FLI to hijack normal cellular programming has uncovered potential novel approaches to pharmacologically block EWS-FLI function. In this review we examine targeting the chromatin regulatory enzymes recruited to conspire in oncogenesis with a focus on the histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). LSD1 inhibitors are being aggressively investigated in acute myeloid leukemia and the results of early clinical trials will help inform the future use of LSD1 inhibitors in sarcoma. High LSD1 expression is observed in Ewing sarcoma patient samples and mechanistic and preclinical data suggest LSD1 inhibition globally disrupts the function of EWS-ETS proteins. PMID:26848860

  6. RNA helicase A activity is inhibited by oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1

    PubMed Central

    Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Schneider, Jeffrey A.; Sajwan, Kamal; Graham, Garrett T.; Griffin, Brittany; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Youbi, Sarah E.; Kallarakal, Abraham; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Casey, John L.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases impact RNA structure and metabolism from transcription through translation, in part through protein interactions with transcription factors. However, there is limited knowledge on the role of transcription factor influence upon helicase activity. RNA helicase A (RHA) is a DExH-box RNA helicase that plays multiple roles in cellular biology, some functions requiring its activity as a helicase while others as a protein scaffold. The oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1 requires RHA to enable Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncogenesis and growth; a small molecule, YK-4-279 disrupts this complex in cells. Our current study investigates the effect of EWS-FLI1 upon RHA helicase activity. We found that EWS-FLI1 reduces RHA helicase activity in a dose-dependent manner without affecting intrinsic ATPase activity; however, the RHA kinetics indicated a complex model. Using separated enantiomers, only (S)-YK-4-279 reverses the EWS-FLI1 inhibition of RHA helicase activity. We report a novel RNA binding property of EWS-FLI1 leading us to discover that YK-4-279 inhibition of RHA binding to EWS-FLI1 altered the RNA binding profile of both proteins. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 modulates RHA helicase activity causing changes in overall transcriptome processing. These findings could lead to both enhanced understanding of oncogenesis and provide targets for therapy. PMID:25564528

  7. A multifunctional protein EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Hong Jun; Kang, Soo Im; Lee, Ji Eun; Hur, Jamie; Ge, Kai; Mueller, Elisabetta; Li, Hongjie; Lee, Byeong-Chel; Lee, Sean Bong

    2013-01-01

    Summary A recent surge in obesity has given impetus to better understand the mechanisms of adipogenesis, particularly brown adipose tissue (BAT) due to its potential utilization for anti-obesity therapy. Postnatal brown adipocytes arise from early muscle-progenitors but how brown fat lineage is determined is not completely understood. Here, we show that a multifunctional protein EWS (Ewing Sarcoma) is essential for determining brown fat lineage during development. BATs from Ews-null embryos and newborns are developmentally arrested. Ews mutant brown preadipocytes fail to differentiate due to loss of Bmp7 expression, a critical early brown adipogenic factor. We demonstrate that EWS, along with its binding partner YBX1 (Y-box binding protein 1), activates Bmp7 transcription. Depletion of either Ews or Ybx1 leads to loss of Bmp7 expression and brown adipogenesis. Remarkably, Ews-null BATs and brown preadipocytes ectopically express myogenic genes. These results demonstrate that EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination. PMID:23987512

  8. A multifunctional protein, EWS, is essential for early brown fat lineage determination.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Hong Jun; Kang, Soo Im; Lee, Ji Eun; Hur, Jamie; Ge, Kai; Mueller, Elisabetta; Li, Hongjie; Lee, Byeong-Chel; Lee, Sean Bong

    2013-08-26

    The recent surge in obesity has provided an impetus to better understand the mechanisms of adipogenesis, particularly in brown adipose tissue (BAT) because of its potential utilization for antiobesity therapy. Postnatal brown adipocytes arise from early muscle progenitors, but how brown fat lineage is determined is not completely understood. Here, we show that a multifunctional protein, Ewing Sarcoma (EWS), is essential for determining brown fat lineage during development. BATs from Ews null embryos and newborns are developmentally arrested. Ews mutant brown preadipocytes fail to differentiate due to loss of Bmp7 expression, a critical early brown adipogenic factor. We demonstrate that EWS, along with its binding partner Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1), activates Bmp7 transcription. Depletion of either Ews or Ybx1 leads to loss of Bmp7 expression and brown adipogenesis. Remarkably, Ews null BATs and brown preadipocytes ectopically express myogenic genes. These results demonstrate that EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination. PMID:23987512

  9. Nuclear warfare: Survival. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning factors and systems influencing human vulnerability, security, and survival in nuclear warfare. References include studies of both civilians and military personnel. Nuclear-resistant materials and systems are also examined. A wide variety of studies and analyses, many of them based upon computerized simulations, are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Biological warfare: the threat in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Brian

    2002-01-01

    The story of work on biological warfare in the twentieth century is briefly reviewed and the history of the British programme analyzed, largely from documents now available in the Public Records Office. The position of the United Kingdom in relation to other military and political issues has varied, as has its overall attitude from time to time. In the 1930s a defensive stance was linked to the health effects of conventional war. During and after the Second World War the objective was to obtain a biological bomb before actual or potential enemies, but later the emphasis returned to a more defensive stance, with attempts to assess the hazard over wide areas. Any evaluation of the effects of new developments in genetics should take the changing nature of these past assessments into account. PMID:12044023

  11. The Cell Cycle Regulator CCDC6 Is a Key Target of RNA-Binding Protein EWS

    PubMed Central

    Duggimpudi, Sujitha; Larsson, Erik; Nabhani, Schafiq; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I

    2015-01-01

    Genetic translocation of EWSR1 to ETS transcription factor coding region is considered as primary cause for Ewing sarcoma. Previous studies focused on the biology of chimeric transcription factors formed due to this translocation. However, the physiological consequences of heterozygous EWSR1 loss in these tumors have largely remained elusive. Previously, we have identified various mRNAs bound to EWS using PAR-CLIP. In this study, we demonstrate CCDC6, a known cell cycle regulator protein, as a novel target regulated by EWS. siRNA mediated down regulation of EWS caused an elevated apoptosis in cells in a CCDC6-dependant manner. This effect was rescued upon re-expression of CCDC6. This study provides evidence for a novel functional link through which wild-type EWS operates in a target-dependant manner in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:25751255

  12. Targeting the EWS-ETS transcriptional program by BET bromodomain inhibition in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Tim; Giorgi, Chiara; Schmidt, Oxana; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Neff, Frauke; Buch, Thorsten; Niggli, Felix K.; Schäfer, Beat W.; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant bone or soft tissue tumors. Genetically, ES are defined by balanced chromosomal EWS/ETS translocations, which give rise to chimeric proteins (EWS-ETS) that generate an oncogenic transcriptional program associated with altered epigenetic marks throughout the genome. By use of an inhibitor (JQ1) blocking BET bromodomain binding proteins (BRDs) we strikingly observed a strong down-regulation of the predominant EWS-ETS protein EWS-FLI1 in a dose dependent manner. This was further enhanced by co-treatment with an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway. Microarray analysis further revealed JQ1 treatment to block a typical ES associated expression program. The effect on this expression program was mimicked by RNA interference with BRD3 or BRD4 expression, indicating that the EWS-FLI1 mediated expression profile is at least in part mediated via such epigenetic readers. Consequently, contact dependent and independent proliferation of different ES lines was strongly inhibited. Mechanistically, treatment of ES resulted in a partial arrest of the cell cycle as well as induction of apoptosis. Tumor development was suppressed dose dependently in a xeno-transplant model in immune deficient mice, overall indicating that ES may be susceptible to treatment with epigenetic inhibitors blocking BET bromodomain activity and the associated pathognomonic EWS-ETS transcriptional program. PMID:26623725

  13. Identification of a tripartite import signal in the Ewing Sarcoma protein (EWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Debra J.; Morse, Robert; Todd, Adrian G.; Eggleton, Paul; Lorson, Christian L.; Young, Philip J.

    2009-12-25

    The Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) protein is a ubiquitously expressed RNA processing factor that localises predominantly to the nucleus. However, the mechanism through which EWS enters the nucleus remains unclear, with differing reports identifying three separate import signals within the EWS protein. Here we have utilized a panel of truncated EWS proteins to clarify the reported nuclear localisation signals. We describe three C-terminal domains that are important for efficient EWS nuclear localization: (1) the third RGG-motif; (2) the last 10 amino acids (known as the PY-import motif); and (3) the zinc-finger motif. Although these three domains are involved in nuclear import, they are not independently capable of driving the efficient import of a GFP-moiety. However, collectively they form a complex tripartite signal that efficiently drives GFP-import into the nucleus. This study helps clarify the EWS import signal, and the identification of the involvement of both the RGG- and zinc-finger motifs has wide reaching implications.

  14. 3. VIEW SOUTH; NORTH ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTH; NORTH ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  15. 7. VIEW WEST; EAST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST; EAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  16. 6. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTHEAST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTHEAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  17. 5. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTH ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTH ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  18. 4. VIEW EAST; WEST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST; WEST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  19. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds. PMID:24597942

  20. Networked enabled sensors for the future soldier in urban warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Clive L.; Robinson, Colin

    2004-11-01

    In Urban Warfare, the enemy is at close range; snipers are almost always present; stress is extremely high; and the opposing force is frequently indistinguishable from the civilian population. On-going events in the Middle East and the general rise in world-wide terrorism has shown that small cells of "terrorist" forces are able to inflict severe developments in Urban Warfare sensors and their possible role.

  1. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  2. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Munro, Nancy B; Watson, Annetta Paule; King, J.; Hauschild, Veronique

    2007-05-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  3. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System. PMID:17923293

  4. Experimental examination of ultraviolet Raman cross sections of chemical warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, F.; Landström, L.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, Pär.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering from the commonly used chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl sulfoxide, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphonoacetate was measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 210 to 410 nm using a pulsed laser based spectrometer system with a probing distance of 1.4 m and with a field of view on the target of less than 1mm. For the purpose of comparison with well explored reference liquids the Raman scattering from simulants was measured in the form of an extended liquid surface layer on top of a silicon wafer. This way of measuring enabled direct comparison to the Raman scattering strength from cyclohexane. The reference Raman spectra were used to validate the signal strength of the simulants and the calibration of the experimental set up. Measured UV absorbance functions were used to calculate Raman cross sections. Established Raman cross sections of the simulants make it possible to use them as reference samples when measuring on chemical warfare agents in droplet form.

  5. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  6. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  7. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  8. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  9. O-GlcNAcylation is involved in the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing’s sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bachmaier, R; Aryee, D.N.T.; Jug, G.; Kauer, M.; Kreppel, M.; Lee, K.A.; Kovar, H

    2016-01-01

    The oncogene EWS-FLI1 encodes a chimeric transcription factor expressed in Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFT). EWS-FLI1 target gene expression is thought to drive ESFT pathogenesis and, therefore, inhibition of EWS-FLI1 activity holds high therapeutic promise. Since the activity of many transcription factors is regulated by post-translational modifications, we studied the presence of modifications on EWS-FLI1. The immuno-purified fusion-protein was recognized by an antibody specific for O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation, and readily bound to a phosphoprotein-specific dye. Inhibition of Ser/Thr specific phophatases increased EWS-FLI1 molecular weight and reduced its O-GlcNAc content, suggesting that phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation of EWS-FLI1 dynamically interact. By mutation analysis, O-GlcNAcylation was delineated to Ser/Thr residues of the amino-terminal EWS transcriptional-activation domain. Metabolic inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway abrogated O-GlcNAcylation of EWS-FLI1 and specifically interfered with transcriptional activation of the EWS-FLI1 target Id2. These results suggest that drugs modulating glycosylation of EWS-FLI1 functionally interfere with its activity and might therefore constitute promising additions to current ESFT chemotherapy. PMID:19151750

  10. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  11. EwE-F 1.0: an implementation of Ecopath with Ecosim in Fortran 95/2003 for coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoglu, E.; Libralato, S.; Salihoglu, B.; Oguz, T.; Solidoro, C.

    2015-02-01

    Societal and scientific challenges foster the implementation of the ecosystem approach to marine ecosystem analysis and management, which is a comprehensive means of integrating the direct and indirect effects of multiple stressors on the different components of ecosystems, from physical to chemical and biological and from viruses to fishes and marine mammals. Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used software package, which offers great capability for a dynamic description of the multiple interactions occurring within a food web, and potentially, a crucial component of an integrated platform supporting the ecosystem approach. However, being written for the Microsoft .NET framework, seamless integration of this code with Fortran-based physical oceanographic and/or biogeochemical models is technically not straightforward. In this work we release a re-coding of EwE in Fortran (EwE-F). We believe that the availability of a Fortran version of EwE is an important step towards setting-up integrated end-to-end (E2E) modelling schemes utilising this widely adopted software because it (i) increases portability of the EwE models, (ii) provides greater flexibility towards integrating EwE with Fortran-based modelling schemes. Furthermore, EwE-F might help modellers using Fortran programming language to get close to the EwE approach. In the present work, first the fundamentals of EwE-F are introduced, followed by validation of EwE-F against standard EwE utilising sample models. Afterwards, an E2E ecological representation of the Trieste Gulf (Northern Adriatic Sea) ecosystem is presented as an example of online two-way coupling between an EwE-F food web model and a biogeochemical model. Finally, the possibilities that having EwE-F opens up for are discussed.

  12. Reversible LSD1 inhibition interferes with global EWS/ETS transcriptional activity and impedes Ewing sarcoma tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Savita; Theisen, Emily R.; Bearss, Jared; Mulvihill, Timothy; Hoffman, Laura M.; Sorna, Venkataswamy; Beckerle, Mary C.; Sharma, Sunil; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ewing sarcoma is a pediatric bone tumor which absolutely relies on the transcriptional activity of the EWS/ETS family of fusion oncoproteins. While the most common fusion, EWS/FLI, utilizes lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) to repress critical tumor suppressors, small molecule blockade of LSD1 has not yet been thoroughly explored as a therapeutic approach for Ewing sarcoma. We therefore evaluated the translational potential of potent and specific LSD1 inhibition with HCI2509 on the transcriptional program of both EWS/FLI and EWS/ERG as well as the downstream oncogenic phenotypes driven by EWS/ETS fusions in both in vitro and in vivo models of Ewing sarcoma. Experimental Design RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptional profiles of EWS/FLI, EWS/ERG, and treatment with HCI-2509 in both EWS/FLI and EWS/ERG containing cell lines. We then evaluated morphological phenotypes of treated cells with immunofluorescence. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated using caspase 3/7 activation and TUNEL staining. Colony forming assays were used to test oncogenic transformation and xenograft studies with patient-derived cell lines were used to evaluate the effects of HCI-2509 on tumorigenesis. Results HCI2509 caused a dramatic reversal of both the up- and down-regulated transcriptional profiles of EWS/FLI and EWS/ERG accompanied by the induction of apoptosis, and disruption of morphological and oncogenic phenotypes modulated by EWS/FLI. Importantly, HCI2509 displayed single-agent efficacy in multiple xenograft models. Conclusions These data support epigenetic modulation with HCI2509 as a therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma, and highlight a critical dual role for LSD1 in the oncogenic transcriptional activity of EWS/ETS proteins. PMID:24963049

  13. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 229 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. PMID:24894605

  18. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  19. Loss of Ewing sarcoma EWS allele promotes tumorigenesis by inducing chromosomal instability in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyewon; Galbraith, Richard; Turner, Thaddeus; Mehojah, Justin; Azuma, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors expresses aberrant EWSR1- (EWS) fusion genes that are derived from chromosomal translocation. Although these fusion genes are well characterized as transcription factors, their formation leaves a single EWS allele in the sarcoma cells, and the contribution that the loss of EWS makes towards disease pathogenesis is unknown. To address this question, we utilized zebrafish mutants for ewsa and tp53. The zebrafish tp53(M214K)w/m line and the ewsaw/m, zygotic ewsam/m, and Maternal-Zygotic (MZ) ewsam/m lines all displayed zero to low incidence of tumorigenesis. However, when the ewsa and tp53 mutant lines were crossed with each other, the incidence of tumorigenesis drastically increased. Furthermore, 27 hour post fertilization (hpf) MZ ewsam/m mutant embryos displayed a higher incidence of aberrant chromosome numbers and mitotic dysfunction compared to wildtype zebrafish embryos. Consistent with this finding, tumor samples obtained from ewsam/m;tp53w/m zebrafish displayed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the wildtype tp53 locus. These results suggest that wildtype Ewsa inhibits LOH induction, possibly by maintaining chromosomal stability. We propose that the loss of ewsa promotes tumorigenesis, and EWS deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of EWS-fusion-expressing sarcomas. PMID:27557633

  20. Loss of Ewing sarcoma EWS allele promotes tumorigenesis by inducing chromosomal instability in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyewon; Galbraith, Richard; Turner, Thaddeus; Mehojah, Justin; Azuma, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors expresses aberrant EWSR1- (EWS) fusion genes that are derived from chromosomal translocation. Although these fusion genes are well characterized as transcription factors, their formation leaves a single EWS allele in the sarcoma cells, and the contribution that the loss of EWS makes towards disease pathogenesis is unknown. To address this question, we utilized zebrafish mutants for ewsa and tp53. The zebrafish tp53(M214K)(w/m) line and the ewsa(w/m), zygotic ewsa(m/m), and Maternal-Zygotic (MZ) ewsa(m/m) lines all displayed zero to low incidence of tumorigenesis. However, when the ewsa and tp53 mutant lines were crossed with each other, the incidence of tumorigenesis drastically increased. Furthermore, 27 hour post fertilization (hpf) MZ ewsa(m/m) mutant embryos displayed a higher incidence of aberrant chromosome numbers and mitotic dysfunction compared to wildtype zebrafish embryos. Consistent with this finding, tumor samples obtained from ewsa(m/m);tp53(w/m) zebrafish displayed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the wildtype tp53 locus. These results suggest that wildtype Ewsa inhibits LOH induction, possibly by maintaining chromosomal stability. We propose that the loss of ewsa promotes tumorigenesis, and EWS deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of EWS-fusion-expressing sarcomas. PMID:27557633

  1. Applications of LPG fiber optical sensors for relative humidity and chemical-warfare-agents monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shufang; Liu, Yongcheng; Sucheta, Artur; Evans, Mishell K.; Van Tassell, Roger

    2002-09-01

    A long-period grating (LPG) fiber optic sensor has been developed for monitoring the relative humidity levels and toxic chemicals, especially the chemical warfare agents. The principle of operation of this sensor is based on monitoring the refractive index changes exhibited by the reactive coating applied to the surface of the LPG region in response to analytes. Specific interaction of the analyte with the thin film polymer coating produces as the output a wavelength shift that can be correlated with the concentration of the analyte. Thin polymer coating for relative humidity sensor is made of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) covalently bound to the surface of the fiber. Coating for chemical warfare agent detection employs metal nanoclusters imbedded in polyethylenimine (PEI) for specific reaction. The relative humidity level can be determined from 0% to 95% and the level of toxic chemicals can be determined is at least on the scale of 1 ppm. This small-size and low-cost LPG fiber optic sensor exhibited high sensitivity, rapid response, repeatability and durability. The goal of developing relative humidity sensor is to produce a fiber optic sensor-based health monitoring system for building, while the chemical sensor has found its application in point detection network for chemical warfare agent monitoring.

  2. EWS-FLI1 impairs aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation by blocking tryptophan breakdown via the kynurenine pathway.

    PubMed

    Mutz, Cornelia N; Schwentner, Raphaela; Kauer, Maximilian O; Katschnig, Anna M; Kromp, Florian; Aryee, Dave N T; Erhardt, Sophie; Goiny, Michel; Alonso, Javier; Fuchs, Dietmar; Kovar, Heinrich

    2016-07-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive pediatric tumor driven by the fusion protein EWS-FLI1. We report that EWS-FLI1 suppresses TDO2-mediated tryptophan (TRP) breakdown in ES cells. Gene expression and metabolite analyses reveal an EWS-FLI1-dependent regulation of TRP metabolism. TRP consumption increased in the absence of EWS-FLI1, resulting in kynurenine and kynurenic acid accumulation, both aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands. Activated AHR binds to the promoter region of target genes. We demonstrate that EWS-FLI1 knockdown results in AHR nuclear translocation and activation. Our data suggest that EWS-FLI1 suppresses autocrine AHR signaling by inhibiting TDO2-catalyzed TRP breakdown. PMID:27282934

  3. Tectonics of the Western Betics: the role of E-W strike slip fault corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Célérier, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The tectonic origin of the arcuate Betic-Rif orogenic belt that surrounds the Alboran Sea at the western tip of the Mediterranean Sea remains debated. Here, we investigate the tectonic units cropping out in the Western Betics (Malaga region, Southern Spain) with the main goal of reconstructing the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the area. New structural data and geological mapping together with available data allow us to identify the main structural features of the area. Deformation is found to be extremely diffused but two E-W elongated tectonic blocks with different lithological composition are outlined by marked E-W dextral strike-slip corridors ending up in horse-tail splays. These E-W strike slip corridors are responsible for late Miocence tectonics of both the internal and external zones of the Betic Cordillera.

  4. EWS-FLI1 Suppresses NOTCH-Activated p53 in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Jozef; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M.; Kauer, Max; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Poremba, Christopher; Jug, Gunhild; Schwentner, Raphaela; Smrzka, Oskar; Muehlbacher, Karin; Aryee, Dave N.T.; Kovar, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Although p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer, half of human tumors retain wild-type p53, whereby it is unknown whether normal p53 function is compromised by other cancer-associated alterations. One example is Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFT), where 90% express wild-type p53. ESFT are characterized by EWS-FLI1 oncogene fusions. Studying 6 ESFT cell lines, silencing of EWS-FLI1 in a wild-type p53 context resulted in increased p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 levels, causing cell cycle arrest. Using a candidate gene approach, HEY1 was linked to p53 induction. HEY1 was rarely expressed in 59 primary tumors, but consistently induced upon EWS-FLI1 knockdown in ESFT cell lines. The NOTCH signaling pathway targets HEY1, and we show NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 to be expressed in ESFT primary tumors and cell lines. Upon EWS-FLI1 silencing, NOTCH3 processing accompanied by nuclear translocation of the activated intracellular domain was observed in all but one p53-mutant cell line. In cell lines with the highest HEY1 induction, NOTCH3 activation was the consequence of JAG1 transcriptional induction. JAG1 modulation by specific siRNA, NOTCH-processing inhibition by either GSI or ectopic NUMB1, and siRNA-mediated HEY1 knockdown all inhibited p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 induction. Conversely, forced expression of JAG1, activated NOTCH3, or HEY1 induced p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1. These results indicate that suppression of EWS-FLI1 reactivates NOTCH signaling in ESFT cells, resulting in p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Our data link EWS-FLI1 to the NOTCH and p53 pathways and provide a plausible basis both for NOTCH tumor suppressor effects and oncogenesis of cancers that retain wild-type p53. PMID:18757425

  5. Dependence of a sleeping parameter from the N-S or E-W sleeping direction.

    PubMed

    Ruhenstroth-Bauer, G; Rüther, E; Reinertshofer, T

    1987-01-01

    In an earlier study it was shown that an isotonic salt solution within a measuring chamber of a cytopherometer is rotating caused by Lorentz forces, if the magnetic earth field crosses the electric field in the chamber. This may be a model of the ability of certain higher organisms to recognize the direction of the magnetic earth field. The topic of this study was the possible effect of the magnetic earth field in humans. It is shown that the duration of REM latency is influenced by the position of sleepers in N-S or E-W direction: it is shortened in E-W direction (p = 0.02). PMID:2962381

  6. PI3K/AKT signaling modulates transcriptional expression of EWS/FLI1 through specificity protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Chiara; Boro, Aleksandar; Rechfeld, Florian; Lopez-Garcia, Laura A.; Gierisch, Maria E.; Schäfer, Beat W.; Niggli, Felix K.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent bone cancer in childhood and is characterized by the presence of the balanced translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) in more than 85% of cases, generating a dysregulated transcription factor EWS/FLI1. This fusion protein is an essential oncogenic component of ES development which is necessary for tumor cell maintenance and represents an attractive therapeutic target. To search for modulators of EWS/FLI1 activity we screened a library of 153 targeted compounds and identified inhibitors of the PI3K pathway to directly modulate EWS/FLI1 transcription. Surprisingly, treatment of four different ES cell lines with BEZ235 resulted in down regulation of EWS/FLI1 mRNA and protein by ∼50% with subsequent modulation of target gene expression. Analysis of the EWS/FLI1 promoter region (−2239/+67) using various deletion constructs identified two 14bp minimal elements as being important for EWS/FLI1 transcription. We identified SP1 as modulator of EWS/FLI1 gene expression and demonstrated direct binding to one of these regions in the EWS/FLI1 promoter by EMSA and ChIP experiments. These results provide the first insights on the transcriptional regulation of EWS/FLI1, an area that has not been investigated so far, and offer an additional molecular explanation for the known sensitivity of ES cell lines to PI3K inhibition. PMID:26336820

  7. 78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center..., lying within the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center and the Humboldt-Toiyabe National...

  8. Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

    2013-12-21

    Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications. PMID:24048279

  9. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings. PMID:12704086

  10. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  11. NLO QCD + NLO EW corrections to WZZ productions with leptonic decays at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong-Bai, Shen; Ren-You, Zhang; Wen-Gan, Ma; Xiao-Zhou, Li; Yu, Zhang; Lei, Guo

    2015-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Model (SM) require not only accurate experiments, but also precise and reliable theoretical predictions. Triple vector boson production provides a unique opportunity to investigate the quartic gauge couplings and check the validity of the gauge principle in the SM. Since the tree-level predictions alone are inadequate to meet this demand, the next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation becomes compulsory. In this paper, we calculate the NLO QCD + NLO electroweak (EW) corrections to the W ± ZZ productions with subsequent leptonic decays at the 14 TeV LHC by adopting an improved narrow width approximation which takes into account the off-shell contributions and spin correlations from the W ±- and Z-boson leptonic decays. The NLO QCD+EW corrected integrated cross sections for the W ± ZZ productions and some kinematic distributions of final products are provided. The results show that both the NLO QCD and NLO EW corrections are significant. In the jet-veto event selection scheme with p T,jet cut = 50 GeV, the NLO QCD+EW relative corrections to the integrated cross section are 20 .5% and 31 .1%, while the genuine NLO EW relative corrections are -5 .42% and -4 .58%, for the W + ZZ and W - ZZ productions, respectively. We also investigate the theoretical dependence of the integrated cross section on the factorization/renormalization scale, and find that the scale uncertainty is underestimated at the LO due to the fact that the strong coupling α s is not involved in the LO matrix elements.

  12. SURVIVABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To tests and provide a comprehensive, integrated list of survival rates of biological warfare agents' survival of landfill conditions.
    Research into the permanence of the final disposal contaminated building debris of the inactivated or active agent of terrorism is being exam...

  13. Stealth and the changing role of electronic warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Way, G.W. )

    1992-08-01

    The advantages of stealth in a combat environment and how electronic warfare has changed to complement stealth survivability and improve combat effectiveness is presented. Attention is given to providing better pilot-situation awareness using passive sensors, multispectral in design, that do not emit energy.

  14. Evolution: Bacterial Territoriality as a Byproduct of Kin Discriminatory Warfare.

    PubMed

    Velicer, Gregory J; Plucain, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Recent work suggests that the inability of genetically distinct colonies of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis to freely merge is often a byproduct of microbial warfare mediated by divergent suites of chemical weaponry. Any effects of such kin-discriminatory antagonisms on levels of within-group cooperation at other traits remain unclear. PMID:27166695

  15. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  16. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  17. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  18. Chemical warfare agents: estimating oral reference doses.

