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1

Electronic Warfare - Electromagnetic Threat Analysis System, (EW-ETAS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort was for the development of a system to assist FTD's analysts in their efforts to provide scientific and technical intelligence on Electronic Warfare and its threat. The system is called the Electronic Warfare - Electromagnetic Threat Analysis ...

J. A. Rummans

1980-01-01

2

Challenge of Future EW System Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic warfare (EW) has emerged as a critical driving force in modern warfare. New generations of weapon systems directly impact EW requirements and strategies. Modern combat aircraft are faced with a drastic change of a possible threat scenario consisting of a mix of Western and Eastern weapon systems. The deployment of advanced pulse doppler radar systems in A/A and G/A application augmented by extensive electro-optic capabilities, directed energy weapons (laser or particle beam), and electromagnetic/shockwave weapons requires a detailed reassessment of NATO EW processes. The complexity and diversity of future threat scenarios necessitate changes in NATO EW system concepts, and an update of existing equipment including modifications of tactics and combinations of EW resources to improve survivability.

1994-05-01

3

Electronic Warfare (EW) Historical Perspectives and Its Relationship to Information Operations (IO) - Considerations for Turkey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is the exploration of the relationship and interaction between Electronic Warfare (EW) and Information Operations (IO) core, supporting and related competencies. Understanding the definitions of information and its value, inform...

A. C. Kucukozyigit

2006-01-01

4

Joint warfare system (JWARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a campaign-level model of military operations that is currently being developed under contract by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) for use by OSD, the Joint Staff, the Services, and the War fighting Commands. The behavior of military forces can be simulated from ports of embarkation through to their activities in combat.

A. Simlote

2003-01-01

5

Effectiveness evaluation of warfare command systems with dissymmetrical warfare information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper researches the warfare command decision making problems in dissymmetrical information war, which are of important to military system science researches. Based on the features of dissymmetrical information war, we develop a corresponding warfare command decision making model by using Lanchester square law equation. Two proper military stratagems which can transform the battlefield situation are pointed out and analyzed

Xiangyong Chen; Yuanwei Jing; Chunji Li; Nan Jiang; Georgi M. Dimirovski

2010-01-01

6

Applications of magnetostatic wave technology to EW systems — An assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current magnetostatic wave technology applicable to EW systems is assessed. Some of the developments currently underway with dispersive and non-dispersive delay lines, tunable oscillators and bandpass filters are examined and projected performance three years from now is given. Various EW applications are then described based on these projections. This includes compressive receivers, “fast call” receivers, phased arrays, scanning receivers, and

Jesse Taub

1985-01-01

7

Thought Systems and Network Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The notion of Thought Warfare and Anti-Warfare (TWAW) has been introduced in earlier work as a way of thinking about future military conflict and its avoidance. TWAW involves the dynamic interaction of allies' and adversaries' Thought Systems. Current Tho...

M. Burke

2000-01-01

8

Unified Electronic Warfare Concepts in Systems Opposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document Analyzes the systems electronic wartare characteristics of a new generation of antiaircraft systems, systems composition, as well as main functions. Inquires into defense penetration unified electronic warfare modes which can appear during l...

B. Yi

1995-01-01

9

Electronic warfare: Reliable equipment needed to test Air Force's electronic warfare systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force equips its tactical aircraft with electronic warfare systems such as the ALR-56A radar warning receiver and the ALQ-135 jammer. The receiver alerts the pilot that the airplane is being tracked by enemy radar and the jammer transmits electronic signals to deceive enemy radars. The combat readiness of tactical aircraft and the capability to sustain combat operations has been impaired because of faulty and unreliable test equipment used to identify malfunctions in electronic warfare systems. The Air Force has not adhered to policies requiring that test equipment be developed and deployed simultaneously with electronic warfare systems. To deploy the warfare systems as quickly as possible, the Air Force has not taken steps to assure that the electronic warfare system can be adequately maintained in an operational environment. The Air Force's strategy may result in additional cost and will continue to place combat readiness at risk. In addition, the Air Force cannot perform its maintenance functions without relying extensively on civilian contractor technical assistance, which might not be available during combat operations.

1989-08-01

10

Warfare as a complex adaptive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nations have traditionally made war the way they make wealth. Throughout history, technology has played a key role in warfare and significantly impacted the way nations think about, plan and execute war. Examining the issues of precision strike and modern warfare in the information age we begin to understand that precision alone is not enough. Taking war a piece at

K. P. Schaaff; Frank T. Bossio

1996-01-01

11

Electronic warfare in the year 2000 and beyond  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of a design philosophy emphasizing integrated EW and integrated avionics are detailed. The discussion covers the hierarchy of EW system architecture, evolution of integrated systems, federated architecture, and transition to integrated systems. The performance of the joint surveillance target attack radar system during the operation Desert Storm is examined as an example of the integration approach. Finally, the future directions of electronic warfare systems are outlined. 6 refs.

Herskovitz, S.B.

1991-09-01

12

Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material  

SciTech Connect

The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and pending successful test results, may be incorporated in the various munitions assessment systems in the future. These systems are intended to enhance CWM fill materiel identification, agent air monitoring, agent or agent degradation product detection by surface analysis, and real-time x-ray capabilities.

A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

1999-05-27

13

Warfare Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

14

Systems biology of Ewing sarcoma: a network model of EWS-FLI1 effect on proliferation and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent pediatric bone tumor. In most of the patients, a chromosomal translocation leads to the expression of the EWS-FLI1 chimeric transcription factor that is the major oncogene in this pathology. Relative genetic simplicity of Ewing sarcoma makes it particularly attractive for studying cancer in a systemic manner. Silencing EWS-FLI1 induces cell cycle alteration and ultimately leads to apoptosis, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are unclear. In this study, a network linking EWS-FLI1 to cell cycle and apoptosis phenotypes was constructed through an original method of network reconstruction. Transcriptome time-series after EWS-FLI1 silencing were used to identify core modulated genes by an original scoring method based on fitting expression profile dynamics curves. Literature data mining was then used to connect these modulated genes into a network. The validity of a subpart of this network was assessed by siRNA/RT-QPCR experiments on four additional Ewing cell lines and confirmed most of the links. Based on the network and the transcriptome data, CUL1 was identified as a new potential target of EWS-FLI1. Altogether, using an original methodology of data integration, we provide the first version of EWS-FLI1 network model of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation.

Stoll, Gautier; Surdez, Didier; Tirode, Franck; Laud, Karine; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei; Delattre, Olivier

2013-01-01

15

Robotics at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The robotics division of the San Diego Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center is very active in research and development. Its home page has a good deal of information about the many projects currently underway. There are several categories of robotic systems to browse, including autonomous land robots; unmanned ground, air, and undersea vehicles; and telepresence and virtual reality. Image and movie galleries show the operation and features of many of the center's robots, and a quarterly newsletter is also given on the site, describing the most recent activities and research conducted at the center.

2002-01-01

16

Countering GPS jamming and EW threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement

Carlos M. Pereira; J. Rastegar; Clifford E. McLain; T. Alanson; Charles McMullan; H.-L. Nguyen

2007-01-01

17

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Syst...

A. Huskey D. Jager J. Hur J. Smith

2012-01-01

18

Analysis of Human-Computer Interaction in the Expeditionary Warfare Decision Support System (EDSS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Expeditionary Warfare Decision Support System (EDSS) is an Office of Naval Research (ONR) sponsored system designed to improve the planning of expeditionary operations. ONR requested that the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington (APL-U...

D. W. Jones M. H. Miller J. A. Ballas J. I. Olsonbaker

2004-01-01

19

Time-delay direction finding based on canonical correlation analysis [electronic warfare applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direction finding is an important component of electronic warfare (EW) systems. Direction finding precision may directly affect signal sorting, recognition, location, and jamming decisions, etc. Thus, it is an urgent task to improve direction finding precision. To solve the problems of time-delay direction finding's sensitivity to interference, this paper proposes a novel technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to

Gaoming Huang; Luxi Yang; Zhenya He

2005-01-01

20

Surface Warfare Officer Community Management Model System Dynamics Proof-of-Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system dynamics model was developed to analyze and discern the factors which lead to sustainable numbers of qualified surface warfare officers (SWO) as determined by current and future end-strength requirements and readiness goals. The analysis consi...

R. S. Myers M. E. McDevitt M. W. Zabarouskas

2004-01-01

21

System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

2007-04-01

22

Expert System for Automating Nuclear Strike Aircraft Replacement, Aircraft Beddown, and Logistics Movement for the Theater Warfare Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this thesis was to determine a means for automating the planning section of the Air University's Theater Warfare Exercise (TWX). By delving into the areas of Artificial Intelligence and Database Management Systems, this thesis presents a flexi...

H. D. Harken

1989-01-01

23

Improvement of EW/SIGINT Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since DARCOM took over responsibility of EW/SIGINT materiel in 1977, supply performance statistics have been quite low. Data from the Electronic Materiel Readiness Activity (EMRA) was gathered and analyzed. A modified Commodity Command Standard System (CC...

R. L. Deemer

1979-01-01

24

A photometric study of an EW-type binary system: GV Leo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photometric study of a contact binary system, GV Leo is presented. New observations were done using the BVR filter bands. We find that a revised orbital period is 0.26673171 d and the orbital period of this system is decreasing at a rate of dP/dt = ?4.95 × 10?7 d yr?1. The photometric solutions are fairly well fitted at a mass ratio of q = 0.1879, with a fillout factor of f = 17.74%. The results indicate that there exists mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one at a rate of relative mass exchange, ?1/m = ?1.09 × 10?7 yr?1. It is possible that this weak-contact system, that shows a decreasing orbital period, may undergo contraction of the inner and outer critical Roche lobes and evolve into a deep-contact binary.

Kriwattanawong, Wichean; Poojon, Panomporn

2013-11-01

25

In-Fibre Bragg Gratings for Millimetre-Wave EW Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fibre-optic microwave and millimetre wave systems technology has matured rapidly over the last few years. The report examines some possibilities for very wide bandwidth signal distribution and analysis based on in-fibre Bragg gratings. The gratings are fa...

A. C. Lindsay

1994-01-01

26

Information warfare and the information systems security professional  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a government agency or business computer system is attacked, the response to such an attack will be based on the attacker. Will the attacker be a hacker, phreaker, cracker, just someone breaking in for fun? Will the attacker be an employee of a business competitor, in the case of an attack on a business system, or will it be

Gerald L. Kovacich

1997-01-01

27

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

28

Integrated Electronic Warfare System Advanced Development Model (ADM); Appendix 6 - System Controller Executive Design Specification. Final Software Report Data Item No. A005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document specifies the detailed design requirements of the System Controller (SC) Executive Function (EXEC) subprogram for the Advanced Development Model (ADM) of the Integrated Electronic Warfare System (IEWS).

1977-01-01

29

Hybrid Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Senior military officials recently testified1 before Congress that current and future adversaries are likely to use 'hybrid warfare' tactics, a blending of conventional and irregular approaches across the full spectrum of conflict. In addition, several ac...

2010-01-01

30

Decisions, Decisions ... and Even More Decisions: Evaluation of a Digitized Mission Support System in the Land Warfare Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digitized mission support systems are currently being introduced in the military arena. The projected benefits include quicker, better informed, more efficient decision making by the teams using them; however, these claims are often made without appropriate scientific testing. A live operational field trial of a land warfare digital mission support system was observed, and an integrated framework of Human Factors

Paul M. Salmon; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Guy H. Walker; Laura Rafferty

2010-01-01

31

Electronic Warfare Module of the Simulation of Tactical Alternative Responses (STAR) Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis represents an analysis of the effects of Electronic Warfare (EW) on the outcome of a battle from the high resolution combat simulation model STAR (Simulated Tactical Alternative Responses). The analysis was performed on data generated by the S...

S. L. Maddox A. R. Hock

1982-01-01

32

The Early Warning System(EWS) as First Stage to Generate and Develop Shake Map for Bucharest to Deep Vrancea Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EWS made by NIEP is the first European system for real-time early detection and warning of the seismic waves in case of strong deep earthquakes. EWS uses the time interval (28-32 seconds) between the moment when earthquake is detected by the borehole and surface local accelerometers network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area, to deliver timely integrated information in order to enable actions to be taken before a main destructive shaking takes place. Early warning system is viewed as part of an real-time information system that provide rapid information, about an earthquake impeding hazard, to the public and disaster relief organizations before (early warning) and after a strong earthquake (shake map).This product is fitting in with other new product on way of National Institute for Earth Physics, that is, the shake map which is a representation of ground shaking produced by an event and it will be generated automatically following large Vrancea earthquakes. Bucharest City is located in the central part of the Moesian platform (age: Precambrian and Paleozoic) in the Romanian Plain, at about 140 km far from Vrancea area. Above a Cretaceous and a Miocene deposit (with the bottom at roundly 1,400 m of depth), a Pliocene shallow water deposit (~ 700m thick) was settled. The surface geology consists mainly of Quaternary alluvial deposits. Later loess covered these deposits and the two rivers crossing the city (Dambovita and Colentina) carved the present landscape. During the last century Bucharest suffered heavy damage and casualties due to 1940 (Mw = 7.7) and 1977 (Mw = 7.4) Vrancea earthquakes. For example, 32 high tall buildings collapsed and more then 1500 people died during the 1977 event. The innovation with comparable or related systems worldwide is that NIEP will use the EWS to generate a virtual shake map for Bucharest (140 km away of epicentre) immediately after the magnitude is estimated (in 3-4 seconds after the detection in epicentre) and later make corrections by using real time dataflow from each K2 accelerometers installed in Bucharest area, inclusively nonlinear effects. Thus, developing of a near real-time shake map for Bucharest urban area is of highest interest, providing valuable information to the civil defense, decision makers and general public on the area where the ground motion is most severe. EWS made by NIEP can be considered the first stage to generate and develop the shake map for Bucharest to deep Vrancea earthquakes.

Marmureanu, G.; Ionescu, C.; Marmureanu, A.; Grecu, B.; Cioflan, C.

2007-12-01

33

Toward an adaptive data distribution service for dynamic large-scale network-centric operation and warfare (NCOW) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve the goal of information dominance, the DoD has adopted the doctrine of net-centric operations and warfare (NCOW). The global information grid (GIG), future combat system (FCS), C2 constellation, and FORCEnet are examples of net-centric operations where multiple systems-of-systems integrate thousands of platforms, sensors, decision nodes, weapons, and warfighters through heterogeneous wire-line and wireless networks. NCOW provides superior collection,

Nanbor Wang; D. C. Schmidt; H. van't Hag; Angelo Corsaro

2008-01-01

34

Biosensor-Based Detection and Verification System for Bio-Chemical Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to explore and demonstrate the application of technology based on the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor (LAPS) to detection and verification problems for bio-chemical warfare agents. The principal analytical method e...

J. C. Owicki

1996-01-01

35

On-line monitoring system for chemical warfare agents using automated capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

We present an automated analysis system for the detection of the chemical warfare blister agents, sulfur mustard (HD) and lewisite (L), in aqueous samples without any chemical derivatization. The system is compact in size and designed to operate in the field in a safe, autonomous manner for near real-time monitoring applications. It uses anionic surfactant-based capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) to separate the sample followed by UV detection. The analysis time is sufficiently fast to allow direct detection of HD which enabled the estimation of effective hydrolysis rates in the aqueous sample matrix. The estimated hydrolysis half-life of HD in our system was 4.85 ± 0.05 min. The detection limit of HD was determined to be 10 ppm with a signal to noise ratio of 5. By contrast, L hydrolyzed too rapidly in aqueous samples to enable direct detection. Instead the first hydrolysis product 2-chlorovinyl arsonous acid (CVAA), also considered a blister agent, was detected with a detection limit of 0.7 ppm with a signal to noise ratio of 5. PMID:22749453

Vandernoot, Victoria; Ferko, Scott; Van De Vreugde, James; Patel, Kamlesh; Volponi, Joanne; Morrissey, Kevin; Forrest, Lucille; Horton, James; Haroldsen, Brent

2012-06-12

36

A STUDY OF ORGANIC SOLVENT COMPONENT IN THE EMULSION SYSTEM FOR DECONTAMINATION OF POLYMER-THICKENED CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the mixing process and pH on the available chlorine content of the decontaminant calcium hypochlorite (or high-test hypochlorite, HTH) in the organic solvent-HTH-water mixture have been studied in order to develop new emulsion systems for the decontamination of polymer-thickened chemical warfare agents. A series of water-soluble and water-insoluble organic solvents were investigated. The observed temperature increase during

Yen Wei; Jianguo Wang; Gu Wei; Chi-Tai Tang; Wei Wang; Philip W. Bartram

1996-01-01

37

Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

2002-02-01

38

New M&S Challenges Derived from the NATO Research & Technology Organization (RTO) Systems Analysis Studies (SAS071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted recently by NATO's RTO Systems Analysis Studies (SAS-071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare (IW) is of direct interest to the M&S community, as it formulates several new challenges that have to be met by the M&S community. IW comprises among others the following categories: insurgency\\/counter-insurgency, combat- ing terrorism, unconventional warfare, strategic communications, transnational criminal

Andreas Tolk

2009-01-01

39

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE  

PubMed Central

The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense.

Beeston, John

1953-01-01

40

Information Warfare-Worthy Jamming Attack Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Fuzzy Inference System  

PubMed Central

The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes.

Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S. V.

2010-01-01

41

A 50 EW\\/cm^2 Ti:sapphire laser system for studying relativistic light-matter interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10-Hz repetition rate, 60-TW peak power, Ti:sapphire laser system was developed for use in experiments where relativistic effects dominate the physics. The temporal, spectral, energy and spatial characteristics of the laser pulses were measured in single shot format. The pulse duration ranged from 22 fs to 25 fs and the pulse energy averaged 1.3 J. Atomic photoionization measurements quantified

Barry Walker; Csaba Toth; David N. Fittinghoff; Ting Guo; Dong-Eon Kim; Christoph G. Rose-Petruck; Jeffrey A. Squier; Koichi Yamakawa; Kent R. Wilson; Christopher P. J. Barty

1999-01-01

42

Chinese Concepts and Capabilities of Information Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese consider Information Warfare (IW) as an assassin's mace which can be used to defeat superior with the inferior. Western concepts of Information Warfare have been suitably modified using traditional Chinese military thought. They place due emphasis on the psychological component of IW in order to shape the perceptions and belief system of the adversary. PLA has been practicing

Vinod Anand

2006-01-01

43

Unconventional Warfare: American and Soviet Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional warfare is a weapons system of hot and cold wars which is utilized for achievement of political and military goals. It is a type of warfare used equally by conventional military forces, paramilitary organizations, and civilian populations. The Sino-Soviet bloc's governments consider it an indispensable weapon of their political and military aggression and for promoting the goals of world

Slavko N. Bjelajac

1962-01-01

44

The Ewing's sarcoma oncoprotein EWS\\/FLI induces a p53-dependent growth arrest in primary human fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing's sarcoma is associated with a fusion between the EWS and FLI1 genes, forming an EWS\\/FLI fusion protein. We developed a system for the identification of cooperative mutations in this tumor through expression of EWS\\/FLI in primary human fibroblasts. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that this system recapitulates many features of Ewing's sarcoma. EWS\\/FLI-expressing cells underwent growth arrest, suggesting that growth

Stephen L. Lessnick; Caroline S. Dacwag; Todd R. Golub

2002-01-01

45

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and evaluation of personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other Published Searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

46

Biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

47

Lessons of Complexity and Future Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thesis: The examination of land warfare within the conceptual framework of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory and fourth generation war (4GW) theory offers a unique perspective and provides valuable insight into optimal capabilities and characteristics ...

K. D. Hendricks

2003-01-01

48

Biosensor-Based Detection and Verification System for Bio-Chemical Warfare Agents, Appendices 1, 2 and 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to explore and demonstrate the application of technology based on the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor (LAPS) to detection and verification problems for bio-chemical warfare agents. The principal analytical method e...

J. C. Owicki

1996-01-01

49

Analysis of Marine Biota for Chemical Warfare Materials by Means of a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center's (ECBC) Directorate of Program Integration Environmental Monitoring Branch developed a procedure and conducted a Method Detection Limit (MDL) study for the analysis of Chemical Warfare Materials (CWM) in ...

B. E. Dusick J. L. Schwarz M. L. Avila

2011-01-01

50

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous

S. Chauhan; R. D’Cruz; S. Faruqi; K. K. Singh; S. Varma; M. Singh; V. Karthik

2008-01-01

51

Detecting Biological Warfare Agents  

PubMed Central

We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

2005-01-01

52

Warfare in Civil Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We distinguish between four types of warfare (conventional, irregular, symmetric non-conventional, and urban) and disaggregate civil wars accordingly. We find that while irregular war is the most common type of civil war, it is not the only one. Conventional war turns out to be less exceptional than previously thought, while symmetric non-conventional warfare is an important, though localized, type of

Laia Balcells; Stathis N. Kalyvas

53

Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)|

Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

1988-01-01

54

Unconventional warfare philosophers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The philosophies of unconventional warfare philosophers can be divided into four schools. The classicists, or early school, represented by Sun Tzu and his ‘indirect approach’, have existed for thousands of years. Marxist?Leninist revolutionaries gave new emphasis to unconventional warfare as a vehicle for revolution. The theories of these philosophers of the middle school were opposed by those of counterrevolutionaries. With

Robert J. Bunker

1999-01-01

55

Rapid identification of biological warfare agents using an instrument employing a light addressable potentiometric sensor and a flow-through immunofiltration-enzyme assay system.  

PubMed

An instrument employing a light addressable potentiometric sensor and a flow-through immunofiltration-enzyme assay system has been developed for the rapid and specific identification of biological warfare (BW) agents. The system has been designed to assay for up to eight agents simultaneously and provides an indication of the absence or presence of a threat within 15 min. Parameters affecting the mixing of the reagents within the instrument's fluidic lines were investigated and optimized. Measurements of blank samples and samples containing Bacillus subtilis spores in the concentration range of 10(4) to 10(6) cfu/ml indicate the limit of detection (LOD) is 3 x 10(3) cfu/ml for B. subtilus. Although the LOD is higher than that of several technologies currently under development, this instrument offers an immediate interim approach for addressing the need to rapidly detect biological warfare agents in the field. PMID:10945450

Uithoven, K A; Schmidt, J C; Ballman, M E

2000-01-01

56

Unconventional Warfare: One Military View  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional warfare—itself part of the broader area known as special warfare—encompasses guerrilla warfare, escape and evasion, and conduct of subversion against hostile states during wartime. The specific modes of uncon ventional warfare pursued depend upon the general war con text. Although nuclear war or large-scale conventional war would produce opportunities for unconventional warfare ac tivity, the brush-fire war and cold

William P. Yarborough

1962-01-01

57

River Warfare: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The topic of river warfare, riverine operations, and crossings are covered in this number. By definition, these operations are conducted by forces organized to exploit a given riverine area in support of a wartime activity. Periodical article coverage is ...

L. L. Miller

1983-01-01

58

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex\\u000a structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging\\u000a agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly\\u000a prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups

Kamil Ku?a; Miroslav Pohanka

59

Analytic tools for information warfare  

SciTech Connect

Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

1996-05-01

60

A Portable Local Exhaust Hood System Used to Sample One-Ton Containers Previously Filled with Chemical Warfare Munitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Muscle Shoals, Alabama, by contract with the Department of the Army, Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, Colorado, sampled and verified the decontamination level of 2354 empty one-ton containers (TCs) previously used to store chemical warfare munitions. The TCs had previously been chemically and\\/or thermally decontaminated and were stored at RMA awaiting removal and disposal. The

Donnie R. Butler; John J. McFeters; L. Daryl Williams

1996-01-01

61

EWS\\/FLI-1 oncoprotein subtypes impose different requirements for transformation and metastatic activity in a murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing sarcoma\\/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (EWS\\/PNET) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations most often\\u000a generating a chimeric EWS\\/FLI-1 gene. Depending on the number of juxtaposed exons assembled, several fusion types have been\\u000a described with different incidences and prognoses. To assess the impact of each fusion type on the specific phenotypic, tumorigenic,\\u000a and metastatic features of EWS\\/PNET, we developed an amenable system

Iranzu González; Silvestre Vicent; Enrique de Alava; Fernando Lecanda

2007-01-01

62

Expression profiling of EWS\\/FLI identifies NKX2.2 as a critical target gene in Ewing's sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our understanding of Ewing's sarcoma development mediated by the EWS\\/FLI fusion protein has been limited by a lack of knowledge regarding the tumor cell of origin. To circumvent this, we analyzed the function of EWS\\/FLI in Ewing's sarcoma itself.Bycombiningretroviral-mediatedRNAinterferencewithreexpressionstudies,weshowthatongoingEWS\\/FLIexpres- sion is required for the tumorigenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. We used this system to define the full complement of

Richard Smith; Leah A. Owen; Deborah J. Trem; Jenny S. Wong; Jennifer S. Whangbo; Todd R. Golub; Stephen L. Lessnick

2006-01-01

63

Implications of Network Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will examine Network Centric Warfare the centerpiece of Transformation. This form of warfare depends heavily on computer networks the Internet communications and sensors. These areas of dependence also provide numerous vulnerabilities. This pap...

A. L. Bailey

2004-01-01

64

Integrated Electronic Warfare System Advanced Development Model (ADM); Appendix 29 - SC Program Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This test plan defines the requirements for the integration testing of the system controller program as a stand-alone unit. The test plan will include tests of the self-loading capability of the system controller, the ability of the program to interface w...

1977-01-01

65

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

66

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

67

Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and\\/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting

Ryan S. Mackie; Amanda S. Schilling; Arturo M. Lopez; Alfredo Rayms-Keller

2002-01-01

68

Undifferentiated Small Round Cell Sarcomas with Rare EWS Gene Fusions  

PubMed Central

Ewing family tumors (EFTs) are prototypical primitive small round blue cell sarcomas arising in bone or extraskeletal soft tissues in children or adolescents. EFTs show fusions of EWS with a gene of the ETS family of transcription factors, either EWS-FLI1 (90 to 95%) or EWS-ERG (5 to 10%). Rare cases with fusions of EWS to other ETS family genes, such as ETV1, E1AF, and FEV, have been identified, but their clinicopathological similarity to classic EFTs remains unclear. We report four new cases of EFT-like tumors with rare EWS fusions, including two with EWS-ETV1, one with EWS-FEV, and a fourth case in which we cloned a novel EWS-SP3 fusion, the first known cancer gene fusion involving a gene of the Sp zinc finger family. Analysis of these three new cases along with data on nine previously reported cases with fusions of EWS to ETV1, E1AF, or FEV suggest a strong predilection for extraskeletal primary sites. EFT-like cases with fusions of EWS to non-ETS translocation partners are also uncommon but involve the same amino-terminal portion of EWS, which in our novel EWS-SP3 fusion is joined to the SP3 zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. As these data further support, these types of EWS fusions are associated with primitive extraskeletal small round cell sarcomas of uncertain lineage arising mainly in the pediatric population.

Wang, Lu; Bhargava, Rohit; Zheng, Tao; Wexler, Leonard; Collins, Margaret H.; Roulston, Diane; Ladanyi, Marc

2007-01-01

69

Naval special warfare PMMW data collection results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal Systems Station under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is exploring the use of a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) sensor for Naval Special Warfare applications. The technology of passive millimeter wave imaging will provide the capability to do concealed object detection, zero visibility navigation, and clandestine passive markers. Nichols Research Corporation and Coastal Systems Station (CSS)

Bradley T. Blume; Jody L. Wood; Frank Downs

1998-01-01

70

Marketing Network Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy has created an innovative concept to fight future wars and deal with operations other than war-network centric warfare (NCW) . Unfortunately, NCW remains a Navy premise that is not well recognized or accepted by its own members or those of the ot...