    PubMed

    Opresko, D M; Young, R A; Faust, R A; Talmage, S S; Watson, A P; Ross, R H; Davidson, K A; King, J

    1998-01-01

    Health risk assessments for sites contaminated with chemical warfare agents require a comparison of the potential levels of exposure with a characterization of the toxic potency of each chemical. For noncancer health effects, toxic potency is expressed in terms of Reference Doses (RfD). A RfD is a daily exposure level or dose (usually expressed in units of milligrams of chemical per kilogram body weight per day) for the human population, including sensitive subpopulations, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects. A daily exposure at or below the RfD is not likely to be associated with health risks, but as the amount of chemical that an individual is exposed to increases above the RfD, the probability that an adverse effect will occur also increases. A RfD is derived by first examining the available human or animal toxicity data to identify a dose or exposure that corresponds to a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL). The NOAEL is the exposure level at which there are no statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control. Effects may be produced at this level, but they are not considered to be adverse if they do not result in functional impairment or pathological lesions that affect the performance of the whole organism or which reduce an organism's ability to cope with additional challenge. The LOAEL is the lowest exposure level at which there are statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control. If only a LOAEL is identified by the toxicity data, a NOAEL is estimated by dividing the LOAEL by a factor no greater than 10. This extrapolation factor of 10 or less is termed the LOAEL-to-NOAEL Uncertainty Factor (UFL). The NOAEL is also adjusted by the application of other

  19. Surface-immobilization of molecules for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Indrani; Neelam

    2014-09-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale molecular assemblies with advanced functionalities is an emerging field. These systems provide new perspectives for the detection and degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The main concern in this context is the design and fabrication of "smart surfaces" able to immobilize functional molecules which can perform a certain function or under the input of external stimuli. This review addresses the above points dealing with immobilization of various molecules on different substrates and describes their adequacy as sensors for the detection of CWAs. PMID:24998209

  20. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. PMID:19833524

  1. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Seth D.

    2003-09-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability.

  2. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  3. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  4. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  5. Association of EWS-FLI1 Type 1 Fusion with Lower Proliferative Rate in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    de Alava, Enrique; Panizo, Angel; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Huvos, Andrew G.; Pardo-Mindán, F. Javier; Barr, Frederic G.; Ladanyi, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) family of tumors, including peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), is defined genetically by specific chromosomal translocations resulting in fusion of the EWS gene with a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, either FLI1 (90–95%) or ERG (5–10%). A second level of molecular genetic heterogeneity stems from the variation in the location of the translocation breakpoints, resulting in the inclusion of different combinations of exons from EWS and FLI1 (or ERG) in the fusion products. The most common type of EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript, type 1, is associated with a favorable prognosis and appears to encode a functionally weaker transactivator, compared to other fusion types. We sought to determine whether the observed covariation of structure, function, and clinical course correlates with tumor cell kinetic parameters such as proliferative rate and apoptosis, and with expression of the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1R). In a group of 86 ES/PNET with defined EWS-ETS fusions (45 EWS-FLI1 type 1, 27 EWS-FLI1 non-type 1, 14 EWS-ERG), we assessed proliferation rate by immunostaining for Ki-67 using MIB1 antibody (n = 85), apoptosis by TUNEL assay (n = 66), and IGF-1R expression by immunostaining with antibody 1H7 (n = 78). Ki-67 proliferative index was lower in tumors with EWS-FLI1 type 1 than those with non-type 1 EWS-FLI1, whether analyzed as a continuous (P = 0.049) or categorical (P = 0.047) variable. Logistic regression analysis suggests that this association was secondary to the association of type 1 EWS-FLI1 and lower IGF-1R expression (P = 0.04). Comparing EWS-FLI1 to EWS-ERG cases, Ki-67 proliferative index was higher in the latter (P = 0.01, Mann-Whitney test; P = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test), but there was no significant difference in IGF-1R. TUNEL results showed no significant differences between groups. Our results suggest that clinical and functional differences between alternative forms of EWS-FLI1

  6. The history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Noah, Donald L; Huebner, Kermit D; Darling, Robert G; Waeckerle, Joseph F

    2002-05-01

    The inevitable conclusion is that the availability of biological warfare agents and supporting technologic infrastructure, coupled with the fact that there are many people motivated to do harm to the United States, means that America must be prepared to defend her homeland against biological agents. Some have argued to the contrary, that the threat and risks from a biological weapon attack are not to be considered serious, because [39]: They've not been used yet on a large scale so they probably won't be in the near future. Their use is so morally repugnant that they probably won't be used at all. The technologic hurdles associated with isolating, growing, purifying, weaponizing, and disseminating adequate quantities of pathologic agents are so high that only the most advanced laboratories could attempt the process. Similar to a 'nuclear winter,' the aftermath of a biological attack is so unthinkable that none would attempt it. Unfortunately, the trends associated with biotechnology globalization, terrorist group dynamics, and global/regional politics render these beliefs untenable and inappropriate, as recent events have underscored. To that end, the United States has accelerated its program of defense against biological weapons, as it must. Biological weapons are such dreadful weapons of uniqueness and complexity that a specific defense strategy is paramount. Elements of this program include pharmaceutical stockpiles, heightened surveillance systems, energized vaccine development programs, and comprehensive training initiatives. Although the depth and breadth of these efforts are unprecedented, above all these efforts is the absolute necessity for medical and public health care professionals to be educated and actively involved. These professionals are the sine qua non of future defensive readiness. This is just the start; unfortunately, there is no end yet in sight. PMID:12120479

  7. The significance of E-W structural trends for the Alice Springs Orogeny in the Charters Towers Province, North Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentin de Gromard, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    E-W structural and igneous trends in the Charters Towers Province are highly anomalous within the overall N-S trending Tasman orogen of eastern Australia and resulted from a sequence of N-S shortening events. A succession of ~ E-W trending FIAs (Foliation Intersection/Inflexion Axis preserved within porphyroblasts) dated at 474.7 ± 7.2, 413 ± 13 and 381.1 ± 8.1 Ma correspond with adjacent granite crystallization ages and E-W trending FIA ages in the Greenvale Province to the NW. The magnetic anomaly map of Australia reveals that this E-W trending portion of the Tasman orogen links with and truncates several earlier formed orogens. The E-W trend of the Charters Towers Province resulted from overprinting of early Palaeozoic N-S trending structures in the Tasman Orogen by younger E-W ones during the Alice Springs Orogeny (450-300 Ma) resolving the E-W pluton shape and distribution of Cambrian to Devonian magmatic activity plus the truncational nature of aeromagnetic data from Central Australia to the East coast.

  8. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  9. CRM1 Inhibition Promotes Cytotoxicity in Ewing Sarcoma Cells by Repressing EWS-FLI1-Dependent IGF-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haibo; Lin, De-Chen; Cao, Qi; Guo, Xiao; Marijon, Helene; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Gery, Sigal; Xu, Liang; Yang, Henry; Pang, Brendan; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Lim, Huey Jin; Doan, Ngan; Said, Jonathan W; Chu, Peiguo; Mayakonda, Anand; Thomas, Tom; Forscher, Charles; Baloglu, Erkan; Shacham, Sharon; Rajalingam, Raja; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2016-05-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is an aggressive bone malignancy that mainly affects children and young adults. The mechanisms by which EWS (EWSR1) fusion genes drive the disease are not fully understood. CRM1 (XPO1) traffics proteins from the nucleus, including tumor suppressors and growth factors, and is overexpressed in many cancers. A small-molecule inhibitor of CRM1, KPT-330, has shown therapeutic promise, but has yet to be investigated in the context of EWS. In this study, we demonstrate that CRM1 is also highly expressed in EWS. shRNA-mediated or pharmacologic inhibition of CRM1 in EWS cells dramatically decreased cell growth while inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and protein expression alterations to several cancer-related factors. Interestingly, silencing of CRM1 markedly reduced EWS-FLI1 fusion protein expression at the posttranscriptional level and upregulated the expression of the well-established EWS-FLI1 target gene, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), which inhibits IGF-1. Accordingly, KPT-330 treatment attenuated IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R/AKT pathway. Furthermore, knockdown of IGFBP3 increased cell growth and rescued the inhibitory effects on IGF-1 signaling triggered by CRM1 inhibition. Finally, treatment of EWS cells with a combination of KPT-330 and the IGF-1R inhibitor, linsitinib, synergistically decreased cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo Taken together, these findings provide a strong rationale for investigating the efficacy of combinatorial inhibition of CRM1 and IGF-1R for the treatment of EWS. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2687-97. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26956669

  10. EW-7197 inhibits hepatic, renal, and pulmonary fibrosis by blocking TGF-β/Smad and ROS signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-A; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Shin; Lee, Seon-Joo; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Dae-Kee; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis is an inherent response to chronic damage upon immense apoptosis or necrosis. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) signaling plays a key role in the fibrotic response to chronic liver injury. To develop anti-fibrotic therapeutics, we synthesized a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor kinase (ALK5), EW-7197, and evaluated its therapeutic potential in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) mouse, bile duct ligation (BDL) rat, bleomycin (BLM) mouse, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse models. Western blot, immunofluorescence, siRNA, and ChIP analysis were carried out to characterize EW-7197 as a TGF-β/Smad signaling inhibitor in LX-2, Hepa1c1c7, NRK52E, and MRC5 cells. In vivo anti-fibrotic activities of EW-7197 were examined by microarray, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and a survival study in the animal models. EW-7197 decreased the expression of collagen, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, 4-hydroxy-2, 3-nonenal, and integrins in the livers of CCl4 mice and BDL rats, in the lungs of BLM mice, and in the kidneys of UUO mice. Furthermore, EW-7197 extended the lifespan of CCl4 mice, BDL rats, and BLM mice. EW-7197 blocked the TGF-β1-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), collagen, and α-SMA in LX-2 cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) isolated from mice. Moreover, EW-7197 attenuated TGF-β- and ROS-induced HSCs activation to myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. The mechanism of EW-7197 appeared to be blockade of both TGF-β1/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling to exert an anti-fibrotic activity. This study shows that EW-7197 has a strong potential as an anti-fibrosis therapeutic agent via inhibition of TGF-β-/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling. PMID:25487606

  11. EWS/FLI-responsive GGAA-microsatellites exhibit polymorphic differences between European and African populations

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Robert; Monument, Michael J.; Watkins, W. Scott; Smith, Richard; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma development remain obscure. The incidence of Ewing sarcoma is ten-fold less in Africans as compared to Europeans, irrespective of geographic location, suggesting population-specific genetic influences. Since GGAA-containing microsatellites within key target genes are necessary for Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/FLI DNA binding and gene activation, and gene expression is positively correlated with the number of repeat motifs in the promoter/enhancer region, we sought to determine if significant polymorphisms exist between African and European populations which might contribute to observed differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence and outcomes. GGAA-microsatellites upstream of two critical EWS/FLI-target genes, NR0B1 and CAV1, were sequenced from subjects of European and African descent. While the characteristics of the CAV1 promoter microsatellites were similar across both populations, the NR0B1 microsatellite in African subjects was significantly larger, harboring more repeat motifs, a greater number of repeat segments, and longer consecutive repeats, than in European subjects. These results are biologically intriguing as NR0B1 was the most highly enriched EWS/FLI bound gene in prior studies, and is absolutely necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma. These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms in the NR0B1 gene might influence disease susceptibility and prognosis in Ewing sarcoma in unanticipated ways. PMID:22749036

  12. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  13. Proximal detection of chemical warfare agents using PMIRRAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Michael W. P.; Marenco, Armando J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-contact chemical warfare agent detection has been demonstrated on military painted surfaces using polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS). Notably, VX has been detected on chemical agent resistance coating (CARC) paint at a distance of approximately 10 cm. PMIRRAS does not rely on the presence of chemical vapors and is not affected by many common battlefield interferants such as aerosolized dust, water and diesel vapors, etc., making it highly suitable for use in operational environments.

  14. NLO QCD+EW predictions for V + jets including off-shell vector-boson decays and multijet merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, S.; Lindert, J. M.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Schönherr, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) predictions including QCD and electroweak (EW) corrections for the production and decay of off-shell electroweak vector bosons in association with up to two jets at the 13 TeV LHC. All possible dilepton final states with zero, one or two charged leptons that can arise from off-shell W and Z bosons or photons are considered. All predictions are obtained using the automated implementation of NLO QCD+EW corrections in the O penLoops matrix-element generator combined with the Munich and Sherpa Monte Carlo frameworks. Electroweak corrections play an especially important role in the context of BSM searches, due to the presence of large EW Sudakov logarithms at the TeV scale. In this kinematic regime, important observables such as the jet transverse momentum or the total transverse energy are strongly sensitive to multijet emissions. As a result, fixed-order NLO QCD+EW predictions are plagued by huge QCD corrections and poor theoretical precision. To remedy this problem we present an approximate method that allows for a simple and reliable implementation of NLO EW corrections in the MePs@Nlo multijet merging framework. Using this general approach we present an inclusive simulation of vector-boson production in association with jets that guarantees NLO QCD+EW accuracy in all phase-space regions involving up to two resolved jets.

  15. Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Janet D.

    2014-05-01

    Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

  16. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Morris, John R.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  3. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Davis, Erin Durke

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  4. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, M.; Bründl, M.; Straub, D.

    2015-07-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWS is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWS and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWS is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWS. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  5. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

    2002-12-01

    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  6. A Triage Model for Chemical Warfare Casualties

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Mohammad Ali; Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Borna, Hojat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Aslani, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Context: The main objectives of triage are securing patient safety during the process of emergency diagnosis and treatment, and reduction of waiting time for medical services and transport. To date, there is no triage system for nerve agent victims. Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review proposes a new triage system for patients exposed to nerve agents. Information regarding clinical signs and symptoms of intoxication with nerve agents, primary treatments, and classification of patients were extracted from the literature. All related articles were reviewed. Subsequently, specialists from different disciplines were invited to discuss and draft protocols. Results: Finalized triage tables summarizing the classification methods and required protocols in the field were designed after several meetings. Conclusions: The proposed triage protocol encompasses aspects from most of the existing triage systems to create a single overarching guide for unifying the triage process. The proposed protocol can serve as a base for the designing future guidelines. PMID:26543836

  7. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Dacre, J C; Goldman, M

    1996-06-01

    There have been reports of chemical attacks in which sulfur mustard might have been used (a) on Iranian soldiers and civilians during the Gulf War in 1984 and 1985 and (b) in an Iraqi chemical attack on the Iranian-occupied village of Halbja in 1988, resulting in many civilian casualties. Heavy use of chemical warfare in Afghanistan by the Soviet military is a recent innovation in military tactics that has been highly successful and may ensure further use of chemical agents in future military conflicts and terrorist attacks as a profitable adjunct to conventional military arms. Mustard is a poisonous chemical agent that exerts a local action on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive systems in humans and laboratory animals, causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, and cardiac distress. Under extreme circumstances, dependent upon the dose and length of exposure to the agent, necrosis of the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory system, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, intestinal lesions, hemoconcentration, leucopenia, convulsions with systemic distress, and death occur. Severe mustard poisoning in humans is associated with systemic injury, which is manifested as headache, epigastric distresses, anorexia, diarrhea, and cachexia and is usually observed at mustard doses of 1000 mg/min/m3 with damage to hematopoietic tissues and progressive leucopenia. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison that causes disruption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities that are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity, and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas

  8. Molecular analysis of the fusion of EWS to an orphan nuclear receptor gene in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, R. I.; Ueda, T.; Hamelin, A.; Jhanwar, S. C.; Bridge, J. A.; Healey, J. H.; Huvos, A. G.; Gerald, W. L.; Ladanyi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of myxoid chondrosarcoma (CS) is poorly understood. A recurrent translocation, t(9;22) (q22;q12), has been recognized in CS, specifically in extraskeletal myxoid CS. Recently, this translocation has been shown to represent a rearrangement of the EWS gene at 22q12 with a novel gene at 9q22 designated CHN (or TEC). Sequence analysis suggests that CHN encodes a novel orphan nuclear receptor with a zinc finger DNA-binding domain. The structure of this gene fusion has been characterized in only a limited number of extraskeletal myxoid CSs and its presence in other types of CS has not been extensively examined. We studied 46 cases of CS (8 extraskeletal myxoid, 4 skeletal myxoid, 4 mesenchymal, and 30 other) for the EWS/CHN gene fusion by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and long-range DNA polymerase chain reaction. The EWS/CHN gene fusion was present in 6 of 8 extraskeletal myxoid CSs and was not detected in any of the remaining cases, including the 4 skeletal myxoid CSs. The negative findings in the latter cases suggest that skeletal myxoid CS is pathogenetically distinct from its extraskeletal counterpart. Notably, 2 cases of extraskeletal myxoid CS showed neither an EWS/CHN fusion transcript nor EWS/CHN genomic fusion nor EWS or CHN genomic rearrangement, suggesting genetic heterogeneity within extraskeletal myxoid CS. Finally, we also provide evidence for alternative splicing of the 3' end of the fusion transcript. Extraskeletal myxoid CS thus represents yet another sarcoma type containing a gene fusion involving EWS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9060841

  9. Englerin A Inhibits EWS-FLI1 DNA Binding in Ewing Sarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Caropreso, Vittorio; Darvishi, Emad; Turbyville, Thomas J; Ratnayake, Ranjala; Grohar, Patrick J; McMahon, James B; Woldemichael, Girma M

    2016-05-01

    High-throughput screening of extracts from plants, marine, and micro-organisms led to the identification of the extract from the plant Phyllanthus engleri as the most potent inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 induced luciferase reporter expression. Testing of compounds isolated from this extract in turn led to the identification of Englerin A (EA) as the active constituent of the extract. EA induced both necrosis and apoptosis in Ewing cells subsequent to a G2M accumulation of cells in the cell cycle. It also impacted clonogenic survival and anchorage-independent proliferation while also decreasing the proportion of chemotherapy-resistant cells identified by high ALDH activity. EA also caused a sustained increase in cytosolic calcium levels. EA appears to exert its effect on Ewing cells through a decrease in phosphorylation of EWS-FLI1 and its ability to bind DNA. This effect is mediated, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of the calcium-dependent protein kinase PKC-βI after a transient up-regulation. PMID:26961871

  10. Adipogenesis stimulates the nuclear localization of EWS with an increase in its O-GlcNAc glycosylation in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiang; Kamemura, Kazuo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The majority of EWS localizes stably in the cytosol in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • Adipogenic stimuli induce the nuclear localization of EWS. • Adipogenesis promotes O-GlcNAcylation of EWS. • O-GlcNAcylation stimulates the recruitment of EWS to the nuclear periphery. - Abstract: Although the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) proto-oncoprotein is found in the nucleus and cytosol and is associated with the cell membrane, the regulatory mechanisms of its subcellular localization are still unclear. Here we found that adipogenic stimuli induce the nuclear localization of EWS in 3T3-L1 cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation in the C-terminal PY-nuclear localization signal of EWS was negative throughout adipogenesis. Instead, an adipogenesis-dependent increase in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation of EWS was observed. Pharmacological inactivation of O-GlcNAcase in preadipocytes promoted perinuclear localization of EWS. Our findings suggest that the nuclear localization of EWS is partly regulated by the glycosylation.

  11. EwE-F 1.0: an implementation of Ecopath with Ecosim in Fortran 95/2003 for coupling and integration with other models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoglu, E.; Libralato, S.; Salihoglu, B.; Oguz, T.; Solidoro, C.

    2015-08-01

    Societal and scientific challenges foster the implementation of the ecosystem approach to marine ecosystem analysis and management, which is a comprehensive means of integrating the direct and indirect effects of multiple stressors on the different components of ecosystems, from physical to chemical and biological and from viruses to fishes and marine mammals. Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used software package, which offers capability for a dynamic description of the multiple interactions occurring within a food web, and, potentially, a crucial component of an integrated platform supporting the ecosystem approach. However, being written for the Microsoft .NET framework, seamless integration of this code with Fortran-based physical and/or biogeochemical oceanographic models is technically not straightforward. In this work we release a re-coding of EwE in Fortran (EwE-F). We believe that the availability of a Fortran version of EwE is an important step towards setting up coupled/integrated modelling schemes utilising this widely adopted software because it (i) increases portability of the EwE models and (ii) provides additional flexibility towards integrating EwE with Fortran-based modelling schemes. Furthermore, EwE-F might help modellers using the Fortran programming language to get close to the EwE approach. In the present work, first fundamentals of EwE-F are introduced, followed by validation of EwE-F against standard EwE utilising sample models. Afterwards, an end-to-end (E2E) ecological representation of the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) ecosystem is presented as an example of online two-way coupling between an EwE-F food web model and a biogeochemical model. Finally, the possibilities that having EwE-F opens up are discussed.

  12. Portable Raman device for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Martin, Matthew E.; Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Mobley, Joel; Cullum, Brian M.; Wintenberg, Alan; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a compact, self-contained, cost effective, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTs) for screening a wide variety of chemical and biological agents for homeland defense applications. The instrument is a fully-integrated, tunable, "point-and-shoot" Raman monitor based on solid-state acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. It also consists of a 830-nm diode laser for excitation, and an avalanche photodiode for detection. Evaluation of this instrument has been performed by analyzing several standard samples and comparing the results those obtained using a conventional Raman system. In addition to system evaluation, this paper will also discuss potential applications of the RAMiTs for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents.

  13. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Seth D.

    2001-08-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) lab currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares, and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9' X 3' cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and in the foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for proper spatial and intensity characteristics. All relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

  14. Chemical warfare protective clothing: identification of performance limitations and their possible solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pandolf, K.B.; Allan, A.E.; Gozalez, R.R.; Sawka, M.N.; Stroschein, L.A.

    1987-01-27

    The major factors that contribute to the increased thermal burden imposed by chemical warfare (CW) protective clothing are the insulation characteristics (clo) and the evaporative impedance (im) of the material; and, increased levels of energy expenditure for performing physical exercise while wearing these clothing systems. An approach to alleviating heat stress is through the use of auxiliary cooling. A number of prototype microclimate cooling systems at employ either air-cooled or liquid-cooled vests were shown to be effective in reducing soldier heat strain during exercise while wearing CW protective clothing in hot environments. This Institute also developed the ability to predict the thermal strain, water requirements, tolerance time, and optimal work-rest ratios for soldiers exercising in CW protective clothing in a wide variety of environmental conditions.

  15. From the battlefront: peripheral nerve surgery in modern day warfare.

    PubMed

    Ecklund, James M; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2009-01-01

    Warfare historically causes a large number of peripheral nerve injuries. During the current global war on terror, an increased use of advanced regional anesthesia techniques appears to have significantly reduced pain syndromes that have been previously reported with missile-induced nerve injuries. Additionally, a new program has been established to develop advanced prosthetic devises that can interface with neural tissue to obtain direct neural control. As this technology matures, the functional restoration gained from these new generation prosthetic devices may exceed that which can be obtained by standard nerve repair techniques. PMID:19064183

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of chemical warfare agent simulants from soil.

    PubMed

    Griest, W H; Ramsey, R S; Ho, C H; Caldwell, W M

    1992-05-29

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are efficiently recovered from 2-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil using methanol-carbon dioxide (5:95) at 300 atm for 2 min at 60 degrees C. Recoveries (n = 3) were 79 +/- 23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93 +/- 14% for 2-chloroethylethyl sulfide, 92 +/- 13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate and 95 +/- 17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. Recoveries are higher than, but less precise than those achieved from a 5-min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol. Much less laboratory waste is generated than the current standard organic solvent extraction method (33 g of soil shaken with 100 ml of chloroform). PMID:1400849

  17. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E.

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  18. Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czárán, Tamás L.; Hoekstra, Rolf F.; Pagie, Ludo

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary processes generating biodiversity and ecological mechanisms maintaining biodiversity seem to be diverse themselves. Conventional explanations of biodiversity such as niche differentiation, density-dependent predation pressure, or habitat heterogeneity seem satisfactory to explain diversity in communities of macrobial organisms such as higher plants and animals. For a long time the often high diversity among microscopic organisms in seemingly uniform environments, the famous "paradox of the plankton," has been difficult to understand. The biodiversity in bacterial communities has been shown to be sometimes orders of magnitudes higher than the diversity of known macrobial systems. Based on a spatially explicit game theoretical model with multiply cyclic dominance structures, we suggest that antibiotic interactions within microbial communities may be very effective in maintaining diversity.

  19. Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Czárán, Tamás L; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Pagie, Ludo

    2002-01-22

    Evolutionary processes generating biodiversity and ecological mechanisms maintaining biodiversity seem to be diverse themselves. Conventional explanations of biodiversity such as niche differentiation, density-dependent predation pressure, or habitat heterogeneity seem satisfactory to explain diversity in communities of macrobial organisms such as higher plants and animals. For a long time the often high diversity among microscopic organisms in seemingly uniform environments, the famous "paradox of the plankton," has been difficult to understand. The biodiversity in bacterial communities has been shown to be sometimes orders of magnitudes higher than the diversity of known macrobial systems. Based on a spatially explicit game theoretical model with multiply cyclic dominance structures, we suggest that antibiotic interactions within microbial communities may be very effective in maintaining diversity. PMID:11792831

  20. Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1/15Deg and 1/30/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and 3.7 km, respectively). The model grid covers the Baltic from 9.3 to 24.6E and from 53.0 to 60.2N. The Transport module of the model takes the predetermined velocity field and uses the random walk technique to predict the motion of individual particles, the sum of which constitutes a consid- ered chemical agent. Several different approaches for modeling are used for different kind of chemical agents. Basic processes affecting the chemicals to be modeled are hydrolysis, solubility, and microbiological destruction. All available toxicity data re- garding the chemical warfare agents of primary concern and the expected degradation products in the Baltic environment were gathered and summarized. This information was used to compare the toxicities of the different agents and their degradation prod- ucts and to decide which chemicals may represent a toxic threat to the environment. The model was adapted to be used for chemical agents with various characteristics and behavior (as Sarin, Lewsite, Musturd, etc.) in seawaters. Special algorithms are developed to describe nonlinear reactions producing toxic and nontoxic products in result of the warfare agent destruction. Sources of chemical pollution in the sea are considered as steady state (chronic) point and/or distributed releases because princi- pally different two methods were used in dumping CW: 1) concentrated dumping of containers, shells, and bombs together with ships; 2) dispersed dumping of individual containers, shells and aircraft bombs from moving vessels. The model was run with four most recurrent climatic wind fields for the Bornholm and Gotland

  1. Stomata and pathogens: Warfare at the gates.

    PubMed

    Gudesblat, Gustavo E; Torres, Pablo S; Vojnov, Adrian A

    2009-12-01

    Bacteria and fungi are capable of triggering stomatal closure through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which prevents penetration through these pores. Therefore, the stomata can be considered part of the plant innate immune response. Some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to evade stomatal defense. The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), which infects plants of the Brassicaceae family mainly through hydathodes, has also been reported to infect plants through stomata. A recent report shows that penetration of Xcc in Arabidopsis leaves through stomata depends on a secreted small molecule whose synthesis is under control of the rpf/diffusible signal factor (DSF) cell-to-cell signaling system, which also controls genes involved in biofilm formation and pathogenesis. The same reports shows that Arabidopsis ROS- and PAMP-activated MAP kinase 3 (MPK3) is essential for stomatal innate response. Other recent and past findings about modulation of stomatal behaviour by pathogens are also discussed. In all, these findings support the idea that PAMP-triggered stomatal closure might be a more effective and widespread barrier against phytopathogens than previously thought, which has in turn led to the evolution in pathogens of several mechanisms to evade stomatal defense. PMID:20514224

  2. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  3. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Della A; Hulst, Albert G; de Reuver, Leo P J; van Krimpen, Simon H; van Baar, Ben M L

    2007-11-01

    Forensic laboratories do not have the infrastructure to process or store contaminated DNA samples that have been recovered from a crime scene contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents. Previous research has shown that DNA profiles can be recovered from blood exposed to several chemical warfare agents after the agent has been removed. The fate of four toxic agents, sulfur mustard, sodium 2-fluoroacetate, sarin, and diazinon, in a lysis buffer used in Promega DNA IQ extraction protocol was studied to determine if extraction would render the samples safe. Two independent analytical methods were used per agent, selected from GC-MS, 1H NMR, 19F NMR, (31)P NMR, or LC-ES MS. The methods were validated before use. Determinations were carried out in a semi-quantitative way, by direct comparison to standards. Agent levels in the elution buffer were found to be below the detectable limits for mustard, sarin, sodium 2-fluoroacetate or low (<0.02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory. PMID:18093062

  4. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  5. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.

    2000-04-01

    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

  6. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy. PMID:25774952

  7. Chemical warfare agent detectors probe the fogs of war

    SciTech Connect

    Ember, L.R. )

    1994-08-01

    The air-power-dominated Persian Gulf War was the largest massing of coalition forces since World War II. This short conflict left its own intriguing legacy of unanswered questions. Were chemical weapons used in the theater of war Some US Allies, many US service members, and a US Senator believe they were. Yet both US and U.K. defense establishments offer emphatic denials. If Saddam Hussein didn't use chemical weapons, how can the multitude of warning alarms that sounded, alarms indicating the presence of these warfare agents, be explained Did the chemical warfare (CW) agent monitors and detectors the US deployed operate properly And were they sensitive enough to detect not just militarily significant levels, for which troops would have had to don full protective gear, but also very low concentrations of these weapons, levels that Sen. Richard C. Shelby (D.-Ala.) believes may be responsible for the illnesses many Gulf War veterans are now experiencing In this paper, the author addressed these questions.

  8. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  9. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  10. Operational implications of propagation models used in communications evaluation in tactical electronic warfare planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. P.

    1982-08-01

    Propagation models are used to estimate both desired and unwelcome signals in communications systems used in tactical military operations. The variability associated with propagation influences, particularly in the highly mobile and uncertain locales of representative scenarios, introduces unusual factors in the evaluation of simulation results. Practical constraints on resources that can be devoted to communications and jamming effects during simulation require various approximations. The several applications for which propagation models are used are identified and several descriptive classifications within which models may be evaluated are discussed. A series of performance measures popularly used in communications and electronic warfare planning are reviewed and are used as the basis for describing the implications which arise from the use of each class of models. Implications with regard to communications and jamming range, reliability, and detection range are discussed.

  11. Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Shepherd, Seth D.

    2004-08-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  12. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.; Deyo, Charles R.; Longbottom, Jeff A.; White, Jason C.

    2005-05-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  13. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Grauvogel, Nathanael L.; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.

    2006-05-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares, and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combine the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  14. Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Hank D., II; Blair, Tommy L.; Ensor, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

  15. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs. PMID:17630721

  16. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. PMID:26621540

  17. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  18. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  19. Hsa-mir-145 is the top EWS-FLI1 repressed microRNA involved in a positive feed-back loop in Ewing’s sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Jozef; Jug, Gunhild; Mestdagh, Pieter; Schwentner, Raphaela; Kauer, Max; Aryee, Dave N.T.; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Scotlandi, Katia; Reiter, Marlies; Strunk, Dirk; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo; Kovar, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    EWS-FLI1 is a chromosome translocation-derived chimeric transcription factor that plays a central and rate-limiting role in the pathogenesis of Ewing’s sarcoma. While the EWS-FLI1 transcriptomic signature has been extensively characterized on the mRNA level, information on its impact on non-coding RNA expression is lacking. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of microRNAs affected by RNAi-mediated silencing of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing’s sarcoma cell lines and differentially expressed between primary Ewing’s sarcoma and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Here, we report on the identification of hsa-mir-145 as the top EWS-FLI1 repressed microRNA. Upon knockdown of EWS-FLI1, hsa-mir-145 expression dramatically increases in all Ewing’s sarcoma cell lines tested. Vice versa, ectopic expression of the microRNA in Ewing’s sarcoma cell lines strongly reduced EWS-FLI1 protein, while transfection of an anti-mir to hsa-mir-145 increased EWS-FLI1 levels. Reporter gene assays revealed that this modulation of EWS-FLI1 protein was mediated by the microRNA targeting the FLI1 3’UTR. Mutual regulation of EWS-FLI1 and hsa-mir-145 was mirrored by an inverse correlation between their expression levels in 4 Ewing’s sarcoma cell lines tested. Consistent with the role of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing’s sarcoma growth regulation, forced hsa-mir-145 expression halted Ewing’s sarcoma cell line growth. These results identify feed-back regulation between EWS-FLI1 and hsa-mir-145 as an important component of EWS-FLI1 mediated Ewing’s sarcomagenesis that may open a new avenue to future microRNA-mediated therapy of this devastating malignant disease. PMID:21217773

  20. YK-4-279 effectively antagonizes EWS-FLI1 induced leukemia in a transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, Tahereh; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Schlederer, Michaela; Saygideğer-Kont, Yasemin; Çelik, Haydar; Mueller, Kristina M.; Temel, Idil; Özdemirli, Metin; Kovar, Heinrich; Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Kenner, Lukas; Moriggl, Richard; Üren, Aykut

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive tumor of bone and soft tissue affecting predominantly children and young adults. Tumor-specific chromosomal translocations create EWS-FLI1 and similar aberrant ETS fusion proteins that drive sarcoma development in patients. ETS family fusion proteins and over-expressed ETS proteins are also found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Transgenic expression of EWS-FLI1 in mice promotes high penetrance erythroid leukemia with dense hepatic and splenic infiltrations. We identified a small molecule, YK-4-279, that directly binds to EWS-FLI1 and inhibits its oncogenic activity in Ewing sarcoma cell lines and xenograft mouse models. Herein, we tested in vivo therapeutic efficacy and potential side effects of YK-4-279 in the transgenic mouse model with EWS-FLI1 induced leukemia. A two-week course of treatment with YK-4-279 significantly reduced white blood cell count, nucleated erythroblasts in the peripheral blood, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly of erythroleukemic mice. YK-4-279 inhibited EWS-FLI1 target gene expression in neoplastic cells. Treated animals showed significantly better overall survival compared to control mice that rapidly succumbed to leukemia. YK-4-279 treated mice did not show overt toxicity in liver, spleen, or bone marrow. In conclusion, this in vivo study highlights the efficacy of YK-4-279 to treat EWS-FLI1 expressing neoplasms and support its therapeutic potential for patients with Ewing sarcoma and other ETS-driven malignancies. PMID:26462019

  1. Photometric Analysis and Period Investigation of the EW Type Eclipsing Binary V441 Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Hu, S.-M.; Guo, D.-F.; Jiang, Y.-G.; Gao, D.-Y.; Chen, X.

    2016-09-01

    Four color light curves of the EW type eclipsing binary V441 Lac were presented and analyzed by the W-D code. It is found that V441 Lac is an extremely low mass ratio ( q = 0.093±0.001) semi-detached binary with the less massive secondary component filling the inner Roche lobe. Two dark spots on the primary component were introduced to explain the asymmetric light curves. By analyzing all times of light minimum, we determined that the orbital period of V441 Lac is continuously increasing at a rate of d P/d t = 5.874(±0.007) × 10-7 d yr-1. The semi-detached Algol type configuration of V441 Lac is possibly formed by a contact configuration destroyed shallow contact binary due to mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one predicted by the thermal relaxation oscillation theory.

  2. The chimeric EWS-WT1 gene product in the desmoplastic small round cell tumor: Molecular detection and alternative transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, W.; Alava, E. de; Ladanyi, M.

    1994-09-01

    The desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a recently recognized aggressive type of primitive sarcoma occurring mainly in young males. Previous cytogenetic reports have identified a recurrent translocation in DSRCT, t(11;22)(p13;q12). We have recently shown that this translocation represents a rearrangement between the EWS and WT1 genes, normally located at 22q12 and 11p13, respectively, generating a fusion gene which encodes a chimeric RNA resulting from an in-frame junction of EWS exon 7 to WT1 exon 8. Thus, this chimeric RNA encodes a putative protein in which the RNA-binding domain of EWS is replaced by the three C-terminal zinc fingers of the WT1 DNA-binding domain. We have now assessed the molecular detection of this rearrangement in a panel of 7 DSRCTs and 38 other small round cell tumors, and we have examined the WT1 portion of the chimeric RNA for the presence of the previously reported splice variants of the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain of WT1. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) revealed a single identical product in 4/5 cases tested, including a case in which a t(11;22)(p13;q12) by karyotyping. By Southern blotting, rearrangement of both EWS and WT1 was detectable in 3/6 cases, EWS alone in 1/6, and neither in 2/6. Histologically, the sole sample negative by both methods contained very scanty viable tumor. EWS-WT1 RT-PCR was negative in 16 Wilms` tumors, 12 rhadomyosarcomas, and 10 Ewing`s sarcomas. RT-PCR with splice site-specific primers showed the chimeric EWS-WT1 transcripts to include both splice variants of the zinc-finger domain of WT1, {open_quotes}+KTS{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}-KTS{close_quotes}. The t(11;22)(p13;q12) of DSRCT is most reliably detected by RT-PCR, and results in a specific and structurally highly consistent EWS-WT1 chimeric transcript which may interact with the normal targets of both splice variants of WT1.

  3. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side. PMID:21240320

  4. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces. PMID:26423076

  5. Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

  6. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  7. The impact of warfare on the soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

  8. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  9. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  10. RNA 'Information Warfare' in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, Thomas; van Kan, Jan A L; Grant-Downton, Robert T

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory non-coding RNAs are emerging as key players in host-pathogen interactions. Small RNAs such as microRNAs are implicated in regulating plant transcripts involved in immunity and defence. Surprisingly, RNAs with silencing properties can be translocated from plant hosts to various invading pathogens and pests. Small RNAs are now confirmed virulence factors, with the first report of fungal RNAs that travel to host cells and hijack post-transcriptional regulatory machinery to suppress host defence. Here, we argue that trans-organism movement of RNAs represents a common mechanism of control in diverse interactions between plants and other eukaryotes. We suggest that extracellular vesicles are the key to such RNA movement events. Plant pathosystems serve as excellent experimental models to dissect RNA 'information warfare' and other RNA-mediated interactions. PMID:27318950

  11. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  12. Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose by Leifsonia sp. CBNU-EW3 isolated from the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of five bacterial strains were isolated from earthworm, Eisenia fetida and examined for bacterial cellulose (BC) production in Hestrin–Schramm medium (HS). Among the five strains tested, CBNU-EW3 exhibited excellent BC production and was identified as Leifsonia sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analy...

  13. Leavenworth papers. Number 10. Chemical warfare in World War I: the American experience, 1917-1918

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, C.E.

    1984-09-01

    The combat experience of World War I provided the U.S. Army with its first significant exposure to chemical warfare. The purpose of this paper is to show how the Army prepared for this kind of warfare and how soldiers in the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), from generals to doughboys, adapted or failed to adapt to fighting a war in which chemical weapons played a prominent role. Because no one AEF division experienced every facet of gas warfare, the study will examine information pertaining to many units in order to give a more complete picture of the phenomenon.

  14. Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

    1991-02-11

    This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

  15. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  16. Modular open RF architecture: extending VICTORY to RF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melber, Adam; Dirner, Jason; Johnson, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency products spanning multiple functions have become increasingly critical to the warfighter. Military use of the electromagnetic spectrum now includes communications, electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, and mission command systems. Due to the urgent needs of counterinsurgency operations, various quick reaction capabilities (QRCs) have been fielded to enhance warfighter capability. Although these QRCs were highly successfully in their respective missions, they were designed independently resulting in significant challenges when integrated on a common platform. This paper discusses how the Modular Open RF Architecture (MORA) addresses these challenges by defining an open architecture for multifunction missions that decomposes monolithic radio systems into high-level components with welldefined functions and interfaces. The functional decomposition maximizes hardware sharing while minimizing added complexity and cost due to modularization. MORA achieves significant size, weight and power (SWaP) savings by allowing hardware such as power amplifiers and antennas to be shared across systems. By separating signal conditioning from the processing that implements the actual radio application, MORA exposes previously inaccessible architecture points, providing system integrators with the flexibility to insert third-party capabilities to address technical challenges and emerging requirements. MORA leverages the Vehicular Integration for Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR)/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) framework. This paper concludes by discussing how MORA, VICTORY and other standards such as OpenVPX are being leveraged by the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CERDEC) to define a converged architecture enabling rapid technology insertion, interoperability and reduced SWaP.

  17. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and tissue distribution of EW135, a novel chicken egg white protein with group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Whayoung; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Asanuma, Hideki; Matsushita, Misao

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 80 proteins are reported to be present in chicken egg white. The major function of egg white proteins isolated so far is to defend the egg yolk against infections. We recently isolated a novel protein termed EW135 from chicken egg white. In this paper, we have determined the complete amino acid sequence of EW135 based on cDNA cloning. EW135 consists of 970 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. It is composed exclusively of tandem repeats of nine group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains separated by eight seven-amino acid peptides. The features of consensus sequences found in the group B SRCR domain were well conserved in EW135. The EW135 gene consists of putative 11 exons, with each SRCR domain being encoded by a single exon. Reverse transcription PCR showed that EW135 is expressed in only the oviduct among the 11 types of tissues tested. EW135 is a second soluble protein belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily identified in chickens. One of the important functions of proteins belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily is to recognize pathogens in innate immunity. It is, therefore, conceivable that EW135 could be involved in host defense in egg white. PMID:23913278

  18. Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Investigations of Alleged Use of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Robert W.

    Chemical warfare agents were used extensively throughout the twentieth century. Many such uses are well documented; however some allegations of use of chemical warfare agents were not easily confirmed. During the early 1980s interest developed into investigation of alleged use by analytical techniques, particularly mass spectrometry. Since that time, many combined chromatographic - mass spectrometric methods have been developed, both for application to the analysis of environmental and biomedical samples and for investigation of physiological interactions of chemical warfare agents. Examples are given of some of the investigations in which the author has been involved, including those into Yellow Rain and uses of chemical warfare agents in Iraq and Iran. These examples illustrate the use of combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods and emphasise the importance of controls in analytical investigations.

  19. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed. PMID:17325785

  20. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dolislager, Frederick; Bansleben, Dr. Donald; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  1. Forecasting the ocean optical environment in support of Navy mine warfare operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladner, S. D.; Arnone, R.; Jolliff, J.; Casey, B.; Matulewski, K.

    2012-06-01

    A 3D ocean optical forecast system called TODS (Tactical Ocean Data System) has been developed to determine the performance of underwater LIDAR detection/identification systems. TODS fuses optical measurements from gliders, surface satellite optical properties, and 3D ocean forecast circulation models to extend the 2-dimensional surface satellite optics into a 3-dimensional optical volume including subsurface optical layers of beam attenuation coefficient (c) and diver visibility. Optical 3D nowcast and forecasts are combined with electro-optical identification (EOID) models to determine the underwater LIDAR imaging performance field used to identify subsurface mine threats in rapidly changing coastal regions. TODS was validated during a recent mine warfare exercise with Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron (HM-14). Results include the uncertainties in the optical forecast and lidar performance and sensor tow height predictions that are based on visual detection and identification metrics using actual mine target images from the EOID system. TODS is a new capability of coupling the 3D optical environment and EOID system performance and is proving important for the MIW community as both a tactical decision aid and for use in operational planning, improving timeliness and efficiency in clearance operations.

  2. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

  3. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

  4. Factors influencing the sustained-performance capabilities of 155-mm howitzer sections in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, T.M.; Banderet, L.E.; Tharion, W.J.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-04-01

    Factors that limit the performance capabilities of sustained artillery operations in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments were studied. The results show that perceptions of psychological (mental) fatigue, rather than perceptions of muscular fatigue, were primary factors affecting sustained artillery performance. Furthermore, variations in these psychological states were correlated with artillery task performance during the period. In the simulated chemical warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant perosnality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

  5. EWS/FLI and its Downstream Target NR0B1 Interact Directly to Modulate Transcription and Oncogenesis in Ewing's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Michelle; Smith, Richard; Iyer, Anita K.; McCabe, Edward R.B.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Most Ewing's sarcomas harbor chromosomal translocations that encode fusions between EWS and ETS family members. The most common fusion, EWS/FLI, consists of an EWSR1-derived strong transcriptional activation domain fused, in frame, to the DNA binding domain-containing portion of FLI1. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant transcription factor to regulate genes that mediate the oncogenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. One of these regulated genes, NR0B1, encodes a co-repressor protein, and likely plays a transcriptional role in tumorigenesis. However, the genes that NR0B1 regulates and the transcription factors it interacts with in Ewing's sarcoma are largely unknown. We used transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify genes that are regulated by NR0B1, and compared these data to similar data for EWS/FLI. While the transcriptional profile overlapped as expected, we also found that the genome-wide localization of NR0B1and EWS/FLI overlapped as well, suggesting that they regulate some genes coordinately. Further analysis revealed that NR0B1 and EWS/FLI physically interact. This protein-protein interaction is likely to be relevant for Ewing's sarcoma development because mutations in NR0B1 that disrupt the interaction have transcriptional consequences and also abrogate oncogenic transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that EWS/FLI and NR0B1 physically interact, coordinately modulate gene expression, and mediate the transformed phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:19920188

  6. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  7. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  8. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

    2011-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX. PMID:21762776

  9. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    SciTech Connect

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  10. Passive standoff detection of chemical warfare agents on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O

    2004-11-01

    Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible. PMID:15540446

  11. Passive Standoff Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents on Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O.

    2004-11-01

    Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible.

  12. Performance effects of chemical warfare antidotes: A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    The threat that enemy forces may use chemical warfare against United States military troops has caused the medical research and development community to find effective antidotes. Particularly in the case of nerve agent poisoning, the timely use of antidote therapies represents the key to survival in contaminated environments. Current training doctrine instructs soldiers how to recognize the symptoms of nerve agent exposure, and then how to counteract the life-threatening effects with the administration of atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride. However, these compounds can produce performance degrading effects on their own even when no chemical agent is present. Particularly in the case of the aviator, who is expected to exercise very precise control over an inherently complex vehicle such as a helicopter, the impact of self-administered antidotes should be fully appreciated. The present review briefly summarizes what is known about the actions and performance effects of both atropine and pralidoxime chloride, and recommendations are made concerning the need for additional research.

  13. Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

    1999-07-01

    The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

  14. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  15. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  16. Remote sensing of evaporation ducts for Naval warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geernaert, G. L.

    1989-11-01

    Areas critical to naval operations are the prediction and application of atmospheric refractivity gradients. This report describes the use of the evaporation duct over the ocean and a plan for obtaining information about the evaporation duct by space-borne sensors. There has been little research on the theory and modeling of lower atmospheric refractivity, particularly evaporation ducts over a nonhomogeneous ocean over the past five decades. Much is known about surface layer similarity theory and propagation model techniques, but little attention has been placed on the spatial variabilities in the turbulent propagation medium (such as the atmospheric surface layer) in regions of strategic Navy interest. These regions include the coastal shelf, Gulf Stream, marginal ice zone, and those places where sharp sea surface temperature fronts exist. For tomorrow's Navy, using remote sensing techniques to infer evaporative and tropospheric ducts are a requirement. Although research efforts on ducts must couple the tropospheric and surface layer components, this report summarizes the state of the art for the evaporative duct and assess the potential of new and future results on improving next generation naval warfare capabilities.

  17. μ-PADs for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

    2012-12-01

    Conventional methods of detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on chromogenic reactions are time and solvent intensive. The development of cost, time and solvent effective microfluidic paper based analytical devices (μ-PADs) for the detection of nerve and vesicant agents is described. The detection of analytes was based upon their reactions with rhodamine hydroxamate and para-nitrobenzyl pyridine, producing red and blue colours respectively. Reactions were optimized on the μ-PADs to produce the limits of detection (LODs) as low as 100 μM for sulfur mustard in aqueous samples. Results were quantified with the help of a simple desktop scanner and Photoshop software. Sarin achieved a linear response in the two concentration ranges of 20-100 mM and 100-500 mM, whereas the response of sulfur mustard was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 mM. Results were precise enough to establish the μ-PADs as a valuable tool for security personnel fighting against chemical terrorism. PMID:23086107

  18. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  19. Virtual command center for distributed collaborative undersea warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Encarnacao, L. M.; Shane, Richard T.; Drew, Ernest; Mulhearn, Jim F.

    2000-08-01

    The Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport (NUWCDIVNPT) and its partners have developed a prototype CTI (Command Technology Initiatives) Test Bed to demonstrate the utility of a facility where warfighters, government, academia and industry can evaluate the application of collaborate decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies to submarine command and control. The CTI Test bed is currently comprised of three components: Collaborative Visualization Environment (CVE) for Submarine Command and Control, which provides a coherent 3-D display of the perceived undersea battlespace. Individual windows can display multi-dimensional data/information to support a common picture of undersea battlespace management and tactical control; Submarine Fleet Mission Programming Library (SFMPL) which provides environmental data, such as transmission loss, to CVE; Command and Control Data Server which provides contact reports, areas of uncertainty, and ownship/contact motion to CVE Facilitated by a CORBA4 (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) compliant architecture, remotely connected collaborators interact via a computer network to generate and share information. Additionally, collaborators communicate orally via network telephony. Currently, the CTI Test bed is configured to provide volumetric displays of: undersea battlespace w/ bathymetry; Detection/Counter-detection regions for a given probability of detection; Contact(s) Volume of Uncertainty The CTI Test Bed provides a CORBA compliant framework, which can be readily expanded to evaluate candidate applications of collaborative command and tactical decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies.

  20. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  1. Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C A; Rodriguez, M; Greenbaum, E

    2001-09-01

    Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable after 40 days, storage and they can be launched or dropped into suspected danger zones. Commercially available hand-held fluorometric detector systems were used to measure Photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency of green algae and cyanobacteria entrapped on filter paper disks. Toxic agents flowing in the gas stream through the sensors can alter the characteristic fluorescence induction curves with resultant changes in photochemical yields. Tabun (GA), sarin (GB), mustard agent, tributylamine (TBA) (a sarin stabilizer), and dibutyl sulfide (DBS) (a mustard agent analog) were tested. Upper threshold limits of detectability for GA, TBA, and DBS are reported. With additional research and development, these biosensors may find application in stand-off detection of chemical and perhaps biological warfare agents under real-world conditions. PMID:11544038

  2. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN(+) using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents. PMID:21242103

  3. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN + using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

  4. Detection of chemical warfare simulants using Raman excitation at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentinger, Claire; Mabry, Mark W.; Roy, Eric G.

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for material identification. The technique is sensitive to primary and higher ordered molecular structure and can be used to identify unknown materials by comparison with spectral reference libraries. Additionally, miniaturization of opto-electronic components has permitted development of portable Raman analyzers that are field deployable. Raman scattering is a relatively weak effect compared to a competing phenomenon, fluorescence. Even a moderate amount of fluorescence background interference can easily prevent identification of unknown materials. A long wavelength Raman system is less likely to induce fluorescence from a wider variety of materials than a higher energy visible laser system. Compounds such as methyl salicylate (MS), diethyl malonate (DEM), and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are used as chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants for development of analytical detection strategies. Field detection of these simulants however poses unique challenges because threat identification must be made quickly without the turnaround time usually required for a laboratory based analysis. Fortunately, these CWA simulants are good Raman scatterers, and field based detection using portable Raman instruments is promising. Measurements of the CWA simulants were done using a 1064 nm based portable Raman spectrometer. The longer wavelength excitation laser was chosen relative to a visible based laser systems because the 1064 nm based spectrometer is less likely to induce fluorescence and more suitable to a wider range of materials. To more closely mimic real world measurement situations, different sample presentations were investigated.

  5. Cytotoxic characteristics of biodegradable EW10X04 Mg alloy after Nd coating and subsequent heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Katarivas Levy, Galit; Ventura, Yvonne; Goldman, Jeremy; Vago, Razi; Aghion, Eli

    2016-05-01

    Porous Mg scaffolds are considered as potential bone growth promoting materials. Unfortunately, the high rate of biocorrosion inherent to Mg alloys may cause a premature loss of mechanical strength, excessive evolution of hydrogen gas, and a rapidly shifting surface topography, all of which may hinder the ability of native cells to attach and grow on the implant surface. Here we investigated the cell cytotoxicity effects during corrosion of a novel magnesium alloy, EW10X04 (Mg-1.2%Nd-0.5%Y-0.5%Zr-0.4%Ca), following diffusion coating (DC) and heat treatment to reduce the corrosion rate. Cells were exposed either to corrosion products or to the corroding scaffold surface, in vitro. The microstructure characterization of the scaffold surface was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a Noran energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Phase analyses were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that cell viability, growth, and adhesion were all improved when cultured on the EW10X04+DC surface or under corrosion product extracts due to lower corrosion rates relative to the EW10X04 control samples. It is therefore believed that the tested alloy after Nd coating and heat treatment may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effects towards cells. PMID:26952481

  6. High ALDH Activity Identifies Chemotherapy-Resistant Ewing's Sarcoma Stem Cells That Retain Sensitivity to EWS-FLI1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Naheed; Katuri, Varalakshmi; O'Neill, Alison; Kong, Yali; Brown, Milton L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Loeb, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells are a chemotherapy-resistant population capable of self-renewal and of regenerating the bulk tumor, thereby causing relapse and patient death. Ewing's sarcoma, the second most common form of bone tumor in adolescents and young adults, follows a clinical pattern consistent with the Cancer Stem Cell model – remission is easily achieved, even for patients with metastatic disease, but relapse remains frequent and is usually fatal. Methodology/Principal Findings We have isolated a subpopulation of Ewing's sarcoma cells, from both human cell lines and human xenografts grown in immune deficient mice, which express high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHhigh) activity and are enriched for clonogenicity, sphere-formation, and tumor initiation. The ALDHhigh cells are resistant to chemotherapy in vitro, but this can be overcome by the ATP binding cassette transport protein inhibitor, verapamil. Importantly, these cells are not resistant to YK-4-279, a small molecule inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 that is selectively toxic to Ewing's sarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/Significance Ewing's sarcoma contains an ALDHhigh stem-like population of chemotherapy-resistant cells that retain sensitivity to EWS-FLI1 inhibition. Inhibiting the EWS-FLI1 oncoprotein may prove to be an effective means of improving patient outcomes by targeting Ewing's sarcoma stem cells that survive standard chemotherapy. PMID:21085683

  7. Healthcare and Warfare. Medical Space, Mission and Apartheid in Twentieth Century Northern Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents’ ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a ‘terrorist hospital’ in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people’s healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic. PMID:25045182

  8. Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Seth D.