S. E. McCarthy

2001-01-01

71

Waging submarine warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive preparations by antisubmarine forces may undermine a precarious peace; seemingly prudent precautions in a crisis may have a contrary effect and further intensify the crisis. The maritime strategy and its antisubmarine warfare component are too reminiscent of the beginnings of World War I, when military plans called for a similar early mobilization of forces to insure that if war

Handler

1987-01-01

72

Marketing as warfare, revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to encourage thinking beyond the limits of obsolete and superficial “warfare marketing” by exploring potentially useful lessons from modern military intelligence and strategy for marketing intelligence and planning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Key contemporary trends and approaches to strategy are identified in the literature, and used as the basis for discussion of the possibility of productive knowledge

Tomaž Kolar; Andrej Toporiši?

2007-01-01

73

GLI1 Is a Central Mediator of EWS/FLI1 Signaling in Ewing Tumors  

PubMed Central

The Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors (ESFT) consist of the classical pathologic entities of Ewing Sarcoma and peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Occurring largely in the childhood through young adult years, these tumors have an unsurpassed propensity for metastasis and have no defined cell of origin. The biology of these aggressive malignancies centers around EWS/FLI1 and related EWS/ETS chimeric transcription factors, which are largely limited to this tumor class. Much progress has been made in the identification of a network of loci whose expression is modulated by EWS/FLI1 and its congeners. To date, little progress has been made in reconstructing the sequence of direct and indirect events that produce this network of modulated loci. The recent identification of GLI1 as an upregulated target of EWS/ETS transcription factors suggests a target which may be a more central mediator in the ESFT signaling network. In this paper, we further define the relationship of EWS/FLI1 expression and GLI1 upregulation in ESFT. This relationship is supported with data from primary tumor specimens. It is consistently observed across multiple ESFT cell lines and with multiple means of EWS/FLI1 inhibition. GLI1 inhibition affects tumor cell line phenotype whether shRNA or endogenous or pharmacologic inhibitors are employed. As is seen in model transformation systems, GLI1 upregulation by EWS/FLI1 appears to be independent of Hedgehog stimulation. Consistent with a more central role in ESFT pathogenesis, several known EWS/FLI1 targets appear to be targeted through GLI1. These findings further establish a central role for GLI1 in the pathogenesis of Ewing Tumors.

Joo, Jay; Christensen, Laura; Warner, Kegan; States, Leith; Kang, Hyung-Gyoo; Vo, Kieuhoa; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; May, William A.

2009-01-01

74

Mobile security from an information warfare perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing prevalence of mobile devices, there is an increasing risk that the mobile networks may be targeted by information warfare attacks. An investigation of mobile security issues from an information warfare perspective, with emphasis on computer network warfare and electronic warfare, is presented. The paper focuses on analysing prior cases of mobile security breaches from an information warfare

Brett van Niekerk; Manoj Maharaj

2010-01-01

75

Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and evaluation of personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other Published Searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

76

"EWS Matrix" and "EWG Matrix": "De-sign for All" tools referred to the development of a enabling communication system for public spaces.  

PubMed

The widespread sense of spatial disorientation that can be experienced in many public places (buildings and open spaces),generally depends on a design approach that doesn't take into account both the "communication skills" of the different parts of the spatial organization, both the variability of people and their ways of interacting with environments, orienteering themselves. Nevertheless, "not find the way" often has some obvious practical costs (loss of time, failure to achieve a target) and some more intangible, but no less important, emotional costs. That's why the design of signage systems must take into account both the specificities of places and the extreme variability of its users. The paper presents the results of a study on this specific issue. In particular, the study focuses on the description of some tools useful for the analysis and design of a signage system that is truly "for All". PMID:22316909

Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Camplone, Stefania; Picciani, Stefano; Vallese, Valeria

2012-01-01

77

An EW technology research of jamming IR imaging guided missiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR-Imaging-Guided Weapons have been playing an important role in the modern warfare by means of select attacking the vital parts of targets with the features of highly secret attacking, high precision, and excellent anti-jamming capability ,therefore, they are viewed to be one of the promising precisely guided weapons ,receiving great concern through out the world. This paper discusses the characteristics of IR-Imaging guidance systems at the highlight of making a study of correlated technologies of jamming IR-Imaging-Guided Weapons on the basis of elaborating the operational principles of IR-Imaging-guided Weapons.

Wu, Xiu-Qin; Rong, Hua; Liang, Jing-Ping; Chen, Qi; Chen, Min-Rong

2009-07-01

78

Stochastic conditional and unconditional warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article constructs a foundation for warfare at the individual level, where agents in two groups fire and absorb shots according to a non-stationary Poisson process. We determine for generalized forms of warfare the conditional and unconditional point probabilities of a certain number of agents in each group through time, and the conditional and unconditional expected sizes and variances. Conditional

Kjell Hausken; John F. Moxnes

2002-01-01

79

Identification of target genes for the Ewing's sarcoma EWS/FLI fusion protein by representational difference analysis.  

PubMed Central

The EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene results from the 11;22 chromosomal translocation in Ewing's sarcoma. The product of the gene is one of a growing number of structurally altered transcription factors implicated in oncogenesis. We have employed a subtractive cloning strategy of representational difference analysis in conjunction with a model transformation system to identify genes transcribed in response to EWS/FLI. We have characterized eight transcripts that are dependent on EWS/FLI for expression and two transcripts that are repressed in response to EWS/FLI. Three of the former were identified by sequence analysis as stromelysin 1, a murine homolog of cytochrome P-450 F1 and cytokeratin 15. Stromelysin 1 is induced rapidly after expression of EWS/FLI, suggesting that the stromelysin 1 gene may be a direct target gene of EWS/FLI. These results demonstrate that expression of EWS/FLI leads to significant changes in the transcription of specific genes and that these effects are at least partially distinct from those caused by expression of germ line FLI-1. The representational difference analysis technique can potentially be applied to investigate transformation pathways activated by a broad array of genes in different tumor systems.

Braun, B S; Frieden, R; Lessnick, S L; May, W A; Denny, C T

1995-01-01

80

Phosphorylation of the EWS IQ domain regulates transcriptional activity of the EWS/ATF1 and EWS/FLI1 fusion proteins.  

PubMed

Specific chromosomal translocations are commonly present in mesenchymal tumors and frequently involve genes encoding transcription factors. The combination of different domains from unrelated genes results in chimeric proteins believed to play a key role in the neoplastic process. The EWS/ATF1 and EWS/FLI1 fusion proteins associated with Clear Cell Sarcoma and Ewing's Sarcoma, respectively, were utilized to study the comparative effect of the EWS component on two different DNA binding partners. A potential regulatory site within the EWS IQ domain at serine266 was identified, and studies were performed to demonstrate that EWS is phosphorylated in cells and phosphorylation of serine266 regulates transcriptional activity. Mutational analysis showed that elimination of phosphorylation significantly reduced DNA binding activity by EMSA and reporter activation in luciferase assays, whereas phosphorylation mimicry resulted in a partial restoration to wild-type levels. Phosphorylation was also observed to mediate cellular compartmentalization. These studies confirm that IQ domain phosphorylation regulates the transcriptional activity of exogenous EWS/ATF1 and EWS/FLI1 and suggests that post-translational modifications may potentiate the neoplastic behavior of fusion proteins in general. Since the IQ domain is incorporated into only a subset of fusion transcripts, these findings may provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying clinical heterogeneity observed in Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:11313922

Olsen, R J; Hinrichs, S H

2001-03-29

81

70. Systemic Administration of siRNA Against EWS-FLI1 Using a Targeted, Non-Viral Formulation Inhibits Growth in a Disseminated Murine Model of Ewing's Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite aggressive therapy, 40% of patients with localized Ewing's family of tumors (EFT) and 80% of patients with detectable metastasis die due to tumor progression. More specific and effective treatments are needed, especially for high-risk cases. EWS-FLI1, the chimeric gene product of a chromosome translocation found in more than 90% of EFT, is crucial for maintaining EFT tumor growth. Endogenous

Jeremy D. Heidel; Siwen Hu-Lieskovan; Derek W. Bartlett; Timothy J. Triche; Mark E. Davis

2005-01-01

82

Reflections on nuclear warfare  

SciTech Connect

The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment.

Evans, J.P.

1983-04-01

83

Single-chain Antibodies to the EWS NH2 Terminus Structurally Discriminate between Intact and Chimeric EWS in Ewing's Sarcoma and Interfere with the Transcriptional Activity ofEWS In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chimeric protein EWS-FLI1, arising from chromosomal translocation in Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT), acts as an aberrant tumorigenic transcription factor. The trans- forming activity of EWS-FLI1 minimally requires an ETS DNA binding domain and the EWS NH2 terminus. Proteins interacting with the EWS portion differ between germ-line and chimeric EWS despite their sharing identical sequences in this domain. We

Dave N. T. Aryee; Michael Kreppel; Radostina Bachmaier; Aykut Uren; Karin Muehlbacher; Stefan Wagner; Heimo Breiteneder; Jozef Ban; Jeffrey A. Toretsky; Heinrich Kovar

84

Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonkinetic warfare, conflict that does not involve using force to inflict physical damage, is rapidly gaining in importance. Scholars of war even from the time of Sun Tzu have articulated that the enemy's destruction is neither essential nor necessarily t...

C. H. Teo

2008-01-01

85

Some Thoughts on Irregular Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Westerners, with their superior technology and organization, have been killed for a long time by primitives or savages whose style of war the Westerners misunderstood and whose skills exceeded those of the West in irregular wars. Irregular warfare is the ...

J. B. White

1996-01-01

86

Two New EW-type Eclipsing Variables Near AK Cnc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new eclipsing variable stars, USNO-B1.0 1015-0165372 = 2MASS 08543896+1133002 and USNO-B1.0 1017-0168554 = 2MASS 08534894+1143534, were discovered in the field of the cataclysmic variable star AK Cnc. The remotely controlled astrophysical refractor AP-180 of the Tzec Maun Observatory (USA) has been used. Both binary systems were classified as EW-type. All parameters needed for the General Catalog of Variable Stars with corresponding errors were determined for both stars. We have registered these stars in VSX (Variable Stars Index, AAVSO) and these stars have got names VSX J085438.9+113300 and VSX J085348.9+114353, respectively.

Virnina, Natalia A.

2011-01-01

87

Determination of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylarsine dichloride was used during WW I as a chemical warfare agent. Residues of this chemical warfare agent and its metabolites\\u000a are still present today and continue to contaminate soil and water.\\u000a \\u000a A gas Chromatographic method for the detection and determination of ethylarsine dichloride is shown. Six dithiols were tested\\u000a as possible derivatization reagents for ethylarsine dichloride. With selection of

Rainer Haas

1998-01-01

88

E-W extension at 19 Ma in the Kung Co area, S. Tibet: Evidence for contemporaneous E-W and N-S extension in the Himalayan orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active faulting in southern Tibet consists of N-S trending extensional faults and linked strike-slip faults, which are an expression of regional E-W extension. A second type of extensional deformation associated with N-S movement is also recognized. This extension is expressed as a series of shear zones and normal faults in the High Himalayas - the Southern Tibetan Detachment System - and mid-crustal rocks exposed in metamorphic domes. Reported constraints on the timing of movements associated with these two phases of extension indicate that N-S extension predates the onset of E-W extension. However, only a few studies have provided clear constraints on the timing of E-W extension and the extent to which the two kinematically distinct domains of extension were contemporaneous is unclear.The Kung Co fault in southern Tibet is a major N-S trending normal fault. The associated E-W extension is locally expressed as high-strain ductile deformation. Both field and microstructural observations show that this deformation occurred synchronously with granite intrusion. Previously reported U-Pb zircon dating shows granite crystallization took place at around 19 Ma, implying that ductile E-W extension in the Kung Co area was also active at around 19 Ma. This is the oldest documented example of E-W extension in Tibet and shows that E-W extension was at least locally contemporaneous with N-S extension to the south at shallower crustal levels. Simultaneous mid-crustal N-S extension and upper crustal E-W extension may be explained by southward flow of Tibetan crust with a divergent radial component.

Mitsuishi, Mayumi; Wallis, Simon R.; Aoya, Mutsuki; Lee, Jeffrey; Wang, Yu

2012-04-01

89

Part I: E-W extension at 19 Ma in the Kung Co area, S. Tibet: evidence for contemporaneous E-W and N-S extension in the Himalayan orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Southern Tibet active N-S trending extensional faults linked with strike-slip faults cause E-W extension. There is also a series of shear zones and faults located in the boundary zone between the Himalayas and southern Tibet known as the Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). Movement on the STDS caused N-S extension. Reported constraints on the timing of movements associated with these two phases of extension indicate that N-S extension largely predates the onset of E-W extension. However, constraints on the timing of E-W extension are limited and the extent to which the two kinematically distinct types of extension were contemporaneous is unclear. The Kung Co fault in southern Tibet is a major N-S trending normal fault with a major phase of rapid displacement about 10 Ma (see poster by Lee et al. in this session). The associated E-W extension is locally expressed as high-strain ductile deformation. Both field and microstructural observations show that this deformation occurred synchronously with granite intrusion. Previously reported U-Pb zircon dating shows granite crystallization took place at around 19 Ma, implying that ductile E-W extension in the Kung Co area was also active at around 19 Ma. This is the oldest documented example of E-W extension in Tibet and shows E-W extension was contemporaneous with N-S extension to the south. Simultaneous N-S extension at deeper levels and E-W extension at shallower levels can be explained by southward extrusion of Tibetan crust with a divergent radial component.

Mitsuishi, M.; Wallis, S.; Aoya, M.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.

2011-12-01

90

Small-molecule screen identifies modulators of EWS/FLI1 target gene expression and cell survival in Ewing's sarcoma.  

PubMed

Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) is characterized by the presence of chromosomal translocations leading to the expression of oncogenic transcription factors such as, in the majority of cases, EWS/FLI1. Because of its key role in Ewing's sarcoma development and maintenance, EWS/FLI1 represents an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we characterize PHLDA1 as a novel direct target gene whose expression is repressed by EWS/FLI1. Using this gene and additional specific well-characterized target genes such as NROB1, NKX2.2 and CAV1, all activated by EWS/FLI1, as a read-out system, we screened a small-molecule compound library enriched for FDA-approved drugs that modulated the expression of EWS/FLI1 target genes. Among a hit-list of nine well-known drugs such as camptothecin, fenretinide, etoposide and doxorubicin, we also identified the kinase inhibitor midostaurin (PKC412). Subsequent experiments demonstrated that midostaurin is able to induce apoptosis in a panel of six Ewing's sarcoma cell lines in vitro and can significantly suppress xenograft tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that midostaurin might be a novel drug that is active against Ewing's cells, which might act by modulating the expression of EWS/FLI1 target genes. PMID:22323082

Boro, Aleksandar; Prêtre, Kathya; Rechfeld, Florian; Thalhammer, Verena; Oesch, Susanne; Wachtel, Marco; Schäfer, Beat W; Niggli, Felix K

2012-03-29

91

Cyberspace - A New Medium for Operational Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transformation to the information age will give rise to a new medium for operational warfare cyberspace just as the industrial age ushered in the new mediums of air and sea (in particular, undersea). Cyberspace (and corresponding information warfare and o...

K. L. Achterberg

2003-01-01

92

Unconventional Warfare in the American Civil War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considering the history of unconventional warfare in the United States, and specifically during the Civil War, it begs the question: Did the Confederacy's strategy to engage in unconventional warfare significantly contribute to its conventional strategy. ...

J. B. Miller

2004-01-01

93

Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

Chesler, David J.

94

Remora, a new concept for AUVs in mine warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements for AUVs' operation in mine warfare generally lead to two different specifications: one would ask for a long endurance and therefore large vehicle with high value sonars, navigation systems, obstacle avoidance system and additional environmental sensors. This AUV is designed for discrete survey of large areas and for automatic detection and classification of mine like objects. The other one

F. Dabe

2004-01-01

95

Fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Along with biological and nuclear threats, chemical warfare agents are some of the most feared weapons of mass destruction. Compared to nuclear weapons they are relatively easy to access and deploy, which makes them in some aspects a greater threat to national and global security. A particularly hazardous class of chemical warfare agents are the nerve agents. Their rapid and severe effects on human health originate in their ability to block the function of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is vital to the central nervous system. This article outlines recent activities regarding the development of molecular sensors that can visualize the presence of nerve agents (and related pesticides) through changes of their fluorescence properties. Three different sensing principles are discussed: enzyme-based sensors, chemically reactive sensors, and supramolecular sensors. Typical examples are presented for each class and different fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents are summarized and compared. PMID:17705326

Burnworth, Mark; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

2007-01-01

96

Biological Warfare and Scientific Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we approach the 21st century, the threat of nuclear Armageddon has lessened somewhat, but a new threat has emerged: biological warfare. The splitting of the atom eventually led to the detonation of atomic bombs, and the discovery of DNA may soon lead to the use of genetic weapons. This article argues that the scientific community has a responsibility to

David B. Resnik

1999-01-01

97

Moche Politics, Religion, and Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay I briefly review the history of Moche studies, the essential features of this archaeological culture of the North Coast of Peru (ca. 1900–1100 B.P.), and its general economy. I then present current issues, discussions, and debates on Moche regional political organization, religion, warfare, and their interrelations. I suggest that the interpretation of Moche art has been and

Jeffrey Quilter

2002-01-01

98

Chemical Warfare: Many Unanswered Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Controversial issues have been raised by the present Administration's plan to spend between $6 billion and $7 billion in 1983-87 to modernize the U.S. defensive and retaliatory chemical warfare capabilities. The House Committee on Foreign Affairs asked GA...

1983-01-01

99

EWS-ETS oncoproteins: the linchpins of Ewing tumors.  

PubMed

Ewing tumors, which comprise Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, are highly aggressive and mostly affect children and adolescents. Their molecular signature is a chromosomal translocation leading to the generation of EWS-ETS (or very rarely FUS-ETS) fusion proteins that are capable of transforming cells. These oncoproteins act as aberrant transcription factors due to the fusion of an ETS DNA binding domain to a highly potent EWS (or FUS) transactivation domain. Accordingly, many EWS-ETS target genes have been identified whose dysregulation could contribute to the development of tumor formation. Furthermore, EWS-ETS oncoproteins may impact on RNA splicing or affect other proteins through disturbing their ability to form functional complexes. The molecular knowledge gained so far from studying EWS-ETS oncoproteins has not only broadened our understanding of Ewing tumors but also improved the diagnosis of these highly undifferentiated tumors. In addition, several potential prognostic markers have been uncovered and novel therapies are suggested that may improve the still dismal survival rate of Ewing tumor patients. PMID:16202544

Janknecht, Ralf

2005-10-03

100

Expression of the EWS\\/FLI-1 Oncogene in Murine Primary Bone-Derived Cells Results in EWS\\/FLI-1Dependent, Ewing Sarcoma-Like Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common malignant pediatric bone tumor. Over 80% of Ewing sarcoma contain the oncogene EWS\\/FLI-1, which encodes the EWS\\/FLI-1 oncoprotein, a hybrid transcription factor comprised of NH2-terminal sequences from the RNA-binding protein EWS and the DNA-binding and COOH-terminal regions of the Ets transcription factor FLI-1. Although numerous genes are dysregulated by EWS\\/FLI-1, advances in Ewing

Yeny Castillero-Trejo; Susan Eliazer; Lilin Xiang; James A. Richardson

2005-01-01

101

[Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].  

PubMed

Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

Seto, Yasuo

2009-01-01

102

Passive millimeter-wave imaging device for naval special warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy Coastal Systems Station (CSS) is currently executing a program to develop a small, lightweight, low power passive millimeter wave imager. The end user will be Naval Special Operations Forces (SOF). The program began by conducting a feasibility assessment of the potential Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) technology that would meet the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) mission requirements. A

Frank Downs; Jody L. Wood; Bradley T. Blume; Roger M. Smith

1998-01-01

103

Reflections and Opinions--Past and Future Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarizes WW II fighter statistics. Relates mobility to future warfare. Recommends dissolution of the Air Force, transfer of space systems to the U.S. Navy. Recommends cancellation of the MX missile, B-1B bomber, and removal of U.S. troops from Europe if...

H. L. Hanson

1982-01-01

104

Role of Smokes in Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of smokes in warfare is reviewed with particular reference to the world wars, and various types of smokes are discussed. The smokes that can defeat modem opto-electronics including infrared (IR)\\/millimetre wave (MMW) guidance and thermal imager are de!>cribed. Environment-friendly non-toxic smokes are dealt with briefly. The future of smokes in these circumstances is mentioned . I. INTRODUCTION Use

K. Mishra

105

Cyber Warfare: China's Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China's INEW (Integrated Network Electronic Warfare) doctrine combining network attack with electronic warfare supports the use of cyberwarfare in future conflict. In addition, China's Information Warfare (IW) militia unit organization provides each Chine...

J. T. Oakley

2011-01-01

106

Traditional and Irregular Warfare: A Flawed Concept for Categorizing Conflict.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irregular warfare and traditional warfare are poor terms for a fundamentally flawed concept of categorizing warfare that will limit the U.S. Government's ability to shape effectively the international environment without high costs militarily, economicall...

J. W. Purvis

2009-01-01

107

EWS–ETS oncoproteins: The linchpins of Ewing tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing tumors, which comprise Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, are highly aggressive and mostly affect children and adolescents. Their molecular signature is a chromosomal translocation leading to the generation of EWS–ETS (or very rarely FUS–ETS) fusion proteins that are capable of transforming cells. These oncoproteins act as aberrant transcription factors due to the fusion of an ETS DNA

Ralf Janknecht

2005-01-01

108

Ethical Robots in Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Robotic system capabilities have advanced dramatically over the last several decades. We now have artificially intelligent systems and robots that are stronger than humans, that can venture places where people cannot go (such as Mars), that are smarter th...

R. C. Arkin

2009-01-01

109

Chemical and biological warfare: detection and warning systems. June 1984-April 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1984-April 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and to evaluate personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (This updated bibliography contains 99 citations, 18 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-04-01

110

Chemical and biological warfare: detection and warning systems. June 1984-April 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1984-April 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design and testing of samplers and detectors to provide identification and warning of the presence of chemical and biological agents used in military operations. The sampling techniques are applicable to air and water testing, and to evaluate personnel and equipment exposure. Techniques involve enzyme alarms, chromotography, conductivity meters, spectrophotometry, luminescence, and solid state microsensor devices. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover protection, defoliants, general studies, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (This updated bibliography contains 114 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-04-01

111

About the bears and the bees: Adaptive responses to asymmetric warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional military forces are organised to generate large scale effects against similarly structured adversaries. Asymmetric warfare is a `game' between a conventional military force and a weaker adversary that is unable to match the scale of effects of the conventional force. In asymmetric warfare, an insurgents' strategy can be understood using a multi-scale perspective: by generating and exploiting fine scale complexity, insurgents prevent the conventional force from acting at the scale they are designed for. This paper presents a complex systems approach to the problem of asymmetric warfare, which shows how future force structures can be designed to adapt to environmental complexity at multiple scales and achieve full spectrum dominance.

Ryan, Alex

112

About the bears and the bees: Adaptive responses to asymmetric warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional military forces are organised to generate large scale effects against similarly structured adversaries. Asymmetric warfare is a 'game' between a conventional military force and a weaker adversary that is unable to match the scale of effects of the conventional force. In asymmetric warfare, an insurgents' strategy can be understood using a multi-scale perspective: by generating and exploiting fine scale complexity, insurgents prevent the conventional force from acting at the scale they are designed for. This paper presents a complex systems approach to the problem of asymmetric warfare, which shows how future force structures can be designed to adapt to environmental complexity at multiple scales and achieve full spectrum dominance.

Ryan, Alex

113

Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.  

PubMed

Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2391330

Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

1990-04-01

114

Armored Warfare in the Jungle Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines armored warfare in a jungle environment. The focus is to determine if there is a role for ground mounted armored forces in jungle warfare. This study explains how armor was used in past jungle conflicts and examines current doctrine an...

K. S. Wimmer

1991-01-01

115

Maneuver Warfare at Sea: A Historical Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the historical basis of maneuver warfare at sea to answer the question: Does the adoption of maneuver warfare by the U.S. Navy improve its ability to carry out its roles and functions in support of the national military strategy. T...

P. A. Piercey

1995-01-01

116

Officer Career Development: Surface Warfare Officer Retention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The factors that contribute to surface warfare officer in the Navy were investigated. Information was obtained from a sample of 373 stayers and 52 leavers selected from a larger sample of 3,059 surface warfare officers who responded to a survey of officer...

J. P. Sheposh R. F. Morrison R. L. Burch

1991-01-01

117

Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability

1997-01-01

118

The Dynamics of Warfare in Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains theoretically, and demonstrates empirically, the instrumental role of the balance of capabilities in shaping the form of warfare that develops in civil wars. It contends that the current common practice of labelling civil wars as either ‘guerrilla’ or ‘conventional’ (which is usually meant to accurately characterise the type of warfare throughout an entire civil war) is unable

Adam Lockyer

2010-01-01

119

Anthropology, archaeology, and the origin of warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main theories of the origin of warfare - from evolutionary psychology, materialism, and historical contingency - are examined. Their implications and their use of anthropological evidence, especially for the Yanomamö of the Amazon, are explored, then their relationship to the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic archaeological record. The early prehistoric evidence for conflict and warfare, mainly from Europe, is considered, from

I. J. N. Thorpe

2003-01-01

120

EWS/ATF1 expression induces sarcomas from neural crest-derived cells in mice  

PubMed Central

Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignant tumor characterized by a unique t(12;22) translocation that leads to the expression of a chimeric EWS/ATF1 fusion gene. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the involvement of EWS/ATF1 in CCS development. In addition, the cellular origins of CCS have not been determined. Here, we generated EWS/ATF1-inducible mice and examined the effects of EWS/ATF1 expression in adult somatic cells. We found that forced expression of EWS/ATF1 resulted in the development of EWS/ATF1-dependent sarcomas in mice. The histology of EWS/ATF1-induced sarcomas resembled that of CCS, and EWS/ATF1-induced tumor cells expressed CCS markers, including S100, SOX10, and MITF. Lineage-tracing experiments indicated that neural crest–derived cells were subject to EWS/ATF1-driven transformation. EWS/ATF1 directly induced Fos in an ERK-independent manner. Treatment of human and EWS/ATF1-induced CCS tumor cells with FOS-targeted siRNA attenuated proliferation. These findings demonstrated that FOS mediates the growth of EWS/ATF1-associated sarcomas and suggest that FOS is a potential therapeutic target in human CCS.

Yamada, Kazunari; Ohno, Takatoshi; Aoki, Hitomi; Semi, Katsunori; Watanabe, Akira; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Toguchida, Junya; Shimizu, Katsuji; Hara, Akira; Yamada, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

121

The design and implementation of a laser rangefinder/designator beam metrology system for beam characteristic analysis through environmental and atmospheric conditions at the Crane division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC Crane)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of laser designators and range finders must be precise in order to be effective. If the operator only believes he or she is designating a target the results can be catastrophic. Range measurements for navigation may not be correct, potentially causing a collision. Reverse positioning inaccuracy may result in ordnance being misdelivered. If laser designation is incorrect, the target may be missed. Therefore in order to measure the laser designators and range finders performances and capabilities a Laser Rangefinder/Designator Beam Metrology System (LRDBMS) for beam characteristic analysis through environmental and atmospheric conditions was designed and implemented. The LRDBMS is in place at the Night Vision Electro-Optics (NVEO) Outdoor Laser Target Range located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Crane Division. Atmospheric modeling software was evaluated and chosen in order to predict what is being measured by the LRDBMS.