    2002-07-01

    The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator IR Countermeasures test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using up to eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9 inch X 3 inch cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and int eh foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for property spatial and intensity characteristics. Al relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

  9. Towards the implementation of a spectral database for the detection of biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Gelfusa, M.; Cenciarelli, O.; D'Amico, F.; Malizia, A.; Scarpellini, D.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2014-10-01

    The deliberate use of biological warfare agents (BWA) and other pathogens can jeopardize the safety of population, fauna and flora, and represents a concrete concern from the military and civil perspective. At present, the only commercially available tools for fast warning of a biological attack can perform point detection and require active or passive sampling collection. The development of a stand-off detection system would be extremely valuable to minimize the risk and the possible consequences of the release of biological aerosols in the atmosphere. Biological samples can be analyzed by means of several optical techniques, covering a broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Strong evidence proved that the informative content of fluorescence spectra could provide good preliminary discrimination among those agents and it can also be obtained through stand-off measurements. Such a system necessitates a database and a mathematical method for the discrimination of the spectral signatures. In this work, we collected fluorescence emission spectra of the main BWA simulants, to implement a spectral signature database and apply the Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL) statistical method. Our preliminary analysis, conducted in laboratory conditions with a standard UV lamp source, considers the main experimental setups influencing the fluorescence signature of some of the most commonly used BWA simulants. Our work represents a first step towards the implementation of a spectral database and a laser-based biological stand-off detection and identification technique.

  10. Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia.

    PubMed

    Nord, Catharina

    2014-07-01

    In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic. PMID:25045182

  11. Gender Differences in the Impact of Warfare Exposure on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joyce M.; Lee, Lewina O.; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. METHODS Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. FINDINGS Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. In men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared to those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. In women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women, but in men, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared to those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. PMID:25442366

  12. Two Cenozoic tectonic events of N-S and E-W extension in the Lhasa Terrane: Evidence from geology and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng; Xu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Jian-Lin; Wu, Jian-Bin; Zeng, Yun-Chuan; Xiong, Qiu-Wei; Chen, Xue-Feng; Yu, Hong-Xia

    2016-02-01

    Cenozoic active structures in the Tibetan Plateau are mainly regional N-S trending extensional faults and grabens, and E-W trending extensional tracks that are related to the transition from syn- to post-collision between India and Asia. E-W trending tracks are parallel to the direction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic convergence and consist of extensional volcanic-sedimentary basins and magmatic dykes in the southern Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. N-S trending tracks comprise faults and grabens, which are widely developed in Tibet. It remains unknown how and when the geodynamic transition from E-W to N-S trending tectonic tracks occurred. This study describes both E-W and N-S trending tectonic tracks identified at Dazi area of southern Lhasa Terrane, where E-W trending mafic dykes intruded a granitoid and late-stage N-S trending felsic dykes cut across E-W trending mafic dykes. Zircons from four granitoid samples yield consistent crystallization ages of ca. 60 Ma and positive εHf(t) values (~+ 9). An altered dioritic vein, which cuts the mafic dykes, yields an age of ca. 53 Ma. These new dating results indicate that E-W trending dykes, which formed due to regional N-S extension, were emplaced between 60 and 53 Ma. In addition, two N-S trending monzonitic porphyritic dykes, which cut the mafic dykes, yield U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 17 Ma with moderate positive εHf(t) values (+ 3 to + 9.6), as well as a NNE-SSW trending quartz monzonitic dyke, which cuts all other types of dykes, yields U-Pb ages of ca. 13 Ma. This suggests that E-W extension took place between 17 and 13 Ma. These results, in combination with existing age data for Gangdese granitoids and mafic magmatism, indicate the occurrence of two major extensional events at 60-53 Ma and 17-13 Ma. In turn, this implies that the transition from E-W to N-S trending tectonic and the onset of E-W extension occurred at ca. 17 Ma or slightly earlier. Paleocene granitoids have geochemical characteristics that are indicative of both

  13. Nucleic acid approaches for detection and identification of biological warfare and infectious disease agents.

    PubMed

    Ivnitski, Dmitri; O'Neil, Daniel J; Gattuso, Anthony; Schlicht, Roger; Calidonna, Michael; Fisher, Rodney

    2003-10-01

    Biological warfare agents are the most problematic of the weapons of mass destruction and terror. Both civilian and military sources predict that over the next decade the threat from proliferation of these agents will increase significantly. In this review we summarize the state of the art in detection and identification of biological threat agents based on PCR technology with emphasis on the new technology of microarrays. The advantages and limitations of real-time PCR technology and a review of the literature as it applies to pathogen and virus detection are presented. The paper covers a number of issues related to the challenges facing biological threat agent detection technologies and identifies critical components that must be overcome for the emergence of reliable PCR-based DNA technologies as bioterrorism countermeasures and for environmental applications. The review evaluates various system components developed for an integrated DNA microchip and the potential applications of the next generation of fully automated DNA analyzers with integrated sample preparation and biosensing elements. The article also reviews promising devices and technologies that are near to being, or have been, commercialized. PMID:14579752

  14. Chiral Separation of G-type Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents via Analytical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(–) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(–) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. Chirality 26:817–824, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Chirality published by John Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25298066

  15. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. PMID:26476351

  16. Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 μm diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-μm microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

  17. Nanowire-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for chemical warfare simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, J. A.; Miragliotta, J. A.; Wang, J.; Tyagi, P.; Maddanimath, T.; Gracias, D. H.; Papadakis, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    Hand-held instruments capable of spectroscopic identification of chemical warfare agents (CWA) would find extensive use in the field. Because CWA can be toxic at very low concentrations compared to typical background levels of commonly-used compounds (flame retardants, pesticides) that are chemically similar, spectroscopic measurements have the potential to reduce false alarms by distinguishing between dangerous and benign compounds. Unfortunately, most true spectroscopic instruments (infrared spectrometers, mass spectrometers, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers) are bench-top instruments. Surface-acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are commercially available in hand-held form, but rely on a handful of functionalized surfaces to achieve specificity. Here, we consider the potential for a hand-held device based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using templated nanowires as enhancing substrates. We examine the magnitude of enhancement generated by the nanowires and the specificity achieved in measurements of a range of CWA simulants. We predict the ultimate sensitivity of a device based on a nanowire-based SERS core to be 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than a comparable SAW system, with a detection limit of approximately 0.01 mg m-3.

  18. Analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Gareil, Pierre; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2011-10-21

    Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), their precursors and degradation products (DPs) is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. Considering a growing number of papers presented in the last years in the field of capillary electrophoresis (CE) of DPs, this review article gives an overview on CE techniques which are feasible for the determination of DPs with the advantages of using relatively simple and inexpensive research instrumentation, reduced consumption of potentially toxic samples, shorter sample preparation times, etc. A brief introduction is provided into the chemical background of CWAs followed by a documented appraisal that the CE method is well suited to deal with polar, acidic DPs mostly occurring in aqueous samples or extracts. Applications of CE to the separation of DPs are described, complemented by a critical discussion of the detection techniques, including mostly conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence, UV absorption and mass spectrometry. This review also includes actual development regarding the challenges of CE in analyses of different DPs from real samples, often avoided by in- and off-line pre-concentration techniques or the coupling of CE to selective detection methods. Special emphasis is placed on the miniaturised CE systems that have the potential of being before long developed into a field deployable and potentially disposable platform for routine DP monitoring in environmental samples. PMID:21858300

  19. Transitioning mine warfare to network-centric sensor analysis: future PMA technologies & capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, J. R.; Guthrie, R. S.; Cramer, M. A.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the requisite technologies and enabling capabilities for network-centric sensor data analysis within the mine warfare community. The focus includes both automated processing and the traditional humancentric post-mission analysis (PMA) of tactical and environmental sensor data. This is motivated by first examining the high-level network-centric guidance and noting the breakdown in the process of distilling actionable requirements from this guidance. Examples are provided that illustrate the intuitive and substantial capability improvement resulting from processing sensor data jointly in a network-centric fashion. Several candidate technologies are introduced including the ability to fully process multi-sensor data given only partial overlap in sensor coverage and the ability to incorporate target identification information in stride. Finally the critical enabling capabilities are outlined including open architecture, open business, and a concept of operations. This ability to process multi-sensor data in a network-centric fashion is a core enabler of the Navy's vision and will become a necessity with the increasing number of manned and unmanned sensor systems and the requirement for their simultaneous use.

  20. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.C.; Baker, J.A.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify as well as remove the agents. In nonaqueous media, a strong base reacts rapidly with the four major chemical agents; mustard, VX, GB, and GD. In aqueous mixtures, H and VX are detoxified with an oxidant; whereas, the G agents are hydrolyzed with an excess of hydroxide ion. Current research efforts are aimed at developing effective decontaminants that are noncorrosive, nontoxic, and environmentally safe. Both catalytic and enzymatic approaches using solid or heterogeneous liquid media are being pursued. A fundamental understanding of the chemical nature of the agents is essential in the success of these approaches.... Decontamination, Sarin, VX, Chemical agents, Soman, Hydrolysis, Review, Mustard gas.

  1. Chemical warfare agent detection in complex environments with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Ni, Mingtian; Kottapalli, Visweswara; Visvanathan, Arvind; Ledford, Edward B., Jr.; Oostdijk, John; Trap, Henk C.

    2003-08-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is an emerging technology for chemical separation that provides an order-of-magnitude increase in separation capacity over traditional gas chromatography. GCxGC separates chemical species with two capillary columns interfaced by two-stage thermal desorption. Because GCxGC is comprehensive and has high separation capacity, it can perform multiple traditional analytical methods with a single analysis. GCxGC has great potential for a wide variety of environmental sensing applications, including detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other harmful chemicals. This paper demonstrates separation of nerve agents sarin and soman from a matrix of gasoline and diesel fuel. Using a combination of an initial column separating on the basis of boiling point and a second column separating on the basis of polarity, GCxGC clearly separates the nerve agents from the thousands of other chemicals in the sample. The GCxGC data is visualized, processed, and analyzed as a two-dimensional digital image using a software system for GCxGC image processing developed at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

  2. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of Small Molecule Disruptors of EWS-FLI1 Interactions in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    EWS-FLI1 is an oncogenic fusion protein implicated in the development of Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFT). Using our previously reported lead compound 2 (YK-4-279), we designed and synthesized a focused library of analogues. The functional inhibition of the analogues was measured by an EWS-FLI1/NR0B1 reporter luciferase assay and a paired cell screening approach measuring effects on growth inhibition for human cells containing EWS-FLI1 (TC32 and TC71) and control PANC1 cell lines devoid of the oncoprotein. Our data revealed that substitution of electron donating groups at the para-position on the phenyl ring was the most favorable for inhibition of EWS-FLI1 by analogs of 2. Compound 9u (with a dimethylamino substitution) was the most active inhibitor with GI50 = 0.26 ± 0.1 μM. Further, a correlation of growth inhibition (EWS-FLI1 expressing TC32 cells) and the luciferase reporter activity was established (R2 = 0.84). Finally, we designed and synthesized a biotinylated analogue and determined the binding affinity for recombinant EWS-FLI1 (Kd = 4.8 ± 2.6 μM). PMID:25432018

  3. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. PMID:25914359

  4. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  5. 33 CFR 165.1103 - Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 33 CFR 165.33 apply to the security zone described in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) Entry... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1103 Section 165.1103 Navigation and Navigable... Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command;...

  6. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. PMID:21959843

  7. Stellar and circumstellar activity in the Be star EW Lacertae from the 1993 multi-site campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floquet, M.; Hubert, A. M.; Hirata, R.; McDavid, D.; Zorec, J.; Gies, D.; Hahula, M.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Kambe, E.; Leister, N. V.; Štefl, S.; Tarasov, A.; Neiner, C.

    2000-10-01

    A multi-site, multi-technique campaign on the Be star EW Lac was held for about 9 days in August-September 1993. We present results of the analysis of visual, high S/N spectroscopic data (He I 6678 Å and Hα ). Search for short-term variability was carried out on He I 6678 (line profiles, radial velocity (RV), equivalent width (EW), full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on the absorption part of the line profile and on violet (V) and red (R) emission peaks) and on Hα emission line (line profiles, EW, V, R and V/R ratio). The presence of multi-periodicity is confirmed and we detected the frequencies found in 1989 by Floquet et al. (1992) during a 8-day mono-site campaign. Possible non-radial pulsation solutions for the main frequencies detected are l ~ 2-3, | m | ~ 2-3. We found evidence on the He I 6678 line of episodic matter outflows through the presence of relatively broad, variable absorption line-profile variations. At least one sharp absorption feature was also observed slowly crossing the stellar disc. It is attributed to a blob of matter temporarily orbiting the star. A brief account is given of broad-band polarimetric observations, performed over 6 nights. A correlation is found between the variation in intrinsic polarization level in the B-band and He I 6678 Å strength. Finally, we present a simple model that reproduces rather well the additional ``pseudo-photosphere" contribution in 1993 as opposed to 1989.

  8. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  9. Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

  10. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  11. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  12. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 μg/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 μg/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  13. Mapping Vesta Mid-Latitude Quadrangle V-12EW: Mapping the Edge of the South Polar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.; Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Buczkowski, D.; McCord, T. B.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Gaskell, R. W.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Marchi, S.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; White, O. L.; DeSanctis, C.; Filacchione, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-12EW. This quadrangle is dominated by the arcuate edge of the large 460+ km diameter south polar topographic feature first observed by HST (Thomas et al., 1997). Sparsely cratered, the portion of this feature covered in V-12EW is characterized by arcuate ridges and troughs forming a generalized arcuate pattern. Mapping of this terrain and the transition to areas to the north will be used to test whether this feature has an impact or other (e.g., internal) origin. We are also using FC stereo and VIR images to assess whether their are any compositional differences between this terrain and areas further to the north, and image data to evaluate the distribution and age of young impact craters within the map area. The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

  14. Improved stress corrosion cracking resistance of a novel biodegradable EW62 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification, in simulated electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, O; Aghion, E; Goldman, J

    2015-06-01

    The high corrosion rate of magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys precludes their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigated the potential for rapid solidification (RS) to increase the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of a novel Mg alloy, Mg-6%Nd-2%Y-0.5%Zr (EW62), in comparison to its conventionally cast (CC) counterpart. RS ribbons were extrusion consolidated in order to generate bioimplant-relevant geometries for testing and practical use. Microstructural characteristics were examined by SEM. Corrosion rates were calculated based upon hydrogen evolution during immersion testing. The surface layer of the tested alloys was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by slow strain rate testing and fractography. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the RS alloy is significantly improved relative to the CC alloy due to a supersaturated Nd enrichment that increases the Nd2O3 content in the external oxide layer, as well as a more homogeneous structure and reduced grain size. These improvements contributed to the reduced formation of hydrogen gas and hydrogen embrittlement, which reduced the SCC sensitivity relative to the CC alloy. Therefore, EW62 in the form of a rapidly solidified extruded structure may serve as a biodegradable implant for biomedical applications. PMID:25842129

  15. EWS Knockdown and Taxifolin Treatment Induced Differentiation and Removed DNA Methylation from p53 Promoter to Promote Expression of Puma and Noxa for Apoptosis in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Motarab; Ray, Swapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a pediatric tumor that mainly occurs in soft tissues and bones. Malignant characteristics of Ewing’s sarcoma are correlated with expression of EWS oncogene. We achieved knockdown of EWS expression using a plasmid vector encoding EWS short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to increase anti-tumor mechanisms of taxifolin (TFL), a new flavonoid, in human Ewing’s sarcoma cells in culture and animal models. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis showed high expression of EWS in human Ewing’s sarcoma SK-N-MC and RD-ES cell lines. EWS shRNA plus TFL inhibited 80% cell viability and caused the highest decreases in EWS expression at mRNA and protein levels in both cell lines. Knockdown of EWS expression induced morphological features of differentiation. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused more alterations in molecular markers of differentiation than either agent alone. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused the highest decreases in cell migration with inhibition of survival, angiogenic and invasive factors. Knockdown of EWS expression was associated with removal of DNA methylation from p53 promoter, promoting expression of p53, Puma, and Noxa. EWS shRNA plus TFL induced the highest amounts of apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in both cell lines in culture. EWS shRNA plus TFL also inhibited growth of Ewing’s sarcoma tumors in animal models due to inhibition of differentiation inhibitors and angiogenic and invasive factors and also induction of activation of caspase-3 for apoptosis. Collectively, knockdown of EWS expression increased various anti-tumor mechanisms of TFL in human Ewing’s sarcoma in cell culture and animal models.

  16. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Albert T

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10(-21)), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents. PMID:16024060

  17. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  18. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  19. Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hight Walker, Angela R.; Suenram, Richard D.; Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Woolard, Dwight L.; Wiebach, W.

    1999-01-01

    Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy is an established is an established technique for observing the rotational spectra of molecules and complexes in molecular beams. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are adapting this measurement technology for applications in analytical chemistry. Presently, FTMW spectroscopy is being used to investigate chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors. A FTMW spectroscopy facility has been established at a surety laboratory at the Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, where the capabilities exist for handling these deadly warfare agents. Here, the rotational spectra of Sarin, Soman and DF have been observed and assigned. Also, microwave spectroscopic studies of less toxic precursors such as pinacolyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and thiodiglycol have been carried out at NIST. Tests will be undertaken to assess the potential of using FTMW spectroscopy for detecting trace amounts of chemical-warfare agents and precursors in air. A database of rotational transition frequencies is being compiled for use in conjunction with a FTMW spectrometer to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical weapons. The sensitivity and resolution of FTMW spectroscopy of FTMW spectroscopy suggest that the technique may offer real-time, unequivocal identification of chemical-warfare agents at trace vapor concentrations in air.

  20. DESI-MS/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Paul A.

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A "dip and shoot" method was also developed for the rapid sampling and DESI-MS analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by simply dipping fused silica, stainless steel or SPME tips into the organic or aqueous samples. Replicate analyses were completed within several minutes under ambient conditions with no sample pre-treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput. The developed sample handling and analysis method was applied to the determination of chemical warfare agent content in samples containing unknown chemical and/or biological warfare agents. Ottawa sand was spiked with sulfur mustard, extracted with water and autoclaved to ensure sterility. Sulfur mustard was completely hydrolysed during the extraction/autoclave step and thiodiglycol was identified by DESI-MS, with analyses generally being completed within 1 min using the "dip and shoot" method.

  1. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  2. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Albert T. . E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  3. Laser-based instrumentation for detection of chemical-warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Sander, R.K.; Hartford, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being developed for remote, point, and surface contamination detection of chemical warfare agents. These techniques include optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. Detection limits in the part-per-million to part-per-billion regime have been demonstrated.

  4. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces the submission of a public information collection and seeks public comment on the provisions thereof. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the information shall have practical utility; (b) the accuracy......

  5. Characterization of the genomic breakpoint and chimeric transcripts in the EWS-WT1 gene fusion of desmoplastic small round cell tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, W L; Rosai, J; Ladanyi, M

    1995-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a recently recognized distinctive tumor shown to be associated with a recurrent translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), and rearrangement of the genes for Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and Wilms tumor (WT1). A genomic DNA fragment containing the EWS-WT1 gene fusion has been isolated from a desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and the breakpoint has been characterized. The breakpoints involve the intron between EWS exons 7 and 8 and the intron between WT1 exons 7 and 8. Chimeric transcripts corresponding to the fusion gene were detected in four of six cases studied. Analysis of these transcripts show an in-frame fusion of RNA encoding the amino-terminal domain of EWS to both alternatively spliced forms of the last three zinc fingers of the DNA-binding domain of WT1. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor represents the third tumor type associated with translocation of EWS and the first tumor associated with consistent translocation of WT1. The chimeric products are predicted to modulate transcription at WT1 target sites and contribute to development of this unique tumor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7862627

  6. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  7. Biological Warfare of the Spiny Plant Introducing Pathogenic Microorganisms into Herbivore's Tissues.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Malka; Waissler, Avivit; Dror, Adi; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that plants which have spines, thorns, and prickles use pathogenic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as pathogenic fungi, for defense against herbivores, especially vertebrates. Their sharp defensive appendages may inject various pathogenic agents into the body of the herbivores by piercing the outer defensive layer of the skin in a type of biological warfare. Here, we review data regarding the various bacterial taxa found on spines, as well as the medical literature regarding infections by bacteria and fungi related to spine injuries. We also present new evidence that, concerning the microbial flora, spines belonging to the palm tree Washingtonia filifera are probably a different habitat than the nondefensive green photosynthetic leaf surfaces. In addition, many plant species have microscopic internal and external spines (raphids and silica needles) which can also wound large herbivores as well as insects and other small invertebrate herbivores that usually attack in between large spines, prickles, and thorns. The large spines and sharp microscopic structures may inject not only the microorganisms that inhabit them into the herbivore's tissues, but also those preexisting on the skin surface or inside the digestive system of the herbivores and on the surface of nonspiny plant parts. A majority of the spiny plants visually advertise their spiny nature, a characteristic known as aposematism (warning coloration). The pathogenic microorganisms may sometimes be much more dangerous than the physical wounds inflicted by the spines. In accordance, we suggest that the possible cooperation or even just the random association of spines with pathogenic microorganisms contributed to the evolution of aposematism in spiny plants and animals. The role of these sharp defensive structures in inserting pathogenic viruses into the tissues of herbivores was never studied systematically and deserves special attention. PMID:21459195

  8. Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John S.; Gerlach, Travis W.; Logan, Thomas P.; Bonar, James P.; Fugo, Richard J.; Lee, Robyn B.; Coatsworth, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Chemical warfare agents are potential threats to military personnel and civilians. The potential for associated traumatic injuries is significant. Damage control surgery could expose medical personnel to agents contaminating the wounds. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate efficacy of surgical decontamination and assess exposure risk to attending personnel. Methods: Weanling pigs were randomly assigned to 2 of 4 debridement tools (scalpel, Bovie® knife, Fugo Blade®, and Versajet™ Hydrosurgery System). Penetrating traumatic wounds were created over the shoulder and thigh and then exposed to liquid sulfur mustard (HD) for 60 minutes. Excisional debridement of the injuries was performed while vapors over each site were collected. Gas chromatography was used to measure HD in samples of collected vapors. Unbound HD was quantified in presurgical wound swabs, excised tissues, and peripheral tissue biopsies following solvent extraction. Results: Excisional debridement produced agent-free wound beds (surgical decontamination). A significant amount of HD vapor was detected above the surgical fields with each tool. Apart from the Versajet™ producing significantly lower levels of HD detected over thigh wounds compared with those treated using the scalpel, there were no differences in the amount of agent detected among the tools. All measured levels significantly exceeded established safety limits. Vesicating levels of unbound HD were extracted from excised tissue. There was no measured lateral spreading of HD beyond the surgical margins. Conclusions: There is significant occupational exposure risk to HD during surgical procedures designed to stabilize agent-contaminated wounds. If appropriate protective measures are taken, surgical decontamination is both effective and safe. PMID:18716652

  9. Escherichia coli biosensors for environmental, food industry and biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allil, R. C. S. B.; Werneck, M. M.; da Silva-Neto, J. L.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; Wandermur, G. L.; Rambauske, D. C.

    2013-06-01

    This work has the objective to research and develop a plastic optical fiber biosensor based taper and mPOF LPG techniques to detect Escherichia coli by measurements of index of refraction. Generally, cell detection is crucial in microbiological analysis of clinical, food, water or environmental samples. However, methods current employed are time consuming, taking at least 72 hours in order to produce reliable responses as they depend on sample collection and cell culture in controlled conditions. The delay in obtaining the results of the analysis can result in contamination of a great number of consumers. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) biosensors consist in a viable alternative for rapid and inexpensive scheme for cells detection. A study the sensitivity of these sensors for microbiological detection, fiber Tapers and Long Period Grating (LPG) both in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) were realized as possible candidates to take part of a biosensor system to detect Escherichia coli in water samples. In this work we adopted the immunocapture technique, which consists of quantifying bacteria in a liquid sample, attract-ing and fixing the bacteria on the surface of the polymer optical fiber, by the antigen-antibody reaction. The results were obtained by optical setup that consists in a side of the fiber a LED coupled to a photodetector through a POF with the taper in the middle of it. On the other side of the POF a photodetector receives this light producting a photocurrent. The output voltage is fed into the microcontroller A/D input port and its output data is sent via USB to a LabView software running in a microcomputer. The results showed the possibility of the POF in biosensor application capable to detect E. coli for environmental and food industry and for detecting and identifying biological-warfare agents using a very rapid response sensor, applicable to field detection prototypes.

  10. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  11. Stand-off spectroscopy for the detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Stothard, David J. M.; Dunn, Malcolm H.; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth; Cox, Rick; Williams, Brad; Russell, Matt

    2012-10-01

    The most desirable configuration for detection of toxic chemicals utilises the maximum distance between detector and hazard. This approach minimises the contamination of equipment or personnel. Where the target chemical is an involatile liquid, indirect detection of the liquid contamination is made difficult by inherently low vapour pressure. In this instance, direct detection of the chemical hazard is the best approach. Recent technology developments have allowed spectroscopic systems to provide multiple options for the stand-off detection of involatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Two different stand-off spectroscopic systems, based upon IR absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques are described here. The Negative Contrast Imager (NCI) is based upon an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal. This crystal has a fanned grating design and wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the PPLN crystal within the 1064 nm pump beam. This approach enables the production of shortwave and midwave IR radiation (1.5 - 1.8 μm and 2.6 - 3.8 μm, respectively), which is scanned across the scene of interest. Target materials that have an absorption feature commensurate with the wavelength of incoming radiation reduce the intensity of returned signal, resulting in dark pixels in the acquired image. This method enables location and classification of the target material. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy allows target chemicals to be identified at range through comparison of the acquired signature relative to a spectral database. In this work, we used a Raman system based upon a 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser source and a proprietary InGaAsP camera system. Utilisation of a longer excitation wavelength than most conventional stand-off detection systems (e.g. 532 or 785 nm) enables reduction of fluorescence from both the surface and the deposited chemicals, thereby revealing the Raman spectrum. NCI and Raman spectroscopy are able to

  12. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. PMID:27260452

  13. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments. PMID:24244972

  14. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Management of chemical warfare injuries (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping their skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.