Middlebrook, Christopher T.; Bunch, Robert M.; Helms, Bill

2004-09-01

122

EWS/FLI1 Oncogene Activates Caspase 3 Transcription and Triggers Apoptosis In Vivo  

PubMed Central

EWS/FLI1 is a fusion gene product generated by a chromosomal translocation t(11; 22)(q24; q12) found in Ewing sarcoma. EWS/FLI1 encodes an aberrant transcription factor with oncogenic properties in vitro. Paradoxically, expression of EWS/FLI1 in non-transformed primary cells results in apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from conditional EWS/FLI1 knock-in embryos, expression of EWS/FLI1 resulted in apoptosis with concomitant increase in the endogenous Caspase 3 (Casp3) mRNA. EWS/FLI1 directly bound and activated the CASP3 promoter, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of EWS/FLI1 led to a marked decrease in CASP3 transcripts in Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Ectopic expression of EWS/FLI1 resulted in an increased expression of CASP3 protein in heterologous cell lines. Importantly, expression of EWS/FLI1 in the mouse triggered an early onset of apoptosis in kidneys and acute lethality. These findings suggest that EWS/FLI1 induces apoptosis, at least partially, through the activation of CASP3 and demonstrate the cell-context dependent roles of EWS/FLI1 in apoptosis and tumorigenesis.

Sohn, Eun Jung; Li, Hongjie; Reidy, Karen; Beers, Lisa F.; Christensen, Barbara L.; Lee, Sean Bong

2009-01-01

123

Coalition Warfare Versus France, 1792-1815.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coalition warfare adds another element of friction to the already unpredictable and chaotic art of war. Tension can develop between coalition members as they are forced to compromise on various ends-ways-means issues. Obtaining consensus on political goal...

M. F. Applegate

1996-01-01

124

Lethal Chemical Warfare: Option or Myth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The events which led to the US obtaining a lethal chemical offensive capability are examined, as are intelligence indicators of Soviet policy concerning lethal chemical warfare. US public opinion is assessed to the extent of determining the general trends...

R. J. Baird

1974-01-01

125

Training Practices for Surface Warfare Junior Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research identifies factors related to the effectiveness of Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) junior officer (JO) training. Focus groups conducted onboard 15 ships and at Afloat Training Groups (ATGs) show numerous problems with on-the-job training that ...

A. M. Crawford W. D. Hatch W. R. Bowman

2011-01-01

126

Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations. It identifies the differences between low and high moun...

M. A. Malik

2003-01-01

127

Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project  

SciTech Connect

World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

Tzihor, A.

1992-05-15

128

National Security Strategy and Information Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines how the National Security Strategy (NSS) and its new subcomponent, the National Security Science and Technology Strategy (NSSTS) address Information Warfare. The Executive Branch has put the Department of Defense (DoD) on the front lin...

S. Klinefelter

1997-01-01

129

International Legal Implications of Information Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the definition of information warfare is still evolving, the Air Force has described it as encompassing 'any action to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy the enemy's information and its functions; protecting ourselves against those actions; and ex...

R. W. Aldrich

1996-01-01

130

Decontamination of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister a- gents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, pro- teinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and bio- logical terrorism, speedy

Yasuo SETO

2009-01-01

131

Ewing sarcoma gene EWS is essential for meiosis and B lymphocyte development  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma gene EWS encodes a putative RNA-binding protein with proposed roles in transcription and splicing, but its physiological role in vivo remains undefined. Here, we have generated Ews-deficient mice and demonstrated that EWS is required for the completion of B cell development and meiosis. Analysis of Ews–/– lymphocytes revealed a cell-autonomous defect in precursor B lymphocyte (pre–B lymphocyte) development. During meiosis, Ews-null spermatocytes were deficient in XY bivalent formation and showed reduced meiotic recombination, resulting in massive apoptosis and complete arrest in gamete maturation. Inactivation of Ews in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in premature cellular senescence, and the mutant animals showed hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Finally, we showed that EWS interacts with lamin A/C and that loss of EWS results in a reduced lamin A/C expression. Our findings reveal essential functions for EWS in pre–B cell development and meiosis, with proposed roles in DNA pairing and recombination/repair mechanisms. Furthermore, we demonstrate a novel role of EWS in cellular senescence, possibly through its interaction and modulation of lamin A/C.

Li, Hongjie; Watford, Wendy; Li, Cuiling; Parmelee, Alissa; Bryant, Mark A.; Deng, Chuxia; O'Shea, John; Lee, Sean Bong

2007-01-01

132

Naval special warfare PMMW data collection results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Systems Station under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is exploring the use of a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) sensor for Naval Special Warfare applications. The technology of passive millimeter wave imaging will provide the capability to do concealed object detection, zero visibility navigation, and clandestine passive markers. Nichols Research Corporation and Coastal Systems Station (CSS) have conducted a feasibility assessment of PMMW sensors to meet NSwt NSW mission requirements. The assessment began with a mission requirements analysis which will provided the measure of effectiveness for the performance evaluations. Following the requirement analysis, a technology survey was conducted to determine the state of the art of PMMW imaging. Performance analysis were conducted to compare the capabilities of the PMMW imager to the measures of effectiveness. Data collections using existing PMMW imaging devices, developed by Eglin AFB, were conducted to validate the modeling results and provide empirical system performance, and phenomenology data. This paper will present results from the PMMW data collection effort.

Blume, Bradley T.; Wood, Jody L.; Downs, Frank

1998-08-01

133

The investigation of EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene in the Ewing family of tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that 95% of the Ewing family of tumors (EFT) have a EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene. EWS-FLI-1 is a transcription\\u000a factor with a pivotal function and it is known to bind to a special DNA sequence. Research has demonstrated that the EWS-FLI-1\\u000a fusion gene occurrence is related to the EFT, and it has been used to diagnose, treat and

Gang Feng; Zhongquan Zhao; Donglin Wang

2004-01-01

134

Mechanism and relevance of EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional repression in Ewing sarcoma.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma provides an important model for transcription-factor-mediated oncogenic transformation because of its reliance on the ETS-type fusion oncoprotein EWS/FLI. EWS/FLI functions as a transcriptional activator and transcriptional activation is required for its oncogenic activity. Here, we demonstrate that a previously less-well characterized transcriptional repressive function of the EWS/FLI fusion is also required for the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma. Through comparison of EWS/FLI transcriptional profiling and genome-wide localization data, we define the complement of EWS/FLI direct downregulated target genes. We demonstrate that LOX is a previously undescribed EWS/FLI-repressed target that inhibits the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the NuRD co-repressor complex interacts with EWS/FLI, and that its associated histone deacetylase and LSD1 activities contribute to the repressive function. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unknown molecular function for EWS/FLI, demonstrate a more highly coordinated oncogenic transcriptional hierarchy mediated by EWS/FLI than previously suspected, and implicate a new paradigm for therapeutic intervention aimed at controlling NuRD activity in Ewing sarcoma tumors. PMID:23178492

Sankar, S; Bell, R; Stephens, B; Zhuo, R; Sharma, S; Bearss, D J; Lessnick, S L

2012-11-26

135

High Altitude Warfare: The Kargil Conflict and the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The unique combination of thin air, freezing temperatures, and mountainous terrain that forms the high altitude environment has resisted advances in military technology for centuries, The emergence of precision warfare has altered the nature of warfare on...

M. P. Acosta

2003-01-01

136

Vaerdering Telekrig i Radarmalsoekare Slutrapport (Electronic Warfare in Radar Seekers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the project 'Electronic' Warfare and its implication for radar seekers,' research area 'Electronic Warfare including Electromagnetic Weapons and Protection.' Since 1994, this project has been an important component in the work to in...

S. Gadd J. Gustavsson N. Jonsson N. Katlsson M. Wilow

2003-01-01

137

Proliferation of Chemical Warfare: Challenge to Traditional Restraints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article surveys the circumstances surrounding the initiation of chemical warfare in World War I and the subsequent international response. It then views the restraints that worked successfully against chemical warfare during World War II in relation ...

T. M. Weekly

1989-01-01

138

Maneuver Warfare revisited: a plea for balance  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a plea for balance in the current pursuit of understanding of the concept and the teaching of Maneuver Warfare. It specifically addresses the need for a more-complete analysis of some of the more-common historical examples commonly offered as examples of the supremecy of Maneuver Warfare. The paper in no way disagrees with the desirability of conducting the kinds of operations associated with the ill-defined concepts offered by advocates of Maneuver Warfare but suggests that the desirable results of historical battles may be too readily ascribed to the dynamic, offensive actions of the victorious side. Secondly, the paper points out the lack of utility and applicability of some common buzzwords being used in today's Army. Specifically assailed is the concept of turning within a decision cycle. The paper describes the reasons that this commonly used phrase has little applicability to ground warfare. Finally, the paper mentions the tendency for the Maneuver Warfare camp to cloud discussion of doctrine in a kind of intellectualism and elitism that has no use in forming the necessary consensus demanded by doctrine.

Hamilton, M,R.

1986-04-01

139

[Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].  

PubMed

Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

2009-01-01

140

A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing's sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Ewing’s sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing’s sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing’s sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene.

Leacock, Stefanie W.; Basse, Audrey N.; Chandler, Garvin L.; Kirk, Anne M.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Amatruda, James F.

2012-01-01

141

Chinese Information Warfare: A Phantom Menace or Emerging Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author explores what he perceives to be China's pursuit of information warfare (IW) as a method of fighting asymmetric warfare against the United States. He believes the Chinese are seeking ways to adapt IW to their own style of warfare. Paradoxically...

T. Yoshihara

2001-01-01

142

Stealth: A revolutionary change to air warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Stealth, A Revolutionary Change To Warfare' highlights the unique capabilities stealth weapons bring to the battlefield and asserts they offer new and valuable options to the commander. It suggests these capabilities must be completely understood to be fully effective. With a focus at the doctrinal level, the paper claims the following: stealth assets take away from the absolute primacy of aerospace control (air superiority) and in many cases, allows force application to became the primary task. The claim is also made that stealth assets expand and enhance the potential opportunities for effective use of air power across the spectrum of warfare to include the force presence role. These and other changes will impact air warfare at all levels. Capitalizing on stealth requires the following: (1) a recognition of unique stealth attributes; (2) fully embracing these attributes through Air Force doctrinal changes; and (3) a fresh look for potential applications in all operational planning.

Kennedy, Kevin J.

1992-02-01

143

Prototyping advanced warfare gaming capabilities for the 21st century warfighter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Marine Corps has a unique role in development of the next-generation warfare gaming system for command staff training. This system, titled the Joint Simulation System (JSIMS), is under development by the Department of Defense through a Joint Program Office acting to coordinate the activities of multiple DoD agencies and military services. The nature of operations conducted by

Curtis L. Blais

1998-01-01

144

Acetylation Increases EWS-FLI1 DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activity  

PubMed Central

Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is associated with a balanced chromosomal translocation that in most cases leads to the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 has been shown to be crucial for ES cell survival and tumor growth. However, its regulation is still enigmatic. To date, no functionally significant post-translational modifications of EWS-FLI1 have been shown. Since ES are sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI), and these inhibitors are advancing in clinical trials, we sought to identify if EWS-FLI1 is directly acetylated. We convincingly show acetylation of the C-terminal FLI1 (FLI1-CTD) domain, which is the DNA binding domain of EWS-FLI1. In vitro acetylation studies showed that acetylated FLI1-CTD has higher DNA binding activity than the non-acetylated protein. Over-expression of PCAF or treatment with HDI increased the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, when co-expressed in Cos7 cells. However, our data that evaluates the acetylation of full-length EWS-FLI1 in ES cells remains unclear, despite creating acetylation specific antibodies to four potential acetylation sites. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 may either gain access to chromatin as a result of histone acetylation or undergo regulation by direct acetylation. These data should be considered when patients are treated with HDAC inhibitors. Further investigation of this phenomenon will reveal if this potential acetylation has an impact on tumor response.

Schlottmann, Silke; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Knights, Chad; Cheema, Amrita; Uren, Aykut; Avantaggiati, Maria L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

145

Comparing Models for Early Warning Systems of Neglected Tropical Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEarly warning systems (EWS) are management tools to predict the occurrence of epidemics of infectious diseases. While climate-based EWS have been developed for malaria, no standard protocol to evaluate and compare EWS has been proposed. Additionally, there are several neglected tropical diseases whose transmission is sensitive to environmental conditions, for which no EWS have been proposed, though they represent a

Luis Fernando Chaves; Mercedes Pascual

2007-01-01

146

The prooncoprotein EWS binds calmodulin and is phosphorylated by protein kinase C through an IQ domain.  

PubMed

A growing family of proteins is regulated by protein kinase C and calmodulin through IQ domains, a regulatory motif originally identified in neuromodulin (Alexander, K. A., Wakim, B. T., Doyle, G. S., Walsh, K. A., and Storm, D. R. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 7544-7549). Here we report that EWS, a nuclear RNA-binding prooncoprotein, contains an IQ domain, is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and interacts with calmodulin. Interestingly, PKC phosphorylation of EWS inhibits its binding to RNA homopolymers, and conversely, RNA binding to EWS interferes with PKC phosphorylation. Several other RNA-binding proteins, including TLS/FUS and PSF, co-purify with EWS. PKC phosphorylation of these proteins also inhibits their binding to RNA in vitro. These data suggest that PKC may regulate interactions of EWS and other RNA-binding proteins with their RNA targets and that IQ domains may provide a regulatory link between Ca2+ signal transduction pathways and RNA processing. PMID:9341188

Deloulme, J C; Prichard, L; Delattre, O; Storm, D R

1997-10-24

147

The role of rewards in motivating participation in simple warfare.  

PubMed

In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this "cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis" with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare. PMID:24008817

Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

2013-12-01

148

Information Warfare with Chinese Characteristics: China's Future View of Information Warfare and Strategic Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Information Age presents a unique opportunity to China with regard to both modernization and building an Information Warfare (IW) capability. China's active pursuit of an IW capability will cause a change in Chinese strategic culture. According to Ala...

R. E. Ferguson

2002-01-01

149

A modeling method of radar seeker in the presence of electronic warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the requirements of evaluating the performance of the radar seeker in the combat conditions or in the presence of electronic warfare, this paper gives a design of A Sensitive and Generalization Modeling of The Radar Seeker simulation system, and describes its Modularization, Parameterization, Interface support, Sensitivity Analysis Support design method, a pulse Doppler radar seeker based simulation system

Cao Yuan; Li Yunjie; Hu Guangli; Liu Yong; Ma Xiao

2010-01-01

150

Decisions, decisions….and even more decisions: The impact of digitisation in the land warfare domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation - Digitised mission support systems are currently being introduced in the military arena. The projected benefits include quicker, better-informed, more efficient decision making by the teams using them; however, these claims are often made without appropriate scientific testing. Research approach - A live operational field trial of a new land warfare digital mission support system was observed. A range

Paul M. Salmon; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Guy H. Walker; Laura Rafferty; Kirsten Revell

151

Agent-based Simulation Approach to Information Warfare in the SEAS Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information warfare refers to actions taken by an agent to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy by affecting an adversary's information and information systems while leveraging and protecting its own information and information systems. It employs the same basic tools as used by hackers and criminals: computer, modem, telephone, and software. The paper analyzes the behaviors of

Alok R. Chaturvedi; Mukul Gupta; Shailendra Raj Mehta; Wei T. Yue

2000-01-01

152

Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

153

Biological agents: Weapons of warfare and bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin

Larry A. Broussard

2001-01-01

154

Simulation-based training for irregular warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the allied military remains committed to maintaining its capacity for traditional warfare, military leaders recognize that irregular approaches have become the prevailing mode of conflict. Contrasted against more traditional struggles where two relatively-equal military powers approach battle in similar ways, opponents in irregular conflicts employ \\

Sae Lynne Schatz

2010-01-01

155

Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

Davies, Philip H. J.

2002-01-01

156

Modifying Intratheater Airlift for Irregular Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Air Force (USAF) plays a vital role in irregular warfare (IW) and must change its focus to maximize its contributions. The USAF's greatest contributions in IW include the following: kinetic effects from a variety of aircraft; intelligence, survei...

S. H. Stater

2009-01-01

157

Joint Vision 2010: Naval Warfare Imperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is an analysis of Joint Vision 2010 (JV 2010), the recently published guidance for future joint warfare, and its implications on ... From The Sea and Forward... From The Sea, the current naval strategic concept papers. The analysis will identif...

J. Navarro

1997-01-01

158

Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid

Sylvia Smith Talmage; Annetta Paule Watson; Veronique Hauschild; Nancy B Munro; J. King

2007-01-01

159

A NEW SECURITY PROBLEM: THE ASYMMETRICAL WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to the world of asymmetrical warfare, a place high on the anxiety list of military planners. In the asymmetrical realm, mi litary experts say, a small band of commandos might devastate the United States and leave no clue about who ordered the attack.\\

József Németh

160

Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

2004-12-01

161

Information Warfare Arms Control: Risks and Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the end of the 1991 Gulf War, information warfare has taken a prominent role in transforming the military as envisioned in Joint Vision 2010. However, due to the rapid changes in information technologies and the low cost, wide availability and high ...

M. C. Thom

2006-01-01

162

Heat Stress in Chemical Warfare Clothing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an analysis of heat flow mechanisms which operate in a chemical warfare (CW) suit in order to estimate the extent to which it might be possible to alleviate heat stress without resorting to artificial cooling. The analysis uses Canadia...

B. Farnworth R. M. Crow

1983-01-01

163

Aerospace Power's Role in Large Scale Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During large scale warfare, aerospace forces can do the bulk of work needed to determine the outcome of the conflict, thus enabling other forces to achieve their goals with minimum loss of life. Consequently, it's time to rethink the United States traditi...

R. Rand

1998-01-01

164

'Maneuver Warfare' Revisited: A Plea for Balance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a plea for balance in the current pursuit of understanding of the concept and the teaching of 'Maneuver Warfare'. It specifically addresses the need for a more complete analysis of some of the more common historical examples which are common...

M. R. Hamilton

1986-01-01

165

War-Gaming Network-Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The familiar techniques of war gaming will be insufficient for scenarios involving network-centric warfare. NCW, as it is known--with its focus on speed, downstream effects, and information flow--will require of gamers more than simply additional computat...

R. C. Rubel

2001-01-01

166

CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION IN NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the spectrum of choices between organisational centralisation and decentralisation in the presence of emerging trends in communications, information-processing, and sensor technologies. These technologies are important drivers in the current move towards Network Centric Warfare (NCW), and raise the question: should the new networks being developed be used to enable greater centralisation, or greater decentralisation? We

Anthony H. Dekker

2003-01-01

167

Forecasting Terrorist Groups' Warfare: Conventional to CBRN  

Microsoft Academic Search

To forecast the spectrum of warfare that a terrorist group is likely to conduct against a specific adversary, this paper proposes an indications and warning (I&W) methodology to comprehensively and systematically map significant indicators that need to be assessed, weighed, and correlated. A key proposition in this paper is that to adequately assess the likelihood and magnitude of the types

Joshua Sinai

2007-01-01

168

Iraqi Mobile Biological Warfare Agent Production Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coalition forces have uncovered the strongest evidence to date that Iraq was hiding a biological warfare program. Kurdish forces in late April 2003 took into custody a specialized tractor-trailer near Mosul and subsequently turned it over to US military c...

2003-01-01

169

Information Warfare in World War I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional narratives of World War I generally overlook a misunderstood but important part of the conflict: information warfare. Both Great Britain and Germany understood the significance of information as a force multiplier and as a valuable financial and diplomatic tool in the larger geostrategic environment. Britain's systematic wartime destruction of Germany's prewar network occurred on a much larger level than

Jonathan Reed Winkler

2009-01-01

170

Biological warfare: Implications for antimicrobial use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is intended to incapacitate a large number of individuals at a single exposure, creating epidemictype disease,\\u000a death, and social chaos. The organisms with potential for immediate use as bacteriologic weapons are Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Yersinia pestis, and Vibrio cholera, all necessitating antibiotic therapy for a cure. It is reasonable, therefore, to assume that a biological attack, or

Ethan Rubinstein; Itzhak Levi

2002-01-01

171

Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecause of the increased threat of terrorism, the risk posed by various microorganisms as biological weapons needs to be evaluated and the historical development and use of biological agents better understood. Biological warfare agents may be more potent than conventional and chemical weapons. During the past century, the progress made in biotechnology and biochemistry has simplifi ed the development and

STEFAN RIEDEL

2004-01-01

172

Transformation induced by Ewing's sarcoma associated EWS\\/FLI-1 is suppressed by KRAB\\/FLI-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing's sarcoma is a childhood bone tumour with poor prognosis, most commonly associated with a t(11;22)(q24;q12) reciprocal translocation that fuses the EWS and FLI-1 genes, resulting in the production of an aberrant chimeric transcription factor EWS\\/FLI-1. To elucidate the mechanisms by which EWS\\/FLI-1 mediates transformation in mouse models, we have generated a murine Ews\\/Fli-1 fusion protein. We demonstrate that this

D Chan; T J Wilson; D Xu; H E Cowdery; E Sanij; P J Hertzog; I Kola

2003-01-01

173

Targeting of EWS\\/FLI-1 by RNA interference attenuates the tumor phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defining cytogenetic abnormality of Ewing's sarcoma is the presence of a balanced t(11;22) translocation expressing the EWS\\/FLI-1 chimeric fusion protein. The effect of EWS\\/FLI-1 appears to be dominant negative since over-expression of EWS does not overcome the sarcoma phenotype. Previous studies have shown that EWS\\/FLI-1 as well as related sarcoma fusion proteins are necessary and sufficient to induce transformation

Howard A. Chansky; Fariba Barahmand-pour; Qi Mei; Waqqar Kahn-Farooqi; Anna Zielinska-Kwiatkowska; Michael Blackburn; Kari Chansky; Ernest U. Conrad; James D. Bruckner; Theodore K. Greenlee; Liu Yang

2004-01-01

174

Preferential down-regulation of phospholipase C-? in Ewing’s sarcoma cells transfected with antisense EWS-Fli-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

EWS-Fli-1, a fusion gene found in Ewing’s sarcoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumour (PNET), encodes a transcriptional activator and promotes cellular transformation. We have made stable Ewing’s sarcoma cells expressing antisense EWS-Fli-1 transcripts by transfecting the antisense EWS-Fli-1 expression plasmid. These cells showed partial loss of endogenous EWS-Fli-1 proteins and suppression of the cell growth. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying

T Dohjima; T Ohno; Y Banno; Y Nozawa; Y Wen-yi; K Shimizu

2000-01-01

175

Divergent Ewing's sarcoma EWS\\/ETS fusions confer a common tumorigenic phenotype on NIH3T3 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ewing's sarcomas express chimeric transcription factors resulting from a fusion of the amino terminus of the EWS gene to the carboxyl terminus of one of five ETS proteins. While the majority of tumors express EWS\\/FLI1 fusions, some Ewing's tumors contain variant chimeras such as EWS\\/ETV1 that have divergent ETS DNA-binding domains. In spite of their structural differences, both EWS\\/ETS fusions

Andrew D Thompson; Michael A Teitell; Afsane Arvand; Christopher T Denny

1999-01-01

176

The Ewing's sarcoma fusion protein, EWS-FLI, binds Runx2 and blocks osteoblast differentiation.  

PubMed

Ewing's sarcomas are highly aggressive round cell tumors of bone and soft tissues that afflict children and young adults. The majority of these tumors harbor the t(11;22) translocation and express the fusion protein EWS-FLI. Modern molecular profiling experiments indicate that Ewing's tumors originate from mesenchymal precursors in young individuals. EWS-FLI alters the morphology of mesenchymal cells and prevents lineage specification; however, the molecular mechanisms for differentiation arrest are unclear. We recently showed that EWS-FLI binds Runx2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In this report, we demonstrate that FLI sequences within EWS-FLI are responsible for interactions with Runx2. EWS-FLI blocks the expression of osteoblastic genes in a multipotent progenitor cell line that requires Runx2 to integrate bone morphogenic protein (Bmp)2 signaling while increasing proliferation and altering cell morphology. These results demonstrate that EWS-FLI blocks the ability of Runx2 to induce osteoblast specification of a mesenchymal progenitor cell. Disrupting interactions between Runx2 and EWS-FLI1 may promote differentiation of the tumor cell. PMID:20665663

Li, Xiaodong; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Decker, Matthew; Westendorf, Jennifer J

2010-11-01

177

Coexpression of an unusual form of the EWS–WT1 fusion transcript and interleukin 2/15 receptor ?mRNA in a desmoplastic small round cell tumour  

PubMed Central

Background The ? chain of the interleukin 2/15 receptor (IL?2/15R?) is induced by the expression of the EWS–WT1. A case of desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) expressing only an unusual EWS?WT1 treated by us is reported here. Aim To characterise an unusual form of EWS–WT1. Methods Frozen tissue sections of the axillary tumour were examined using a laser?assisted microdissection technique and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results The novel fusion of exon 8 of EWS and the defective exon 10 of WT1 (?KTS) was detected. Although it was an unusual form, the coexpression of the present EWS–WT1, IL?2/15R? and Janus kinase (JAK1) mRNA was detected in the tumour cells. IL?2 and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT5) mRNA were detected in both tumour and stromal cells. Conclusion The induction of the IL?2/15 receptor signalling pathway may contribute to tumorigenesis in DSRCT through a paracrine or an autocrine system, even though the EWS–WT1 was an unusual form.

Nakanishi, Y; Oinuma, T; Sano, M; Fuchinoue, F; Komatsu, K; Seki, T; Obana, Y; Tabata, M; Kikuchi, K; Shimamura, M; Ohmori, K; Nemoto, N

2006-01-01

178

Plasma decontamination of chemical & biological warfare agents by a cold arc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold arc plasma jet was introduced to decontaminate chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents for the application of a portable CBW decontamination system. The cold arc plasma jet is a low temperature, high density plasma that produces highly reactive species such as oxygen atoms and ozone. Moreover, it is possible to maintain stable plasma without He or Ar. The

Man Hyeop Han; Joo Hyun Noh; Ki Wan Park; Hyeon Seok Hwang; Hong Koo Baik

2008-01-01

179

Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991August 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify

Y. C. Yang; J. A. Baker; J. R. Ward

1992-01-01

180

Chemicapacitive microsensors for chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals using Microfabrication and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) chemicapactive sensors is described. Our sensor chips consist of 10 parallel plates or interdigitated capacitors with an absorbant dielectric material to measure the dielectric constant of an array of selectively absorbing materials. The dielectric permittivity of these polymer filled chemicapacitors changes upon adsorption and desorption

Todd E. Mlsna; Sabina Cemalovic; Manna Warburton; Stephen T. Hobson; Debra A. Mlsna; Sanjay V. Patel

2006-01-01

181

Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch

Han S. Uhm; Dong H. Shin; Yong C. Hong

2006-01-01

182

EWS and RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor Inhibit Neuronal Phenotype Development and Oncogenic Transformation in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding EWS (EWSR1) is involved in various chromosomal translocations that cause the production of oncoproteins responsible for multiple cancers including Ewing sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, soft tissue clear cell sarcoma, and desmoplastic small round cell sarcoma. It is well known that EWS fuses to FLI to create EWS/FLI, which is the abnormal transcription factor that drives tumor development in Ewing sarcoma. However, the role of wild-type EWS in Ewing sarcoma pathogenesis remains unclear. In the current study, we identified EWS-regulated genes and cellular processes through RNA interference combined with RNA sequencing and functional annotation analyses. Interestingly, we found that EWS and EWS/FLI co-regulate a significant cluster of genes, indicating an interplay between the 2 proteins in regulating cellular functions. We found that among the EWS–down-regulated genes are a subset of neuronal genes that contain binding sites for the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST or neuron-restrictive silencer factor [NRSF]), neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE), suggesting a cooperative interaction between REST and EWS in gene regulation. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that EWS interacts directly with REST. Genome-wide binding analysis showed that EWS binds chromatin at or near NRSE. Furthermore, functional studies revealed that both EWS and REST inhibit neuronal phenotype development and oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma cells. Our data implicate an important role of EWS in the development of Ewing sarcoma phenotype and highlight a potential value in modulating EWS function in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma and other EWS translocation–based cancers.