  16. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2015-02-16

    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR. PMID:24985033

  17. Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

  18. Epigenome Mapping Reveals Distinct Modes of Gene Regulation and Widespread Enhancer Reprogramming by the Oncogenic Fusion Protein EWS-FLI1

    PubMed Central

    Tomazou, Eleni M.; Sheffield, Nathan C.; Schmidl, Christian; Schuster, Michael; Schönegger, Andreas; Datlinger, Paul; Kubicek, Stefan; Bock, Christoph; Kovar, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcription factor fusion proteins can transform cells by inducing global changes of the transcriptome, often creating a state of oncogene addiction. Here, we investigate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in this process, focusing on Ewing sarcoma cells that are dependent on the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. We established reference epigenome maps comprising DNA methylation, seven histone marks, open chromatin states, and RNA levels, and we analyzed the epigenome dynamics upon downregulation of the driving oncogene. Reduced EWS-FLI1 expression led to widespread epigenetic changes in promoters, enhancers, and super-enhancers, and we identified histone H3K27 acetylation as the most strongly affected mark. Clustering of epigenetic promoter signatures defined classes of EWS-FLI1-regulated genes that responded differently to low-dose treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Furthermore, we observed strong and opposing enrichment patterns for E2F and AP-1 among EWS-FLI1-correlated and anticorrelated genes. Our data describe extensive genome-wide rewiring of epigenetic cell states driven by an oncogenic fusion protein. PMID:25704812

  19. Establishment of a new continuous clear cell sarcoma cell line. Morphological and cytogenetic characterization and detection of chimaeric EWS/ATF-1 transcripts.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, H; Nojima, T; Abe, S; Yamashiro, K; Yamawaki, S; Kaneda, K; Nagashima, K

    1997-07-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare tumour of deep soft tissues, often has a t(12; 22) (q13; q12) translocation that induces the formation of a hybrid EWS/ATF-1 gene. To investigate these alterations further, we established a new continuous cell line directly from a CCS taken from a 9-year-old girl. The cultures were characterized with respect to morphological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and karyotypical features and were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for chimaeric EWS/ATF-1 transcripts. The continuous cell line, designated KAO, is tumorigenic in nude mice, and the resultant tumours resemble the primary CCS. The tumour cells and the cultured cells have melanosomes in their cytoplasm and are immunoreactive with the melanoma-specific antibody HMB45, but do not express S-100 protein. The cultured CCS cells have the t(12; 22)(q13; q12) translocation and express the hybrid EWS/ATF-1 gene. No transcripts of the hybrid gene were detected in a malignant cutaneous melanoma tested simultaneously. Although CCS and malignant melanoma are morphologically related, the present results suggest that their geneses differ at the chromosome and molecular levels. They also indicate that chromosome analysis and detection of fusion EWS/ATF-1 transcripts may be useful adjuvant tools for the diagnosis of CCS. PMID:9247632

  20. Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, Alex; Zhukov, Vladimir; Kempf, C Ruth

    2006-08-01

    Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation is not that clear, though the new guidelines and clean-up values are being generated based on re-evaluation of toxicological and risk data. For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist. In this paper the current status of airborne exposure limits (AELs) for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on BW agents that lack such data. An efficient, temporary solution to bridge the gap in experimental infectious data and to set provisional AELs for BW agents is suggested. It is based on mathematically generated risks of infection for BW agents grouped by their alleged ID50 values in three categories: with low, intermediate and high ID50 values. PMID:16854669

  1. Mechanistic insights into the luminescent sensing of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents and simulants using trivalent lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Genevieve H; Johnston, Martin R

    2015-04-20

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OP CWAs) are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that can cause incapacitation and death within minutes of exposure, and furthermore are largely undetectable by the human senses. Fast, efficient, sensitive and selective detection of these compounds is therefore critical to minimise exposure. Traditional molecular-based sensing approaches have exploited the chemical reactivity of the OP CWAs, whereas more recently supramolecular-based approaches using non-covalent interactions have gained momentum. This is due, in part, to the potential development of sensors with second-generation properties, such as reversibility and multifunction capabilities. Supramolecular sensors also offer opportunities for incorporation of metal ions allowing for the exploitation of their unique properties. In particular, trivalent lanthanide ions are being increasingly used in the OP CWA sensing event and their use in supramolecular sensors is discussed in this Minireview. We focus on the fundamental interactions of simple lanthanide systems with OP CWAs and simulants, along with the development of more elaborate and complex systems including those containing nanotubes, polymers and gold nanoparticles. Whilst literature investigations into lanthanide-based OP CWA detection systems are relatively scarce, their unique and versatile properties provide a promising platform for the development of more efficient and complex sensing systems into the future. PMID:25649522

  2. Early Warning System Implementation Guide: For Use with the National High School Center's Early Warning System Tool v2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therriault, Susan Bowles; Heppen, Jessica; O'Cummings, Mindee; Fryer, Lindsay; Johnson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This Early Warning System (EWS) Implementation Guide is a supporting document for schools and districts that are implementing the National High School Center's Early Warning System (EWS) Tool v2.0. Developed by the National High School Center at the American Institutes for Research (AIR), the guide and tool support the establishment and…

  3. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  4. Towards Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Technologies and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Martin; Biskup, Joachim; Flegel, Ulrich; Meier, Michael

    We present the architecture of an automatic early warning system (EWS) that aims at providing predictions and advice regarding security threats in information and communication technology without incorporation of cognitive abilities of humans and forms the basis for drawing a situation picture. Our EWS particularly targets the growing malware threat and shall achieve the required capabilities by combining malware collectors, malware analysis systems, malware behavior clustering, signature generation and distribution and malware/misuse detection system into an integrated process chain. The quality and timeliness of the results delivered by the EWS are influenced by the number and location of participating partners that share information on security incidents. In order to enable such a cooperation and an effective deployment of the EWS, interests and confidentiality requirements of the parties involved need to be carefully examined. We discuss technical details of the EWS components, evaluate alternatives and examine the interests of all parties involved in the anticipated deployment scenario.

  5. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  6. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  7. Development of electrochemical sensors for trace detection of explosives and for the detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.; Ziegler, H.; Krausa, Michael

    2000-08-01

    A huge number of chemical sensors are based on electrochemical measurement methods. Particularly amperometric sensorsystems are employed for the fast detection of pollutants in industry and environment as well as for analytic systems in the medical diagnosis. The large number of different applications of electrochemical sensors is based on the high sensitivity of electrochemical methods and on the wide of possibilities to enhance the selectivity by variation of electrochemical and chemical parameters. Besides this, electrochemical sensorsystems are frequently simple to operate, transportable and cheap. Up to now the electrochemical method of cyclic voltammetry is used only seldom for sensors. Clearly the efficiency of cyclic voltammetry can be seen at the sensorsystem for the detection of nitro- and aminotoluenes in solids and waters as presented here. The potentiodynamic sensors system can be employed for the fast and easy risk estimation of contaminated areas. Because of the high sensitivity of electrochemical methods the detection of chemical substances with a low vapor pressure is possible also. The vapor pressure of TNT at room temperature is 7 ppb for instances. With a special electrochemical set-up we were able to measure TNT approximately 10 cm above a TNT-sample. In addition we were able to estimate TNT in the gaseous phase approximately 10 cm above a real plastic mine. Therefore it seems to be possible to develop an electrochemical mien detection. Moreover, we present that the electrochemical detection of RDX, HMX and chemical warfare agents is also possible.

  8. The Nature of Hβ+[OIII] and [OII] emitters to z ∼ 5 with HiZELS: stellar mass functions and the evolution of EWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Sobral, David; Mobasher, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    I will present our recent-study of the properties of ~ 7000 narrow-band selected galaxies with strong Hβ+[OIII] and [OII] nebular emission lines from the High-z Emission Line Survey (HiZELS) between z ~ 0.8 ‑ 5.0. Our sample covers a wide range in stellar mass(M_stellar ∼ 10^7.5‑10^12.0 M⊙), rest-frame equivalent widths (EW_rest∼ 10‑10^5 A), and line luminosities (L_line ∼ 10^40.5‑10^43.2 erg s‑1) allowing us to study the properties of typical active/star-forming galaxies. I will present our measurements of the Hβ+[OIII]-selected and [OII]-selected stellar mass functions and densities out to z ~ 3.5 where we find that for the Hβ+[OIII]-selected stellar mass functions both M* and φ* increases with cosmic time, which may be due to the [OIII] selection including an increasing fraction of AGN at lower redshifts. The [OII]-selected stellar mass functions show a constant M* ≈ 10^11.6 M⊙ and a strong, increasing evolution with cosmic time in φ* in line with Hα studies. I will also present our measurements in the evolution of the rest-frame equivalent widths for both emission-lines up to z ~ 5. This is the first time that the EW_rest evolution has been directly measured for Hβ+[OIII] and [OII] emitters up to these redshifts (z > 1). We find evidence for a slower evolution for z > 2 in the H β+[OIII] EW_rest and a decreasing trend for z > 3 in the [OII] EW_rest evolution, which would imply low [OII] EW at the highest redshifts and higher [OIII]/[OII] line ratios. This suggests that the ionization parameter at higher redshift is significantly higher than the local Universe, although other factors such as changes in metallicities and abundances over cosmic time can influence the [OIII]/[OII] evolution. Our results set the stage for future near-IR space-based narrow-band and spectroscopic surveys to test our extrapolated predictions and also produce z > 5 measurements to constrain the high-z end of the EW_rest and [OIII]/[OII] evolution.

  9. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  10. IRLooK: an advanced mobile infrared signature measurement, data reduction, and analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukur, Tamer; Altug, Yelda; Uzunoglu, Cihan; Kilic, Kayhan; Emir, Erdem

    2007-04-01

    Infrared signature measurement capability has a key role in the electronic warfare (EW) self protection systems' development activities. In this article, the IRLooK System and its capabilities will be introduced. IRLooK is a truly innovative mobile infrared signature measurement system with all its design, manufacturing and integration accomplished by an engineering philosophy peculiar to ASELSAN. IRLooK measures the infrared signatures of military and civil platforms such as fixed/rotary wing aircrafts, tracked/wheeled vehicles and navy vessels. IRLooK has the capabilities of data acquisition, pre-processing, post-processing, analysis, storing and archiving over shortwave, mid-wave and long wave infrared spectrum by means of its high resolution radiometric sensors and highly sophisticated software analysis tools. The sensor suite of IRLooK System includes imaging and non-imaging radiometers and a spectroradiometer. Single or simultaneous multiple in-band measurements as well as high radiant intensity measurements can be performed. The system provides detailed information on the spectral, spatial and temporal infrared signature characteristics of the targets. It also determines IR Decoy characteristics. The system is equipped with a high quality field proven two-axes tracking mount to facilitate target tracking. Manual or automatic tracking is achieved by using a passive imaging tracker. The system also includes a high quality weather station and field-calibration equipment including cavity and extended area blackbodies. The units composing the system are mounted on flat-bed trailers and the complete system is designed to be transportable by large body aircraft.

  11. THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A

    2006-10-23

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  12. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  13. Facility monitoring of chemical warfare agent simulants in air using an automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonell N; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-05-30

    Vapors of four chemical warfare agent (CWA) stimulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), diethyl malonate (DEM), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate (MeS), were detected, identified, and quantitated using a fully automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. Samples were ionized using a glow discharge electron ionization (GDEI) source, and ions were mass analyzed with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer. A dual-tube thermal desorption system was used to trap compounds on 50:50 Tenax TA/Carboxen 569 sorbent before their thermal release. The sample concentrations ranged from low parts per billion [ppb] to two parts per million [ppm]. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.26 to 5.0 ppb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented for each analyte. A sample of CEES at low ppb concentration was combined separately with two interferents, bleach (saturated vapor) and diesel fuel exhaust (1%), as a way to explore the capability of detecting the simulant in an environmental matrix. Also investigated was a mixture of the four CWA simulants (at concentrations in air ranging from 270 to 380 ppb). Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral data were used to identify and quantify the individual components. PMID:21504010

  14. Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations. PMID:23532782

  15. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  16. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  17. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution. PMID:21535725

  18. Analytical methods for environmental sampling of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Kistner, S.

    1995-06-01

    This first technical conference promoted the standardization of analytical procotols to reliably detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in soil, water, and other complex environmental media. This supports the various chemical weapons disposal and emergency preparedness programs, Chemical Weapons Convention treaty compliance, installation restoration and base closure decisions. Five major topics were addressed: Implementation for treaty compliance, installation, restoration and stockpile disposal decisions, existing analytical methods, practical applications of existing analytical techniques, immunoassay technologies, environmental and biological fate of agents and their degradation products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. High-sensitivity, high-selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Webber, Michael E.; Macdonald, Tyson; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2006-01-01

    We report high-sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agents (nerve gases) with very low probability of false positives (PFP). We demonstrate a detection threshold of 1.2ppb (7.7μg/m3 equivalent of Sarin) with a PFP of <1:106 in the presence of many interfering gases present in an urban environment through the detection of diisopropyl methylphosphonate, an accepted relatively harmless surrogate for the nerve agents. For the current measurement time of ˜60s, a PFP of 1:106 corresponds to one false alarm approximately every 23months. The demonstrated performance satisfies most current homeland and military security requirements.

  20. Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Kose, Songul

    2002-08-01

    Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented. PMID:12188231

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Low-power microsensors for explosives and nerve warfare agents using silicon nanodots and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, Michael J.; Trogler, William C.; Letant, Sonia; Sohn, Honglae; Content, Stephane; Schmedake, Thomas A.; Gao, Jun; Zmolek, Peter; Link, Jamie R.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Xu, Fang; Shames, Paul E.

    2001-09-01

    Nanocrystalline porous silicon films (nanodots) and polymeric silicon wires (nanowires) have been used to detect chemicals in gas and liquid phase. Transduction mechanisms using quantum confinement derived photoluminescence and optical reflectivity have been used. Photoluminescence intensity is modulated by energy or electron transfer induced quenching, and a shift of the Fabry-Perot reflectivity fringes from thin nanocrystalline films occurs upon molecular absorption. Examples of irreversible detection and reversible sensing modes for explosives, nerve warfare agents, and various odors of commercial interest will be provided. A catalyst can be incorporated into the nanomaterials to provide specificity for the analyte of interest.

  3. Simulants, stimulants and diseases: the evolution of the United States biological warfare programme, 1945-60.

    PubMed

    Hay, A

    1999-01-01

    Details about the US biological programme have largely been based on information in the open literature. More revealing aspects of the programme are now available through documents released under the Freedom of Information Act. Annual reports of the activities of the US Army Chemical Corps from 1945 to 1959 have revealed significant increases in activity in biological warfare research. The Corps research activity progressed from work on anthrax in 1941, through anti-crop agents in the mid-1940s, to a wider range of animal, plant and human diseases by 1960. A number of disease organisms were investigated sufficiently to permit some standardisation and manufacture of munitions. PMID:10472189

  4. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder. PMID:25056451

  5. Integrating botnet simulations with network centric warfare simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2010-04-01

    "Botnets," or "bot armies," are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software designed and operated in order to conduct attacks against government and civilian targets. Bot armies are one of the most serious security threats to networks and computer systems in operation today. Botnets are remotely operated by botmasters who can launch large-scale malicious network activity. While bot army activity has, to date, been largely limited to fraud, blackmail, and other criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet and launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers, networks, and data gathering operations has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but instead discuss ways to use simulation to address the threats they pose. This paper suggests means for addressing the need to provide botnet defense training based upon existing simulation environments and discusses the capabilities needed for training systems for botnet activities. In this paper we discuss botnet technologies and review the capabilities that underlie this threat to network, information, and computer security. The second section of the paper contains background information about bot armies and their foundational technologies. The third section contains a discussion of the techniques we developed for estimating botnet bandwidth consumption and our approach for simulating botnet activities. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for additional research.

  6. EWS-FLI-1-targeted cytotoxic T-cell killing of multiple tumor types belonging to the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.; Liu, Fangjun; Porter, Ryan M.; O’Sullivan, Regina P.; Merghoub, Taha; Lunsford, Elaine P.; Robichaud, Kyle; Van Valen, Frans; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Wells, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFTs) comprises a group of aggressive, malignant bone and soft tissue tumors that predominantly affect children and young adults. These tumors frequently share expression of the EWS-FLI-1 translocation, which is central to tumor survival but not present in healthy cells. In this study, we examined EWS-FLI-1 antigens for their capacity to induce immunity against a range of ESFT types. Design Computer prediction analysis of peptide binding, HLA-A2.1 stabilization assays, and induction of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTL) in immunized HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice were used to assess the immunogenicity of native and modified peptides derived from the fusion region of EWS-FLI-1 type 1. CTL-killing of multiple ESFT family members in vitro, and control of established xenografts in vivo, was assessed. We also examined whether these peptides could induce human CTLs in vitro. Results EWS-FLI-1 type 1 peptides were unable to stabilize cell surface HLA-A2.1 and induced weak CTL activity against Ewing Sarcoma cells. In contrast, peptides with modified anchor residues induced potent CTL killing of Ewing Sarcoma cells presenting endogenous (native) peptides. The adoptive transfer of CTL specific for the modified peptide YLNPSVDSV resulted in enhanced survival of mice with established Ewing Sarcoma xenografts. YLNPSVDSV-specific CTL displayed potent killing of multiple ESFT types in vitro: Ewing Sarcoma, pPNET, Askin’s Tumor, and Biphenotypic Sarcoma. Stimulation of human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with YLNPSVDSV peptide resulted in potent CTL-killing. Conclusions These data show that YLNPSVDSV peptide is a promising antigen for ESFT immunotherapy and warrants further clinical development. PMID:22879388

  7. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future. PMID:26205071

  8. Germ warfare: probiotics in defense of the premature gut.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, Cathy; Bin-Nun, Alona; Kaplan, Michael

    2004-09-01

    The potential benefits of a predominantly lactic acid bacterial flora include an improved balance of gut microbial ecology and decreased susceptibility of the gut mucosa to bacterial translocation via adherence to the intestinal mucosa, strengthening mucosal barrier function. These properties should be especially beneficial to the premature neonate with (1) delayed establishment of nor-mal flora, increasing the potential for proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and (2) immature development of the intestinal mucosa, rendering it more susceptible to the translocation of these pathogenic bacteria and leading to extra-intestinal spread and systemic disease. Early probiotic supplementation in preterm infants is theoretically sound and associated with minimal risk. Clinical data remain preliminary but are supportive of a reduction in feeding intolerance and NEC in this high-risk group. PMID:15325534

  9. Strategies for the prevention of a successful biological warfare aerosol attack.

    PubMed

    Wiener, S L

    1996-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) aerosol attacks are different from chemical attacks in that they may provide no warning/all clear signals that allow the soldier to put on or remove his M17/M40 protective mask. Methods are now being perfected to detect a BW aerosol cloud using an airborne (helicopter) pulsed laser system to scan the lower altitudes upwind from a troop concentration of corps size, and to sample and analyze the nature of the aerosol within a brief time interval. This system has certain limitations and vulnerabilities, since it is designed specifically to detect a line-type aerosol attack. Provision of, training with, and field use of a lightweight dust mist or HEPA filter respirator for each soldier is proposed for protection against undetected aerosol attacks. This particulate filter respirator would be issued in addition to the M17/M40 mask. Such a BW respirator will be able to purify the soldier's air by removing particles in the 0.3- to 15-micro m-diameter range with an efficiency of 98 to 100%. Particle size of BW aerosols is in the same range, with an optimum size for high-efficiency casualty production of 1 to 5 micro m mass median diameter. The proposed BW respirator will be lightweight; will require low inhalation pressures; will be comfortable to wear for prolonged periods; will not interfere with vision, hearing, and communication; and will not degrade overall effectiveness and performance to the degree observed with the M17/M40 masks. Such respirators would be worn as part of a contingency defense against an enemy likely to use BW agents. This respirator could be worn for prolonged periods when under threat of an undetectable BW attack during weather conditions favorable to the success of such an attack (i.e., low wind velocity and temperature inversion in the target area). In addition, tactically important assets such as command and control centers and missile batteries can also be protected continuously by air filtration systems powered by

  10. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  11. Chemical warfare and survival strategies in bacterial range expansions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Markus F; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

    2014-07-01

    Dispersal of species is a fundamental ecological process in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Limited control over ecological parameters has hindered progress in understanding of what enables species to colonize new areas, as well as the importance of interspecies interactions. Such control is necessary to construct reliable mathematical models of ecosystems. In our work, we studied dispersal in the context of bacterial range expansions and identified the major determinants of species coexistence for a bacterial model system of three Escherichia coli strains (toxin-producing, sensitive and resistant). Genetic engineering allowed us to tune strain growth rates and to design different ecological scenarios (cyclic and hierarchical). We found that coexistence of all strains depended on three strongly interdependent factors: composition of inoculum, relative strain growth rates and effective toxin range. Robust agreement between our experiments and a thoroughly calibrated computational model enabled us to extrapolate these intricate interdependencies in terms of phenomenological biodiversity laws. Our mathematical analysis also suggested that cyclic dominance between strains is not a prerequisite for coexistence in competitive range expansions. Instead, robust three-strain coexistence required a balance between growth rates and either a reduced initial ratio of the toxin-producing strain, or a sufficiently short toxin range. PMID:24806706

  12. A phylogenetic approach to assessing the targets of microbial warfare.

    PubMed

    Riley, M A; Goldstone, C M; Wertz, J E; Gordon, D

    2003-07-01

    Bacteriocins are the most abundant and diverse defense systems in bacteria. As a result of the specific mechanisms of bacteriocin recognition and translocation into the target cell it is assumed that these toxins mediate intra-specific or population-level interactions. However, no published studies specifically address this question. We present here a survey of bacteriocin production in a collection of enteric bacteria isolated from wild mammals in Australia. A subset of the bacteriocin-producing strains was assayed for the ability to kill a broad range of enteric bacteria from the same bacterial collection. A novel method of estimating killing breadth was developed and used to compare the surveyed bacteriocins in terms of the phylogenetic range over which they kill. The most striking result is that although bacteriocin-producers kill members of their own species most frequently, some kill phylogenetically distant taxa more frequently than they kill closer relatives. This study calls into question the role these toxins play in natural populations. A significant number of bacteriocins are highly effective in killing inter-specific strains and thus bacteriocins may serve to mediate bacterial community interactions. PMID:14632232

  13. Mass Spectrometry Applications for the Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers Resulting from Human Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Richard; Capacio, Benedict R.

    In recent years, a number of analytical methods using biomedical samples such as blood and urine have been developed for the verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents. The majority of methods utilize gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In a small number of cases of suspected human exposure to chemical warfare agents, biomedical specimens have been made available for testing. This chapter provides an overview of biomarkers that have been verified in human biomedical samples, details of the exposure incidents, the methods utilized for analysis, and the biomarker concentration levels determined in the blood and/or urine.

  14. The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: evidence for offensive biological warfare research in the third Reich.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    In January 1942, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and police in Nazi Germany, ordered the creation of an entomological institute to study the physiology and control of insects that inflict harm to humans. Founded in the grounds of the concentration camp at Dachau, it has been the focus of previous research, notably into the question of whether it was involved in biological warfare research. This article examines research protocols by the appointed leader Eduard May, presented here for the first time, which confirm the existence of an offensive biological warfare research programme in Nazi Germany. PMID:23787226

  15. Selfishness, warfare, and economics; or integration, cooperation, and biology.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. It is necessary to discuss the explaining power of the dominant paradigm. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. In addition to the discussion on the validity of natural selection, modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related to the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown that constitute the major planet's gene pool. They play a fundamental role in evolution since their sequences are capable of integrating into the genomes in an "infective" way and become an essential part of multicellular organisms. They have content with "biological sense" i.e., they appear as part of normal life processes and have a serious role as carrier elements of complex genetic information. Antibiotics are cell signals with main effects on general metabolism and transcription on bacterial cells and communities. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes (parasites, mutualists, synergists, amensalists) as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that are normally understood as parasites are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drive the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is the result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial

  16. Selfishness, warfare, and economics; or integration, cooperation, and biology

    PubMed Central

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. It is necessary to discuss the explaining power of the dominant paradigm. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. In addition to the discussion on the validity of natural selection, modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related to the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown that constitute the major planet's gene pool. They play a fundamental role in evolution since their sequences are capable of integrating into the genomes in an “infective” way and become an essential part of multicellular organisms. They have content with “biological sense” i.e., they appear as part of normal life processes and have a serious role as carrier elements of complex genetic information. Antibiotics are cell signals with main effects on general metabolism and transcription on bacterial cells and communities. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes (parasites, mutualists, synergists, amensalists) as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that are normally understood as parasites are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drive the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is the result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of

  17. Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-09-01

    This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection and 60, 90 and 140 m for cyclohexane detection. The prototype systems consisted of a Raman spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector (for CW measurements) and an I-CCD camera with time-gated electronics (for pulsed laser measurements), a reflecting telescope, a fiber optic assembly, a single-line CW laser source (514.5, 488.0, 351.1 and 363.8 nm) and a frequency-doubled single frequency Nd:YAG 532 nm laser (5 ns pulses at 10 Hz). The telescope was coupled to the spectrograph using an optical fiber, and filters were used to reject laser radiation and Rayleigh scattering. Two quartz convex lenses were used to collimate the light from the telescope from which the telescope-focusing eyepiece was removed, and direct it to the fiber optic assembly. To test the standoff sensing system, the Raman Telescope was used in the detection of liquid TIC: benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and carbon disulfide. Other compounds studied were CWAS: dimethylmethyl phosphonate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-(butylamino)-ethanethiol. Relative Raman scattering cross sections of liquid CWAS were measured using single-line sources at 532.0, 488.0, 363.8 and 351.1 nm. Samples were placed in glass and quartz vials at the standoff distances from the telescope for the Remote Raman measurements. The mass of DMMP present in water solutions was also quantified as part of the system performance tests.

  18. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  19. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. PMID:24519220

  20. A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

    2004-11-01

    The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism. PMID:15605928

  1. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  2. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Dolislager, Fredrick G

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also

  3. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, J M

    2001-09-01

    Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons. PMID:11577702

  4. Amphibious warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This book introduces and analyzes all aspects of amphibious combat and strategy in the light of the most up-to-date theory and information. Contents are: Introduction. The concept. The naval and air commander's problems. The land force commander's problems. Integrated command and control. Command ships and communications. Naval and air close support. Planning and choices of beaches. The logistics of a build-up in the beachhead. Some long-term developments. Bibliography. Index.

  5. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  6. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 69033) with the docket number COE-2010-0038 and no comments were received... danger zone in the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County, Virginia.... Olson, Headquarters, Operations and Regulatory Community of Practice, Washington, DC at 202- 761-4922...

  7. Complex rearrangement of chromosomes 19, 21, and 22 in Ewing sarcoma involving a novel reciprocal inversion-insertion mechanism of EWS-ERG fusion gene formation: a case analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Maire, Georges; Brown, Christopher W; Bayani, Jane; Pereira, Carlos; Gravel, Denis H; Bell, John C; Zielenska, Maria; Squire, Jeremy A

    2008-03-01

    EWS-ERG Ewing sarcoma (ES) gene fusions often result from complex chromosomal rearrangements. We report an unusually aggressive case of ES with an EWS-ERG fusion gene that appeared to be a result of a simple balanced and reciprocal translocation, t(19;22)(q13.2;q12.2). Subsequent molecular investigation of the primary tumor, the metastasis, and a cell line generated from this ES permitted reconstruction of each genomic step in the evolution of this complex EWS-ERG fusion. We elucidated a new mechanism of reciprocal insertion inversion between chromosome 21 and 22, involving cryptic alterations to both the ERG and EWS genes. Molecular cytogenetic investigation, using systematic analysis with locus-specific probes, identified the cognate genomic breakpoints within chromosome 21 and 22, mandatory for the excision and exchange of both 3'ERG and 3'EWS, resulting in the formation of the EWS-ERG fusion gene present on the der(22). Array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of the ES cell line derived from this tumor identified additional acquired chromosomal and genomic abnormalities, likely associated with establishment and adaptation to in vitro growth. Notably, the cell line had lost one copy of the RB1 gene within the 13q13.1 approximately q14.2 region, and also had a near-tetraploid karyotype. The significance of these findings and their relationship to other reports of variant and complex ES translocations involving the ERG gene are reviewed. PMID:18295659

  8. The Venus "Shell-over-Star" hieroglyph and Maya warfare: An examination of the interpretation of a Mayan symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Claudia Ann

    For decades, Maya scholars have associated the Mayan "Shell-Star" (also referred to as "Star-War") hieroglyph with Maya warfare. Put forward by scholars such as Floyd Lounsbury and David Kelley, and later advanced by Linda Schele, David Freidel, Ian Graham, Peter Matthews, Anthony Aveni and others, there are now dozens of published articles and chapters relating the hieroglyph to Venus and warfare. Venus is one of the most notable celestial objects outside of the Sun and Moon and was highly visible to the inhabitants of the Maya world. The Dresden Codex (an astronomical almanac) contains important information about the planet Venus, and the calendar section was deciphered by the librarian and mathematician, Ernst Förstemann in the late 1800s. In his decipherment, he deduced that the numbers contained in the tables must be connected to the orbital period of the planet. There is no other planet with the same orbital period 3 as Venus. Förstemann suggested that the decoded astronomy tables were used by the Maya to determine when to wage war. This interpretation, along with others, like Floyd Lounsbury`s study of Venus and the Long Count date at Bonampak were the seeds that have led to methodological errors that first began to take root in Maya research. The idea of the Venus association with warfare took hold and continues to propagate. Many scholars continue to assert that the "shell-star" glyph is related to warfare events. Others, like Gerardo Aldana, and Stanley Guenter, have recently come forward to reexamine and question the hieroglyph and its relationship, if any, to Maya warfare. I suggest, further, that methodological errors may have occurred along the way. I propose that these errors include data lost in translation, and inaccurate translations. In addition, the statistical analysis of Venus cycles has weak points. If this identification of the errors is correct, we need to re-evaluate the weakened foundation on which we are building our assertions about

  9. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG

  10. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    DOEpatents

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  11. 2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. [Neurotoxins with anticholinesterase activity and their possible use as warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa

    2003-10-18

    Anatoxin-a(s), onchidal and fasciculins are neurotoxins with anticholinesterase activity. An intoxication by these neurotoxins is characterized by cholinergic syndromes similar to organophosphate insecticide and nerve agent intoxications. Anticholinesterase neurotoxins, as well as other toxins, have some disadvantages if used as weapons of mass destruction. Drawbacks include difficulties to produce them in big quantities and their dissemination in form of aerosols. However, other properties such as high toxicity, improbable identification with common commercial portable detectors for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, as well as the lack of effectiveness of antidotal treatments with oximes may make them attractive in order to be used in military operations or terrorist attacks. For these reasons, it should be necessary to control these neurotoxins through international treaties which have real verification measures such as the Chemical Weapons Convention. PMID:14588195

  13. [Toxicological effects of weapons of mass destruction and noxious agents in modern warfare and terrorism].

    PubMed

    Vucemilović, Ante

    2010-06-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) best portray the twisted use of technological achievements against the human species. Despite arm control efforts, WMD threat continues to exist and even proliferate. This in turn calls for improvement in defensive measures against this threat. The modern soldier is exposed to a number of chemical, biological, and radiological agents in military and peace operations, while civilians are mainly exposed to terrorist attacks. Regardless of origin or mode of action, WMDs and other noxious agents aim for the same - to make an organism dysfunctional. Because their effects are often delayed, these agents are hard to spot on time and treat. This review presents a biomedical aspect of agents used in warfare and terrorism, including polonium-210, depleted uranium, salmonella, anthrax, genetically modified bacteria, cobweb-like polymer fibre, sarin, and mustard gas. PMID:20587400

  14. Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

  15. Analytical techniques for the detection and identification of chemical warfare materials from environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, W.T.; Weimaster, J.F.

    1995-06-01

    The detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) material in diverse and complex matrices has become increasingly important to support the environmental clean-up of military and industrial sites that were historically used in the research, production, use, storage and/or demilitarization of chemical weapons. Reliable and defensible identification of hazardous materials (HM) is necessary to comply with the increasingly stringent regulations imposed by local, state, and federal agencies which govern handling, treatment, storage, and disposal of HM. In addition, before sites can be reutilized, existing HM must be properly identified so that the proper methods of removal, treatment and disposal can be determined. An overview of sample preparation and analytical techniques for the detection and identification of CW materials is presented in this paper.

  16. The art of antibacterial warfare: Deception through interference with quorum sensing-mediated communication.

    PubMed

    Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia; Williams, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Almost a century on from the discovery of penicillin, the war against bacterial infection still rages compounded by the emergence of strains resistant to virtually every clinically approved antibiotic and the dearth of new antibacterial agents entering the clinic. Consequently there is renewed interest in drugs which attenuate virulence rather than bacterial growth. Since the metaphors of warfare are often used to describe the battle between pathogen and host, we will describe in such a context, the molecular communication (quorum sensing) mechanisms used by bacteria to co-ordinate virulence at the population level. Recent progress in exploiting this information through the design of anti-virulence deception strategies that disrupt quorum sensing through signal molecule inactivation, inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis or the blockade of signal transduction and their advantages and disadvantages are considered. PMID:24823895

  17. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2005-06-01

    We present an analysis of optical techniques for the detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in real-world conditions. We analyze the problem of detecting a target species in the presence of a multitude of interferences that are often stochastic and we provide a broadly applicable technique for evaluating the sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP), and probability of false negatives (PFN) for a sensor through the illustrative example of a laser photoacoustic spectrometer (L-PAS). This methodology includes (1) a model of real-world air composition, (2) an analytical model of an actual field-deployed L-PAS, (3) stochasticity in instrument response and air composition, (4) repeated detection calculations to obtain statistics and receiver operating characteristic curves, and (5) analyzing these statistics to determine the sensor's sensitivity, PFP, and PFN. This methodology was used to analyze variations in sensor design and ambient conditions, and can be utilized as a framework for comparing different sensors.

  18. Increasing lifetimes of fiber-optic sensor arrays for chemical warfare detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencic, Sandra; Walt, David R.

    2004-03-01

    We are exploring the ability of cross reactive sensor arrays to monitor the presence of chemical warfare agents. The sensing platform developed in our lab uses a variety of fluorescent microbead sensors, either 3 or 5 microns in diameter. The sensors have a wide range of surface functionalities and are coated with fluorescent dyes that change their emission properties upon interaction with analyte vapors. Every time the sensors are interrogated with light they photobleach which leads to signal loss and a decreased array lifetime. In order to monitor for long periods of time, a strategy has been developed that extends the array lifetime. Here, we implement a method to increase the lifetime of an array by up to 10-fold, as we incrementally expose small sections of the array at a time. We divide the array into sections by moving an optical slit across the face of the fiber.

  19. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  20. Chemistry of destroying chemical warfare agents in flame. Technical project report, April 1994-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Korobeinichev, O.P.; Chernov, A.A.; Shvartsberg, V.M.; Il`in, S.B.; Mokrushin, V.V.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the research is to increase our understanding of flame chemistry of organophosphorus compounds (OPC). This class of chemicals includes chemical warfare agents. (CWAs) such as the nerve agents GB GD and VX, stockpiles of which in the United States and Former Soviet Union are scheduled for destruction by incineration or other technologies. Although high CWA destruction efficiency has been demonstrated in incinerator tests in the U.S. it is necessary to improve technology for achievement higher efficiency and lower level of pollutants. The knowledge of detailed destruction chemistry of the CWA and simulants can be obtained by studying the structure of flames, doped with simulants and CWA and by the development of the combustion model which will include the chemical mechanism of destroying CWA in flame. Alkyl phosphates and alkyl phosphonates are typical organophosphorus compounds, that are simulants of sarin.

  1. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  2. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators. PMID:25133545

  3. Determination of trace amounts of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Kuitunen, Marja-Leena; Vanninen, Paula

    2007-12-01

    Decontamination solutions are used for an efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As these solutions can be composed of strong alkaline chemicals with hydrolyzing and oxidizing properties, the analysis of CWA degradation products in trace levels from these solutions imposes a challenge for any analytical technique. Here, we present results of application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of trace amounts of CWA degradation products in several untreated decontamination solutions. Degradation products of the nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX were selectively monitored with substantially reduced interference of background signals by 1D 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry. The detection limit of the chemicals was at the low part-per-million level (2-10 microg/mL) in all studied solutions. In addition, the concentration of the degradation products was obtained with sufficient confidence with external standards. PMID:17973498

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman as a water monitor for warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Janni, James A.

    2002-02-01

    The threat of chemical warfare agents being released upon civilian and military personnel continues to escalate. One aspect of chemical preparedness is to analyze and protect the portable water supply for the military. Chemical nerve, blister, and choking agents, as well as biological threats must all be analyzed and low limits of detection must be verified. For chemical agents, this generally means detection down to the low ppb levels. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique that can detect trace levels of contaminants directly in the aqueous environment. In this paper, results are presented on the use of SERS to detect chemical and biological agent simulants with an end goal of creating a Joint Service Agent Water Monitor. Detection of cyanide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, phosphonates, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using SERS has been performed and is discussed herein. Aspects of transferring laboratory results to an unattended field instrument are also discussed.

  5. What to do in case of an unthinkable chemical warfare attack or accident.

    PubMed

    Sidell, F R

    1990-11-15

    Successful management of casualties in a toxic chemical attack or accident depends on planning, preparation, and training. In many communities, physicians join other emergency rescue personnel to take part in periodic exercises and drills. In case of a large-scale attack or accident, all medical care providers will be needed to care for casualties. Chemical warfare agents are generally considered to be highly toxic, exotic materials, but most are not. Nerve agents are similar to, although more potent than, commonly used insecticides; cyanide and phosgene are widely available; the incapacitating agent BZ has effects identical to those of scopolamine; and most physicians with knowledge of chemotherapy are familiar with the effects of mustard. Although a chemical attack might be perceived as an uncontrollable disaster, the guidelines for successful management are the same as for any toxic chemical accident. Medical care of casualties depends on knowledge of the agent and timely intervention, and those responsible for such care must be ready. PMID:2235795

  6. Anti-environmental warfare: protecting the environment during wartime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.O.

    1992-06-19

    This paper analyzes the operational impact resulting from the growing legal and political concerns over the environment during wartime. Current international law and national policies are examined to determine their potential effect on Rules of Engagement, and the resulting operational impact on means and methods of warfare. As illustrated during the recent Persian Gulf War, coalition leaders will be operationally constrained by political demands to protect the environment, and to mitigate ecological destruction caused by an opposing force. These constraints will effect how offensive action is conducted against environmentally sensitive industries including nuclear, chemical and petroleum. Commanders must adhere to the current environmental policies and place more emphasis on the principles of discrimination and military necessity in selecting and striking targets. Concurrently, commanders must balance protecting the environment and the requisite minimum casualties to obtain the objectives and preserve public support.

  7. Design and evaluation of hyperspectral algorithms for chemical warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolakis, Dimitris; D'Amico, Francis M.

    2005-11-01

    Remote sensing of chemical warfare agents (CWA) with stand-off hyperspectral imaging sensors has a wide range of civilian and military applications. These sensors exploit the spectral changes in the ambient photon flux produced by either sunlight or the thermal emission of the earth after passage through a region containing the CWA cloud. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to discuss a simple phenomenological model for the radiance measured by the sensor in the case of optically thin clouds. This model provides the mathematical framework for the development of optimum algorithms and their analytical evaluation. Second, we identify the fundamental aspects of the data exploitation problem and we develop detection algorithms that can be used by different sensors as long as they can provide the required measurements. Finally, we discuss performance metrics for detection, identification, and quantification and we investigate their dependance on CWA spectral signatures, sensor noise, and background spectral variability.

  8. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S.

    1997-12-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

  9. The two sides of warfare: an extended model of altruistic behavior in ancestral human intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-09-01

    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (a) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve for defenses than for attacks. (b) Risk aversion, deterrence, and the interplay of migration levels and brutality can change evolutionary dynamics substantially. (c) Unexpectedly, one occasional simulation outcome is a dynamically stable state of "tolerated intergroup theft," raising the question as to whether corresponding patterns also exist in real intergroup conflicts. Finally, possible implications for theories of the coevolution of bellicosity and altruism in humans are discussed. PMID:24928285

  10. Cancer morbidity in British military veterans included in chemical warfare agent experiments at Porton Down: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Linsell, L; Brooks, C; Keegan, T J; Langdon, T; Doyle, P; Maconochie, N E S; Fletcher, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Beral, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Design Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Data source Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. Participants All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17 013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16 520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Main outcome measures Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. Results 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.05), Porton Down veterans had higher rates of ill defined malignant neoplasms (1.12, 1.02 to 1.22), in situ neoplasms (1.45, 1.06 to 2.00), and those of uncertain or unknown behaviour (1.32, 1.01 to 1.73). Conclusion Overall cancer morbidity in Porton Down veterans was no different from that in non-Porton Down veterans. PMID:19318700

  11. Analysis of gaseous toxic industrial compounds and chemical warfare agent simulants by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Justes, Dina R; Nanita, Sergio C; Noll, Robert J; Mulligan, Christopher C; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Cooks, R Graham

    2006-04-01

    The suitability of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry as sensing instrumentation for the real-time monitoring of low levels of toxic compounds is assessed, especially with respect to public safety applications. Gaseous samples of nine toxic industrial compounds, NH3, H2S, Cl2, CS2, SO2, C2H4O, HBr, C6H6 and AsH3, and two chemical warfare agent simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and methyl salicylate (MeS), were studied. API-MS proves highly suited to this application, with speedy analysis times (<30 seconds), high sensitivity, high selectivity towards analytes, good precision, dynamic range and accuracy. Tandem MS methods were implemented in selected cases for improved selectivity, sensitivity, and limits of detection. Limits of detection in the parts-per-billion and parts-per-trillion range were achieved for this set of analytes. In all cases detection limits were well below the compounds' permissible exposure limits (PELs), even in the presence of added complex mixtures of alkanes. Linear responses, up to several orders of magnitude, were obtained over the concentration ranges studied (sub-ppb to ppm), with relative standard deviations less than 3%, regardless of the presence of alkane interferents. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented to show the performance trade-off between sensitivity, probability of correct detection, and false positive rate. A dynamic sample preparation system for the production of gas phase analyte concentrations ranging from 100 pptr to 100 ppm and capable of admixing gaseous matrix compounds and control of relative humidity and temperature is also described. PMID:16568176

  12. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  13. Determination of organoarsenic warfare agents in sediment samples from Skagerrak by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tørnes, John Aasulf; Opstad, Aase Mari; Johnsen, Bjørn Arne

    2006-03-01

    In 1945 the Norwegian authorities gave permission to scuttle ships loaded with captured chemical ammunition on board in an area approximately 14x4 km in size, 25 nautical miles south-east of Arendal. An investigation was carried out in 2002 to inspect four wrecks by using a remote-operated vehicle with video cameras. The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt, FFI) carried out the project on behalf of the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT). Sediment samples were collected at eight positions around each wreck. One of the wrecks was broken up into several smaller parts. Here sediments were collected at one additional position close to one of the parts. From each position, at least two sediment cores were taken up to the surface. One of the cores from each position was sliced into three parts that were immediately frozen. The other whole cores were frozen on board the ship and transported back to the laboratory in a freezer. In total, sediment samples from 33 different locations were collected and analysed for organoarsenic warfare agents and some of their decomposition products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatisation with 1-propanethiol. Most of the identified organoarsenic compounds found in the sediment samples are parts of the arsine oil mixture produced by Germany during World War II. The compounds were found both close to the wreck and at a somewhat longer distance from the wrecks. The highest concentrations were found in a sediment sample collected close to a bomb seen on the seabed. The organoarsenic warfare agents adamsite or lewisite were not found in any of the samples. Lewisite is not reported to have been produced during World War II, but was nevertheless looked for in the samples. PMID:15993928

  14. Rapid response behavior, at room temperature, of a nanofiber-structured TiO2 sensor to selected simulant chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingfa; Zhu, Tao; Xu, Huizhong; Li, Guang; Zheng, Junbao; Liu, Aiyun; Zhang, Jianqin; Du, Huatai

    2008-02-01

    A chemical prototype sensor was constructed based on nanofiber-structured TiO2 and highly sensitive quartz resonators. The gas-sensing behavior of this new sensor to selected simulant warfare agents was investigated at room temperature. Results showed rapid response and good reversibility of this sensor when used with high-purity nitrogen. This provides a simple approach to preparation of materials needed as chemical sensors for selected organic volatiles or warfare agents. PMID:18094961

  15. Screening methods for chemical warfare agents in environmental samples at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, E.M.; Borland, M.M.; Norris, L.; Lattin, F.G.; Wrobel, J.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground Support Activity, Directorate of Safety, Health and the Environment and SciTech Services Inc., an independent contractor, have developed an approach for screening environmental samples for the presence of chemical warfare agents. Since 1918, the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a research and testing ground for toxic agent compounds. Since these materials are considered highly toxic, screening for their presence in environmental samples is necessary for safe shipment to contract laboratories for testing by EPA guidelines. The screening ensures worker safety and maintains U.S. Army standards for transportation of materials potentially contaminated with chemical warfare agents. This paper describes the screening methodology.

  16. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-02-20

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

  3. Technical support for recovery phase decision-making in the event of a chemical warfare agent release

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Shugart, L.; Buchanan, M.; Jenkins, R.; Kistner, S.; Halbrook, R.

    1995-12-31

    Persistent chemical warfare agents such as the nerve agent VX and sulfur mustard were originally designed as terrain denial materials on the chemical battlefield. As a consequence, they do not rapidly degrade. In the course of preparedness planning for disposal of the US unitary stockpile of chemical warfare agents, communities have raised the issue of determining environmental concentrations and the potential health consequences of persistent agents following any agent event. This issue is common to several chemical warfare munition and materiel disposal activities in the United States, as well as for developing verification and compliance monitoring programs integral to the international Chemical Weapons Convention. Experimental research supporting the development of environmental monitoring protocols are summarized. They include the development of blood cholinesterase activity as a biomonitor of nerve agent exposure in domestic beef and dairy cattle, horses and sheep; measuring the permeation rates of construction materials such as unpainted wood and gypsum wall board to agent simulants; and developing an experimental monitoring protocol for agents in meat and grain.

  4. Computational Investigations of Potential Energy Function Development for Metal--Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, and Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioce, Christian R.

    sigma donates, and subsequent back-bonding occurs into a pi* antibonding orbital. This is a different type of interaction not seen in the three existing classes of metal-carbene complexes, namely Fischer, Schrock, and Grubbs. Finally, the virtual engineering of enhanced chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection systems is discussed. As part of a U.S. Department of Defense supported research project, in silico chemical modifications to a previously synthesized zinc-porphyrin, ZnCS1, were made to attempt to achieve preferential binding of the nerve agent sarin versus its simulant, DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Upon modification, a combination of steric effects and induced hydrogen bonding allowed for the selective binding of sarin. The success of this work demonstrates the role that high performance computing can play in national security research, without the associated costs and high security required for experimentation.

  5. Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System (IREPS): Program performance specification, revision 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitney, H. V.; Pasahow, E. W.; Obrian, M. E.

    1980-07-01

    IREPS assesses the refractive effects of the lower atmosphere for Naval electromagnetic systems operating above 100 MHz including radar, uhf and microwave communications, electronic warfare and missile guidance. This specification defines and specifies the computer program functions required by IREPS.

  6. The effects of wearing protective chemical warfare combat clothing on human performance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H L; Orlansky, J

    1993-03-01

    U.S. Department of Defense studies to measure performance decrements associated with wearing chemical warfare (CW) protective combat clothing indicate that heat stress seriously degrades human performance. Even when heat stress is not a significant factor, performance of many combat, combat support, and combat service support tasks is degraded. In most field studies, many crews of combat units became operationally ineffective due to voluntary withdrawal of individual crewmembers. Many combined arms, field studies, and laboratory studies indicate that when CW-protective combat clothing is worn performance is seriously degraded for the detection of targets, engagement time, accuracy of fire, and manual dexterity tasks; and that a variety of psychological effects are created. Further, the degree of performance degradation varied with the tasks performed. Training in CW-protective combat clothing permits learning to modify procedures and consequently reduce negative effects, provided heat stress is not a significant factor. A growing body of evidence indicates there is inadequate training in the use of CW-protective combat clothing. A critical need exists for more and better training of skills needed under CW-conditions. PMID:8447813

  7. Reactions of psychiatric inpatients to the threat of biological and chemical warfare in Israel.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D; Ofir, Dana; Brodsky, Ori; Yakirevitch, Janna; Drannikov, Angela; Navo, Nadav; Kotler, Moshe

    2004-04-01

    In the months before the Second Gulf War, the threat of biological and chemical warfare led many Israelis to experience significant stress and mood changes. In this study, we investigated whether this threat affected the subjective mood and behavior of inpatients with schizophrenia and compared the results with effects noted in their clinical staff. Subjects were evaluated at two points in time-2 months before the war and on day 1 of the war-with a specially designed questionnaire and with the Spielberger Scale for Trait Anxiety. Although the responses of the two groups did not differ radically before the war, on the first day of war, significant differences were noted, with patients demonstrating increases in anxiety and level of concern. Both groups reported similar effects on their mood. Patients were more concerned about the potential for the outbreak of World War III, whereas staff were more concerned about economic effects. Female subjects in both groups demonstrated greater anxiety and mood changes after the outbreak of war compared with before the war. Effects observed on the patients may be related to the decreased coping threshold resulting from their illness, which renders psychotic patients more vulnerable to any acute stressor; however, effects on the staff members should not be ignored. PMID:15060407

  8. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article. PMID:26226969

  9. Surface studies of aminoferrocene derivatives on gold: electrochemical sensors for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad A K; Long, Yi-Tao; Schatte, Gabriele; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    The cystamine conjugate [(BocNH)Fc(CO)CSA]2 was prepared by coupling cystamine with the N-protected ferrocene amino acid derivative BocHN-Fc-COOH and was fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cystamine conjugate forms films on gold substrates, which upon deprotection of the amino group, react with chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics, upon which the redox properties of the Fc group are affected significantly. Cyclic voltammetry shows 50(5) mV anodic shifts of the Fc redox potentials after exposure to EtSCH2CH2Cl, a simulant for sulfur mustard HD (MA), and (NC)(EtO)2P(O), a simulant for nerve agent Tabun (NA). Exposure to MA and NA causes an increase in 2.3 and 4.5 ng mass, respectively, in QCM which indicates ca. 70% efficiency in Boc-deprotection. Ellipsometry measured a film thickness increase from 6(+/-1) A for the deprotected film to 10(+/-4) A for the film modified with MA and to 7(+/-2) A for the film modified with NA. AFM measurements show changes in the thickness and morphology of the film after reaction with MA and NA. The surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and clearly show the attachment of the cystamine conjugate on the surface and its reaction with CWA mimics. PMID:17319647

  10. Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; la Grone, Marcus; Wald, Lara; Aker, Craig; Dock, Matt; Hancock, Lawrence F.; Fagan, Steve; Paul, Kateri

    2004-08-01

    A new sensor for highly toxic species including chemical warfare (CW) agents has been developed. This sensor is based on a unique CW indicating chromophore (CWIC) developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT. The CWIC was designed to be sensitive to the reactivity that makes these chemicals so toxic. Since it requires the reactivity of the agent to be detected, the CWIC technology has shown remarkable selectivity for nerve agent surrogates and some other highly toxic species, thereby demonstrating the potential to provide low false alarm rate detection. Since the chromophore has mini-mal fluorescence prior to reaction with an electrophilic and toxic chemical, the sensor acts in a dark field fluorescence mode. This provides the sensor with exceptional sensitivity and a potential to detect priority analytes well below levels detected by current hand held sensors. Finally, it is based on a simple optical detection scheme that enables small and rugged sensors to be developed and produced at a low enough cost so they can be widely utilized.

  11. Detection of simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents by vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Pesante, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Ortiz, William; Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M.; Nieves, Deborah E.; Ramirez, Michael L.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    This work was focused in the measurement of spectroscopic signatures of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants (CWAS) and degradation products of chemical agents using vibrational spectroscopy for the generation of spectroscopic libraries. The chemicals studied were: DMMP, DIMP, 2-CEES, 2-BAET, 1,4-thioxane, thiodiglycol sulfoxide, dihexylamine, cyclohexylamine, among others. Raman microscopy experiments were performed at different excitation wavelengths that spanned from NIR at 1064 and 785 nm to the VIS at 532, 514.5 and 488 nm and even the deep ultraviolet region at 244 nm. For the compounds studied the optimum excitation lines were 488 nm and 532 nm with a laser power of 25 mW. Among the most prominent bands were at these incident wavelengths were located ca. 652 and 1444 cm-1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in liquid and gas phase and Fiber Optics Coupled-Grazing Angle Probe-FTIR (FOCGAP- FTIR) were used to characterize the spectroscopic signature of target threat agents. The surface experiments were performed at detection levels of about 1 μg/cm2 suggest that limits of detection (LOD) achievable could be as low as nanograms/cm2. Remote sensing experiments were performed using a telescope coupled with a Raman spectrophotometer as a function of power and acquisition time. Characterization of compounds by vibrational spectroscopy and the early stages of the transition from the lab based experiments to remote detection experiments will be presented.

  12. Global physics: from percolation to terrorism, guerilla warfare and clandestine activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2003-12-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism with worldwide range of destruction. It is argued to result from the first worldwide percolation of passive supporters. They are people sympathetic to the terrorism cause but without being involved with it. They just do not oppose it in case they could. This scheme puts suppression of the percolation as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Acting on the population is shown to be useless. Instead a new strategic scheme is suggested to increase the terrorism percolation threshold and in turn suppress the percolation. The relevant associated space is identified as a multi-dimensional social space including both the ground earth surface and all various independent flags displayed by the terrorist group. Some hints are given on how to shrink the geographical spreading of terrorism threat. The model apply to a large spectrum of clandestine activities including guerilla warfare as well as tax evasion, corruption, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution and black markets.

  13. Sensitizers on inorganic carriers for decomposition of the chemical warfare agent yperite.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Preda, Elena; Iepure, Gabriel; Somoghi, Vasile; Carbonell, Esther; Alvaro, Mercedes; García, Hermenegildo

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur-containing compounds, such as mercaptans, alkali sulfides, alkali sulfites, and alkali thiosulfates, are byproducts of industrial processes and pollutants of waste and natural waters. Other sulfur-containing compounds such as yperite are dangerous chemical weapons. Efficient photocatalytic decomposition of these molecules is a process that can find applications in emergency situations or for the controlled destruction of chemical warfare stockpiles. A series of heterogeneous photocatalysts consisting of a metal phthalocyanine or 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium as photoactive components encapsulated inside the cavities of zeolite Y or the mesoporous channels of MCM-41 or supported on silica or titania-silica was tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of yperite. Two types of photoreactors, either an open reactor naturally aerated or a closed quartz tube with a constant airflow using UV or visible ambient light were used. These tests demonstrated that iron and manganese phthalocyanine and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium embedded in NaY or titania-silica can be suitable solid photocatalysts for the degradation of yperite using UV and visible irradiation. PMID:18678025

  14. Stem-loop oligonucleotide beacons as switches for amplifying-fluorescent-polymer-based biological warfare sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R.; Moon, Joong Ho; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2003-09-01

    Sensors that are exceptionally sensitive with real-time outputs and minimal consumption of reagents are needed to continuously monitor air and water against bioterrorist incidents. Amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) provide exceptionally sensitive real-time reagentless sensor platforms as applied to detection of nitroaromatic explosives. This platform technology has the potential to be adapted to detect biological warfare (BW) agents by covalently attaching the 5" end of stem-loop molecular beacons to AFP as DNA hybridization signal transduction switches. Molecular beacons with loop sequences specific for sequence signatures of a target BW agent are configured with a quencher on the end of the 3" arm of the stem-loop. The AFP is quenched in the absence of target DNA, but upon hybridization with target the stem is melted, the duplex loop extended, and the AFP dequenched. This signal transduction is reversible upon removal of the target sequence with the molecular beacon reforming the stem-loop conformation. Proof-of-concept research has demonstrated that molecular beacons for signature sequences of Francisella tularensis result in correct identification of the presence of this agent in samples, but no false positives were seen with Escherichia coli.

  15. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  16. Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.