Sankar, Savita; Gomez, Nicholas C.; Bell, Russell; Patel, Mukund; Davis, Ian J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

183

Sequence-Specific Knockdown of EWS-FLI1 by Targeted, Nonviral Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Metastatic Ewing's Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of effective, systemic therapies for meta- static cancer is highly desired. We show here that the systemic delivery of sequence-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the EWS-FLI1 gene product by a targeted, nonviral delivery system dramatically inhibits tumor growth in a murine model of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. The nonviral delivery system uses a cyclodextrin-containing polycation to bind and

Siwen Hu-Lieskovan; Jeremy D. Heidel; Derek W. Bartlett; Mark E. Davis; Timothy J. Triche

184

Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

2011-11-01

185

Passive millimeter-wave imaging device for naval special warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy Coastal Systems Station (CSS) is currently executing a program to develop a small, lightweight, low power passive millimeter wave imager. The end user will be Naval Special Operations Forces (SOF). The program began by conducting a feasibility assessment of the potential Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) technology that would meet the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) mission requirements. A performance analysis was conducted to compare the capabilities of the various PMMW imager technologies. Finally, a technology development road map is under development, which will include all recommendations for hardware development and image processing. Other DoD and industrial programs are being monitored for leveraging potential to insure the imager program will use the latest technology available. As a result of a technology survey, CSS decided to leverage their development funds with Eglin Air Force Base to develop an antenna-coupled microbolometer. This paper will discuss the program plans, and the potential applications of PMMW technology to Naval Special Warfare.

Downs, Frank; Wood, Jody L.; Blume, Bradley T.; Smith, Roger M.

1998-08-01

186

EWS-FLI1 Suppresses NOTCH-Activated p53 in Ewing's Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer, half of human tumors retain wild-type p53, whereby it is unknown whether normal p53 function is compromised by other cancer-associated alterations. One example is Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT), where 90% express wild-type p53. ESFT are characterized by EWS-FLI1 oncogene fusions. Studying 6 ESFT cell lines, silencing of EWS-FLI1 in

Jozef Ban; Max Kauer; Karl-Ludwig Schaefer; Christopher Poremba; Gunhild Jug; Raphaela Schwentner; Oskar Smrzka; Karin Muehlbacher; Dave N. T. Aryee; Heinrich Kovar

2008-01-01

187

Differential disruption of EWS-FLI1 binding by DNA-binding agents.  

PubMed

Fusion of the EWS gene to FLI1 produces a fusion oncoprotein that drives an aberrant gene expression program responsible for the development of Ewing sarcoma. We used a homogenous proximity assay to screen for compounds that disrupt the binding of EWS-FLI1 to its cognate DNA targets. A number of DNA-binding chemotherapeutic agents were found to non-specifically disrupt protein binding to DNA. In contrast, actinomycin D was found to preferentially disrupt EWS-FLI1 binding by comparison to p53 binding to their respective cognate DNA targets in vitro. In cell-based assays, low concentrations of actinomycin D preferentially blocked EWS-FLI1 binding to chromatin, and disrupted EWS-FLI1-mediated gene expression. Higher concentrations of actinomycin D globally repressed transcription. These results demonstrate that actinomycin D preferentially disrupts EWS-FLI1 binding to DNA at selected concentrations. Although the window between this preferential effect and global suppression is too narrow to exploit in a therapeutic manner, these results suggest that base-preferences may be exploited to find DNA-binding compounds that preferentially disrupt subclasses of transcription factors. PMID:23894528

Chen, Changmin; Wonsey, Diane R; Lemieux, Madeleine E; Kung, Andrew L

2013-07-22

188

Strong Interference and Spectrum Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a wireless system with multiple user- base pairs randomly distributed in some region, in which users try to greedily optimize their performance without any exchange of information between bases, and for which a fixed point is reached. This is a Nash equilibrium point for the system and corresponds to a simultaneous water filling solution. In this paper we

Otilia Popescu; Christopher Rose; Dimitrie C. Popescu

2004-01-01

189

Information Warfare: IT Security Professionals To Steer Clear  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1945, just before the United States became the only nation in history to wage nuclear warfare against an opponent, a group of eminent physicists who worked on the super secret Manhattan Project expressed their anxiety about the atomic bomb becoming an accepted weapon for warfare. Those physicists included Albert Einstein, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Neils Bohr and Enrico Fermi. The

Wayne Madsen

2000-01-01

190

Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent Department of Defense proposal to develop a capability to modernize and expand the current U.S. chemical warfare munition stocks with binary nerve agent munitions has focused attention on the subject of chemical warfare. This paper provides a b...

E. M. Kallis

1981-01-01

191

Medical management of incidents with chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful management of incidents with chemical warfare agents strongly depends on the speed of medical help and the ability of helpers to react properly. Though the general principles of clinical toxicology, such as decontamination, stabilization, patient evaluation and symptomatic treatment are similar for many toxicants, chemical warfare agents deserve special attention because of their very high inhalative and cutaneous toxicity,

Thomas Zilker

2005-01-01

192

Plasma destruction of battlefield chemical and biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Thermal plasmas are being evaluated for use in the destruction of deadly chemical and biological warfare agents. The technology approach consists of employing an electric arc to establish a plasma forming gas plume used to kill the harmful agents. The approach has been demonstrated on surrogate chemical and biological warfare agents. The harmful agents

E. O'Hair; J. Dickens; J. Fralick; L. Farrar

1998-01-01

193

Molecular modeling of energetic materials and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of military sites by energetic materials and chemical warfare agents is a growing problem. To avoid health hazards associated with these compounds, it is necessary to decontaminate or remediate the contaminated sites. Effective decontamination requires knowledge of environmental fate of contaminants and the appropriate remediation methodologies. While the fate of chemical warfare agents are well studied, the impact of

Nandhini Sokkalingam

2010-01-01

194

Molecular Modeling Of Energetic Materials And Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of military sites by energetic materials and chemical warfare agents is a growing problem. To avoid health hazards associated with these compounds, it is necessary to decontaminate or remediate the contaminated sites. Effective decontamination requires knowledge of environmental fate of contaminants and the appropriate remediation methodologies. While the fate of chemical warfare agents are well studied, the impact of

Nandhini Sokkalingam

2010-01-01

195

The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a

Sylvia Smith Talmage; Nancy B Munro; Annetta Paule Watson; J. King; Veronique Hauschild

2007-01-01

196

Contemporary Security Challenges: Irregular Warfare and Indirect Approaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The JSOU Press presents this collection of writings from five current and former practitioners in the field of irregular warfare. The writers delve into the concept of 'surrogate warfare,' defined as a substitute force acting on behalf of the interests of...

D. J. White I. J. Peltier K. H. Smith R. D. Newton T. L. Homiak

2009-01-01

197

Why UW: Factoring in the Decision Point for Unconventional Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been a dramatic unconventional warfare (UW) renaissance in recent years. Much of the published material on the subject has been focused on 'what' unconventional warfare is, re-defining it, and attempting to frame the concept of its use as it rel...

M. K. DuClos R. C. Agee

2012-01-01

198

Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

Larsen, R.W.

1997-05-01

199

EWS and WT-1 gene fusion in desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the abdomen.  

PubMed

Chromosome translocations found in neoplasms often result in the creation of hybrid genes encoding chimeric proteins. This case study describes a patient with desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) of the abdomen, an aggressive neoplasm characterized by translocation of chromosomes 11 and 22. Southern hybridization showed that the Ewing sarcoma gene (EWS) gene was rearranged in the DSRCT. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of tumor cell RNA revealed that exons 1 to 7 of the EWS gene were joined to exons 8 to 10 of the Wilms' Tumor-1 (WT-1) gene resulting in the production of a chimeric message. The WT-1 and EWS genes encode DNA and RNA binding proteins involved in Wilms' tumor and Ewing sarcoma pathogenesis, respectively. The fusion of these two genes in DSRCT results in the production of a putatively oncogenic protein composed of the zinc finger DNA binding domains of WT-1 linked to potential transcriptional regulatory domains of EWS. DNA sequencing revealed the genomic breakpoints of translocation on chromosomes 11 and 22. The genomic breakpoint on chromosome 22 occurred in EWS intron 7 just 2 nucleotides 3' of exon 7. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays were developed that could detect the fused genes in the DSRCT tumor using either RNA or genomic DNA. The potential diagnostic use of these assays is discussed. PMID:8522311

Brodie, S G; Stocker, S J; Wardlaw, J C; Duncan, M H; McConnell, T S; Feddersen, R M; Williams, T M

1995-12-01

200

Three-dimensional visualization of buildings for the urban warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future conflicts will probably lead the armed forces also into regions, for which topographical data are missing as well as out of date. Here IMINT must support the planning and transaction of military operations through improved target recognition in combination with topographical information. High-resolution LIDAR data, multi-spectral image data and GIS with orthorectified elevation data, combined with 3Dimage maps with high geometrical and spatial precision integrated in a network (Smart Sensor Web, SSW), open new additional possibilities of the reconnaissance. To improve reconnaissance, we investigate the 3D-modeling of built up areas including texturing and visualization for the observer. In a future joint-sensor system the information of several sensors should be used in common and should also be combined with non-imaging knowledge (Rapid Terrain Visualization, RTV). By this, the technology is a key technology for military applications in urban warfare and in the battle against terrorism.

Thoennessen, Ulrich; Gross, Hermann

2003-07-01

201

A small molecule blocking oncogenic protein EWS-FLI1 interaction with RNA helicase A inhibits growth of Ewing's sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sarcomas and leukemias carry nonrandom chromosomal translocations encoding tumor-specific mutant fusion transcription factors that are essential to their molecular pathogenesis. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) contain a characteristic t(11;22) translocation leading to expression of the oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is a disordered protein that precludes standard structure-based small-molecule inhibitor design. EWS-FLI1 binding to RNA helicase A (RHA) is

Hayriye V Erkizan; Yali Kong; Melinda Merchant; Silke Schlottmann; Julie S Barber-Rotenberg; Linshan Yuan; Ogan D Abaan; Tsu-hang Chou; Sivanesan Dakshanamurthy; Milton L Brown; Aykut Üren; Jeffrey A Toretsky

2009-01-01

202

Differential Transactivation by Alternative EWS-FLI1 Fusion Proteins Correlates with Clinical Heterogeneity in Ewing's Sarcoma 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in up to 95% of cases of Ewing's sarcoma and results in the formation of an EWS-FLI1 fusion gene which encodes a chimeric transcription factor. The proximate role of EWS-FLI1 in the pathogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma is thought to involve the activation of as yet largely unknown target genes. Many alternative forms of EWS-FLI1 exist

Patrick P. Lin; Rachel I. Brody; Aimee C. Hamelin; James E. Bradner; John H. Healey; Marc Ladanyi

203

QCD parton showers and NLO EW corrections to Drell-Yan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the implementation of an interface between the SANC generator framework for Drell-Yan hard processes, which includes next-to-leading order electroweak (NLO EW) corrections, and the Herwig++ and Pythia8 QCD parton shower Monte Carlos. A special aspect of this implementation is that the initial-state shower evolution in both shower generators has been augmented to handle the case of an incoming photon-in-a- proton, diagrams for which appear at the NLO EW level. The difference between shower algorithms leads to residual differences in the relative corrections of 2-3 % in the p T ( ?) distributions at p T ( ?) ? 50 GeV (where the NLO EW correction itself is of order 10 %).

Richardson, Peter; Sadykov, Renat R.; Sapronov, Andrey A.; Seymour, Michael H.; Skands, Peter Z.

2012-06-01

204

PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.  

PubMed

/ The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM. PMID:10667941

Etnier; King; Watson

2000-04-01

205

Chemical warfare materiel: Unique regulatory issues  

SciTech Connect

The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous wastes facilities. Based on the definition found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare material (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA pollutants for contaminants but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes. in those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM.

Etnier, E.L.; King, J.F.; Watson, A.P.

2000-04-01

206

Production of single charged gauginos via e+e- --> e+/-?W~-/+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leptonic production of a single charged gaugino W~+/- via e+e- --> e+/-?W~-/+ is suggested as a possible source to study the properties of the hitherto unexplored supersymmetric charged fermionic partners of weak gauge bosons. If scalar neutrinos (?) are relatively light, this reaction enables winos W~+/- to be produced already at present e+e- collider energies provided their masses are typically of the order of MW/2, in contrast to the standard wino-pair production processes. Otherwise, searches for e+e- --> e+/-?W~-/+ will set bounds on sneutrino and wino masses. Permanent address: Department of Physics, University of Dortmund, 4600 Dortmund 50, West Germany.

Eilam, G.; Raya, E.

1984-09-01

207

Incentive Measures for Navy Working Capital Fund Civilian Employees at Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis sought to identify an alternative incentive system and determine if it is feasible to implement it at the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, (NAWCAD) Patuxent River, Maryland. The goal for the incentive system would be to help stimul...

C. G. Ross

1998-01-01

208

E-W extension in the NW Indian Himalaya - Triggered by Tibetan Plateau Deformation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

E-W extension in the Himalaya is well known from the central part of the orogen between 81° and 89° E and has produced major N-S striking normal faults bounding the Thakkola and Yadong grabens, as well as the Ama Drime massif, for example. These extensional structures and normal faults within the adjacent Tibetan Plateau strike virtually at right angles with respect to the trend of the Central Himalaya. The mechanisms governing active extension in the transition between the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalaya are subject to ongoing discussion, mainly because in the Central Himalaya, extension in both areas is oriented approximately E-W. Models explaining E-W extension in this part of the orogen can be broadly cast into two different groups. (1) One group constitutes models that explain extension parallel to the arc, triggered by the geometry and/or the arcuate shape of the Himalaya. In this case, the normal faults are expected to strike perpendicular to the trend of the orogen. (2) The other group of models relates N-S striking normal faults and grabens to processes within the Tibetan Plateau. In contrast to the E-W oriented Central Himalaya, the Indian Himalaya west of 81°E is oriented NW-SE, and thus provides a fortuitous structural setting to differentiate between arc-parallel and E-W extension phenomena. Therefore, this area is well suited to test the applicability of current tectonic models concerning extensional processes in the Himalayan orogen and improve our understanding of the determining mechanisms. We present new structural field data, field and remote-sensing based geomorphic analyses and geochronologic information to help elucidate the character of extension in the NW Himalaya. In particular, we studied the kinematics of brittle faults, documented and mapped fault scarps in Quaternary sedimentary deposits using satellite imagery and field inspection, and made field observations in the Greater Sutlej Region (Spiti, Lahul, Kinnaur) and the Garhwal Himalaya. The collected data permits us to document pervasive, ongoing E-W extension in the Higher Himalaya reaching as far south as the footwall of the MCT. E-W extension began at approximately 15 Ma and clearly reflects the most recent deformation phase in this part of the Himalaya as closely spaced normal faults related to E-W extension cut across all previous structures. In addition, our comprehensive data set documents that despite the southward convexity of the mountain range E-W extension prevails in the NW Indian Himalaya and postdates previous arc-parallel NW-SE oriented extension, as well as arc-perpendicular NE-SW oriented extension. Our results thus suggest that currently active extension is independent of the overall geometry of the Himalayan arc. Rather, we suggest that E-W extension in the investigated area is part of a regional phenomenon characteristic for the Tibetan Plateau, the transitional region between Tibet and the Higher Himalaya, as well as areas farther south. This may indicate that E-W extension propagates southward from Tibet, which may be driven by the collapse of the Tibetan Plateau.

Hintersberger, E.; Thiede, R. C.; Strecker, M. R.; Hacker, B. R.

2009-12-01

209

Hypersonic shroud separation testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel 9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Surface Warfare Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel 9 facility and its current shroud separation testing capabilities are addressed. The planned facility upgrade and the impact that the new testing capabilities may have on the development of interceptor systems are examined. The related data acquisition, instrumentation, and photographic coverage available at the facility are described, and recent shroud separation test programs that demonstrate the tunnel capabilities are reviewed.

Resch, Lawrence R.; Hedlund, Eric R.; Decesaris, Chester A.

1992-05-01

210

The Oncogenic EWS-FLI1 Protein Binds In Vivo GGAA Microsatellite Sequences with Potential Transcriptional Activation Function  

PubMed Central

The fusion between EWS and ETS family members is a key oncogenic event in Ewing tumors and important EWS-FLI1 target genes have been identified. However, until now, the search for EWS-FLI1 targets has been limited to promoter regions and no genome-wide comprehensive analysis of in vivo EWS-FLI1 binding sites has been undertaken. Using a ChIP-Seq approach to investigate EWS-FLI1-bound DNA sequences in two Ewing cell lines, we show that this chimeric transcription factor preferentially binds two types of sequences including consensus ETS motifs and microsatellite sequences. Most bound sites are found outside promoter regions. Microsatellites containing more than 9 GGAA repeats are very significantly enriched in EWS-FLI1 immunoprecipitates. Moreover, in reporter gene experiments, the transcription activation is highly dependent upon the number of repeats that are included in the construct. Importantly, in vivo EWS-FLI1-bound microsatellites are significantly associated with EWS-FLI1-driven gene activation. Put together, these results point out the likely contribution of microsatellite elements to long-distance transcription regulation and to oncogenesis.

Boeva, Valentina; Zynovyev, Andrei; Barillot, Emmanuel; Delattre, Olivier

2009-01-01

211

Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.  

PubMed

Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

2012-08-01

212

Fixing the EW scale in supersymmetric models after the Higgs discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TeV-scale supersymmetry was originally introduced to solve the hierarchy problem and therefore fix the electroweak (EW) scale in the presence of quantum corrections. Numerical methods testing the SUSY models often report a good likelihood L (or ?2=-2lnL) to fit the data including the EW scale itself (mZ0) with a simultaneously large fine-tuning i.e. a large variation of this scale under a small variation of the SUSY parameters. We argue that this is inconsistent and we identify the origin of this problem. Our claim is that the likelihood (or ?2) to fit the data that is usually reported in such models does not account for the ?2 cost of fixing the EW scale. When this constraint is implemented, the likelihood (or ?2) receives a significant correction (??2) that worsens the current data fits of SUSY models. We estimate this correction for the models: constrained MSSM (CMSSM), models with non-universal gaugino masses (NUGM) or higgs soft masses (NUHM1, NUHM2), the NMSSM and the general NMSSM (GNMSSM). For a higgs mass mh?126 GeV, one finds that in these models ??2/n?1.5 (?1 for GNMSSM), which violates the usual condition of a good fit (total ?2/n?1) already before fitting observables other than the EW scale itself (n=number of degrees of freedom). This has (negative) implications for SUSY models and it is suggested that future data fits properly account for this effect, if one remains true to the original goal of SUSY. Since the expression of ??2 that emerges from our calculation depends on a familiar measure of fine-tuning, one concludes that fine-tuning is an intrinsic part of the likelihood to fit the data that includes the EW scale (mZ0).

Ghilencea, D. M.

2013-11-01

213

Toward an Understanding of People's Liberation Army Information Warfare Doctrine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chinese and American Information Warfare (IW) terminology and concepts overlap due to the Chinese incorporation of established American airpower doctrinal concepts into their own publications. Leaders and theorists within the People's Liberation Army must...

C. L. Tavenner

2000-01-01

214

Surface Warfare Junior Officer Retention; Spouses' Influence on Career Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information obtained from a questionnaire to which 312 male surface warfare junior Officers (JOs) responded was used to determine how JOs felt their wives influenced their intent to pursue a Navy career, and how their wives felt about separations, relocat...

D. A. Mohr R. L. Holzbach R. F. Morrison

1981-01-01

215

Biological warfare: A problem waiting to happen. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare poses a significant threat to the United States. After early forays to develop a biological military capability, the US renounced the development, possession, and use of such weapons. Diplomatic initiatives resulted in the Biological Warfare Conventions of 1972 which attempted to establish an agreement to ban the stockpiling of weapons and all research toward offensive capabilities. The treaty was flawed, however, as there were no provisions for verification, inspection, or penalties. The US Dismantled its biological warfare program, while others discreetly continued to explore biological alternatives. Today the US faces a biological warfare threat from regional powers, developing Third World nations and terrorists groups. During Desert Storm, American forces were not prepared to operate in a biological environment.

Brotchie, C.F.

1993-04-15

216

Chemical Warfare Agent Decontaminant Solution Using Quaternary Ammonium Complexes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chemical warfare agent decontamination solution made up of about 20% of a quaternary ammonium complex containing benzyltrimethylammonium chloride and benzyltriethylammonium chloride and about 20% by weight of an oxidizer, dissolved in a solvent, such as...

D. T. Crounce

1997-01-01

217

Factors Affecting the Retention Decisions of Female Surface Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis delineates factors affecting the retention decisions of female Surface Warfare Officers. The data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with 12 female senior officers and 15 female junior officers. The transcripts from the interview...

E. A. Clifton

2003-01-01

218

Object-Oriented Database and Processing of Electronic Warfare Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Electronic Warfare Integrated Reprogramming (EWIR) database is the primary Department of Defense source for technical parametric performance data on noncommunications emitters. It has been identified by the National Air Intelligence Center as difficul...

J. J. Lee T. D. McKenna

1996-01-01

219

Use of Tobacco Products Among Naval Special Warfare Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tobacco product use questionnaires were completed by 210 U.S. Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, Land (SEAL) personnel. Results indicate a relatively high use of smokeless tobacco products in this population. SEALs have a lower prevalence of cigarette smokin...

T. L. Kelly J. Assmus C. Shillcutt H. W. Goforth

1992-01-01

220

Managing the Double Edged Sword of Network-Centric Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Network Centric Warfare can tend to collapse the operational level war by allowing information to flow around or past hierarchical staff structures and directly between tactical and strategic level decision makers. Why this has benefits in that it may str...

D. P. Wells

2003-01-01

221

Characterizing and Exploring the Implications of Maritime Irregular Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given U.S. involvement in and support for multiple counterinsurgency (COIN) and counterterrorism (CT) campaigns in various theaters, particularly over the past decade, the concept of irregular warfare has become increasingly prevalent among defense strate...

B. Nichiporuk D. Hoffmann M. Dunigan P. Chalk P. Deluca

2012-01-01

222

Non-Kinetic Capabilities for Irregular Warfare: Four Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kinetic capabilities focus on destroying enemy forces through the application of physical effects. For the purposes of this study, we take 'nonkinetic' capabilities to be all other capabilities relevant to irregular warfare (IW). For example, a major U.S....

C. R. Bucher J. B. Resnick S. K. Numrich S. M. Ouellette W. J. Hurley

2009-01-01

223

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents by Activated Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organophosphates (OPs) have been widely used as Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) as well as pesticides since World War II and still remain a threat to national security. While efforts have been taken at military installations and civilian communities to sec...

S. J. Schuldt

2012-01-01

224

Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were

William Ortiz-Rivera; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2010-01-01

225

NAVY INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPv6) TRANSITION STRATEGY IN SUPPORT OF NETWORK-CENTRIC OPERATIONS AND WARFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-centric warfare is the operational concept that provides information sharing amongst a large array of networked nodes, including mobile platforms, sensors, space systems, weapons, munitions and war fighters. This information sharing enhances battle space situation awareness, which allows war fighters to get the right information at the right time and place, and to make the right decisions ahead of adversaries.

Phuong Nguyen; Robert Ferro; Anh Nguyen; Steven Lam; Tuan Nguyen; Timothy Ho; Roger Ogden; Daniel Greene; Mark Stell; Cam Tran; Albert K. Legaspi

2003-01-01

226

Navy internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) transition strategy in support of network-centric operations and warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-centric warfare is the operational concept that provides information sharing amongst a large array of networked nodes, including mobile platforms, sensors, space systems, weapons, munitions and war fighters. This information sharing enhances battle space situation awareness, which allows war fighters to get the right information at the right time and place, and to make the right decisions ahead of adversaries.

Phuong Nguyen; Robert Ferro; Anh Nguyen; Steven Lam; Tuan Nguyen; Timothy Ho; Roger Ogden; Daniel Greene; Mark Stell; Cam Tran; Albert K. Legaspi

2008-01-01

227

New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP),

Masanori Kidera; Yasuo Seto; Kazuya Takahashi; Shuichi Enomoto; Shintaro Kishi; Mika Makita; Tsuyoshi Nagamatsu; Tatsuhiko Tanaka; Masayoshi Toda

2011-01-01

228

Networked enabled sensors for the future soldier in urban warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Urban Warfare, the enemy is at close range; snipers are almost always present; stress is extremely high; and the opposing force is frequently indistinguishable from the civilian population. On-going events in the Middle East and the general rise in world-wide terrorism has shown that small cells of "terrorist" forces are able to inflict severe developments in Urban Warfare sensors and their possible role.

Edwards, Clive L.; Robinson, Colin

2004-11-01

229

Professional Training and Graduate Education Needs in Warfare Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This essay reviews current best practices in graduate education emphasizing those that would be particularly useful to warfare\\u000a ecology, a budding subdiscipline within the area of environmental sciences. A discussion is also provided on those teaching\\u000a strategies and experiences that may be particularly appropriate developing effective graduate and professional training programs\\u000a in warfare ecology. This newly emergent discipline is inherently

Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

230

Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

Not Available

1993-04-01

231

?-PADs for detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Conventional methods of detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on chromogenic reactions are time and solvent intensive. The development of cost, time and solvent effective microfluidic paper based analytical devices (?-PADs) for the detection of nerve and vesicant agents is described. The detection of analytes was based upon their reactions with rhodamine hydroxamate and para-nitrobenzyl pyridine, producing red and blue colours respectively. Reactions were optimized on the ?-PADs to produce the limits of detection (LODs) as low as 100 ?M for sulfur mustard in aqueous samples. Results were quantified with the help of a simple desktop scanner and Photoshop software. Sarin achieved a linear response in the two concentration ranges of 20-100 mM and 100-500 mM, whereas the response of sulfur mustard was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 mM. Results were precise enough to establish the ?-PADs as a valuable tool for security personnel fighting against chemical terrorism. PMID:23086107

Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

2012-10-22

232

Metallicity and Star Formation in High EW(H-alpha) Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an investigation into the chemical abundances and star formation properties of the central regions in 330 Updated Zwicky Catalog (UZC) galaxies at cz > 5000 km\\/s. These galaxies were selected to have strong bursts of recent star formation by constraining the sample to galaxies with high EW(H-alpha) and detectable 60-micron IRAS fluxes. Spectra were obtained for the 330

J. E. Pollack; L. J. Kewley; D. Sanders; M. J. Geller

2005-01-01

233

Intracerebral small round cell tumor: an unusual case with EWS-WT1 translocation.  

PubMed

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare tumor, seen both in children and young adults with a marked predilection for the peritoneal cavity. Histology showed a small round cell tumor with a fibromyxoïd stroma and immunohistochemistry indicated neural and mesenchymal differentiation, and diagnosis was made by molecular detection of the EWS-WT1 fusion gene product. DSRCT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intracranial small round cell tumors. PMID:18561179

Bouchireb, Karim; Auger, Nathalie; Bhangoo, Ranjeev; Di Rocco, Federico; Brousse, Nicole; Delattre, Olivier; Varlet, Pascale; Grill, Jacques

2008-10-01

234

Soft tissue sarcomas with non-EWS translocations: molecular genetic features and pathologic and clinical correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many soft tissue sarcoma subtypes have consistent chromosomal translocations with novel fusion genes, which result in disordered\\u000a cellular function. The microscopic appearances, immunophenotype and behaviour of such tumours relate to the genetic events\\u000a to a variable extent. This paper reviews the molecular pathology and related morphological and clinical features of sarcomas\\u000a with non-EWS translocations. These include synovial sarcoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma,

Cyril Fisher

2010-01-01

235

Soft tissue sarcomas with non-EWS translocations: molecular genetic features and pathologic and clinical correlations.  

PubMed

Many soft tissue sarcoma subtypes have consistent chromosomal translocations with novel fusion genes, which result in disordered cellular function. The microscopic appearances, immunophenotype and behaviour of such tumours relate to the genetic events to a variable extent. This paper reviews the molecular pathology and related morphological and clinical features of sarcomas with non-EWS translocations. These include synovial sarcoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, infantile fibrosarcoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour. PMID:19396640

Fisher, Cyril

2009-04-28

236

Ewing Sarcoma Cells Secrete EWS/Fli-1 Fusion mRNA via Microvesicles.  