    2014-05-01

    The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 μl were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

  17. Separation of thiol and cyanide hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2004-03-01

    The fluorescence derivatizing agent, o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), has been applied to the separation and detection of cyanide and several structurally similar thiols by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Of particular interest to this investigation was the separation of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, and cyanide, each of which are hydrolysis products or hydrolysis product simulants of the chemical warfare (CW) agents O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (R-VX), and tabun (GA). Other structurally similar thiols simultaneously resolved by this method include 1-pentanethiol and 2-mercaptoethanol. Instrumental parameters were probed and optimum values for capillary length (50 cm) and inner diameter (75 microm), injection time (30 s) and field strength (15 kV) were determined. Sample stacking methods enabled detection limits of 9.3 microg/L for cyanide, 1.8 microg/L for 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, 35 microg/L for 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 15 microg/L for 2-mercaptoethanol, and 89 microg/L for 1-pentanethiol. The linearity of the method was verified over an order of magnitude and the reproducibility was found to be 3.0%. PMID:15004852

  18. Standoff lidar simulation for biological warfare agent detection, tracking, and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, Erika; Steinvall, Ove; Gustafsson, Ove; Kullander, Fredrik; Jonsson, Per

    2010-04-01

    Lidar has been identified as a promising sensor for remote detection of biological warfare agents (BWA). Elastic IR lidar can be used for cloud detection at long ranges and UV laser induced fluorescence can be used for discrimination of BWA against naturally occurring aerosols. This paper will describe a simulation tool which enables the simulation of lidar for detection, tracking and classification of aerosol clouds. The cloud model was available from another project and has been integrated into the model. It takes into account the type of aerosol, type of release (plume or puff), amounts of BWA, winds, height above the ground and terrain roughness. The model input includes laser and receiver parameters for both the IR and UV channels as well as the optical parameters of the background, cloud and atmosphere. The wind and cloud conditions and terrain roughness are specified for the cloud simulation. The search area including the angular sampling resolution together with the IR laser pulse repetition frequency defines the search conditions. After cloud detection in the elastic mode, the cloud can be tracked using appropriate algorithms. In the tracking mode the classification using fluorescence spectral emission is simulated and tested using correlation against known spectra. Other methods for classification based on elastic backscatter are also discussed as well as the determination of particle concentration. The simulation estimates and displays the lidar response, cloud concentration as well as the goodness of fit for the classification using fluorescence.

  19. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Anatomic location of injury, cause of injury, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. The frequency of injuries was 0.025 per Operator per month. Most injuries involved the upper extremity (38.1% of injuries). Frequent anatomic sublocations for injuries were the shoulder (23.8%) and lumbopelvic region of the spine (12.7%). Lifting was the cause of 7.9% of injuries. Subjects were participating in training when 38.1% of injuries occurred and recreational activity/sports when 12.7% of injuries occurred. Frequent injury types were strain (20.6%), pain/spasm/ache (19.0%), fracture (11.1%), and sprain (11.1%). The results of this analysis underscore the need to investigate the risk factors, especially of upper extremity and physical activity related injuries, in this population of Operators. There is a scope for development of a focused, customized injury prevention program, targeting the unique injury profile of this population. PMID:26741478

  20. Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

    2014-11-25

    Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications. PMID:25289459

  1. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. PMID:26814366

  2. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    PubMed

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study. PMID:24603112

  3. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources. PMID:27002520

  4. Heat and mass transfer from a baby manikin: impact of a chemical warfare protective bag.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Ulf

    2004-09-01

    A chemical warfare (CW) protective bag for babies, younger than 1 year, has been evaluated in respect of thermal load. Heat and water vapour dissipating from the baby make the climate in the protective bag more demanding than outside. The thermal strain on a baby was estimated from heat and mass transfer data using an electrically heated baby manikin and a water-filled tray. Furthermore, a theoretical baby model was developed based on relations valid for heat and mass transfer rates from a cylinder and flat surface. Convective and radiative (dry) and evaporative heat transfer coefficients calculated from this model agreed well with the measured values. The maximum heat dissipation from a baby was calculated for combinations of air temperatures (22-30 degrees C) and relative humidities (70-90% rh). The results indicate that a naked baby can dissipate about 100% more heat than is produced during basal conditions when the bag is ventilated (70 1 min(-1)) and the ambient climate is 30 degrees C and 90% rh. If the ventilation rate is 40 1 min(-1), the margin is reduced to 50%. Clothing reduces the margin further. Ventilating the bag with 70 1 min(-1), a dressed baby can dissipate only 10-20% more heat than is produced during basal conditions in a climate (27 degrees C and 80% rh) that is obtained in a crowded shelter after about 24 h of occupation. PMID:15150661

  5. Identification of chemical warfare agents using a portable microchip-based detection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic-Duran, K.; Swallow, A.; Sexton, B. A.; Glenn, F.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. A portable microchip electrophoresis (ME) device with contactless conductivity (CCD) detection was developed for the in situ identification of CWA and their degradation products. A 10mM MES/His, 0.4mM CTAB - based separation electrolyte accomplished the analysis of Sarin (GB), Tabun( GA) and Soman (GD) in less than 1 min, which is the fastest screening of nerve agents achieved with portable ME and CCD based detection methods to date. Reproducibility of detection was successfully demonstrated on simultaneous detection of GB (200ppm) and GA (278ppm). Reasonable agreement for the four consecutive runs was achieved with the mean peak time for Sarin of 29.15s, and the standard error of 0.58s or 2%. GD and GA were simultaneously detected with their degradation products methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) and O-Ethyl Phosphorocyanidate (GAHP and GAHP1) respectively. The detection limit for Sarin was around 35ppb. To the best of our knowledge this is the best result achieved in microchip electrophoresis and contactless conductivity based detection to date.

  6. Non-contact detection of chemical warfare simulant triethyl phosphate using PM-IRRAS.

    PubMed

    Kycia, Annia H; Vezvaie, Mansoor; Zamlynny, Vlad; Lipkowski, Jacek; Petryk, Michael W P

    2012-08-01

    Polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) was employed to detect the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant triethyl phosphate (TEP) on gold, as well as on US military paint, i.e., chemical agent resistant coating (CARC). The targeted CWAs (G and V-series nerve agents) are characterized by phosphoric group vibrations present in the 1200 cm(-1) region. TEP displays two prominent peaks at 1268 cm(-1) and 1036 cm(-1) corresponding to P=O and (P)-O-C vibrations, respectively. A droplet of TEP solution in cyclohexane was deposited on gold and CARC substrates and after solvent evaporation PM-IRRAS spectra were collected in the 1200 cm(-1) region. The integrated peak area of the PO and (P)OC vibrations was used to construct calibration curves and to determine the experimental limit of detection (LoD). In the case of gold as the substrate the estimated LoD of ~0.48 μg and 1.23 μg was obtained for the P=O and (P)-O-C vibrations, respectively. In the case of CARC, a LoD of 24 μg was determined. These detection limits are at least 3 orders of magnitude lower than the typical lethal dose of G and V-series nerve agents, demonstrating potential of PM-IRRAS for non-contact detection of these CWAs. PMID:22769035

  7. Mid-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging of unknown chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Guicheteau, Jason; Emge, Darren; Ruxton, Keith; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth T.

    2013-05-01

    The ability of a stand-off chemical detector to distinguish two different chemical warfare agents is demonstrated in this paper. Using Negative Contrast Imaging, based upon IR absorption spectroscopy, we were able to detect 1 μl of VX, sulfur mustard and water on a subset of representative surfaces. These experiments were performed at a range of 1.3 metres and an angle of 45° to the surface. The technique employed utilises a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal that generated 1.4 - 1.8 μm (shortwave) and 2.6 - 3.6 μm (midwave) infrared radiation (SWIR and MWIR, respectively). The MgO:PPLN crystal has a fanned grating design which, via translation through a 1064 nm pump beam, enables tuning through the SWIR and MWIR wavelength ranges. The SWIR and MWIR beams are guided across a scene via a pair of raster scanned mirrors allowing detection of absorption features within these spectral regions. This investigation exploited MWIR signatures, as they provided sufficient molecular information to distinguish between toxic and benign chemicals in these proof-of-concept experiments.

  8. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. PMID:21944706

  9. Characterization of chemical warfare G-agent hydrolysis products by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    The United States and its allies have been increasingly challenged by terrorism, and since the September 11, 2001 attacks and the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, homeland security has become a national priority. The simplicity in manufacturing chemical warfare agents, the relatively low cost, and previous deployment raises public concern that they may also be used by terrorists or rogue nations. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g. part-per-billion) of chemical agents, as might be found in poisoned water. Since trace quantities of nerve agents can be hydrolyzed in the presence of water, we have expanded our studies to include such degradation products. Our SERS-active medium consists of silver or gold nanoparticles incorporated into a sol-gel matrix, which is immobilized in a glass capillary. The choice of sol-gel precursor allows controlling hydrophobicity, while the porous silica network offers a unique environment for stabilizing the SERS-active metals. Here we present the use of these metal-doped sol-gels to selectively enhance the Raman signal of the hydrolyzed products of the G-series nerve agents.

  10. [Analytical and on-site detection methods for chemical warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2006-12-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are fast acting and sometimes lethal, even at low levels, and can be classified into nerve gases, blister agents, choking agents, blood agents, vomit agents, tear gases, and incapacitating agents. As countermeasures against CWA terrorism, detection and identification are important. In crisis management, monitoring of CWAs in public places and security checks at territorial borders, big event venues, and executive facilities are performed for protection against terrorism. In consequence management, on-site detection by first responders and laboratory analysis after on-site sampling and transfer are performed for minimization of terrorism damage, leading to personal protection, initial investigation, and emergency lifesaving. In incident management, laboratory analysis is performed to provide evidence at court trials for the prevention of future crimes. Laboratory analysis consists of pretreatment of on-site and casualty samples and instrumental analysis using GC-MS. However, CWAs are easily degraded, and thus are difficult to detect. Instead, it is useful to detect their metabolites and degradation products using tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization GC-MS or direct LC-MS. Commercially available chemical detection equipment such as gas detection tubes and ion mobility spectrometers are used for on-site detection. We have evaluated the detection performance of such equipment and found that no equipment fulfills the required perfect performance of CWA detection sensitivity, accuracy, response time, return time, and operation. To overcome the drawbacks, we have adopted the monitoring tape method and counterflow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and recommend the combination of commercial detection equipment and these new technologies for simultaneous, rapid detection of all CWAs. PMID:17139154

  11. Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2005-05-01

    A reactive chromophore developed at MIT exhibits sensitive and selective detection of surrogates for G-class nerve agents. This reporter acts by reacting with the agent to form an intermediate that goes through an internal cyclization reaction. The reaction locks the molecule into a form that provides a strong fluorescent signal. Using a fluorescent sensor platform, Nomadics has demonstrated rapid and sensitive detection of reactive simulants such as diethyl chloro-phosphate (simulant for sarin, soman, and related agents) and diethyl cyanophosphate (simulant for tabun). Since the unreacted chromophore does not fluoresce at the excitation wavelength used for the cyclized reporter, the onset of fluo-rescence can be easily detected. This fluorescence-based detection method provides very high sensitivity and could enable rapid detection at permissible exposure levels. Tests with potential interferents show that the reporter is very selective, with responses from only a few highly toxic, electrophilic chemicals such as phosgene, thionyl chloride, and strong acids such as HF, HCl, and nitric acid. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), a common and inactive simu-lant for other CW detectors, is not reactive enough to generate a signal. The unique selectivity to chemical reactivity means that a highly toxic and hazardous chemical is present when the reporter responds and illustrates that this sensor can provide very low false alarm rates. Current efforts focus on demonstrating the sensitivity and range of agents and toxic industrial chemicals detected with this reporter as well as developing additional fluorescent reporters for a range of chemical reactivity classes. The goal is to produce a hand-held sensor that can sensitively detect a broad range of chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical threats.

  12. Application of protein arraytubes to bacteria, toxin, and biological warfare agent detection.

    PubMed

    Ehricht, Ralf; Adelhelm, Karin; Monecke, Stefan; Huelseweh, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Microarray technology enables the fast and parallel analysis of a multitude of biologically relevant parameters. Not only nucleic acid-based tests, but also peptide, antigen, and antibody assays using different formats of microarrays evolved within the last decade. They offer the possibility to measure interactions in a miniaturised, economic, automated, and qualitative or quantitative way providing insights into the cellular machinery of diverse organisms. Examples of applications in research and diagnostics are, e.g., O-typing of pathogenic Escherichia coli, detection of bacterial toxins and other biological warfare agents (BW agents) from a variety of different samples, screening of complex antibody libraries, and epitope mapping. Conventional O- and H-serotyping methods can now be substituted by procedures applying DNA oligonucleotide and antibody-based microarrays. For simultaneous and sensitive detection of BW agents microarray-based tests are available, which include not only relevant viruses and bacteria, but also toxins. This application is not only restricted to the security and military sector but it can also be used in the fields of medical diagnostics or public health to detect, e.g., staphylococcal enterotoxins in food or clinical samples. Furthermore, the same technology could be used to detect antibodies against enterotoxins in human sera using a competitive assay. Protein and peptide microarrays can also be used for characterisation of antibodies. On one hand, peptide microarrays allow detailed epitope mapping. On the other hand, a set of different antibodies recognising the same antigen can be spotted as a microarray and labelled as detection antibodies. This approach makes it possible to test every combination, allowing to find the optimal pair of detection/capture antibody. PMID:19212716

  13. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  14. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  15. Modern warfare as a significant form of zoogeomorphic disturbance upon the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupy, Joseph P.; Koehler, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The damage exerted by warfare on the physical landscape is one, of many, anthropogenic impacts upon the environment. Bombturbation is a term that describes the impacts of explosive munitions upon the landscape. Bombturbation, like many other forms of zoogeomorphology, is a disruptive force, capable of moving large amounts of sediments, and denuding landscapes to the point where changes in micro and mesotopography have long-term implications. The long term implication of bombturbative actions depends on the type and duration of explosive device that rendered the disturbance, and the geographic context of the landscape disturbed; i.e. cultural and physical factors. Recovery from bombturbative activity, in the context of this research, is measured by vegetative regrowth and soil development in cratered disturbances. A comparison and contrast between the two battlefields of Verdun, France and Khe Sanh, Vietnam show that bombturbative actions have significantly altered the topography at each location, thus influencing surface runoff and processes of soil development. Principals of the Runge pedogenic model, or the energy of water moving through the soil profile, best explain how the varying climate and parent material at each location influence post disturbance soil development rates. Whereas the data collected at Verdun suggest that explosive munitions have put that landscape on diverging path of development, thus rendering it much different post-disturbance landscape, Khe Sanh displays much different recovery patterns. Preliminary research at Khe Sanh indicates that reforestation and soil development following disturbance are not so much influenced by bombturbative patterns as land use activities in the area of study.

  16. Vapour breakthrough behaviour of carbon tetrachloride - A simulant for chemical warfare agent on ASZMT carbon: A comparative study with whetlerite carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Shah, Dilip K.; Mahato, T. H.; Roy, A.; Yadav, S. S.; Srivas, S. K.; Singh, Beer

    2013-06-01

    ASZMT and whetlerite carbon was prepared by impregnation of active carbon with ammonical salts of Cu (II), Ag (I), Zn (II), Mo (VI), TEDA and Cu (II), Ag (I), Cr (VI), NaOH, C5H5N respectively using incipient wetness technique. Thereafter, impregnated carbon systems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and surface characterization techniques. Impregnated carbon systems were evaluated under dynamic conditions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) vapour that was used as a simulant for the persistent chemical warfare agents for testing breakthrough times of filter cartridges and canisters of gas masks in the national approval test of respirators. The protective potential of ASZMT carbon was compared with the whetlerite carbon which is presently used in NBC filtration system. The effect of CCl4 concentration, test flow rate, temperature and relative humidity on the breakthrough behaviour of the impregnated carbon systems has also been studied. The study clearly indicated that the whetlerite carbon possessed breakthrough time greater than ASZMT carbon. However, ASZMT carbon provided adequate protection against CCl4 vapours and can be used as an alternative to whetlerite carbon that contain Cr(VI), which is reported to be carcinogenic and having lesser shelf life. The study indicated the breakthrough time of impregnated carbon systems were found to decrease with the increase of the CCl4 concentration and flow rate. The variation in temperature and relative humidity did not significantly affect the breakthrough behaviour of impregnated carbon systems at high vapour concentration of CCl4 whereasbreak through time of impregnated carbon systems reduced by an increase of relative humidity at low CCl4 vapour concentration.

  17. Real-time trace detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants using recent advances in proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Sulzer, Philipp; Mayhew, Chris A; Watts, Peter; Jordan, Alfons; Märk, Lukas; Märk, Tilmann D

    2009-12-01

    This work demonstrates for the first time the potential of using recent developments in proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry for the rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in real-time. A high-resolution (m/Deltam up to 8000) and high-sensitivity (approximately 50 cps/ppbv) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 8000 from Ionicon Analytik GmBH) has been successfully used to detect a number of CWA simulants at room temperature; namely dimethyl methylphosphonate, diethyl methylphosphonate, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. Importantly, we demonstrate in this paper the potential to identify CWAs with a high level of confidence in complex chemical environments, where multiple threat agents and interferents could also be present in trace amounts, thereby reducing the risk of false positives. Instantaneous detection and identification of trace quantities of chemical threats using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry could form the basis for a timely warning system capability with greater precision and accuracy than is currently provided by existing analytical technologies. PMID:19902419

  18. Quantifying the effect of early warning systems for mitigating risks from alpine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Daniel; Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as flexible and non-intrusive measures for mitigating risks from alpine hazards. They are typically planed and installed in an ad-hoc manner and their effectiveness is not quantified, which is in contrast to structural risk mitigation measures. The effect of an EWS on the risk depends on human decision makers: experts interpret the signals from EWS, authorities decide on intervention measures and the public responds to the warnings. This interaction of the EWS with humans makes the quantification of their effectiveness challenging. Nevertheless, such a quantification is an important step in understanding, improving and justifying the use of EWS. We systematically discuss and demonstrate the factors that influence EWS effectiveness for alpine hazards, and present approaches and tools for analysing them. These include Bayesian network models, which are a powerful tool for an integral probabilistic assessment. The theory is illustrated through applications of warning systems for debris flow and rockfall hazards. References: Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (in print). Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (2015). Reliability and Effectiveness of Warning Systems for Natural Hazards: Concepts and Application to Debris Flow Warning. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 142: 192-202

  19. Detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent precursors and surrogates by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory J; Milligan, Daniel B; McEwan, Murray J

    2009-11-01

    The rate coefficients and branching ratios of 15 chemical warfare agent precursor and surrogate compounds reacting with H(3)O(+), NO(+), and O(2)(+) have been measured in the laboratory using the selected ion flow tube (SIFT) technique. Measurement of the relevant kinetic parameters for these agents has enabled quantitative monitoring using the SIFT-MS analytical technique. Thirteen of the 15 compounds studied were found to have real-time detection limits in the parts-per-trillion-by-volume concentration range when measured on a standard commercial Voice100 instrument, with specific compounds having detection limits below 100 parts-per-trillion-by-volume. PMID:19788274

  20. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 189 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 235 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. On-site analysis of old deposited chemical warfare agents by combined use of ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doering, H.R.; Flachowsky, J.; Loudon, A.

    1995-12-31

    The factory site of an old mustard gas plant was investigated with on-site analysis methods. Using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry a lot of degradation products of mustard gas could be detected. Sulfur mustard was found in one soil sample and in ceramic material of a bunker used for storage of the produced warfare agents. Concentrations of the mustard gas are in the sub ppb level. The results of ion mobility and mass spectrometry agreed in 95 % of the investigated samples.

  7. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings. PMID:25775244

  8. Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2005-03-01

    "Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which

  9. Research on the interaction of hydrogen-bond acidic polymer sensitive sensor materials with chemical warfare agents simulants by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper. PMID:26043177

  10. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper. PMID:26043177

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. January 1983-September 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 83-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in the series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 164 citations with title list and subject index.)

  12. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1983-29 September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in the first year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and and performance that will be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. The presence and absence of correlations between social behavior and performance on two operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are reported as are the effects of caffeine (as a control) and atropine on the social and performance variables.

  13. An Integrated Flexible Self-calibration Approach for 2D Laser Scanning Range Finders Applied to the Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, D.; Westfeld, P.; Maas, H.-G.

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents a flexible approach for the geometric calibration of a 2D infrared laser scanning range finder. It does not require spatial object data, thus avoiding the time-consuming determination of reference distances or coordinates with superior accuracy. The core contribution is the development of an integrated bundle adjustment, based on the flexible principle of a self-calibration. This method facilitates the precise definition of the geometry of the scanning device, including the estimation of range-measurement-specific correction parameters. The integrated calibration routine jointly adjusts distance and angular data from the laser scanning range finder as well as image data from a supporting DSLR camera, and automatically estimates optimum observation weights. The validation process carried out using a Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW confirms the correctness of the proposed functional and stochastic contexts and allows detailed accuracy analyses. The level of accuracy of the observations is computed by variance component estimation. For the Hokuyo scanner, we obtained 0.2% of the measured distance in range measurement and 0.2 deg for the angle precision. The RMS error of a 3D coordinate after the calibration becomes 5 mm in lateral and 9 mm in depth direction. Particular challenges have arisen due to a very large elliptical laser beam cross-section of the scanning device used.

  14. Gulf of Alaska Holocene paleoceanography and paleoclimatology from diatom proxies in core EW0408-22JC, Crawfish Inlet, Baranof Island, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loofbourrow, C.; Addison, J. A.; Hemphill-Haley, E.

    2014-12-01

    Diatom ecology is used in this study as a paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic proxy for the Eastern Gulf of Alaska. Core EW0408-22JC, an 11.84 m long piston core, was retrieved in 2004 from 188 m water depth in Crawfish Inlet, a deglaciated fjord of Baranof Island, Southeast Alaska, which opens to the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The core contains a nearly complete Holocene record constrained by 14C and tephrochronology with relatively high sedimentation rates of ~100-200 cm/ky, favorable to high-resolution climate investigations. High-resolution geochemical measurements indicate increasing opal and total organic concentrations and decreasing lithic and CaCO3 concentrations from early to late Holocene. Diatom ecology is quantified by counting of diatom taxa at approximately 170-year stratigraphic intervals, and evaluated for climatic and oceanographic significance using the modern analog technique (MAT) and factor analysis. Diatom proxy variability from this site is inferred to result from changes within the GOA climatic and oceanographic regime. Within this region, the strength and positioning of the Aleutian Low and the Alaska Current influence oceanographic parameters including sea surface temperature, downwelling, and nutrient availability, all of which are reflected in diatom ecology fluctuations. The adjacent North American terrestrial hydroclimate is largely controlled by these factors, and its past conditions are inferred by this reconstruction of GOA paleoceanography and paleoclimatology.

  15. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  16. Nucleophilic Polymers and Gels in Hydrolytic Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Creasy, William R; McGarvey, David J; Wilusz, Eugene; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-10-01

    Water- and solvent-soluble polymeric materials based on polyalkylamines modified with nucleophilic groups are introduced as catalysts of chemical warfare agent (CWA) hydrolysis. A comparative study conducted at constant pH and based on the criteria of the synthetic route simplicity, aqueous solubility, and rate of hydrolysis of CWA mimic, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), indicated that 4-aminopyridine-substituted polyallylamine (PAAm-APy) and polyvinylamine substituted with 4-aminopyridine (PVAm-APy) were advantageous over 4-pyridinealdoxime-modified PVAm and PAAm, poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine), and PAAm modified with bipyridine and its complex with Cu(II). The synthesis of PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy involved generation of a betaine derivative of acrylamide and its covalent attachment onto the polyalkylamine chain followed by basic hydrolysis. Hydrogel particles of PAAm-APy and PVAm-APy cross-linked by epichlorohydrin exhibited pH-dependent swelling and ionization patterns that affected the rate constants of DFP nucleophilic hydrolysis. Deprotonation of the aminopyridine and amine groups increased the rates of the nucleophilic hydrolysis. The second-order rate of nucleophilic hydrolysis was 5.5- to 10-fold higher with the nucleophile-modified gels compared to those obtained by cross-linking of unmodified PAAm, throughout the pH range. Testing of VX and soman (GD) was conducted in 2.5-3.7 wt % PVAm-APy suspensions or gels swollen in water or DMSO/water mixtures. The half-lives of GD in aqueous PVAm-APy were 12 and 770 min at pH 8.5 and 5, respectively. Addition of VX into 3.5-3.7 wt % suspensions of PVAm-APy in DMSO-d6 and D2O at initial VX concentration of 0.2 vol % resulted in 100% VX degradation in less than 20 min. The unmodified PVAm and PAAm were 2 orders of magnitude less active than PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy, with VX half-lives in the range of 24 h. Furthermore, the PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy gels facilitated the dehydrochlorination reaction of sulfur mustard

  17. Two-Body Convection in the Mantle of the Earth: E/W Asymmetry, Under Astronomically Determined Tilt in g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostrom, R. C.

    2002-12-01

    Under purely geocentric gravity, over time displacement under mantle convection is globally symmetrical, resulting in zero net lithosphere rotation. The effect is here explored of substituting the asymmetric Earth-Moon field, gconv, prevalent in actuality. The gravity responsible for mantle convection is defined as the vector sum of a vertical component and the day-averaged attraction of masses lagging tidal equilibrium. The increasingly accurately measured lunar recession may then be used to delimit the internal field in terms of the secular luni-tidal interval of the Earth as a whole, some 600 seconds [1], without having to identify tidal components i.e. separate marine from body tides. In context the astronomic phase-lag may be viewed as a global isostatic anomaly, in which the longitude circles marking Earth's gravimetric figure are located east of those describing its perpetually unattained equilibrium figure by some 89 km at the Equator. Reference the hydrostatic ellipsoid gconv is tilted by the astronomically delimited amount, albeit that the phase lag is attributable in part to the convection itself. As with the convection, the tectonic significance of its asymmetry is determinable geodetically. Using present art-state a strategically located GPS grid [2] would provide continuously more precise separation of the asymmetric component of surface displacement. In developing plate-motion models including members of the Nuvel series, it would be logical to follow up rather than discard the set permitting minor asymmetrical convection sans net torque, such as an element of net-lithosphere-rotation relative to plumes. To conserve system angular-momentum, this may be the only valid set. Characteristics of the convection to be expected accord with 'paradoxical' features of plate tectonics under purely radial gravity, including: difficulty in closing plate-motion circuits; net-lithosphere-rotation refce. hot-spots, sans net torque; geotectonic maps ranging from

  18. A guide to the selection of personal protective equipment for use in responding to a release of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1997-10-01

    Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was potentially as great a threat as from transportation and the final demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a civilian community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warface munitions. An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with any HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and detection equipment used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel. FEMA requested that ORNL create training materials for CSEPP participants. These training materials were to provide information on a variety of topics and answer questions that a typical CSEPP participant might ask, including the following: how did the Army select the CSEPP recommended ensemble (i.e., protective clothing, respiratory equipment, and detection equipment); how does the CSEPP participant know this ensemble is the right PPE for chemical warfare agents and will actually protect him; what are the concept of operations and work rules? Does one need to know what the CSEPP concept of operations and work rules include? This report describes the training document ORNL created.

  19. Establishment of the United States Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kosclski, J.L.; Boyer, R.; Sloger, W.

    1997-08-01

    The proposed establishment of the US Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence (MWCE) in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas, involved the collocation of the Navy`s Mine Warfare and Mine Counter Measures assets in proximity to each other at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Ingleside and Naval Air Station (NAS) Corpus Christi, Texas. Collocation of these Navy forces would provide significant advantages in meeting mission and operational requirements. This action would improve the operational training and readiness of the forces. In addition to new construction or modifications at NAVSTA Ingleside, NAS Corpus Christi, and off-base; the establishment of offshore training and operating areas was required. When the project was first proposed in 1993, considerable concern was expressed by environmental interests, shrimpers, and state and federal resource agencies regarding the impact of the proposed training activities within Gulf waters. The Navy and Turner Collie and Braden, Inc., under contract to the Navy, conducted several technical studies and extensive coordination with concerned interests during the environmental impact statement process to identify and document the potential intensity, magnitude, and duration of impact from each proposed training activity.