PubMed

Tumours defined as Ewing sarcoma (ES) constitute a group of highly malignant neoplasms that most often affect children and young adults in the first 2 decades of life. The EWS/Fli-1 fusion gene, a product of the translocation t(11;22) (q24; 12), is detected in 95% of ES patients. Recently, it was validated that cells emit a heterogeneous mixture of vesicular, organelle-like structures (microvesicles, MVs) into their surroundings including blood and body fluids, and that these MVs contain a selected set of tumor-related proteins and high levels of mRNAs and miRNAs. In this present study, we detected the Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs from the culture medium of ES cell lines carrying t(11;22) (q24; 12). Also, we detected this fusion gene in approximately 40% of the blood samples from mice inoculated with xenografts of TC135 or A673 cells. These findings indicate the EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs might be a new non-invasive diagnostic marker for specific cases of Ewing sarcoma. PMID:24124617

Tsugita, Masanori; Yamada, Nami; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Yamada, Kazunari; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Akao, Yukihiro; Ohno, Takatoshi

2013-10-04

237

The SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase interacts with Vav, Sam68 and EWS.  

PubMed

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which controls crucial steps of differentiation of B lymphocytes. Mutations affecting either the PH, SH3, SH2 or kinase domain of BTK all give rise to X linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) in humans. In this study, the authors report that the BTK-SH3 domain binds to a set of proteins expressed in pro-B, pre-B and B cell lines. Three of them were characterized as Vav, Sam68 and EWS. The authors show that a Pro-->Leu substitution in a region of the SH3 domain, which is deleted in an XLA patient, is sufficient to abolish BTK-SH3 binding potential. The authors also report that several of the BTK-SH3 binding proteins, including Sam68, EWS and Vav, are tyrosine phosphorylated in conditions that also promote BTK kinase activity. For EWS and Sam68 this tyrosine phosphorylation was cell cycle dependent. PMID:9201297

Guinamard, R; Fougereau, M; Seckinger, P

1997-06-01

238

EWS/FLI-responsive GGAA-microsatellites exhibit polymorphic differences between European and African populations  

PubMed Central

The genetics of Ewing sarcoma development remain obscure. The incidence of Ewing sarcoma is ten-fold less in Africans as compared to Europeans, irrespective of geographic location, suggesting population-specific genetic influences. Since GGAA-containing microsatellites within key target genes are necessary for Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/FLI DNA binding and gene activation, and gene expression is positively correlated with the number of repeat motifs in the promoter/enhancer region, we sought to determine if significant polymorphisms exist between African and European populations which might contribute to observed differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence and outcomes. GGAA-microsatellites upstream of two critical EWS/FLI-target genes, NR0B1 and CAV1, were sequenced from subjects of European and African descent. While the characteristics of the CAV1 promoter microsatellites were similar across both populations, the NR0B1 microsatellite in African subjects was significantly larger, harboring more repeat motifs, a greater number of repeat segments, and longer consecutive repeats, than in European subjects. These results are biologically intriguing as NR0B1 was the most highly enriched EWS/FLI bound gene in prior studies, and is absolutely necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma. These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms in the NR0B1 gene might influence disease susceptibility and prognosis in Ewing sarcoma in unanticipated ways.

Beck, Robert; Monument, Michael J.; Watkins, W. Scott; Smith, Richard; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2012-01-01

239

Ewing Sarcoma Cells Secrete EWS/Fli-1 Fusion mRNA via Microvesicles  

PubMed Central

Tumours defined as Ewing sarcoma (ES) constitute a group of highly malignant neoplasms that most often affect children and young adults in the first 2 decades of life. The EWS/Fli-1 fusion gene, a product of the translocation t(11;22) (q24; 12), is detected in 95% of ES patients. Recently, it was validated that cells emit a heterogeneous mixture of vesicular, organelle-like structures (microvesicles, MVs) into their surroundings including blood and body fluids, and that these MVs contain a selected set of tumor-related proteins and high levels of mRNAs and miRNAs. In this present study, we detected the Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs from the culture medium of ES cell lines carrying t(11;22) (q24; 12). Also, we detected this fusion gene in approximately 40% of the blood samples from mice inoculated with xenografts of TC135 or A673 cells. These findings indicate the EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs might be a new non-invasive diagnostic marker for specific cases of Ewing sarcoma.

Tsugita, Masanori; Yamada, Nami; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Yamada, Kazunari; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Akao, Yukihiro; Ohno, Takatoshi

2013-01-01

240

Visceral clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue with confirmation by EWS-ATF1 fusion detection.  

PubMed

Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCS-ST) is a rare malignant neoplasm characterized by a tumor-defining translocation [t(12;22) (q13;q12)], resulting in the EWS-ATF1 gene fusion. An extremely limited number of visceral CCS-ST cases have been reported in the literature. Here the authors report a visceral CCS-ST in a Hispanic adolescent male with a large infiltrative mass involving the small bowel. The tumor was evaluated by light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics. The tumor cells were strongly positive for S-100 protein, but negative for HMB-45. Rare premelanosomes were identified only after an extensive search with electron microscopy. Cytogenetics showed a characteristic t(12;22)(q13;q12) for CCS-ST with isochromosome 18q and trisomy 22. An EWS exon 8 sense primer and an antisense ATF1 primer were employed for detection of the CCS-ST tumor-defining EWS-ATF1 translocation, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques (RT-PCR), and the fusion gene breakpoint underwent DNA sequencing. This tumor is exceptional, because it is the first visceral CCS-ST that has been confirmed by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. This case also illustrates the necessity of a multimodal approach to tumor diagnosis, and the utility of cytogenetics and molecular pathology in confirming the diagnosis of CCS-ST and eliminating conventional metastatic or primary visceral malignant melanoma as a consideration. PMID:16517477

Granville, Laura; Hicks, John; Popek, Edwina; Dishop, Megan; Tatevian, Nina; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores

241

Utility of Freedom: A Principal-Agent Model for Unconventional Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conduct of warfare through proxies, also known as unconventional warfare, is a difficult feat for a nation to accomplish. The successful employment of surrogate forces depends to a significant degree on the relationships cultivated between the sponsor...

T. G. Van Horn

2011-01-01

242

Polyoxometalate oxidation of chemical warfare agent simulants in fluorinated media.  

PubMed

The aim of this research is to determine if appropriate polyoxometalates (POMs) could be added to perfluoropolyether topical skin protectants (TSPs) currently available or under development to give these TSPs the additional capability of detecting and in some cases catalytically decontaminating sulfur mustard (HD) and perhaps other chemical warfare agents (CWAs) at ambient temperatures. Detection would be based on significant color changes in the POM upon reduction by the CWA whereas catalytic decontamination would be based on the ability of some families of POMs to catalyze O(2)-based oxidations by more than one mechanism. Five POMs (10-25% by weight) were each suspended in ca. 5 g of the perfluoropolyether (PFPE, CF(3)O[-CF(CF(3))CF(2)O-](x)(-CF(2)O-)(y)CF(3)) 'barrier' cream. A stoichiometric amount of HD sulfide simulant was layered on top of each POM-cream mixture. The short reaction times were recorded for each system. Mechanistic studies were conducted using an PFPE oil analog of the barrier cream in a microemulsion with the sulfide simulant, POM, PFPE surfactant and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol co-surfactant. PMID:10594904

Johnson, R P; Hill, C L

1999-12-01

243

Fear as a medium of communication in asymmetric forms of warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear is defined as the distinction between risk and danger, a distinction that operates in communicative forms. War is always also warfare about the form of war. The article describes how fear in warfare becomes a symbolically generalized medium of communication, mainly focusing on how the form of fear evolves in asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric war induces fear in both parties,

Gorm Harste

2011-01-01

244

Chapter 7 Chemical analysis of organoarsenic based chemical warfare agents in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes important features of the environmental hazard, toxicological aspects and the problems of the chemical analysis of organoarsenic based warfare agents. Since most other warfare agents including mustard gas are degraded almost completely to less or even non-toxic products other warfare agents are not considered. The report consists of three different parts: In the beginning some general aspects

F.-A. Pitten; K. Thurow; A. Koch; A. Kramer

2000-01-01

245

Biological warfare in a historical perspective.  

PubMed

There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse. PMID:12197867

Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

2002-08-01

246

Efficacy of siRNA Nanocapsules Targeted Against the EWS–Fli1 Oncogene in Ewing Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EWS–Fli1 fusion gene encodes for a chimeric oncogenic transcription factor considered to be the cause of the Ewing sarcoma. The efficiency\\u000a of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted toward the EWS–Fli1 transcript (at the junction point type 1) was studied, free\\u000a or encapsulated into recently developed polyisobutylcyanoacrylate aqueous core nanocapsules. Because this mRNA sequence is\\u000a only present in cancer cells,

Nedjma Toub; Jean-Rémi Bertrand; Ali Tamaddon; Hind Elhamess; Hervé Hillaireau; Andrei Maksimenko; Jean Maccario; Claude Malvy; Elias Fattal; Patrick Couvreur

2006-01-01

247

Gene expression profile of ewing sarcoma cell lines differing in their EWS-FLI1 fusion type.  

PubMed

The t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in up to 95% of Ewing tumor patients and results in the formation of an EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene that encodes a chimeric transcription factor. Many alternative forms of EWS-FLI-1 exist because of variations in the location of the EWS and FLI-1 genomic breakpoints. Previous reports have shown that the type 1 fusion is associated with a significantly better prognosis than the other fusion types. It has been suggested that the observed clinical discrepancies result from different transactivation potentials of the various EWS-FLI-1 fusion proteins. In an attempt to identify genes whose expression levels are differentially modulated by structurally different EWS-FLI-1 transcription factors, we have used microarray technology to interrogate 19,000 sequence genes to compare gene expression profile of type 1 or non-type 1 Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Data analysis showed few qualitative differences on gene expression; expression of only 41 genes (0.215% of possible sequences analyzed) differed significantly between Ewing tumor cell lines carrying EWS-FLI-1 fusion type 1 with respect to those with non-type 1 fusion. PMID:16217257

Bandrés, Eva; Malumbres, Raquel; Escalada, Alvaro; Cubedo, Elena; González, Iranzu; Honorato, Beatriz; Zarate, Ruth; García-Foncillas, Jesus; de Alava, Enrique

2005-10-01

248

A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3740 (United States)

2009-03-10

249

A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

2008-08-01

250

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability.

Shepherd, Seth D.

2003-09-01

251

Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. PMID:19833524

Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

2009-09-23

252

Information Operation and the Conduct of Land Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the implications of information operations (IO) on the U.S. Army's conduct of land warfare over the next decade. This transitional period from the experimental Force XXI to the digitized Army XXI offers many promises, potentials and ...

R. J. Bunker

1998-01-01

253

Public Relations as a weapon of modern warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public relations today is an essential part of modern warfare, and the recent war in the Persian Gulf provides an excellent public relations case study of its successful use. The author argues that in the war either history's most impressive use of military weapons, or history's most thorough use of words and images as weapons of war, or both were

Ray Hiebert

1991-01-01

254

The Terms of Engagement: Warfare, White Locality, and Abolition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay attempts to contextualize and theoretically resituate the state and state-ordained violences of different modalities of ‘warfare’ have been rendered mundane, acceptable, and banal within the American ‘domestic’ social formation in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. More precisely, it attempts to bring analytical and theoretical attention to how the organized subjection of racially pathologized social subjects is

Dylan Rodríguez

2010-01-01

255

Surface Warfare, May/June 2000. Volume 25, Number 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Support of the land battle has always been an important Surface Warfare mis- sion. From the earliest days, we've been there. But times change and advancements in technology allow us to do much more than just support the land battle; so we've expanded our ...

2000-01-01

256

Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive.The purpose of this study was to characterize the in

P. Rolland; M.-A. Bolzinger; C. Cruz; S. Briançon; D. Josse

257

Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use “simulants,” namely, analogous chemicals

J. Lavoie; Sree Srinivasan; R. Nagarajan

2011-01-01

258

Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

Cooper, Martha

259

Mass spectral data of precursors of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-impact mass spectral data of 50 possible precursors for the production of chemical warfare agents are presented in the form of an eight peak index. In addition to a brief description of the mass spectra of the precursors the relation with the agents is indicated.

Eric R. J. Wils

1990-01-01

260

Generations, Waves, and Epochs: Modes of Warfare and the RPMA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication of the article written by Col. Owen E. Jensen, USAF, entitled 'Information Warfare: Principles of Third-Wave War' in the Winter 1994 issue of Airpower Journal represents a significant event. Tofflerian concepts, which have gained so much c...

R. J. Bunker

1996-01-01

261

Performance analysis for standoff biological warfare agent detection lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lidar has been identified as a promising sensor for remote detection of biological warfare agents. Elastic lidar can be used for cloud detection at long ranges and UV laser induced fluorescence can be used for discrimination of bioaerosols against naturally occurring aerosols. This paper analyzes the performance of elastic lidar such as sensitivity, range and angular coverage rate vs. atmospheric

Ove Steinvall; Per Jonsson; Fredrik Kullander

2007-01-01

262

Military Bridging and Maneuver Warfare: Deficiencies and the Way Ahead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Marine Corps' concept of expeditionary maneuver warfare focuses on the 'ability to take action to generate and exploit some kind of advantage over the enemy as a means of accomplishing our objectives as effectively as possible.' This con...

J. L. Wagner

2008-01-01

263

International Law and Its Protection for Participants in Unconventional Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional warfare is governed by inter national law. In the context of the cold war, it must be con sidered in relation to both international and internal war. In international war, volunteers are lawful, as are troops belonging to an authority not recognized by the enemy. Guerrillas are lawful combatants if they belong to an organized resistance movement of a

Morris Greenspan

1962-01-01

264

Warfare, Aggression, and Resource Problems: Cross-Cultural Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and discusses codes for the Murdock\\/White (1969) sample societies. The codes measure warfare frequencies (internal, external, and overall); land and nonland resources taken during war; individual and socially organized aggression (homicide, assault, theft, trespass, suicide); and unpredictable and pre dictable resource problems

Carol R. Ember; Melvin Ember

1992-01-01

265

Organizational Climate Building and Cultural Integration in Coalition Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global changes in military affairs clearly predicate that U.S. strategic leaders must make a paradigm shift in the way they intend to prosecute warfare in the 21st Century. This study examines the relevance or value of organizational climate-building in a...

C. Easter

1996-01-01

266

Biomonitoring of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, confirmation of nonexposure, verification of nonadherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention, health surveillance,

D. Noort; H. P. Benschop; R. M. Black

2002-01-01

267

Information Technologies and the Future of Land Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the future of land warfare will be shaped by the rapidly expanding information technologies. In December 1993, RAND convened 18 researchers with expertise in the information sciences and military operations to brainstorm on the ways that fast-grow...

B. Nichiporuk C. H. Builder

1995-01-01

268

Network Centric Warfare Sensor Grid: A Short-Term Requirement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Network centric warfare (NCW) is a concept about which more and more is being written. One point regarding NCW that concept advocates stress is the value of a shift in importance away from platforms to networks. Despite this naval forces by the year 2010,...

J. Munn

2000-01-01

269

Surface Warfare Officer Career Development; An Analysis of Historical Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Officer Master File data were used to reconstruct and analyze the career paths of a sample of 1,084 year group 1958-1963 Surface Warfare Officers. Of particular concern were the developmental characteristics, apart from performance, which distinguished th...

W. H. Campbell

1980-01-01

270

Complete degradation of Yperite, a chemical warfare agent, by basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete degradation of Yperite (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide), a chemical warfare agent, was achieved by two basidiomycetous cultures. Two distinct metabolic pathways were detected in each fungus during degradation of Yperite. The major path involved a non-enzymatic hydrolysis to generate thiodiglycol. In the minor path, the sulfide bond was cleaved prior to the hydrolytic dechlorination reaction, yielding chloroethanol and chloromercaptoethane, both

Hiroyuki Wariishi; Noriyuki Itoh; Michiko Yoshida; Hiroo Tanaka

2002-01-01

271

Anzio to Libya: Strategic Direction in Coalition Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project will use the Allied landings at Anzio during World War II as a historical case study to analyze the importance and complexities of building coherent strategic direction in coalition warfare, as well as relate the conclusions to recent operati...

D. F. Morrissey

2012-01-01

272

Considering the Consequences of Space Warfare in the Geosynchronous Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today in the United States there is a rejuvenated push for space weapons and the restraint that was exercised regarding the military use of space during the Cold War is notably absent. This talk aims to demonstrate that space is an unacceptable arena for warfare based on the notion that fragment-generating attacks in space could cause irreparable damage to the

Caroline Reilly

2008-01-01

273

PBT screening profile of chemical warfare agents (CWAs).  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been used and disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts have been dumped in the Baltic Sea following the disarmament of Germany after World War II causing environmental concerns. There is a data gap pertaining to chemical warfare agents, environmental properties not the least their aquatic toxicities. Given this gap and the security limitations relating to working with these agents we applied Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) models in accordance with the European Technical Guidance Document (2003) to 22 parent CWA compounds and 27 known hydrolysis products. It was concluded that conservative use of EPI Suite (Q)SAR models can generate reliable and conservative estimations of chemical warfare agents acute aquatic toxicity. From an environmental screening point of view the organoarsenic chemical warfare agents Clark I and Adamsite comprise the most problematic of the screened CWA compounds warranting further investigation in relation to a site specific environmental risk assessment. The mustard gas agents (sulphur and nitrogen) and the organophosphorous CWAs (in particular Sarin and Soman) are a secondary category of concern based upon their toxicity alone. The undertaken approach generates reliable and conservative estimations for most of the studied chemicals but with some exceptions (e.g. the organophosphates). PMID:17374446

Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Peter B

2007-02-15

274

The Molecular Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare nerve agents continue to be a threat to both military personnel and civilian populations. Organophosphorus nerve agents irreversibly inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of high levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. This accumulation of ACh induces clinical symptoms including myosis, difficulty in breathing, convulsions, seizures, and can result in death. Current

Kimberly D. Spradling; James F. Dillman

2011-01-01

275

The dual inhibitory effect of thiostrepton on FoxM1 and EWS/FLI1 provides a novel therapeutic option for Ewing's sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The poor prognosis of Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS), together with its high lethal recurrence rate and the side-effects of current treatments, call for novel targeted therapies with greater curative effectiveness and substantially reduced side-effects. The oncogenic chimeric protein EWS/FLI1 is the key malignancy driver in most EWSs, regulating numerous target genes, many of which influence cell cycle progression. It has often been argued that targeting proteins regulated directly or indirectly by EWS/FLI1 may provide improved therapeutic options for EWS. In this context, our study examined FoxM1, a key cell cycle regulating transcription factor, reported to be expressed in EWS and influenced by EWS/FLI1. Thiostrepton, a naturally occurring small molecule, has been shown to selectively inhibit FoxM1 expression in cancer cells. We demonstrate that in EWS, in addition to inhibiting FoxM1 expression, thiostrepton downregulates the expression of EWS/FLI1, both at the mRNA and protein levels, leading to cell cycle arrest and, ultimately, to apoptotic cell death. We also show that thiostrepton treatment reduces the tumorigenicity of EWS cells, significantly delaying the growth of nude mouse xenograft tumors. Results from this study demonstrate a novel action of thiostrepton as inhibitor of the expression of the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein in vitro and in vivo, and that it shows greater efficacy against EWS than against other tumor types, as it is active on EWS cells and tumors at concentrations lower than those reported to have effective inhibitory activity on tumor cells derived from other cancers. Owing to the dual action of this small molecule, our findings suggest that thiostrepton may be particularly effective as a novel agent for the treatment of EWS patients.

SENGUPTA, ANIRUDDHA; RAHMAN, MAHBUBUR; MATEO-LOZANO, SILVIA; TIRADO, OSCAR M.; NOTARIO, VICENTE

2013-01-01

276

APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

1993-02-01

277

The history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism.  

PubMed

The inevitable conclusion is that the availability of biological warfare agents and supporting technologic infrastructure, coupled with the fact that there are many people motivated to do harm to the United States, means that America must be prepared to defend her homeland against biological agents. Some have argued to the contrary, that the threat and risks from a biological weapon attack are not to be considered serious, because [39]: They've not been used yet on a large scale so they probably won't be in the near future. Their use is so morally repugnant that they probably won't be used at all. The technologic hurdles associated with isolating, growing, purifying, weaponizing, and disseminating adequate quantities of pathologic agents are so high that only the most advanced laboratories could attempt the process. Similar to a 'nuclear winter,' the aftermath of a biological attack is so unthinkable that none would attempt it. Unfortunately, the trends associated with biotechnology globalization, terrorist group dynamics, and global/regional politics render these beliefs untenable and inappropriate, as recent events have underscored. To that end, the United States has accelerated its program of defense against biological weapons, as it must. Biological weapons are such dreadful weapons of uniqueness and complexity that a specific defense strategy is paramount. Elements of this program include pharmaceutical stockpiles, heightened surveillance systems, energized vaccine development programs, and comprehensive training initiatives. Although the depth and breadth of these efforts are unprecedented, above all these efforts is the absolute necessity for medical and public health care professionals to be educated and actively involved. These professionals are the sine qua non of future defensive readiness. This is just the start; unfortunately, there is no end yet in sight. PMID:12120479

Noah, Donald L; Huebner, Kermit D; Darling, Robert G; Waeckerle, Joseph F

2002-05-01

278

Law of Armed Conflict and Information Warfare-How Does the Rule Regarding Reprisals Apply to an Information Warfare Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The question of how to characterize an information warfare attack, particularly what is known as a hacker attack: has not been fully developed. It must be, though, in order to understand how a nation can respond to it. This paper explores applicable tenet...

D. M. Vadnais

1997-01-01

279

Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended\\u000a for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic\\u000a Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser\\u000a detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m

William Ortiz-Rivera; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2010-01-01

280

High-sensitivity determination of the degradation products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis–indirect UV absorbance detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary electrophoresis coupled with indirect UV absorbance detection was employed for the determination of the chemical warfare agent degradation products: methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonate, isopropyl methylphosphonate, and pinacolyl methylphosphonate. Glutamic acid was used as a buffering agent at its isoelectric point (pH 3.22). In its zwitterionic form, glutamic acid does not act as a competing co-anion in the system, thus

Jeremy E. Melanson; Brian L.-Y. Wong; Camille A. Boulet; Charles A. Lucy

2001-01-01

281

BCL11B Is Up-Regulated by EWS/FLI and Contributes to the Transformed Phenotype in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The EWS/FLI translocation product is the causative oncogene in Ewing sarcoma and acts as an aberrant transcription factor. EWS/FLI dysregulates gene expression during tumorigenesis by abnormally activating or repressing genes. The expression levels of thousands of genes are affected in Ewing sarcoma, however, it is unknown which of these genes contribute to the transformed phenotype. Here we characterize BCL11B as an up-regulated EWS/FLI target that is necessary for the maintenance of transformation in patient derived Ewing sarcoma cells lines. BCL11B, a zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a transcriptional repressor in Ewing’s sarcoma and contributes to the EWS/FLI repressed gene signature. BCL11B repressive activity is mediated by the NuRD co-repressor complex. We further demonstrate that re-expression of SPRY1, a repressed target of BCL11B, limits the transformation capacity of Ewing sarcoma cells. These data define a new pathway downstream of EWS/FLI required for oncogenic maintenance in Ewing sarcoma.

Wiles, Elizabeth T.; Lui-Sargent, Bianca; Bell, Russell; Lessnick, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

282

Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) as a probe of macromolecule adsorption kinetics at functionalized interfaces.  

PubMed

Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) has been employed to study the interfacial adsorption kinetics of coumarin-tagged macromolecules onto a range of functionalized planar surfaces. Such studies are valuable in designing polymers for complex systems where the degree of interaction between the polymer and surface needs to be tailored. Three tagged synthetic polymers with different functionalities are examined: poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, potassium salt) (PSPMA), and a mannose-modified glycopolymer. Adsorption transients at the silica/water interface are found to be characteristic for each polymer, and kinetics are deduced from the initial rates. The chemistry of the adsorption interfaces has been varied by, first, manipulation of silica surface chemistry via the bulk pH, followed by surfaces modified by poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA) and cellulose, giving five chemically different surfaces. Complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has been used for additional surface characterization of adsorbed layers and functionalized interfaces to allow adsorption rates to be interpreted more fully. Adsorption rates for PSPMA and the glycopolymer are seen to be highly surface sensitive, with significantly higher rates on cellulose-modified surfaces, whereas PAA shows a much smaller rate dependence on the nature of the adsorption surface. PMID:22489550

O'Connell, Michael A; de Cuendias, Anne; Gayet, Florence; Shirley, Ian M; Mackenzie, Stuart R; Haddleton, David M; Unwin, Patrick R

2012-04-19

283

Late Triassic-early Jurassic block tilting along E-W faults, in southern Tunisia: New interpretation of the Tebaga of Medenine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tebaga of Medenine is a puzzling structure situated at the northern edge of the Jeffara plain in southern Tunisia. It presents the unique outcropping marine Permian sequence in Africa as well as spectacular angular unconformities related to Mesozoic tectono-sedimentary events. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this structure but some questions still remain. We present the result of an integrated study of the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the region, based on new field work and a reassessment of some subsurface data. We propose a new structural hypothesis in which the Tebaga of Medenine is interpreted as resulting from large scale block tilting, mainly controlled by inherited E-W major faults, the Azizia fault system. These E-W faults running along the Jeffara plain may represent inherited structural features in relation with deep faulting in the Paleozoic substratum. This rifting occurring during late Triassic up to the end of early Jurassic, is finally integrated in the general frame of the East Mediterranean.

Raulin, Camille; Lamotte, Dominique Frizon De; Bouaziz, Samir; Khomsi, Sami; Mouchot, Nicolas; Ruiz, Geoffrey; Guillocheau, François

2011-08-01

284

Rapid screening of precursor and degradation products of chemical warfare agents in soil by solid-phase microextraction ion mobility spectrometry (SPME–IMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to detect precursor and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as soil contaminants was investigated. The development and characterization of a system to interface a thermal desorption solid-phase microextraction inlet with a hand held ion mobility spectrometer was demonstrated. The analytes used in this study were diisopropyl

Preshious Rearden; Peter B. Harrington

2005-01-01

285

In-line respeciation: an ion-exchange ion chromatographic method applied to the separation of degradation products of chemical warfare nerve agents in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural background of anions encountered when analyzing soil samples by ion chromatography (IC) present significant problems in the separation, detection and quantification of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA), the degradation products of sarin, a chemical warfare nerve agent. Using chemically-suppressed IC with conductivity detection, a commercially available ion-exchange column, and an isocratic binary eluent system, IMPA

W. David Vermillion; Michael D. Crenshaw

1997-01-01

286

Biological Warfare Defense Vaccine Research & Development Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 190-page .pdf document, dated July 2001 but released online September 7, 2001 by the US Department of Defense (DoD), gives the latest status of biological warfare defense vaccine development. The DoD assembled a panel of experts in the scientific, regulatory, and industrial aspects of vaccine production and in federal procurement to review the topic. They concluded that the scope and complexity of the DoD biological warfare defense vaccine requirements were too great for either the DoD or the pharmaceutical industry to accomplish alone. The first part of this online report is an executive summary from the DoD, followed by the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act For Fiscal Year 2001, and finally the independent panel's full report, Department of Defense Acquisition of Vaccine Production, of December 2000. Sections of the dense, 167-page report include financial and personnel resource requirements, policies, findings, and recommendations.

2001-01-01

287

Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa  

PubMed Central

On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de’ Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de’ Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event.

2002-01-01

288

Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil\\u000a and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can\\u000a be detected with GC\\/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds\\u000a can be determined with GC\\/ECD.\\u000a \\u000a The comparison of the

Rainer Haas; Alfred Krippendorf

1997-01-01

289

Massively MultiPlayer (MMP) Environments for Asymmetric Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that the Army needs a high-level training capability for asymmetric missions. Current training programs are focused on conventional warfare and are mainly limited to units that are co-located. Where training capability exists, the scenarios have limited interactivity and fail to address a variety of cross-cultural communication issues that troops encounter in the real world. U.S. Army's

Michelle Mayo; Michael J. Singer; Laura Kusumoto

2005-01-01

290

Massively MultiPlayer (MMP) Environments for Asymmetric Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that the Army needs a high-level training capability for asymmetric missions. Current training programs are focused on conventional warfare and are mainly limited to units that are co-located. Where training capability exists, the scenarios have limited interactivity and fail to address a variety of cross-cultural communication issues that troops encounter in the real world.U.S. Army's Research,

Michelle Mayo; Michael J. Singer; Laura Kusumoto

2006-01-01

291

Disposing of chemical warfare agents and munitions stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

There are at least two important reasons to dispose of US chemical warfare agents and munitions stockpiles without deliberate delay. One is the laudable intent to rid the world of these dangerous weapons of mass destruction. The other is the pragmatic observation that the aging stockpile is becoming increasingly dangerous for US citizens. In terms of laudable intent, the United States has an opportunity to lead by example, and as for the threat to its citizens, it has the obligation to act responsibly.

Peterson, C.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-06-01

292

Proximal detection of chemical warfare agents using PMIRRAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-contact chemical warfare agent detection has been demonstrated on military painted surfaces using polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS). Notably, VX has been detected on chemical agent resistance coating (CARC) paint at a distance of approximately 10 cm. PMIRRAS does not rely on the presence of chemical vapors and is not affected by many common battlefield interferants such as aerosolized dust, water and diesel vapors, etc., making it highly suitable for use in operational environments.

Petryk, Michael W. P.; Marenco, Armando J.

2010-04-01

293

Decomposition of hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents using photoactivated periodate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanism of periodate and photoactivated periodate oxidation of the hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents (HCWAs), thiodiglycol (TDG), 3,3-dithiopropanol (TDP), and 1,4-thioxane (TX), were investigated at pH 3, pH 7, and pH 10 under dark (in the absence of light) and monochromatic UV light irradiation. Dark reactions occurred by oxygen addition to sulfur atoms in HCWAs at pH

Xueming Tang; Linda K. Weavers

2007-01-01

294

Eighty years of the threat and use of chemical warfare: the medical-organizational challenge.  

PubMed

The threat of using chemical warfare (CW) by countries ruled by dictators and totalitarian governments still exists despite the Geneva Convention of 1925 that prohibited the use of CW. This situation forces nations and their armed forces to be in a state of preparedness in the event of a CW attack. A CW attack on an unprotected civilian population in a dense urban area can cause numerous casualities and become a mass disaster. However, this danger may be significantly reduced by: a) providing collective and individual protective measures, b) training the population in the use of protective measures, and c) early warning to provide sufficient lead time to use the various components of protection. Coping with a nonconventional warfare threat requires an innovative approach in the organization of the health care delivery system so as to maximize the number of survivors. The fact that the population is protected may deter the enemy from using CW since the potential destructive impact of CW is neutralized or at least reduced. PMID:1757231

Shemer, J; Danon, Y L

295

Packed capillary liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packed capillary column liquid chromatography (LC)–electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for the first time to detect and identify four common organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in aqueous samples. Aqueous samples containing the organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in the 0.01 to 0.1 mg\\/ml range were analyzed directly by packed capillary LC–ESI-MS with the chemical warfare agents and several minor related impurities

P. A. D’Agostino; J. R. Hancock; L. R. Provost

1999-01-01

296

Upregulation of Id2, an oncogenic helix-loop-helix protein, is mediated by the chimeric EWS\\/ets protein in Ewing sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal translocation specifically linked to the Ewing sarcoma family results in the generation of fusion proteins comprising the amino terminal portion of EWS and the DNA-binding domain of ets transcription factors. The EWS\\/ets chimeric proteins act as aberrant transcription factors leading to tumorigenic processes. We searched for genes specifically activated in Ewing sarcoma cells but not in other tumor

Mariko Fukuma; Hajime Okita; Jun-ichi Hata; Akihiro Umezawa

2003-01-01

297

Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and tissue distribution of EW135, a novel chicken egg white protein with group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains.  

PubMed

Approximately 80 proteins are reported to be present in chicken egg white. The major function of egg white proteins isolated so far is to defend the egg yolk against infections. We recently isolated a novel protein termed EW135 from chicken egg white. In this paper, we have determined the complete amino acid sequence of EW135 based on cDNA cloning. EW135 consists of 970 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. It is composed exclusively of tandem repeats of nine group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains separated by eight seven-amino acid peptides. The features of consensus sequences found in the group B SRCR domain were well conserved in EW135. The EW135 gene consists of putative 11 exons, with each SRCR domain being encoded by a single exon. Reverse transcription PCR showed that EW135 is expressed in only the oviduct among the 11 types of tissues tested. EW135 is a second soluble protein belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily identified in chickens. One of the important functions of proteins belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily is to recognize pathogens in innate immunity. It is, therefore, conceivable that EW135 could be involved in host defense in egg white. PMID:23913278

Yoo, Whayoung; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Asanuma, Hideki; Matsushita, Misao

2013-08-03

298

Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) induction by the EWS/NOR1(NR4A3) fusion protein  

SciTech Connect

The NR4A3 nuclear receptor (also known as NOR1) is involved in tumorigenesis by the t(9;22) chromosome translocation encoding the EWS/NOR1 fusion protein found in approximately 75% of all cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC). Several observations suggest that one role of EWS/NOR1 in tumorigenesis may be to deregulate the expression of specific target genes. We have shown previously that constitutive expression of EWS/NOR1 in CFK2 fetal rat chondrogenic cells induces their transformation as measured by growth beyond confluency and growth in soft agar. To identify genes regulated by the fusion protein in this model, we have generated a CFK2 cell line in which the expression of EWS/NOR1 is controlled by tetracycline. Using the differential display technique, we have identified the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) mRNA as being up-regulated in the presence of EWS/NOR1. Co-immunocytochemistry confirmed over-expression of the SGK1 protein in cells expressing EWS/NOR1. Significantly, immunohistochemistry of 10 EMC tumors positive for EWS/NOR1 showed that all of them over-express the SGK1 protein in contrast to non-neoplastic cells in the same biopsies and various other sarcoma types. These results strongly suggest that SGK1 may be a genuine in vivo target of EWS/NOR1 in EMC.

Poulin, Hugo [Human and Molecular Genetic Research Unit, Saint-Francois d'Assise Hospital, CHUQ, Que., G1L 3L5 (Canada); Laval University Faculty of Medicine, Que., G1K 7P4 (Canada); Filion, Christine [Human and Molecular Genetic Research Unit, Saint-Francois d'Assise Hospital, CHUQ, Que., G1L 3L5 (Canada); Ladanyi, Marc [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 10021 (United States); Labelle, Yves [Human and Molecular Genetic Research Unit, Saint-Francois d'Assise Hospital, CHUQ, Que., G1L 3L5 (Canada) and Laval University Faculty of Medicine, Que., G1K 7P4 (Canada)]. E-mail: yves.labelle@bcx.ulaval.ca

2006-07-21

299

Identification of a DNA-binding site and transcriptional target for the EWS-WT1(+KTS) oncoprotein  

PubMed Central

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is defined by a chimeric transcription factor, resulting from fusion of the N-terminal domain of the Ewing's sarcoma gene EWS to the three C-terminal zinc fingers of the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1. Although DNA-binding sites have been defined for the uninterrupted WT1 zinc finger domains, the most prevalent isoforms of both WT1 and EWS–WT1 have an insertion of three amino acids [lysine, threonine, and serine (KTS)], which abrogates binding to known consensus sequences and transactivation of known target genes. Here, we used cDNA subtractive hybridization to identify an endogenous gene, LRRC15, which is specifically up-regulated after inducible expression of EWS–WT1(+KTS) in cancer cell lines, and is expressed within primary DSRCT cells. The chimeric protein binds in vitro and in vivo to a specific element upstream of LRRC15, leading to dramatic transcriptional activation. Mutagenesis studies define the optimal binding site of the (+KTS) isoform of EWS–WT1 as 5?-GGAGG(A/G)-3?. LRRC15 encodes a leucine-rich transmembrane protein, present at the leading edge of migrating cells, the expression of which in normal tissues is restricted to the invasive cytotrophoblast layer of the placenta; small interfering (siRNA)-mediated suppression of LRRC15 expression in breast cancer cells leads to abrogation of invasiveness in vitro. Together, these observations define the consequence of (KTS) insertion within WT1-derived zinc fingers, and identify a novel EWS–WT1 transcriptional target implicated in tumor invasiveness.

Reynolds, Paul A.; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Palmer, Rachel E.; Sgroi, Dennis; Yajnik, Vijay; Gerald, William L.; Haber, Daniel A.

2003-01-01

300

Electromagnetic modeling & simulation for assessing hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel (HERP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power radiating systems such as communications and Electronic Warfare (EW) systems are a crucial part of all current military platforms. EW systems provide protection for the soldiers against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). These systems comprise of high-power radiating antennas placed on the roof of the platform, often in close proximity to other antennas, systems and humans. This paper presents

M. Lazzaro

2010-01-01

301

Analysis of the Proposed Surface Warfare Officer Career Incentive Pay (SWOCIP) Program Using an Annualized Cost of Living (ACOL) Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the effect of the proposed Surface Warfare Officer Career Incentive Pay (SWOCIP) program on the voluntary separation behavior of Navy surface warfare officers using an Annualized Cost of Leaving (ACOL) model. Data provided by the ...

D. E. Nosal

1997-01-01

302

[Early dissemination of information: an essential ingredient in the prevention of biological warfare].  

PubMed

A primary prevention program is the most efficient component in the protection against biological warfare. This paper presents the early dissemination of information to the public and the interpretation of the biological threat as an essential ingredient in such a prevention program. This critical ingredient may dictate the success or failure of the protective actions. Early exposition of the threat to the public and explanation of its traits and direction to the coping process leads the public to adaptive coping behavior, thus ensuring lower prevalence of somatic and psychological casualties. The lack of such early detailed information about both the threat and the direction for coping behavior may lead to unadaptive behavior and a potential high prevalence of physical and psychic casualties, far beyond the treatment capacity of the medical system. Furthermore, it may lead to mistrust in the leadership, followed by the disintegration of the social system and the democracy. PMID:12170563

Noy, Shabtai

2002-05-01

303

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) lab currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares, and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9' X 3' cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and in the foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for proper spatial and intensity characteristics. All relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

Shepherd, Seth D.

2001-08-01

304

Chemical warfare protective clothing: identification of performance limitations and their possible solution  

SciTech Connect

The major factors that contribute to the increased thermal burden imposed by chemical warfare (CW) protective clothing are the insulation characteristics (clo) and the evaporative impedance (im) of the material; and, increased levels of energy expenditure for performing physical exercise while wearing these clothing systems. An approach to alleviating heat stress is through the use of auxiliary cooling. A number of prototype microclimate cooling systems at employ either air-cooled or liquid-cooled vests were shown to be effective in reducing soldier heat strain during exercise while wearing CW protective clothing in hot environments. This Institute also developed the ability to predict the thermal strain, water requirements, tolerance time, and optimal work-rest ratios for soldiers exercising in CW protective clothing in a wide variety of environmental conditions.

Pandolf, K.B.; Allan, A.E.; Gozalez, R.R.; Sawka, M.N.; Stroschein, L.A.

1987-01-27

305

Warfare command decision making analysis of information support based on Lanchester equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper researches a class of warfare command decision making problems of dissymmetrical information support, Based on the features of dissymmetrical information war, we develop a corresponding warfare command decision making model by using Lanchester equation. Proper military principle which can transform the battlefield situation is analyzed quantitatively. The analysis model and the proposed approach may reflect the effect of

Jiang Nan; Chen Xiangyong; Hou Chunming; Jing Yuanwei

2010-01-01

306

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current

F. G. Trummer; B. L. Twining

1991-01-01

307

Exploratory Study: Female Surface Warfare Officers' Decisions to Leave Their Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this exploratory study was to discover the reasons that female Surface Warfare Officers (SWO) leave the Surface Warfare Officer Community and to identify paths that might encourage them to stay. Seven focus groups and nine interviews were u...

S. L. Graham

2006-01-01

308

WOOD MADE DECONTAMINABLE OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AFTER SUNLIGHT WEATHERING OR ABRASION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of making wood decontaminable of major chemical warfare agents were investigated using phenol-formaldehyde and polyurethane resins. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resins impregnated in southern yellow pine gave enhanced dimensional stability and fire resistance properties without decreasing strength properties, but the decontaminability for one major chemical warfare agent was inadequate. Selected polyurethane resins impregnated in southern yellow pine gave enhanced dimensional stability

Moon G. Kim; C. U. Pittman Jr; D. D. Nicholas; T. P. Schultz; L. L. Ingram Jr; F. R. A. Kabir; L. Wang; Y. Wu; L. Wasson; M. Ivankoe

2001-01-01

309

Integrated Warfare Requirements Methodology (IWRM). Phase I--feasibility study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Warfare Requirements Methodology (IWRM) Feasibility Study was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing an integrated warfare requirements methodology, using currently available simulations, capable of supporting as European FY90 integrated requirements study programmed to begin in January 1983. This report provides the results of the feasibility study and culminates Phase I - Methodology Feasibility Study of IWRM.

Makowski, P.; Gamble, S.J.; Beard, J.R.; Bruce, C.; Graves, H.K.

1981-05-29

310

Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area. PMID:20686476

Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

2010-08-04

311

Network Centric Warfare - Death or Renaissance of the Operational Art and the Operational Level of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Network Centric Warfare is clearly the next great revolution in warfare but it is certainly not going to be the death of the operational level of war. NCW will change our military and has already begun to reduce levels of command at the tactical level. Bu...

T. L. Day

2005-01-01

312

Impact of Mine Warfare upon U.S. Naval Operations during the Civil War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the impact of Confederate naval mine warfare against the operations of the U.S. Navy during the Civil War. Mine warfare was a cost effective method for the Confederacy to defend its long coastline and inland waterways. A wide varie...

E. D. Lindgren

1994-01-01

313

Violence With a Conscience: Religiosity and Moral Certainty as Predictors of Support for Violent Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Emerging research on the moral licensing effect implies that increasing a person's moral certainty may decrease concerns about the moral consequences of violent warfare. Therefore, if religion increases moral certainty, then it may also contribute to support for violent warfare. The present experiment tested the extent to which religion's contribution to moral certainty explains participants' support for the United

Moira Shaw; Stephanie A. Quezada; Michael A. Zárate

2011-01-01

314

Are Americans and Their Cultural Values Adaptable to the Concept and Techniques of Unconventional Warfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations of values to unconventional warfare may be analyzed at three levels: decision-making and policy at the national level, generalized public opinion, formation and use of special military forces. The main American values are not incompatible with unconventional warfare at the opera tional level, but conflicts of values do result in uncertainty and ambiguity in national policy. Certain common beliefs

Robin M. Williams

1962-01-01

315

Will Network-Centric Warfare be the Death Knell for Allied/Coalition Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Navy is undergoing a shift in its focus from platform- centric to network-centric warfare in the coming century. Enabled by the recent advances in information technology, network-centric warfare connects widely dispersed platforms into a robust n...

B. A. Geraghty

1999-01-01

316

The United States and biological warfare: Secrets from the early cold war and Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting

André Bruwer

2001-01-01

317

Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1/15Deg and 1/30/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and 3.7 km, respectively). The model grid covers the Baltic from 9.3 to 24.6E and from 53.0 to 60.2N. The Transport module of the model takes the predetermined velocity field and uses the random walk technique to predict the motion of individual particles, the sum of which constitutes a consid- ered chemical agent. Several different approaches for modeling are used for different kind of chemical agents. Basic processes affecting the chemicals to be modeled are hydrolysis, solubility, and microbiological destruction. All available toxicity data re- garding the chemical warfare agents of primary concern and the expected degradation products in the Baltic environment were gathered and summarized. This information was used to compare the toxicities of the different agents and their degradation prod- ucts and to decide which chemicals may represent a toxic threat to the environment. The model was adapted to be used for chemical agents with various characteristics and behavior (as Sarin, Lewsite, Musturd, etc.) in seawaters. Special algorithms are developed to describe nonlinear reactions producing toxic and nontoxic products in result of the warfare agent destruction. Sources of chemical pollution in the sea are considered as steady state (chronic) point and/or distributed releases because princi- pally different two methods were used in dumping CW: 1) concentrated dumping of containers, shells, and bombs together with ships; 2) dispersed dumping of individual containers, shells and aircraft bombs from moving vessels. The model was run with four most recurrent climatic wind fields for the Bornholm and Gotland damping sites. The results are compared with estimations obtained before by other researchers. Ways to implement the model in real-time forecasting system are discussed. The system will allow the prediction of concentrations and scales of possible pollution zone in resulting from real leakages might happen in locations of dumping.

Korotenko, K. A.

318

An introduction to the physics of underwater sound and their application to passive anti-submarine warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The need has been recognized for a thorough understanding of the basic principles of underwater sound, as the primary phenomenon governing the application of passive antisubmarine warfare. The author describes the basics of underwater acoustics and its association with the undersea warfare effort. He presents some highlights of the present state-of-the-art applications in passive antisubmarine warfare

D. K. Roderick

1988-01-01

319

Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents

Yong C. Hong; Jeong H. Kim; Han S. Uhm

2004-01-01

320

Mapping Vesta Equatorial Quadrangle V-10EW: Identification of Dark (Volcanic?) Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-10EW. This quadrangle, located between ±22 degrees and 288-360 degrees E, is dominated by three adjacent large impact craters, whose bright ejecta partially cover a dark terrain reminiscent of buried lunar basaltic material. We are using FC stereo and VIR spectroscopic data to assess whether the dark terrain consists of ancient basaltic material versus other possibilities (e.g., remains of a carbonaceous meteorite, basaltic ejecta, etc.). This quadrangle also contains an enigmatic positive-relief edifice with a central depression and adjacent field of dark material; possible hypotheses for origin of the edifice include the remains of an ancient volcano, a mountain cover by dark ejecta, heavily cratered landscape, or other possibilities. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Garry, W. B.; Buczkowski, D.; McCord, T. B.; Combe, J.; Schenk, P.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Bleacher, J. E.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Reddy, V.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Marchi, S.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Ammannito, E.

2011-12-01

321

Signature-Based Small Molecule Screening Identifies Cytosine Arabinoside as an EWS/FLI Modulator in Ewing Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of tumor-specific mutations in the cancer genome represents a potential opportunity for pharmacologic intervention to therapeutic benefit. Unfortunately, many classes of oncoproteins (e.g., transcription factors) are not amenable to conventional small-molecule screening. Despite the identification of tumor-specific somatic mutations, most cancer therapy still utilizes nonspecific, cytotoxic drugs. One illustrative example is the treatment of Ewing sarcoma. Although the EWS/FLI oncoprotein, present in the vast majority of Ewing tumors, was characterized over ten years ago, it has never been exploited as a target of therapy. Previously, this target has been intractable to modulation with traditional small-molecule library screening approaches. Here we describe a gene expression–based approach to identify compounds that induce a signature of EWS/FLI attenuation. We hypothesize that screening small-molecule libraries highly enriched for FDA-approved drugs will provide a more rapid path to clinical application. Methods and Findings A gene expression signature for the EWS/FLI off state was determined with microarray expression profiling of Ewing sarcoma cell lines with EWS/FLI-directed RNA interference. A small-molecule library enriched for FDA-approved drugs was screened with a high-throughput, ligation-mediated amplification assay with a fluorescent, bead-based detection. Screening identified cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) as a modulator of EWS/FLI. ARA-C reduced EWS/FLI protein abundance and accordingly diminished cell viability and transformation and abrogated tumor growth in a xenograft model. Given the poor outcomes of many patients with Ewing sarcoma and the well-established ARA-C safety profile, clinical trials testing ARA-C are warranted. Conclusions We demonstrate that a gene expression–based approach to small-molecule library screening can identify, for rapid clinical testing, candidate drugs that modulate previously intractable targets. Furthermore, this is a generic approach that can, in principle, be applied to the identification of modulators of any tumor-associated oncoprotein in the rare pediatric malignancies, but also in the more common adult cancers.

Stegmaier, Kimberly; Wong, Jenny S; Ross, Kenneth N; Chow, Kwan T; Peck, David; Wright, Renee D; Lessnick, Stephen L; Kung, Andrew L; Golub, Todd R

2007-01-01

322

Gulf legacy: warfare in the information age  

Microsoft Academic Search

How a worldwide network of satellites, spy planes, computers, and databases united in support of some revolutionary weapons in the Persian Gulf War is described. The nature of and role played by the coalition's information architecture, and its growth and operation, are examined. The system, which loosely fit under what the Pentagon calls command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I),

J. A. Adam

1991-01-01

323

Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.  

PubMed

It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans. PMID:12943034

Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

2003-08-01

324

Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator (AFEWES) Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, point-source flares and lamp- and LASER-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include missile seeker hardware mounted on a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. This paper will focus on recent developments and upgrades to the AFEWES IR capability. In particular, current developments in IR scene generation/projection and efforts to optically combining the IR image produced by a resistive array with existing foreground lamp sources.

Jackson, Hank D., II; Shepherd, Seth D.

2004-08-01

325

NLO EW and QCD proton–proton cross section calculations with mcsanc-v1.01  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mcsanc is a Monte Carlo tool based on the SANC (Support for Analytic and Numeric Calculations for experiments at colliders) modules for higher order calculations in hadron collider physics. It allows to evaluate NLO QCD and EW cross sections for Drell–Yan processes (inclusive), associated Higgs and gauge boson production and single-top quark production in s- and t-channels. The paper contains theoretical description of the SANC approach, numerical validations and manual.

Bondarenko, Sergey G.; Sapronov, Andrey A.

2013-10-01

326

Chemical warfare agent detectors probe the fogs of war  

SciTech Connect

The air-power-dominated Persian Gulf War was the largest massing of coalition forces since World War II. This short conflict left its own intriguing legacy of unanswered questions. Were chemical weapons used in the theater of war Some US Allies, many US service members, and a US Senator believe they were. Yet both US and U.K. defense establishments offer emphatic denials. If Saddam Hussein didn't use chemical weapons, how can the multitude of warning alarms that sounded, alarms indicating the presence of these warfare agents, be explained Did the chemical warfare (CW) agent monitors and detectors the US deployed operate properly And were they sensitive enough to detect not just militarily significant levels, for which troops would have had to don full protective gear, but also very low concentrations of these weapons, levels that Sen. Richard C. Shelby (D.-Ala.) believes may be responsible for the illnesses many Gulf War veterans are now experiencing In this paper, the author addressed these questions.

Ember, L.R. (C EN, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-08-01

327

Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.

2000-04-01

328

Considering the Consequences of Space Warfare in the Geosynchronous Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today in the United States there is a rejuvenated push for space weapons and the restraint that was exercised regarding the military use of space during the Cold War is notably absent. This talk aims to demonstrate that space is an unacceptable arena for warfare based on the notion that fragment-generating attacks in space could cause irreparable damage to the hundreds of satellites orbiting the Earth, particularly in the invaluable geosynchronous region. In an effort to highlight the drawbacks of space weapons, a simulation entitled GeoPell modelled the consequences of a kinetic energy ``pellet cluster'' attack initiated at the geostationary altitude. The worst-case estimate predicted by GeoPell indicated that within two years of placing the cluster of one million pellets into a retrograde geostationary orbit and subsequently dispersing the pellets with a bursting charge, almost every geosynchronous satellite would be destroyed. Thus, the technical consequences of this hypothetical space attack suggest space weapons and warfare should be avoided due to the detrimental effects such weapons would have on the orbital environment. Cooperative restraint-based measures, possibly in the form of a ban on space weapons testing and deployment, are necessary to salvage the final frontier.

Reilly, Caroline

2008-04-01

329

Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare  

PubMed Central

Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species.

Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

2011-01-01

330

High ALDH Activity Identifies Chemotherapy-Resistant Ewing's Sarcoma Stem Cells That Retain Sensitivity to EWS-FLI1 Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer stem cells are a chemotherapy-resistant population capable of self-renewal and of regenerating the bulk tumor, thereby causing relapse and patient death. Ewing's sarcoma, the second most common form of bone tumor in adolescents and young adults, follows a clinical pattern consistent with the Cancer Stem Cell model – remission is easily achieved, even for patients with metastatic disease, but relapse remains frequent and is usually fatal. Methodology/Principal Findings We have isolated a subpopulation of Ewing's sarcoma cells, from both human cell lines and human xenografts grown in immune deficient mice, which express high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHhigh) activity and are enriched for clonogenicity, sphere-formation, and tumor initiation. The ALDHhigh cells are resistant to chemotherapy in vitro, but this can be overcome by the ATP binding cassette transport protein inhibitor, verapamil. Importantly, these cells are not resistant to YK-4-279, a small molecule inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 that is selectively toxic to Ewing's sarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/Significance Ewing's sarcoma contains an ALDHhigh stem-like population of chemotherapy-resistant cells that retain sensitivity to EWS-FLI1 inhibition. Inhibiting the EWS-FLI1 oncoprotein may prove to be an effective means of improving patient outcomes by targeting Ewing's sarcoma stem cells that survive standard chemotherapy.

Gul, Naheed; Katuri, Varalakshmi; O'Neill, Alison; Kong, Yali; Brown, Milton L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Loeb, David M.

2010-01-01

331

Chemical warfare: Implications for Operation Desert Storm and beyond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the potential for use of lethal and incapacitating chemical agents in the Persian Gulf. Insight from past chemical warfare case studies, current international law, and U.S. and Soviet policy, strategy and tactics provide a basis for examination of Iraq's chemical warfare potential and operational strategy. In addition, a survey of Naval War College students assesses the current U.S. Armed Forces level of chemical warfare readiness. This analysis combined with the U.S. experience and current war with Iraq as well as proposing a more viable operational capability to meet stated national policy in response to chemical weapons.

Trummer, F.G.; Twining, B.L.

1991-02-11

332

Small Interfering RNAs Expressed from a Pol III Promoter Suppress the EWS\\/Fli-1 Transcript in an Ewing Sarcoma Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EWS\\/Fli-1 fusion gene encodes an oncogenic fusion protein. The fusion is a product of the translocation t(11;22) (q24;q12), which is detected in 85% of Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells. Utilizing intracellularly expressed 21- to 23-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the EWS\\/Fli-1 fusion transcript in an Ewing sarcoma cell line, we achieved a greater than 80% reduction

Taikoh Dohjima; Nan Sook Lee; Haitang Li; Takatoshi Ohno; John J. Rossi

2003-01-01

333

Biological warfare training. Infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increase, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current emphasis of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the capability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, while perhaps not pathognomic for a biological attack when considered singly, may in combination with other attributes provide convincing evidence for intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:10681967

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1999-01-01

334

Biological warfare training: infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increases, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current period of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the ability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, although perhaps not pathognomonic for a biological attack when considered singly, may combine to provide convincing evidence of intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:9575761

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1998-04-01

335

Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.

2012-05-01

336

Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach  

PubMed Central

As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side.

2010-01-01

337

Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

2000-04-12

338

Factors influencing the sustained-performance capabilities of 155-mm howitzer sections in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Factors that limit the performance capabilities of sustained artillery operations in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments were studied. The results show that perceptions of psychological (mental) fatigue, rather than perceptions of muscular fatigue, were primary factors affecting sustained artillery performance. Furthermore, variations in these psychological states were correlated with artillery task performance during the period. In the simulated chemical warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant perosnality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

Rauch, T.M.; Banderet, L.E.; Tharion, W.J.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.

1986-04-01

339

Stochastic design of an early warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning systems (EWS) are monitoring devices designed to avoid or to mitigate the impact posed by a threat. Since EWS are time-sensitive or stochastic, it is necessary to develop a design methodology that defines the integration of the participating monitoring information sources, the identification of potential warning thresholds, and the assessment of the associated risk within an explicit causal

Zenon Medina-Cetina; Farrokh Nadim

2008-01-01

340

Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical warfare agents are potential threats to military personnel and civilians. The potential for associated traumatic injuries is significant. Damage control surgery could expose medical personnel to agents contaminating the wounds. The objectives of ...