  20. Secondary ionization of chemical warfare agent simulants: atmospheric pressure ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Wes E; Clowers, Brian H; Haigh, Paul E; Hill, Herbert H

    2003-11-15

    For the first time, the use of a traditional ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (radioactive nickel ((63)Ni) beta emission ionization) and three alternative ionization sources (electrospray ionization (ESI), secondary electrospray ionization (SESI), and electrical discharge (corona) ionization (CI)) were employed with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM(tof)MS) to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants from both aqueous- and gas-phase samples. For liquid-phase samples, ESI was used as the sample introduction and ionization method. For the secondary ionization (SESI, CI, and traditional (63)Ni ionization) of vapor-phase samples, two modes of sample volatilization (heated capillary and thermal desorption chamber) were investigated. Simulant reference materials, which closely mimic the characteristic chemical structures of CWA as defined and described by Schedule 1, 2, or 3 of the Chemical Warfare Convention treaty verification, were used in this study. A mixture of four G/V-type nerve simulants (dimethyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and 2-(butylamino)ethanethiol) and one S-type vesicant simulant (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide) were found in each case (sample ionization and introduction methods) to be clearly resolved using the IM(tof)MS method. In many cases, reduced mobility constants (K(o)) were determined for the first time. Ion mobility drift times, flight times, relative signal intensities, and fragmentation product signatures for each of the CWA simulants are reported for each of the methods investigated. PMID:14615983

  1. Development and application of acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for chemical warfare nerve and sulfur mustard agents.

    PubMed

    Watson, Annetta; Opresko, Dennis; Young, Robert; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios. PMID:16621779

  2. Warfare rather than agriculture as a critical influence on fires in the late Holocene, inferred from northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Saito, Yoshiki; Dang, Phong X.; Matsumoto, Eiji; Vu, Quang Lan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has played an essential role in the development of human civilization. Most previous research suggests that frequent-fire regimes in the late Holocene were associated with intensification of human activities, especially agriculture development. Here, we analyze fire regimes recorded in the Song Hong delta area of Vietnam over the past 5,000 years. In the prehistoric period, 2 long-term, low-charcoal abundance periods have been linked to periods of low humidity and cool climate, and 5 short-term fire regimes of 100–150 years in duration occurred at regular intervals of ≈700 years. However, over the last 1,500 years, the number, frequency, and intensity of fire regimes clearly increased. Six intensified-fire regime periods in northern Vietnam during this time coincided with changes of Vietnamese dynasties and associated warfare and unrest. In contrast, agricultural development supported by rulers of stable societies at this time does not show a positive correlation with intensified-fire regime periods. Thus, warfare rather than agriculture appears to have been a critical factor contributing to fire regimes in northern Vietnam during the late Holocene. PMID:19597148

  3. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  4. War gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. January 1970-January 1988 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning non-quick war gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. Analyses and comparative evaluations, based upon computerized simulations, are considered as are manuals and specification for the various computer programs employed. Stage 64 and Satan II and III are covered prominently. (This updated bibliography contains 356 citations, 36 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in enviornmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful analytical techniques for elucidating the molecular structure of organic compounds. In environmental samples, the identification and detection of chemical warfare related compounds is best accomplished using high field high resolution NMR. This paper describes the experimental procedures.

  6. Binding of chemical warfare agent simulants as guests in a coordination cage: contributions to binding and a fluorescence-based response.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher G P; Piper, Jerico R; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Cubic coordination cages act as competent hosts for several alkyl phosphonates used as chemical warfare agent simulants; a range of cage/guest structures have been determined, contributions to guest binding analysed, and a fluorescent response to guest binding demonstrated. PMID:27020844

  7. Comparison of physical activity energy expenditure in Japanese adolescents assessed by EW4800P triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ito, Chinatsu

    2013-10-01

    The present study compared the accuracy of triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring physical activity (PA) in Japanese adolescents. A total of sixty adolescents aged 12-15 years were analysed. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over 7 d by the DLW method and with an EW4800P triaxial accelerometer (Panasonic Corporation). The measured (RMR)(m) and predicted RMR (RMR(p)) were 5·7 (SD 0·9) and 6·0 (SD 1·0) MJ/d, respectively. TEE measured by the DLW method and accelerometry using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 11·0 (SD 2·6), 10·3 (SD 1·9), and 10·7 (SD 2·1) MJ/d, respectively. The PA levels (PAL) measured by the DLW method using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 1·97 (SD 0·31) and 1·94 (SD 0·31) in subjects who exercised, and 1·85 (SD 0·27) and 1·74 (SD 0·29) in subjects who did not exercise. The percentage of body fat correlated significantly with the percentage difference between RMR(m) v. RMR(p), TEE, PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and PAL using RMR(p), and PAL using RMR(m) assessed by the DLW method and accelerometry. The present data showed that while accelerometry estimated TEE accurately, it did not provide the precise measurement of PAEE and PAL. The error in accelerometry was attributed to the prediction error of RMR and assessment in exercise. PMID:23544366

  8. Highly Stable Lyophilized Homogeneous Bead-Based Immunoassays for On-Site Detection of Bio Warfare Agents from Complex Matrices.

    PubMed

    Mechaly, Adva; Marx, Sharon; Levy, Orly; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Fisher, Morly

    2016-06-21

    This study shows the development of dry, highly stable immunoassays for the detection of bio warfare agents in complex matrices. Thermal stability was achieved by the lyophilization of the complete, homogeneous, bead-based immunoassay in a special stabilizing buffer, resulting in a ready-to-use, simple assay, which exhibited long shelf and high-temperature endurance (up to 1 week at 100 °C). The developed methodology was successfully implemented for the preservation of time-resolved fluorescence, Alexa-fluorophores, and horse radish peroxidase-based bead assays, enabling multiplexed detection. The multiplexed assay was successfully implemented for the detection of Bacillus anthracis, botulinum B, and tularemia in complex matrices. PMID:27253489

  9. Contamination in Fractured-Rock Aquifers - Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

  10. Discrimination of chemical warfare simulants via multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John J.; Farrell, Mikella E.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2014-02-01

    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) is used to detect several chemical warfare simulants, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, with high specificity. The spectral bandwidth of the femtosecond laser pulse used in these studies is sufficient to coherently and simultaneously drive all the vibrational modes in the molecule of interest. Evidence shows that MCARS is capable of overcoming common sensitivity limitations of spontaneous Raman scattering, thus allowing for the detection of the target material in milliseconds with standard, uncooled universal serial bus spectrometers as opposed to seconds with cooled, intensified CCD-based spectrometers. In addition, the obtained MCARS spectrum of the investigated sample provides multiple unique signatures. These signatures are used in an off-line multivariate statistical analysis allowing for the material's discrimination with high fidelity.

  11. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil.

    PubMed

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic. PMID:27385368

  12. Dual-Function Metal-Organic Framework as a Versatile Catalyst for Detoxifying Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Moon, Su-Young; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-12-22

    The nanocrystals of a porphyrin-based zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) are used as a dual-function catalyst for the simultaneous detoxification of two chemical warfare agent simulants at room temperature. Simulants of nerve agent (such as GD, VX) and mustard gas, dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, have been hydrolyzed and oxidized, respectively, to nontoxic products via a pair of pathways catalyzed by the same MOF. Phosphotriesterase-like activity of the Zr6-containing node combined with photoactivity of the porphyrin linker gives rise to a versatile MOF catalyst. In addition, bringing the MOF crystals down to the nanoregime leads to acceleration of the catalysis. PMID:26482030

  13. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs. PMID:26054210

  14. The Nature of Hβ +[OIII] and [OII] emitters to z ˜ 5 with HiZELS: stellar mass functions and the evolution of EWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khostovan, A. A.; Sobral, D.; Mobasher, B.; Smail, I.; Darvish, B.; Nayyeri, H.; Hemmati, S.; Stott, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the properties of ˜7000 narrow-band selected galaxies with strong Hβ +[OIII] and [OII] nebular emission lines from the High-z Emission Line Survey (HiZELS) between z ˜ 0.8 - 5.0. Our sample covers a wide range in stellar mass (Mstellar ˜ 107.5 - 12.0 M⊙), rest-frame equivalent widths (EWrest˜10 - 105 Å), and line luminosities (Lline ˜ 1040.5 - 43.2 erg s-1). We measure the Hβ +[OIII]-selected stellar mass functions out to z ˜ 3.5 and find that both M⋆ and φ⋆ increases with cosmic time. The [OII]-selected stellar mass functions show a constant M⋆ ≈ 1011.6 M⊙ and a strong, increasing evolution with cosmic time in φ⋆ in line with Hα studies. We also investigate the evolution of the EWrest as a function of redshift with a fixed mass range (109.5 - 10.0 M⊙) and find an increasing trend best represented by (1 + z)3.81 ± 0.14 and (1 + z)2.72 ± 0.19 up to z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 3 for Hβ +[OIII] and [OII] emitters, respectively. This is the first time that the EWrest evolution has been directly measured for Hβ +[OIII] and [OII] emitters up to these redshifts. There is evidence for a slower evolution for z > 2 in the Hβ +[OIII] EWrest and a decreasing trend for z > 3 in the [OII] EWrest evolution, which would imply low [OII] EW at the highest redshifts and higher [OIII]/[OII] line ratios. This suggests that the ionization parameter at higher redshift may be significantly higher than the local Universe. Our results set the stage for future near-IR space-based spectroscopic surveys to test our extrapolated predictions and also produce z > 5 measurements to constrain the high-z end of the EWrest and [OIII]/[OII] evolution.

  15. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  16. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1984-29 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in the second year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and performance that wil be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. Performance scores on three operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are presented and correlations between the social and performance variables are examined. The effects of atropines on several of the social and performance measures are reported as are data from plasma hormone assays for cortisol and prolactin.

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. January 1979-October 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1979-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other published searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection, defoliants, general studies, biochemistry and therapy, and biology, chemistry and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (This updated bibliography contains 375 citations, 17 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: protection, decontamination, and disposal. January 1979-June 1988 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1979-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other published searches in this series covers chemical warfare detection, defoliants, general studies, biochemistry and therapy, and biology, chemistry and toxicology associated with chemical-warfare agents. (This updated bibliography contains 338 citations, 20 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Chemical and Biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. January 1979-April 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1979-April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (This updated bibliography contains 389 citations, 14 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: protection, decontamination, and disposal. January 1979-April 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1979-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other published searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection, defoliants, general studies, biochemistry and therapy, and biology, chemistry and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (This updated bibliography contains 358 citations, 20 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Mass of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed by Pump-and-Treat, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1996-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2011-01-01

    Pump and Treat (P&T) remediation is the primary technique used to contain and remove trichloroethylene (TCE) and its degradation products cis 1-2,dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) from groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. Three methods were used to determine the masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed from groundwater by the P&T system since it became fully operational in 1996. Method 1, is based on the flow volume and concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater that entered the P&T building as influent. Method 2 is based on withdrawal volume from each active recovery well and the concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in the water samples from each well. Method 3 compares the maximum monthly amount of TCE, cDCE, and VC from Method 1 and Method 2. The greater of the two values is selected to represent the masses of TCE, cDCE and VC removed from groundwater each month. Previously published P&T monthly reports used Method 1 to determine the mass of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed. The reports state that 8,666 pounds (lbs) of TCE, 13,689 lbs of cDCE, and 2,455 lbs of VC were removed by the P&T system during 1996-2010. By using Method 2, the mass removed was determined to be 8,985 lbs of TCE, 17,801 lbs of cDCE, and 3,056 lbs of VC removed, and Method 3, resulted in 10,602 lbs of TCE, 21,029 lbs of cDCE, and 3,496 lbs of VC removed. To determine the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater, the individual masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC (determined using Methods 1, 2, and 3) were converted to numbers of moles, summed, and converted to pounds of original TCE. By using the molar conversion the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater by Methods 1, 2, and 3 was 32,381 lbs, 39,535 lbs, and 46,452 lbs, respectively, during 1996-2010. P&T monthly reports state that 24,805 lbs of summed TCE, cDCE, and VC were removed from groundwater. The simple summing method underestimates the mass of original TCE removed by the P&T system.

  2. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  3. Direct quantification of chemical warfare agents and related compounds at low ppt levels: comparing active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization and secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents. Well-defined analyte gas phase concentrations were generated by a pressure-assisted nanospray with consecutive thermal evaporation and dilution. Identification was achieved by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The most abundant fragment ion intensity of each compound was used for quantification. For DBDI and SESI, absolute gas phase detection limits in the low ppt range (in MS/MS mode) were achieved for all compounds investigated. Although the sensitivity of both methods was comparable, the active capillary DBDI sensitivity was found to be dependent on the applied AC voltage, thus enabling direct tuning of the sensitivity and the in-source fragmentation, which may become a key feature in terms of field applicability. Our findings underline the applicability of DBDI and SESI for the direct, sensitive detection and quantification of several CWA types and their degradation products. Furthermore, they suggest the use of DBDI in combination with hand-held instruments for CWAs on-site monitoring. PMID:25427190

  4. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  5. Geophysical investigation at Mustard Gas Burial Ground, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, Indiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Murphy, W.L.

    1997-06-01

    A geophysical investigation was conducted at the Mustard Gas Burial Ground (MGBG) at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, IN. The MGBG, an approximately 2-acre area, is a former Solid Waste Management Unit. The objective of the investigation was to detect and delineate anomalies indicating the locations of buried structures, objects, or disturbed zones associated with past hazardous waste burial at the MGBG. The locations of these objects are needed so they can be excavated for removal to a permanent treatment or disposal site. Frequency and time domain electromagnetic (EM) along with magnetic survey methods were used at the MGBG. All the surveys performed at the MGBG indicated an anomalous area approximately 10 ft in diameter centered on Station 255 on Line 130. The estimated depth of the anomaly, based on results of the transient EM surveys, is 1 to 2 ft. The anomaly is presumed to be ferrous in nature since it was detected by the magnetometer. An additional, 2- to 3-ft diameter anomaly, caused by a small metallic object was detected by the transient EM surveys.

  6. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs at Area C, Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at Area C of the former Naval Air Warfare Center in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa., in support of hydrogeological investigations conducted by the Navy to address ground-water contamination in the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were collected, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were made, and borehole television surveys were run in seven boreholes ranging from 31 to 75 feet deep. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to identify fractures and the location of possible water-bearing zones. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to identify fractures that were water-bearing zones. Natural-gamma and single-point-resistance logs were used to correlate lithology across the area. Elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were measured in water samples from wells with water-bearing zones in the interval of the aquifer where monitor well HN-23A is screened. Water samples from wells with water-bearing zones above or below this interval had substantially lower concentrations of PCE. Wells screened in this interval yielded less than 0.5 gallon per minute, indicating that the interval has low permeability; this may account for the small areal extent and slow migration of PCE.

  7. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Saikaly, Pascal E; Hicks, Kristin; Barlaz, Morton A; de Los Reyes, Francis L

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. PMID:20973546

  8. Preliminary evaluation of military, commercial and novel skin decontamination products against a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate).

    PubMed

    Matar, Hazem; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Rapid decontamination is vital to alleviate adverse health effects following dermal exposure to hazardous materials. There is an abundance of materials and products which can be utilised to remove hazardous materials from the skin. In this study, a total of 15 products were evaluated, 10 of which were commercial or military products and five were novel (molecular imprinted) polymers. The efficacies of these products were evaluated against a 10 µl droplet of (14)C-methyl salicylate applied to the surface of porcine skin mounted on static diffusion cells. The current UK military decontaminant (Fuller's earth) performed well, retaining 83% of the dose over 24 h and served as a benchmark to compare with the other test products. The five most effective test products were Fuller's earth (the current UK military decontaminant), Fast-Act® and three novel polymers [based on itaconic acid, 2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid and N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide)]. Five products (medical moist-free wipes, 5% FloraFree™ solution, normal baby wipes, baby wipes for sensitive skin and Diphotérine™) enhanced the dermal absorption of (14)C-methyl salicylate. Further work is required to establish the performance of the most effective products identified in this study against chemical warfare agents. PMID:26339920

  9. Fragmentation of molecular ions in differential mobility spectrometry as a method for identification of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Maziejuk, M; Puton, J; Szyposzyńska, M; Witkiewicz, Z

    2015-11-01

    The subject of the work is the use of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Studies were performed for mustard gas, i.e., bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD), sarin, i.e., O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB) and methyl salicylate (MS) used as test compounds. Measurements were conducted with two ceramic DMS analyzers of different constructions allowing the generation of an electric field with an intensity of more than 120 Td. Detector signals were measured for positive and negative modes of operation in a temperature range from 0 to 80 °C. Fragmentations of ions containing analyte molecules were observed for all tested compounds. The effective temperatures of fragmentation estimated on the basis of dispersion plots were equal from about 148 °C for GB to 178 °C for MS. It was found that values of separation voltage (SV) and compensation voltage (CV) at which the fragmentation of sample ions is observed may be the parameters improving the certainty of detection for different analytes. The DMS analyzers enabling the observation of ion fragmentation can be successfully used for effective CWA detection. PMID:26452948

  10. Decomposition of 2-chloroethylethylsulfide on copper oxides to detoxify polymer-based spherical activated carbons from chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Fichtner, S; Hofmann, J; Möller, A; Schrage, C; Giebelhausen, J M; Böhringer, B; Gläser, R

    2013-11-15

    For the decomposition of chemical warfare agents, a hybrid material concept was applied. This consists of a copper oxide-containing phase as a component with reactive functionality supported on polymer-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) as a component with adsorptive functionality. A corresponding hybrid material was prepared by impregnation of PBSAC with copper(II)nitrate and subsequent calcination at 673K. The copper phase exists predominantly as copper(I)oxide which is homogeneously distributed over the PBSAC particles. The hybrid material containing 16 wt.% copper on PBSAC is capable of self-detoxifying the mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES) at room temperature. The decomposition is related to the breakthrough behavior of the reactant CEES, which displaces the reaction product ethylvinylsulfide (EVS). This leads to a combined breakthrough of CEES and EVS. The decomposition of CEES is shown to occur catalytically over the copper-containing PBSAC material. Thus, the hybrid material can even be considered to be self-cleaning. PMID:24140529

  11. Concise and Efficient Fluorescent Probe via an Intromolecular Charge Transfer for the Chemical Warfare Agent Mimic Diethylchlorophosphate Vapor Detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjun; Fu, Yanyan; Xu, Wei; Fan, Tianchi; Gao, Yixun; He, Qingguo; Zhu, Defeng; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2016-02-16

    Sarin, used as chemical warfare agents (CWAs) for terrorist attacks, can induce a number of virulent effects. Therefore, countermeasures which could realize robust and convenient detection of sarin are in exigent need. A concise charge-transfer colorimetric and fluorescent probe (4-(6-(tert-butyl)pyridine-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline, TBPY-TPA) that could be capable of real-time and on-site monitoring of DCP vapor was reported in this contribution. Upon contact with DCP, the emission band red-shifted from 410 to 522 nm upon exposure to DCP vapor. And the quenching rate of TBPY-TPA reached up to 98% within 25 s. Chemical substances such as acetic acid (HAc), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PAMP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP) do not interfere with the detection. A detection limit for DCP down to 2.6 ppb level is remarkably achieved which is below the Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health concentration. NMR data suggested that a transformation of the pyridine group into pyridinium salt via a cascade reaction is responsible for the sensing process which induced the dramatic fluorescent red shift. All of these data suggest TBPY-TPA is a promising fluorescent sensor for a rapid, simple, and low-cost method for DCP detection, which could be easy to prepare as a portable chemosensor kit for its practical application in real-time and on-site monitoring. PMID:26776457

  12. Expedient Respiratory and Physical Protection: Does a Wet Towel Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration?

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of expedient protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare agents. This includes an examination of the physical and the psychological effectiveness of measures such as using a wet towel to seal a door jam against the infiltration of chemicals while sheltering in place or to provide expedient respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for civilians has never been considered a viable option for population protection in the CSEPP. Problems of storage, ability to effectively don respirators, and questionable fit have been primary factors in rejecting this option. Expedient respiratory protection seems to offer little benefits for population protection for chemical agent vapors. Furthermore, using wet towels as a vapor barrier at the bottom of a door should be discouraged. The wetted towel provides no vapor filtration and its effectiveness in infiltration reduction is unknown. Taping the bottom of the door will still likely provide greater infiltration reduction and is recommended as the current method for use in sheltering.

  13. Broad-Spectrum Liquid- and Gas-Phase Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents by One-Dimensional Heteropolyniobates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weiwei; Lv, Hongjin; Sullivan, Kevin P; Gordon, Wesley O; Balboa, Alex; Wagner, George W; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; Bacsa, John; Hill, Craig L

    2016-06-20

    A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination. Three lines of evidence establish that KGeNb removes DMMP, and thus likely GB/GD, by general base catalysis: a) the k(H2 O)/k(D2 O) solvent isotope effect is 1.4; b) the rate law (hydrolysis at the same pH depends on the amount of P-PONb present); and c) hydroxide is far less active against the above simulants at the same pH than the P-PONbs themselves, a critical control experiment. PMID:27061963

  14. Decontamination by Persteril 36 may affect the reliability of DNA-based detection of biological warfare agents-short communication.

    PubMed

    Josefiova, Jirina; Pospisek, Martin; Vanek, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Persteril 36 is a disinfectant with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Because of its bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal effectiveness, it is used as a disinfectant against biological warfare agents in the emergency and army services. In case of an attack with potentially harmful biological agents, a person's gear or afflicted skin is sprayed with a diluted solution of Persteril 36 as a precaution. Subsequently, the remains of the biological agents are analyzed. However, the question remains concerning whether DNA can be successfully analyzed from Persteril 36-treated dead bacterial cells. Spore-forming Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas campestris were splattered on a camouflage suit and treated with 2 or 0.2 % Persteril 36. After the disinfectant vaporized, the bacterial DNA was extracted and quantified by real-time PCR. A sufficient amount of DNA was recovered for downstream analysis only in the case of spore-forming B. subtilis treated with a 0.2 % solution of Persteril 36. The bacterial DNA was almost completely destroyed in Gram-negative bacteria or after treatment with the more concentrated solution in B. subtilis. This phenomenon can lead to false-negative results during the identification of harmful microorganisms. PMID:26910525

  15. Continuum Model for Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent from a Rubbery Polymer using the Maxwell-Stefan Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, Mark; Bringuier, Stefan; Pearl, Thomas; Stevenson, Shawn; Mantooth, Brent

    Decontamination of polymers exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) often proceeds by application of a liquid solution. Absorption of some decontaminant components proceed concurrently with extraction of the CWA, resulting in multicomponent diffusion in the polymer. In this work, the Maxwell-Stefan equations were used with the Flory-Huggins model of species activity to mathematically describe the transport of two species within a polymer. This model was used to predict the extraction of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) from a silicone elastomer into both water and methanol. Comparisons with experimental results show good agreement with minimal fitting of model parameters from pure component uptake data. Reaction of the extracted VX with sodium hydroxide in the liquid-phase was also modeled and used to predict the overall rate of destruction of VX. Although the reaction proceeds more slowly in the methanol-based solution compared to the aqueous solution, the extraction rate is faster due to increasing VX mobility as methanol absorbs into the silicone, resulting in an overall faster rate of VX destruction.

  16. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  17. Effects of wearing protective chemical warfare-combat clothing on human performance. Final report, Sep 89-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.L.; Orlansky, J.

    1991-08-01

    U.S. Department of Defense studies to measure performance decrements associated with wearing chemical warfare (CW) protective combat clothing indicate that heat stress produced seriously degraded human performance. Even when heat stress is not a significant factor, performance of many combat, combat support, and combat service support tasks is degraded. In most field studies, many crews of combat units became operationally ineffective due to voluntary withdrawal of individual crew members. Many combined arms, field studies, and laboratory studies indicate that when CW-protective combat clothing is worn performance is seriously degraded for (1) the detection of targets, engagement time, accuracy of fire, and (2) manual dexterity tasks; and that (3) a variety of psychological effects are created. Further, the degree of performance degradation varied with the tasks performed. Training in CW-protective combat clothing permits learning to modify procedures and consequently reduce negative effects, provided heat stress is not a significant factor. A growing body of evidence indicates there is inadequate training in the use of CW-protective combat clothing. A critical need exists for more and better training of skills needed under CW conditions.

  18. Direct gas-phase detection of nerve and blister warfare agents utilizing active capillary plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J-C; Schaer, M; P Siegenthaler, P; Zenobi, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasensitive direct gas-phase detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is demonstrated utilizing active capillary plasma ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. Four G- agents, two V-agents and various blistering agents [including sulfur mustard (HD)] were detected directly in the gas phase with limits of detection in the low parts per trillion (ng m(-3)) range. The direct detection of HD was shown for dry carrier gas conditions, but signals vanished when humidity was present, indicating a possible direct detection of HD after sufficient gas phase pretreatment. The method provided sufficient sensitivity to monitor directly the investigated volatile CWAs way below their corresponding minimal effect dose, and in most cases even below the eight hours worker exposure concentration. In general, the ionization is very soft, with little to no in-source fragmentation. Especially for the G-agents, some dimer formation occurred at higher concentrations. This adds complexity, but also further selectivity, to the corresponding mass spectra. Our results show that the active capillary plasma ionization is a robust, sensitive, "plug and play" ambient ionization source suited (but not exclusively) to the very sensitive detection of CWAs. It has the potential to be used with portable MS instrumentation. PMID:26307710

  19. A two-pulse, pump-probe method for short-range, remote standoff detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Scott E.; Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Farrow, Roger L.; Kulp, Thomas J.

    2011-05-01

    We describe a photofragment laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) method that can be applied to the short-range-standoff detection of low-volatility organophosphonate chemical warfare agents (OP-CWAs) on surfaces. It operates by photofragmenting a surface-bound analyte and then actively interrogating a released phosphorous monoxide (PO) fragment using LIF. We demonstrate a single-pulse-pair (pump = 500 μJ @ 266 nm; probe = 20 μJ @ 248 nm) surface detection sensitivity of 30 μg/cm2 for the organophosphonate diisopropyl isothiocyanate phosphonate (DIPP) on aluminum and 210 μg/cm2 for the same analyte on a more porous concrete surface. By detecting the PO photofragment, the method indicates the presence of organophosphonates; however, we show that it also responds to other phosphorouscontaining compounds. Because of its limited specificity, we believe that the method may have most immediate use as a mapping tool to rapidly identify "hotspots" of OP-CWAs. These would then be confirmed using a more specific tool. As one method of confirming the presence of OP-CWAs (and identifying the agent), we demonstrate that the probe beam can be used to acquire Raman-scattering spectra of the target area.

  20. Express analysis of explosives, chemical warfare agents and drugs with multicapillary column gas chromatography and ion mobility increment spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buryakov, Igor A

    2004-02-01

    Description of a gas chromatograph designed for express analysis of explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate), chemical warfare agents (mustard gas, lewisite, sarin) and drugs (heroin, cocaine hydrochloride, crack) is given. The devices comprises a multicapillary chromatographic column and an ion mobility increment spectrometer (MCC-IMIS). The main analytical characteristics of an IMIS (estimated detection limit (DL), linear dynamic range (LDR), speed of response) and a chromatographic column (separation power, degree of separation, a number of possible peaks at a chromatogram section, divided by analysis time) are determined. The maximum value of DL equal to 5 pg/ml was registered for cis-alpha-LW, and the lowest one of 0.001 pg/ml was for cocaine. The maximum value of LDR equal to 1000 was registered for sarin and the lowest one of 150 was for the ions of lewisite. Speed of response of one compound detection with the IMIS was 0.7 s. PMID:14698239