J. P. Bonar J. S. Graham R. J. Fugo T. P. Logan T. W. Gerlach

2008-01-01

341

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress. Updated December 23, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statements from Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and other Department of Defense (DOD) officials suggest that DOD budgets in FY2010 and subsequent fiscal years will place a certain amount of emphasis on capabilities for conducting irregular warfare (IW) ...

R. O'Rourke

2009-01-01

342

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress, March 31, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) is placing an increased planning and budgeting emphasis on irregular warfare (IW) operations, such as counterinsurgency operations. In addition, counterterrorism (CT) operations have been a DOD area of emphasis since the te...

R. O'Rourke

2010-01-01

343

Information Sharing Between Platforms in DRDC's Networked Underwater Warfare Demonstration Trial.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final demonstration trial of Defence R&D Canada's (DRDC) Networked Underwater Warfare (NUW) Technology Demonstration Project (TDP) brought together 4 vessels and a reach-back centre to develop, maintain and share a single operating picture while perfo...

M. Lefrancois

2011-01-01

344

Biological Warfare Improved Response Program (BW-IRP) CDC/DoD Smallpox Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In March 1995 members of the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo attacked the Tokyo subway with the chemical warfare nerve agent sarin. The incident captured international headlines sensitizing governmental leaders around the world to the possibilities of the ter...

S. Adler E. Ayala T. Dixon R. Kussman P. Lowry

2005-01-01

345

Development of Nanocrystalline Zeolite Materials for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this research is to use novel nanocrystalline zeolite materials synthesized in our laboratories for the decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). A wide range of macroscopic and microscopic tools have been used to evaluate t...

S. C. Larsen V. H. Grassian

2008-01-01

346

Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. ...

A. Love C. J. Koester G. A. Keating L. Hobbs R. J. Kendall S. B. Cox S. S. Ramkumar U. R. Sata W. J. Smith W. M. Lagna

2008-01-01

347

Microfabricated Electrochemical Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents: Smaller is Better (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the last decade, interest in the organophosphate (OP) chemical warfare agents (CWA) sensor has multiplied, especially after the tragic terrorist attack with sarin in Tokyo in 1995. The requirements for OP CWA sensors include: portability - small and l...

C. Monty I. Oh M. A. Shannon R. I. Masel

2006-01-01

348

Nathanael Greene's Implementation of Compound Warfare during the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph is an analysis of Major General Nathanael Greene's implementation of compound warfare in the Southern Department from December 1780 until the British surrender at Yorktown in October 1781. Major General Greene was appointed as the new comma...

T. J. Johnson

2007-01-01

349

Transcriptional Inducers of Acetylcholinesterase Expression as Novel Antidotes for Protection Against Chemical Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological effects of organophosphorous chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are exerted by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which blocks the hydrolysis of acetylcholine leading to hypercholinergy, seizures, status epilepticus, respiratory/ cardio...

B. F. Curtin L. M. Tetz R. K. Gordon B. P. Doctor M. P. Nambiar

2005-01-01

350

Biochemical Responses of Navy Special Warfare Personnel to Carbohydrate Loading and Physical Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected biochemistries were monitored in 9 Navy Special Warfare personnel during a program of carbohydrate loading (LOAD), during a control, nonloading program (NONLOAD), and during an endurance test subsequent to each program. Each program required 6 da...

J. A. Hodgdon H. W. Goforth R. L. Hilderbrand

1982-01-01

351

Coalition Warfare Program Management Plan. Nominations for Fiscal Years 2013-2014.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To address the need for interoperability the Department of Defense established the Coalition Warfare Program (CWP) program element (0603923D8Z) under the authority of the Office of the Under secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and logistics (...

2011-01-01

352

Executive Report: JSOU (Joint Special Operations University) Second Annual Symposium. Irregular Warfare: Strategic Utility of SOF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) Strategic Studies Department held its second annual academic symposium on 'Irregular Warfare: The Strategic Utility of Special Operations Forces (SOF)' in May 2007. The event was designed to present and discu...

H. R. Yarger J. Hasler M. Boyatt S. J. Hashem W. Ishimoto

2007-01-01

353

Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an ongoing debate within the Special Forces community whether unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense are applicable in the contemporary and future Special Operations environments, based on current doctrinal definitions and operationa...

D. Jones

2006-01-01

354

Detoxification of Chemical Warfare Agents by the Plant Cholinergic System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plants have cholinesterases (pChEs), anti-ChEs, and activators of ChEs. We have isolated pChE from mung bean sprout. We investigated 300 plants and found that 75% of them contained anti- ChE that inhibited ChEs. Thirty-five percent contained activators of...

S. S. Thakur G. E. Garcia H. N. Leader D. Moorad- Doctor R. Gupta

2005-01-01

355

Political criminogenesis of democracy in the colonial settler?state: Terror, terrorism, and guerrilla warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terror, terrorism, and guerrilla warfare are distinct phenomena. The analysis of the social?cultural?historical context of the colonial settler?state, with particular emphasis on South Africa, Fiji, and New Caledonia, clarifies the differences between terror, terrorism, and guerrilla warfare while noting the reasons that indigenous political extremists rationalize their violence. Such an analysis reveals that past demographic engineering by colonial powers or

1991-01-01

356

An Essay on the Relationship of Warfare Ecology to General Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Warfare represents not only tragedies for societies and casualties and suffering for people, but also a great menace to environmental\\u000a health and most living organisms. In a short time, warfare mobilizes a massive amount of energy, matter and information without\\u000a a transparent and shared control of actions usually adopted by societies during peace-time. It comprises a very special “extreme”\\u000a tool

Almo Farina

357

Detection of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents via a Beckmann Fragmentation of Aldoxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new (E)-pyrene-1-carbaldehyde O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl oxime 3 was synthesized for the detection of chemical warfare nerve agents, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB) and O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD). H NMR spectrum showed that the tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group was deprotected using TBAF and the oximate supernucleophile was made. Upon addition of chemical warfare agents (GB and GD) (50 mol%), the reaction was completely finished within 5

Jin Young Lee; Yong Han Lee; Yong Gwan Byun

2012-01-01

358

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media  

SciTech Connect

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

1992-07-01

359

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media  

SciTech Connect

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

1992-07-01

360

Adenosine Transporter ENT4 Is a Direct Target of EWS/WT1 Translocation Product and Is Highly Expressed in Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) is a highly aggressive malignancy that affects mainly adolescents and young adults. A defining characteristic of DSRCT is a specific chromosomal translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), that fuses EWS with WT1, leading to a production of two isoforms of chimeric transcription factor, EWS/WT1(?KTS) and EWS/WT1(+KTS). The chimeric proteins are thought to play critical roles in various stages of oncogenesis through aberrant transcription of different genes, but only a few of these genes have been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the identification of a new target of EWS/WT1, ENT4 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4) which encodes a pH-dependent adenosine transporter. ENT4 is transcriptionally activated by both isoforms of EWS/WT1 as evidenced by promoter-reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Furthermore, ENT4 is highly and specifically expressed in primary tumors of DSRCT as well as in a DSRCT cell line, JN-DSRCT-1. Treatment of JN-DSRCT-1 cells with adenosine analogs, such as 2-chloro-2?-deoxyadenosine (2-CdA), resulted in an increased cytotoxic response in dose- and pH-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance Our detailed analyses of a novel target of EWS/WT1 in DSRCT reveal an insight into the oncogenic mechanism of EWS-fusion chromosomal translocation gene products and provide a new marker for DSRCT. Furthermore, identification of ENT4 as a highly expressed transcript in DSRCT may represent an attractive pathway for targeting chemotherapeutic drugs into DSRCT.

Li, Hongjie; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Beers, Lisa F.; Xia, Li; Gerald, William; Wang, Joanne; Haber, Daniel A.; Lee, Sean Bong

2008-01-01

361

New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN + using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

2011-03-01

362

Air Force electronic warfare evaluation simulator (AFEWES) infrared test and evaluation capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator IR Countermeasures test facility currently has the ability to simulate a complete IRCM test environment, including IR missiles in flight, aircraft in flight, and various IR countermeasures including maneuvers, LASERs, flares and lamp-based jammer systems. The simulations of IR missiles in flight include real missile seeker hardware mounted in a six degree-of-freedom flight simulation table. The simulations of aircraft signatures and IR countermeasures are accomplished by using up to eight xenon arc lamps, located in 9 inch X 3 inch cylindrical housings, in the presentation foreground. A mirror system keeps the high intensity IR sources in the missile field of view. Range closure is simulated in the background by zooming in on the scene and int eh foreground by separating and controlling the irises of the arc lamp sources for property spatial and intensity characteristics. Al relative motion and range closure is controlled by missile flyout software and aircraft flight-profile software models.

Shepherd, Seth D.

2002-07-01

363

Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.  

PubMed

The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX. PMID:21762776

Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

2011-07-06

364

Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use "simulants," namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical "distance" between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast. PMID:21872989

Lavoie, J; Srinivasan, Sree; Nagarajan, R

2011-08-05

365

Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

1999-07-01

366

Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

Wente, William Baker

2005-06-01

367

Remote sensing of evaporation ducts for Naval warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas critical to naval operations are the prediction and application of atmospheric refractivity gradients. This report describes the use of the evaporation duct over the ocean and a plan for obtaining information about the evaporation duct by space-borne sensors. There has been little research on the theory and modeling of lower atmospheric refractivity, particularly evaporation ducts over a nonhomogeneous ocean over the past five decades. Much is known about surface layer similarity theory and propagation model techniques, but little attention has been placed on the spatial variabilities in the turbulent propagation medium (such as the atmospheric surface layer) in regions of strategic Navy interest. These regions include the coastal shelf, Gulf Stream, marginal ice zone, and those places where sharp sea surface temperature fronts exist. For tomorrow's Navy, using remote sensing techniques to infer evaporative and tropospheric ducts are a requirement. Although research efforts on ducts must couple the tropospheric and surface layer components, this report summarizes the state of the art for the evaporative duct and assess the potential of new and future results on improving next generation naval warfare capabilities.

Geernaert, G. L.

1989-11-01

368

Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

Carroll, D.M.

1992-11-01

369

Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

Carroll, D.M.

1992-11-01

370

Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (LC- ESI-MS) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (DESI-MS) Identification of Chemical Warfare Agents in Consumer Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrorist use of chemical warfare agents could involve contamination of consumer products with chemical warfare agents or other toxic chemicals. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and desorption electrospray ioniza...

C. L. Chenier P. A. D'Agostino

2007-01-01

371

Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991-August 1992  

SciTech Connect

Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify as well as remove the agents. In nonaqueous media, a strong base reacts rapidly with the four major chemical agents; mustard, VX, GB, and GD. In aqueous mixtures, H and VX are detoxified with an oxidant; whereas, the G agents are hydrolyzed with an excess of hydroxide ion. Current research efforts are aimed at developing effective decontaminants that are noncorrosive, nontoxic, and environmentally safe. Both catalytic and enzymatic approaches using solid or heterogeneous liquid media are being pursued. A fundamental understanding of the chemical nature of the agents is essential in the success of these approaches.... Decontamination, Sarin, VX, Chemical agents, Soman, Hydrolysis, Review, Mustard gas.

Yang, Y.C.; Baker, J.A.; Ward, J.R.

1992-12-01

372

Chemical warfare agent detection in complex environments with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is an emerging technology for chemical separation that provides an order-of-magnitude increase in separation capacity over traditional gas chromatography. GCxGC separates chemical species with two capillary columns interfaced by two-stage thermal desorption. Because GCxGC is comprehensive and has high separation capacity, it can perform multiple traditional analytical methods with a single analysis. GCxGC has great potential for a wide variety of environmental sensing applications, including detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other harmful chemicals. This paper demonstrates separation of nerve agents sarin and soman from a matrix of gasoline and diesel fuel. Using a combination of an initial column separating on the basis of boiling point and a second column separating on the basis of polarity, GCxGC clearly separates the nerve agents from the thousands of other chemicals in the sample. The GCxGC data is visualized, processed, and analyzed as a two-dimensional digital image using a software system for GCxGC image processing developed at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Ni, Mingtian; Kottapalli, Visweswara; Visvanathan, Arvind; Ledford, Edward B., Jr.; Oostdijk, John; Trap, Henk C.

2003-08-01

373

Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 ?m diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-?m microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

2005-11-01

374

Engineering workstation applications to systems design (panel session): life above the IC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerospace industry is characterized by sophisticated systems level design and integration. Large and diversified companies (“systems houses”) have generally supported several mainframe-based computing networks. But, as customer requirements expanded, almost every resource has penetrated the aerospace market. The engineering workstation (EWS) is no exception. Its rapid development has had a tremendous impact on the electronics industry.Initially, the EWS was

Cecelia Jankowski

1985-01-01

375

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

376

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

377

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: The Two Faces of the FUS/EWS/TAF15 Protein Family  

PubMed Central

FUS, EWS, and TAF15 form the FET family of RNA-binding proteins whose genes are found rearranged with various transcription factor genes predominantly in sarcomas and in rare hematopoietic and epithelial cancers. The resulting fusion gene products have attracted considerable interest as diagnostic and promising therapeutic targets. So far, oncogenic FET fusion proteins have been regarded as strong transcription factors that aberrantly activate or repress target genes of their DNA-binding fusion partners. However, the role of the transactivating domain in the context of the normal FET proteins is poorly defined, and, therefore, our knowledge on how FET aberrations impact on tumor biology is incomplete. Since we believe that a full understanding of aberrant FET protein function can only arise from looking at both sides of the coin, the good and the evil, this paper summarizes evidence for the central function of FET proteins in bridging RNA transcription, processing, transport, and DNA repair.

Kovar, Heinrich

2011-01-01

378

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: The Two Faces of the FUS/EWS/TAF15 Protein Family.  

PubMed

FUS, EWS, and TAF15 form the FET family of RNA-binding proteins whose genes are found rearranged with various transcription factor genes predominantly in sarcomas and in rare hematopoietic and epithelial cancers. The resulting fusion gene products have attracted considerable interest as diagnostic and promising therapeutic targets. So far, oncogenic FET fusion proteins have been regarded as strong transcription factors that aberrantly activate or repress target genes of their DNA-binding fusion partners. However, the role of the transactivating domain in the context of the normal FET proteins is poorly defined, and, therefore, our knowledge on how FET aberrations impact on tumor biology is incomplete. Since we believe that a full understanding of aberrant FET protein function can only arise from looking at both sides of the coin, the good and the evil, this paper summarizes evidence for the central function of FET proteins in bridging RNA transcription, processing, transport, and DNA repair. PMID:21197473

Kovar, Heinrich

2010-12-09

379

Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

1996-07-01

380

Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

J. R. Pugh; J. H. Grinstead; J. A. Farley; P. D. Enlow; D. A. Kelly

1996-01-01

381

China as peer competitor. Trends in nuclear weapons, space, and information warfare  

SciTech Connect

Here, Lt. Col Kathryn L. Gauthier analyzes the potential for China to emerge as a peer competitor of the US in the coming decades. First, she examines two traditional pillars of national strength--China's status as a nuclear weapons state and as a space power. Second, she then explores China's growing focus on information warfare (IW) as a means to wage asymmetric warfare against a technologically advanced adversary. Third, the author carefully examines the status of the three programs highlights areas of concern and potential conflict with the US, and analyzes the implications of these issues for the US.

Gauthier, K.L.

1999-07-01

382

NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

2007-02-01

383

Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents  

DOEpatents

A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN); Sanders, Charlene A. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-05-27

384

Notes on the establishment of the United States Army Special Warfare Center (Airborne) Surgeon's Office.  

PubMed

In the early 1960s, LTC Richard L. Coppedge, Medical Corps, expanded the functions of the Office of the Surgeon for the Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. He drew upon the then recent Special Forces experience in Laos and the beginnings of Special Forces experience in Vietnam to reorient the Special Forces medical mission from guerilla warfare to counterinsurgency. With improved training, development of new equipment, coordination with civilian and military medical agencies, collection of medical intelligence data, and an increase of key staff within his office, he left a huge legacy for other Special Forces Surgeons to emulate. PMID:21442595

Dorogi, Louis T

2010-01-01

385

Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991  

SciTech Connect

The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

Mann, B.J.

1992-09-01

386

Solid Supported Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Chemicals from Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-supported liquid–liquid extraction was optimized to extract the chemical warfare agents and their non-toxic analogues\\u000a from water. The developed method was compared to the conventionally used liquid–liquid extraction. This method yielded high\\u000a recoveries (70–80%) of non-toxic analogues of chemical warfare agents and good recoveries (65–75%) of the nerve agent sarin\\u000a and Lewisite-III. The limits of detection of non-toxic analogues of

Pankaj K. Kanaujia; Deepak Pardasani; Vijay Tak; D. K. Dubey

2009-01-01

387

United States Navy operational oceanographic nowcast\\/forecast system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command operates a system of meteorological and oceanographic models for continuous, realtime nowcast\\/forecast support to United States Department of Defense forces, particularly for Navy\\/Marine Corps safety of navigation, exploitation of oceanic fronts, and nearshore tactical employment of ships, aircraft and personnel for mine warfare, strike warfare, amphibious landings and special forces operations. The models

D. L. Durham

1994-01-01

388

Cloning and mapping of a human RBP56 gene encoding a putative RNA binding protein similar to FUS/TLS and EWS proteins.  

PubMed

The EWS gene was found at the chromosome breakpoints in Ewing sarcoma, and the FUS/TLS gene was found at the breakpoints of myxoid liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia. These genes encode proteins that carry a highly homologous RNA binding domain. Fusion proteins made of the N-terminal half of EWS or FUS/TLS and transcriptional regulatory proteins, also derived from genes located at breakpoints, have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of tumors. By PCR amplification of human Namalwa cell cDNA using degenerate primers made from the conserved amino acid sequences in the RNA binding domain of EWS and FUS/TLS, we obtained a cDNA fragment (RBP56 cDNA), the predicted amino acid sequences of which were similar but not identical to those of EWS and FUS/TLS. Using this fragment as a probe, we obtained two isoforms of cDNAs consisting of 2144 and 2153 bp, respectively, which encode proteins consisting of 589 and 592 amino acid residues, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of RBP56 protein have a serine-, tyrosine-, glutamine-, and glycine-rich region in the N-terminal region, an RNA binding domain and a C2C2 finger motif in the central region, and degenerate repeats of DR(S)GG(G)-YGG sequences in the C-terminal region. The expression of RBP56 mRNA was observed in all of the human fetal and adult tissues examined, as was the expression of EWS and FUS/TLS mRNAs. The RBP56 gene was mapped to chromosome 17q11.2 to q12. PMID:8954779

Morohoshi, F; Arai, K; Takahashi, E I; Tanigami, A; Ohki, M

1996-11-15

389

Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared  

PubMed Central

Background A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. Methods The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. Results and discussion The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3 – 6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. Conclusion The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent medication contributed to diminishing the reservoir of malaria and speeded up the eradication of the Finnish malaria. A corresponding evolution of Korean malaria is anticipated with relaxed tensions and decreasing troop concentrations along the border between South and North Korea.

Hulden, Lena; Hulden, Larry

2008-01-01

390

Perspectives on using remotely-sensed imagery in predictive veterinary epidemiology and global early warning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent disease epidemics and their spread around the world have illustrated the weaknesses of disease sur- veillance and early warning systems (EWS), both at national and international levels. These diseases continuously threaten the livestock sector on a worldwide basis, some with major public health impact. EWS and accurate forecast- ing of new outbreaks of epidemic livestock diseases that may also

Vincent Martin; Lorenzo De Simone; Juan Lubroth; Pietro Ceccato; Véronique Chevalier

2007-01-01

391

Rectifier and DC bus system design for the copper electrowinning industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the design features of the rectifier and DC bus system that supply the direct current for the electrowinning process as discussed. As background information, a brief description of the solvent extraction (SX) and electrowinning (EW) process is given. The four basic steps to the SC\\/EW process include leaching, extraction, stripping, and electrowinning. Some of the design features of

R. R. Brown

1990-01-01

392

Examination of the Human Factors Attitudes and Knowledge of Surface Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of Surface Warfare Officers (SWOs) regarding human factors issues that have been identified as causal to mishaps in high-risk organizations. Attitudes to the human factors that are cri...

A. C. Carter-Trahan

2009-01-01

393

China as Peer Competitor. Trends in Nuclear Weapons, Space, and Information Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In China as Peer Competitor. Trends in Nuclear Weapons, Space, and Information Warfare Lt Col Kathryn L. Gauthier analyzes the potential for China to emerge as a peer competitor of the United States in the coming decades. First, she examines two tradition...

K. L. Gauthier

1999-01-01

394

China as peer competitor. Trends in nuclear weapons, space, and information warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, Lt. Col Kathryn L. Gauthier analyzes the potential for China to emerge as a peer competitor of the US in the coming decades. First, she examines two traditional pillars of national strength--China's status as a nuclear weapons state and as a space power. Second, she then explores China's growing focus on information warfare (IW) as a means to wage

1999-01-01

395

A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

2007-01-01

396

Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including

S S Ramkumar; A Love; U R Sata; C J Koester; W J Smith; G A Keating; L Hobbs; S B Cox; W M Lagna; R J Kendall

2008-01-01

397

Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such

R. A. Jenkins; M. V. Buchanan; R. Merriweather; R. H. Ilgner; T. M. Gayle; J. H. Moneyhun; A. P. Watson

1992-01-01

398

POLYURETHANE RESINS-TREATED WOOD PALLETS WHICH ARE DECONTAMINABLE OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood pallets manufactured by impregnating and coating wood with selected polyurethane resins performed comparably to steel control pallets in decontamination of major chemical warfare agents before and after being subjected to various rough-handling and strength test procedures. Cost calculations showed that the wood pallets would be competitive with steel pallets. See Ref. [1].

D. D. Nicholas; Moon G. Kim; C. U. Pittman Jr; T. P. Schultz; L. L. Ingram Jr; F. R. A. Kabir; L. Wasson; L. Wang; M. Ivankoe

2001-01-01

399

Stem-loop oligonucleotide beacons as switches for amplifying-fluorescent-polymer-based biological warfare sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensors that are exceptionally sensitive with real-time outputs and minimal consumption of reagents are needed to continuously monitor air and water against bioterrorist incidents. Amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) provide exceptionally sensitive real-time reagentless sensor platforms as applied to detection of nitroaromatic explosives. This platform technology has the potential to be adapted to detect biological warfare (BW) agents by covalently attaching

Kenneth D. Clinkenbeard; Akhilesh Ramachandran; Jerry R. Malayer; Joong Ho Moon; Lawrence F. Hancock

2003-01-01

400

Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy is an established is an established technique for observing the rotational spectra of molecules and complexes in molecular beams. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are adapting this measurement technology for applications in analytical chemistry. Presently, FTMW spectroscopy is being used to investigate chemical-warfare agents and their synthetic precursors. A FTMW spectroscopy facility has been established at a surety laboratory at the Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, where the capabilities exist for handling these deadly warfare agents. Here, the rotational spectra of Sarin, Soman and DF have been observed and assigned. Also, microwave spectroscopic studies of less toxic precursors such as pinacolyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and thiodiglycol have been carried out at NIST. Tests will be undertaken to assess the potential of using FTMW spectroscopy for detecting trace amounts of chemical-warfare agents and precursors in air. A database of rotational transition frequencies is being compiled for use in conjunction with a FTMW spectrometer to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical weapons. The sensitivity and resolution of FTMW spectroscopy of FTMW spectroscopy suggest that the technique may offer real-time, unequivocal identification of chemical-warfare agents at trace vapor concentrations in air.

Hight Walker, Angela R.; Suenram, Richard D.; Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Woolard, Dwight L.; Wiebach, W.

1999-01-01

401

Screening level fish community risk assessment of chemical warfare agents in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts (?11,000tonnes) have been dumped in the Baltic Sea east of the island Bornholm following the disarmament of Germany after World War II, causing concerns over potential environmental risks. Absence of risk based on assumptions of extremely low solubility of CWAs cannot alone dismiss

Hans Sanderson; Patrik Fauser; Marianne Thomsen; Peter B. Sørensen

2008-01-01

402

Hollow fiber-mediated liquid-phase microextraction of chemical warfare agents from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unambiguous detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and related compounds are of paramount importance from verification point of view of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It requires development of fast, reliable, simple and reproducible sample preparation of CWAs from water which is likely to be contaminated during deliberate or inadvertent spread of CWAs. This work describes development of hollow

D. K. Dubey; Deepak Pardasani; A. K. Gupta; Meehir Palit; Pankaj K. Kanaujia; Vijay Tak

2006-01-01

403

On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused by capillary spreading upon the surface and the simultaneous sorption into the substrate, modeled in

Susanne Nyholm Westin; Stellan Winter; Edvard Karlsson; Art Hin; Fokke Oeseburg

1998-01-01

404

Suitability of NetLogo for the Modeling of Civilian Assistance and Guerrilla Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a pilot study of the suitability of NetLogo, an agent-based software tool, in modelling guerilla warfare. In this study, a local civilian populace reports observed insurgent activity to peacekeepers with varying levels of enthusiasm d...

S. Wheeler

2005-01-01

405

Guerrilla Operations in the Civil War: Assessing Compound Warfare During Price's Raid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most significant areas of guerrilla warfare during the American Civil War occurred along the Missouri-Kansas border. Many of these guerrilla forces had been active during the Bleeding Kansas period and continued their activities into the Civil ...

D. E. Davis

2004-01-01

406

Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Presence of Interfering Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two portable chemical warfare agent (CWA) alarm units, AP2CV (Proengin France) and M90 (Environics, Finland), challenged with CWA and interfering materials, was evaluated in the laboratory. This study focuses on the effect of fuel vapors and carbon dioxide on the detectors' responses to sulfur mustard (HD) and sarin (GB) vapors. The interfering materials were chosen to simulate

Shai Kendler; Amalia Zaltsman; Gad Frishman

2003-01-01

407

Clash of Opposing Futures: Examining the Role of the Will in Shaping Future Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. and Coalition forces conducted a lightning campaign during Operation DESERT STORM, shattering Iraqi forces in a 100-hour ground campaign. During the conflict the United States fielded a highly trained force versed in maneuver warfare doctrine and int...

P. C. Byron

2005-01-01

408

Standoff lidar simulation for biological warfare agent detection, tracking, and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lidar has been identified as a promising sensor for remote detection of biological warfare agents (BWA). Elastic IR lidar can be used for cloud detection at long ranges and UV laser induced fluorescence can be used for discrimination of BWA against naturally occurring aerosols. This paper will describe a simulation tool which enables the simulation of lidar for detection, tracking

Erika Jönsson; Ove Steinvall; Ove Gustafsson; Fredrik Kullander; Per Jonsson

2010-01-01

409

Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and\\/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present

Khordagui

1997-01-01

410

Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait's desalination industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and\\/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present

Hosny K. KhordaguiO

1997-01-01

411

The Baltic Sea as a dumping site of chemical munitions and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Allied and Soviet forces after World War II is presented. The types and properties of the chemical warfare agents found in the Baltic, as well as the known dumping regions, are described. The potential hazards for the environment arising from the long-term disposal of munitions

Aleksandra Szarejko; Jacek Namie?nik

2009-01-01

412

The Case for Political Warfare: Strategy, Organization and US Involvement in the 1948 Italian Election  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes US intervention in the Italian election of 1948 and the influence of the campaign on attempts to formulate a comprehensive, coordinated strategy to defeat Soviet Communism. The approach, which looked to utilize ‘all means short of war’, was subsequently dubbed ‘Political Warfare’. Due to the improvised nature of intervention in Italy, the US Ambassador in Rome, James

Kaeten Mistry

2006-01-01

413

Defeating the United States with Radiological Weapons in Fourth Generation Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 11th 2001, Al-Qaeda used the principles of fourth generation warfare (4GW) to achieve strategic effects that have cascaded throughout the United States. The devastating attacks could have been multiplied a hundred fold or more had each of the...

J. M. Chesnutt

2003-01-01

414

Use of SolidPhase Extraction in Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical warfare agents Tabun, Sarin, Soman, VX and mustard gas and the Sarin impurity diispropyl methylphosphonate have been isolated from different samples from a battlefield environment. 50 ml of water, 2 g of grass, soil, sand, paper, neoprene or butyl rubber or 1 g of silicone, a polyurethane foam with activated charcoal or a polyester\\/cotton fabric were spiked with

John Aasulf Tørnes; Aase Mari Opstad; Bjørn Arne Johnsen

1991-01-01

415

Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment.

C. K. N. Patel

2008-01-01

416

Violence and Victory: guerrilla warfare, ‘authentic self-affirmation’ and the overthrow of the colonial state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution critically investigates the ideas underpinning the armed struggle of colonial subjects against colonial states in the middle decades of the 20th century. It focuses in particular on two of the most influential texts that inspired and guided violent anti-colonial resistance, The Wretched of the Earth by Frantz Fanon and On Guerrilla Warfare by Mao Zedong. Both Fanon and

Sebastian Kaempf

2009-01-01

417

Use of SolidPhase Extraction in Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a comprehensive evaluation of the solid-phase extraction technique for isolation of chemical warfare agents and related compounds from aqueous solutions. Several factors which may affect the amounts recovered by this method were investigated. These included sorbent type, amount of sorbent, pretreatment of the sorbent, type of eluting solvent, amount of eluting solvent and washing procedures. In addition,

John Aasulf Tørnes; Aase Mari Opstad; Bjørn Arne Johnsen

1991-01-01

418

Analytical methods for environmental sampling of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first technical conference promoted the standardization of analytical procotols to reliably detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in soil, water, and other complex environmental media. This supports the various chemical weapons disposal and emergency preparedness programs, Chemical Weapons Convention treaty compliance, installation restoration and base closure decisions. Five major topics were addressed: Implementation for treaty compliance, installation,

A. P. Watson; S. Kistner

1995-01-01

419

Potential fate of blistering chemical warfare agents on Kuwait's arid soil and related research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iran–Iraq war, followed by the Iraqi aggression against Kuwait, and the unverified use of certain chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the Arabian Gulf region, triggered the interest of environmental scientists in the probable fate of these chemical agents within the unique arid environment of the Arabian Gulf region. These efforts were hampered by the scarcity of information and the

Hosny Khordagui

1996-01-01

420

Protection Against the Vesicant Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard: Therapeutics Utilizing Apoptosis Inhibitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfur mustard (SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide), commonly called mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare agent and a potential terrorism agent. SM is relatively easy to make and to deploy, which makes this chemical most likely to be used. SM exposure...

B. J. Benton C. Carpin D. S. Rosenthal R. Ray S. L. Hauck

2006-01-01

421

Mission over Mechanism: Reorganizing the Intelligence Community to Meet the Challenge of Asymmetric Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the age of asymmetric warfare, intelligence is tantamount to national defense. Our terrorist adversaries are too dispersed to destroy and too fanatical to deter. Our best hope of security is accurate, timely, accessible information and actionable analysis. We need to organize the Intelligence Community (IC) by mission—not collection mechanism—to take full advantage of our technical proficiency and analytic expertise.

Diana Raschke

422

Analysing coalition warfare from an intra-alliance politics perspective: The Normandy Campaign 1944  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets forth a framework for analysis designed to enhance our understanding of the political management of coalition warfare. The framework, based upon literature appertaining to ‘intra-alliance politics’ and International Relations (IR) theories, is applied to the case study of the Normandy Campaign of 1944. Utilising this framework we are able to consider many of the thorny issues of

Thomas Stow Wilkins

2006-01-01

423

Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.  

PubMed

A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants. PMID:12137994

Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

2002-08-01

424

All-Indian Rodeo: A Transformation of Western Apache Tribal Warfare and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics of All-Indian Rodeos held on the Fort Apache Reservation (Arizona) clearly reflect the evolution of historical patterns of tribal warfare and raiding. Rodeos provide the means to preserve Apache rituals, the warrior ideal, and traditional relationships with neighboring Navajo and Papago tribes. (SV)

Chavis, Ben

1993-01-01

425

Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of

1986-01-01

426

Current understanding of the mechanisms involved in metabolic detoxification of warfare nerve agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews current understanding of chemical, biochemical and toxicological aspects and mechanisms of metabolism of warfare nerve agents. Among enzymes participating in metabolism of nerve agents the role of A-esterases, serum cholinesterase and carboxylesterases is discussed. This article also discusses other aspects of metabolism of the agents such as protein binding and the role of tissue depots for these

Milan Jokanovi?

2009-01-01

427

History and perspectives of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare agent detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a short historical overview of the development of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare (CW) agents and their biological markers of exposure, with a more detailed overview of methods for organophosphorus nerve agents. Bioanalytical methods for unchanged CW agents are used primarily for toxicokinetic\\/toxicodynamic studies. An important aspect of nerve agent toxicokinetics is the different biological activity and

Robin M. Black

2010-01-01

428

Chemistry of destroying chemical warfare agents in flame. Technical project report, April 1994May 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the research is to increase our understanding of flame chemistry of organophosphorus compounds (OPC). This class of chemicals includes chemical warfare agents. (CWAs) such as the nerve agents GB GD and VX, stockpiles of which in the United States and Former Soviet Union are scheduled for destruction by incineration or other technologies. Although high CWA destruction efficiency

O. P. Korobeinichev; A. A. Chernov; V. M. Shvartsberg; V. V. Mokrushin

1995-01-01

429

Characterization of chemical warfare G-agent hydrolysis products by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States and its allies have been increasingly challenged by terrorism, and since the September 11, 2001 attacks and the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, homeland security has become a national priority. The simplicity in manufacturing chemical warfare agents, the relatively low cost, and previous deployment raises public concern that they may also be used by terrorists or rogue

Frank E. Inscore; Alan D. Gift; Paul Maksymiuk; Stuart Farquharson

2004-01-01

430

Repercussions of Eastern Front Experiences on Anti-Partisan Warfare in France 1943–1944  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the long academic debate about the role of the Wehrmacht in anti-partisan warfare during World War II, the Western theatre of war in general and France in particular have been neglected. Having begun as a relatively moderate occupation with even some progressive methods, the German occupation policy radicalised in the last months before withdrawal began in August 1944. This

Peter Lieb

2008-01-01

431

A Simple Extension of EW Gauge Boson Mixing and Mass of the 125 GeV Higgs Boson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple extension of EW gauge theory found within the framework of the SM mixes the Yang-Mills (Y-M) field with the vector (Weak and EM), scalar (Higgs), and tensor gauge fields resulting in a model prediction of a Higgs mass spectrum that includes the recently discovered 125 GeV particle. The key feature is the use of coupled Y-M gauge fields (B?) whose quanta are spin J?=0,1,2 and isotopic spin I3=0 mixing off-diagonally with the neutral Higgs, Z, photon and tensor gauge fields. The tensor algebra is associated with a unimodular 4x4 integral matrix with even (vector) and odd (scalar and tensor) 2x2 matrix subspace components. The predicted Higgs spectrum consists of neutral scalar (J?^? =0^+,I3=0) and pseudoscalar (J?^? =0^-,I3=0) particles whose QCD quark-antiquark (ut,ct,tt) wavefunctions are combinations of a scalar Higgs color magnetic triplet (sp quarks) and a pseudoscalar Higgs color magnetic singlet (ss quarks). The two lowest lying Higgs scalar particles are predicted to be 124.05 GeV (ut) and 125.30 GeV(ct). The predicted Higgs scalar and pseudoscalar mass spectra will be presented and discussed.

Ward, Thomas

2013-04-01

432

Locus-specific microemulsion catalysts for sulfur mustard (HD) chemical warfare agent decontamination.  

PubMed

The rates of catalytic oxidative decontamination of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) and a range (chloroethyl) sulfide simulants of variable lipophilicity have been examined using a hydrogen peroxide-based microemulsion system. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), PGSE-NMR (pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR), fluorescence quenching, and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) were implemented to examine the distribution of HD, its simulants, and their oxidation/hydrolysis products in a model oil-in-water microemulsion. These measurements not only present a means of interpreting decontamination rates but also a rationale for the design of oxidation catalysts for these toxic materials. Here we show that by localizing manganese-Schiff base catalysts at the oil droplet-water interface or within the droplet core, a range of (chloroethyl) sulfides, including HD, spanning some 7 orders of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), may be oxidized with equal efficacy using dilute (5 wt. % of aqueous phase) hydrogen peroxide as a noncorrosive, environmentally benign oxidant (e.g., t(1/2) (HD) approximately 18 s, (2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide, C(6)H(5)SCH(2)CH(2)Cl) approximately 15 s, (thiodiglycol, S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)) approximately 19 s {20 degrees C}). Our observations demonstrate that by programming catalyst lipophilicity to colocalize catalyst and substrate, the inherent compartmentalization of the microemulsion can be exploited to achieve enhanced rates of reaction or to exert control over product selectivity. A combination of SANS, ESI-MS and fluorescence quenching measurements indicate that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the locus of the catalyst and not a result of partial hydrolysis of the substrate. PMID:19555102

Fallis, Ian A; Griffiths, Peter C; Cosgrove, Terence; Dreiss, Cecile A; Govan, Norman; Heenan, Richard K; Holden, Ian; Jenkins, Robert L; Mitchell, Stephen J; Notman, Stuart; Platts, Jamie A; Riches, James; Tatchell, Thomas

2009-07-22

433

Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning.

2012-01-01

434

Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): Effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller’s earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper1 the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller’s earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to

L. Taysse; F. Dorandeu; S. Daulon; A. Foquin; N. Perrier; G. Lallement; P. Breton

2011-01-01

435

A novel EWS-WT1 gene fusion product in desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a potent transactivator of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) gene.  

PubMed

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a primitive sarcoma characterized by a recurrent chromosomal translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), which fuses the 5' exons of the EWS gene to the 3' exons of the WT1 gene. EWS-WT1 chimeras are heterogeneous as a result of fusions of different regions of the EWS gene to the WT1 gene. We report here a rare and novel EWS-WT1 variant, EWS-WT1 5/10, in a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with DSRCT and analyze the potential transactivation effect of the fusion oncoprotein. The predicted product is comprised of the N-terminal transactivation domain of EWS and lacks any sequence derived from the WT1 gene product. Nonetheless, the truncated protein was able to stimulate expression of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene, a potent antiapoptotic receptor tyrosine kinase with potentially important roles in DSRCT etiology. These findings raise the possibility that the oncogenic potential of EWS-WT1 fusions is not necessarily a consequence of the fusion protein product per se. PMID:16730884

Werner, Haim; Idelman, Gila; Rubinstein, Moran; Pattee, Patrick; Nagalla, Srinivasa R; Roberts, Charles T

2006-05-30

436

Stand-off spectroscopy for the detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most desirable configuration for detection of toxic chemicals utilises the maximum distance between detector and hazard. This approach minimises the contamination of equipment or personnel. Where the target chemical is an involatile liquid, indirect detection of the liquid contamination is made difficult by inherently low vapour pressure. In this instance, direct detection of the chemical hazard is the best approach. Recent technology developments have allowed spectroscopic systems to provide multiple options for the stand-off detection of involatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Two different stand-off spectroscopic systems, based upon IR absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques are described here. The Negative Contrast Imager (NCI) is based upon an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal. This crystal has a fanned grating design and wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the PPLN crystal within the 1064 nm pump beam. This approach enables the production of shortwave and midwave IR radiation (1.5 - 1.8 ?m and 2.6 - 3.8 ?m, respectively), which is scanned across the scene of interest. Target materials that have an absorption feature commensurate with the wavelength of incoming radiation reduce the intensity of returned signal, resulting in dark pixels in the acquired image. This method enables location and classification of the target material. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy allows target chemicals to be identified at range through comparison of the acquired signature relative to a spectral database. In this work, we used a Raman system based upon a 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser source and a proprietary InGaAsP camera system. Utilisation of a longer excitation wavelength than most conventional stand-off detection systems (e.g. 532 or 785 nm) enables reduction of fluorescence from both the surface and the deposited chemicals, thereby revealing the Raman spectrum. NCI and Raman spectroscopy are able to detect CWAs on surfaces at distances of 2 - 10 metres and have potential to detect over longer ranges. We report the successful identification of at least 60 ?l of nitrogen mustard at a distance of a 2 m and 10 m using NCI and Raman spectroscopy.

Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Stothard, David J. M.; Dunn, Malcolm H.; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth; Cox, Rick; Williams, Brad; Russell, Matt

2012-10-01

437

Rapid Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Hydrolysis Products by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 'dip and shoot' analytical method was developed for the rapid sampling and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by sim...

C. L. Chenier P. A. D'Agostino

2009-01-01

438

Potential Usage of Aqueous Alum for Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents. Part 2: Reactions with VX and QL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The destruction of chemical warfare agents (CWA's), particularly 0- ethyl- S- 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methyiphosponothiolate (VX), has been the focus of many articles in the popular media and in professional news journals such as Chemical and Engineerin...

D. J. Williams V. L. Bevilacqua W. R. Creasy D. J. McGarvey J. S. Rice

2006-01-01

439

Evolving Nature of Warfare. Joint Center for Operational Analysis. Quarterly Bulletin, Volume 10, Issue 3, Fall 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this Journal we are presenting a series of articles that deal with the evolving nature of warfare. From information operations, strategic communications, command and control, and to a comparison of the lessons between US Marine Corps advisors in Nicara...

A. D. Preisser M. Dunard P. Lorge R. Flatau R. Propst

2008-01-01

440

Immobilization of Enzymes in Nanoporous Host Materials: A Nanobiotechnological Approach to Decontamination and Demilitarization of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As proposed, we have established the concept of a novel nanobiotechnology for decontamination and demilitarization of chemical and biological warfare agents, based on immobilizing decon/demil effective enzymes such as organophosphorus acid anhydrolases (O...

Y. Wei

2002-01-01

441

76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County, Virginia. The amendment changes the description...and national holidays. (iii) Upper zone. Beginning at Mathias Point, Va.; thence north to Light 5; thence...

2011-02-25

442

75 FR 3901 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division Mission Activities AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION...Alternative 2, described in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) as the preferred alternative. Implementation of...

2010-01-25

443

Cloning and Mapping of a Human RBP56Gene Encoding a Putative RNA Binding Protein Similar to FUS\\/TLS and EWS Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheEWSgene was found at the chromosome breakpoints in Ewing sarcoma, and theFUS\\/TLSgene was found at the breakpoints of myxoid liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia. These genes encode proteins that carry a highly homologous RNA binding domain. Fusion proteins made of the N-terminal half of EWS or FUS\\/TLS and transcriptional regulatory proteins, also derived from genes located at breakpoints, have been

Fumiko Morohoshi; Kyoko Arai; Ei-ichi Takahashi; Akira Tanigami; Misao Ohki

1996-01-01

444

EWS-FLI-1-targeted cytotoxic T-cell killing of multiple tumor types belonging to the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors*  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFTs) comprises a group of aggressive, malignant bone and soft tissue tumors that predominantly affect children and young adults. These tumors frequently share expression of the EWS-FLI-1 translocation, which is central to tumor survival but not present in healthy cells. In this study, we examined EWS-FLI-1 antigens for their capacity to induce immunity against a range of ESFT types. Design Computer prediction analysis of peptide binding, HLA-A2.1 stabilization assays, and induction of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTL) in immunized HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice were used to assess the immunogenicity of native and modified peptides derived from the fusion region of EWS-FLI-1 type 1. CTL-killing of multiple ESFT family members in vitro, and control of established xenografts in vivo, was assessed. We also examined whether these peptides could induce human CTLs in vitro. Results EWS-FLI-1 type 1 peptides were unable to stabilize cell surface HLA-A2.1 and induced weak CTL activity against Ewing Sarcoma cells. In contrast, peptides with modified anchor residues induced potent CTL killing of Ewing Sarcoma cells presenting endogenous (native) peptides. The adoptive transfer of CTL specific for the modified peptide YLNPSVDSV resulted in enhanced survival of mice with established Ewing Sarcoma xenografts. YLNPSVDSV-specific CTL displayed potent killing of multiple ESFT types in vitro: Ewing Sarcoma, pPNET, Askin’s Tumor, and Biphenotypic Sarcoma. Stimulation of human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with YLNPSVDSV peptide resulted in potent CTL-killing. Conclusions These data show that YLNPSVDSV peptide is a promising antigen for ESFT immunotherapy and warrants further clinical development.

Evans, Christopher H.; Liu, Fangjun; Porter, Ryan M.; O'Sullivan, Regina P.; Merghoub, Taha; Lunsford, Elaine P.; Robichaud, Kyle; Van Valen, Frans; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Wells, James W.

2012-01-01

445

Mobilization and Limited Warfare: The Real Worst Case,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a product of the Mobilization Concepts Development Center's IDEAS System. The IDEAS System is an information distribution system designed to disseminate timely occasional papers in a series of formats. The goal of the system is to foster ...

L. Austin

1987-01-01

446

Spectroscopic Variations of the Be-Shell Star EW Lacertae in the V/R Variation Periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EW Lac showed remarkable VfraslR variations in 1976-1986, and a similar VfraslR variation started again in around 2007, after some quasi-periodic VfraslR variations. For the first VfraslR variation event, we analyzed the spectroscopic behaviors of emission lines and shell absorption lines of the Balmer series. The VfraslR variations of the H? through H? lines are characterized by the different manner of variations of the individual emission line in time lag and in duration of the VfraslR phases. Weak correlation is also notable between the VfraslR variations and other variations of the line-profile parameters, such as the peak velocities, emission-line intensities, and peak separations. We analyzed shell absorption lines for higher members of the Balmer series concerning their central depths and radial velocities. The optical depth of the H? line is in the range of 2000 to 6000, and its long-term variation discloses different behaviors as compared to the VfraslR variations. Combining the analyses of emission and shell absorption lines, and regarding the VfraslR variation as wave propagation phenomena, we find for the 1976-1986 event that the VfraslR variation is of retrograde structure, and that a spiral structure is likely formed inside the disk in the latter half of this event. The weak correlations among physical parameters are suggestive of the disk being truncated at some radius. It is noticed that remarkable stellar brightening occurred in the latter half of the event, accompanying a marked decrease of the emission-line intensities. As for a VfraslR variation that appeared in around 2007, which looks like a recurrence of a previous event, we found a less developed state of the disk without an appreciable time lag.

Mon, Masahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Moritani, Yuki; Kogure, Tomokazu

2013-08-01

447

A comparison of {sup 252}Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA  

SciTech Connect

Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a {sup 252}Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-{micro}g {sup 252}Cf source emitting 10{sup 7} n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source.

Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.

2000-07-01

448

New studies disputing allegations of bacteriological warfare during the Korean War.  

PubMed

In the television series Korea the Unknown War produced jointly by Thames Television (London) and WGBH (Boston) in 1990, General Matthew Ridgway, Commander in Chief of United Nations forces during the Korean War, called the accusations that the United States waged bacteriological warfare "black propaganda." The charges discredited the United States and, despite denials and many international discussions, have not been completely refuted until new. Following studies in archives previously not available for research and after uncovering new sources, many specific examples of black propaganda were discovered that contained false information and lies discrediting the United States. The mechanism of lies, which convinced the Korean population that bacteriological warfare was going on and that the only way not to become victims of the United States' inhuman cruelty was to fight, are shown in this paper. PMID:7783939

Rolicka, M

1995-03-01

449

Chemical warfare agents: their past and continuing threat and evolving therapies. Part II of II.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents are ideal weapons for terrorists and for use in military operations against both civilian populations and troops. Thus, there have been efforts by the United States in cooperation with other concerned nations to develop animal models to understand the pathophysiology of the injuries induced by these agents, and to develop suitable animal models for testing of pre-and post-exposure protectants and therapies. Sulfur mustard remains the most significant chemical warfare agent that produces cutaneous injuries. Institution of standard recommendations prior to threatened exposure or after exposure are something that we need to be aware of in the world we live in. In addition, pre-and post-exposure therapies now being studied offer hope for moderating the mortality and morbidity that can result from chemical exposure. PMID:14673262

Smith, Kathleen J; Skelton, Henry

450

The BARC biosensor applied to the detection of biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bead ARray Counter (BARC) is a multi-analyte biosensor that uses DNA hybridization, magnetic microbeads, and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors to detect and identify biological warfare agents. The current prototype is a table-top instrument consisting of a microfabricated chip (solid substrate) with an array of GMR sensors, a chip carrier board with electronics for lock-in detection, a fluidics cell and

R. L. Edelstein; C. R. Tamanaha; P. E. Sheehan; M. M. Miller; D. R. Baselt; L. J. Whitman; R. J. Colton

2000-01-01

451

Process-based running mechanism for Agent-based warfare simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Agent-based warfare simulation, the behavior of Agents representing the operation entities is very complicated. The event routine-oriented simulation strategy makes the description and execution of Agent's simulation models lack of flexibility and expandability, which isn't helpful to reduce the complication of the modeling and simulation. In this paper, Process Interaction is presented as the simulation strategy for the

Wenguang Yu; Qun Li; Weiping Wang; Qiang Chang

2010-01-01

452

The French Army ‘Centre for Training and Preparation in Counter-Guerrilla Warfare’ (CIPCG) at Arzew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological warfare had been used by the French army in the Indochina War (1946–54), and had spawned a sub-caste of French officers who moulded it and counter-insurgent propaganda into a doctrine known as guerre révolutionnaire (revolutionary war). In Algeria, in 1956, the army established a specialist training centre, the CIPCG, at Arzew on the Algerian coast, to provide courses for

Frédéric Guelton

2002-01-01

453

Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

Franz, D.R.

1986-12-01

454

Demonstration of a Reagent for the Chemical Neutralization of Arsenical-Based Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PM NSCM) is responsible for destruction of several categories of chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in a safe, environmentally sound manner, and in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention. Captured WW II era German Traktor Rockets (GTRs), containing arsenical-based tearing and vomiting agents, and 4400 empty ton containers (TCs), some with lewisite

Kevin M. Morrissey

455

Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen

Adam H. Love; Christopher G. Bailey; M. Leslie Hanna; Saphon Hok; Alex K. Vu; Dennis J. Reutter; Ellen Raber

2011-01-01

456

Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate\\/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure

Annetta Paule Watson; Fredrick G Dolislager

2007-01-01

457

Toxicity of chemical-warfare agent HD to Folsomia candida in different soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ecotoxicity of the chemical-warfare agent (CWA) HD (Mustard) using Collembola reproduction test with numbers of adults and juveniles as measurement endpoints. Toxicity tests were conducted using soils with contrasting parameters to investigate the effects of soil properties on chemical toxicity. These included standard artificial soil (SAS; 10% OM; 6 pH), O’Neill-Hall sandy loam (OHSL; natural soil with

Carlton T. Phillips; Roman G. Kuperman; Ronald T. Checkai

2002-01-01

458

Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing \\u000a rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning \\u000a problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts \\u000a against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The \\u000a first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the \\u000a nerve agents, in a crowded

C. K. N. Patel

2008-01-01

459

Evaluation of Risk Assessment Guideline Levels for the Chemical Warfare Agents Mustard, GB, and VX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min\\/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild

Heidi M. Hartmann

2002-01-01

460

Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic\\/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1\\/15Deg and 1\\/30\\/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and

K. A. Korotenko

2002-01-01

461

Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: An Essential Tool to Counteract Chemical Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed\\u000a over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed.\\u000a Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agents is useful for various applications. It can be envisaged that rapid diagnosis\\u000a will play a pivotal role in the management

D. Noort; M. J. Schans; F. J. Bikker; H. P. Benschop

462

Development of an Analytical Protocol for Forensic Identification of Chemical Warfare Agent Surrogates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical protocol for forensic identification of chemical warfare agent surrogates in various sample media is developed. This protocol can be implemented on site or in a mobile laboratory, based on a quick sample extraction procedure and a subsequent gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) analysis. The surrogates in this work include 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), 2-(butylamino) ethanethiol

Wenxing Kuang; Merv Fingas; Ken Li

2007-01-01

463

Management of chemical warfare injuries (on CD-ROM). Data file  

SciTech Connect

The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping their skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.

NONE

1996-08-01

464

Ecological Risk Assessment for Ascontaining Chemical Warfare Agents — Status and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1992 does not regulate contaminations of soil and water by starting, by-products and degradation\\u000a products of chemical warfare agents that do not pose an acute danger but have harmful long-term effects. The financial means\\u000a for removing these risks are often missing. A solution for this problem could be the application of adapted microorganisms\\u000a that are

Tina Vollerthun; Wolfgang Spyra

465

Detection of simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents by vibrational spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was focused in the measurement of spectroscopic signatures of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants (CWAS) and degradation products of chemical agents using vibrational spectroscopy for the generation of spectroscopic libraries. The chemicals studied were: DMMP, DIMP, 2-CEES, 2-BAET, 1,4-thioxane, thiodiglycol sulfoxide, dihexylamine, cyclohexylamine, among others. Raman microscopy experiments were performed at different excitation wavelengths that spanned from NIR at

Orlando Ruiz-Pesante; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Oliva M. Primera-Pedrozo; William Ortiz; Yadira M. Soto-Feliciano; Deborah E. Nieves; Michael L. Ramirez; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2007-01-01

466

Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg\\/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty

Frederick Dolislager; Donald Bansleben; Annetta Paule Watson

2010-01-01

467

[Nerve paralytic agents--the greatest threat for mass poisoning during chemical warfare or terrorist attacks].  

PubMed

Since thirties of the previous the highly toxic organophosphorus compound called nerve agents have been considered the most dangerous chemical warfare agents that could be misused in local and world wars or during terrorist attacks. Beside the historical introduction, the article summarizes contemporary knowledge on the mechanism of toxicity of these agents, on the possibilities of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. The possibility of using similar methods of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment for acute poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides is also mentioned. PMID:14655276

Kassa, J

2001-12-01

468

Stilbene-Based Fluorescent Sensor for Detection of Organophosphorus Warfare Nerve Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report the synthesis of stilbene-based fluorophore, 3,4-dihydroxy-4?-aminostilbene (DHAS) for the detection of chemical warfare agents such as organophosphorus nerve gases. DHAS was characterized by various spectroscopic methods and grafted on to electrospun nanofibers. The interaction of DHAS with nerve agents simulant, diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) was investigated in solution and vapor phase by fluorescence spectroscopy.

Robinson Anandakathir; Umaprasana Ojha; Earl T. Ada; Rudolf Faust; Jayant Kumar

2009-01-01

469

High-sensitivity, high-selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report high-sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agents (nerve gases) with very low probability of false positives (PFP). We demonstrate a detection threshold of 1.2 ppb (7.7 mug\\/m3 equivalent of Sarin) with a PFP of <1:106 in the presence of many interfering gases present in an urban environment through the detection of diisopropyl methylphosphonate, an accepted relatively harmless surrogate for

Michael B. Pushkarsky; Michael E. Webber; Tyson MacDonald; C. Kumar N. Patel

2006-01-01

470

[Chemical treatment and decomposition technique of the chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals].  

PubMed

The old Japanese army developed several chemical warfare agents on Ohkuno Island in Seto inland sea, Hiroshima Japan, during the period between 1919 and 1944. These chemical agents including yperite (mustard; irritating agent), lewisite (irritating agent), diphenylchloroarsine (DA; vomiting agent), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC; vomiting agent) and other poisonous gases were manufactured to be used in China. After World War II, the old Japanese army abandoned or dumped these agents into seas inside or outside of Japan and interior of China. Rather than being used for terrorism, these chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals may cause injury to some workers at the digging site of abandoned chemical weapons. Moreover, the leakage of chemical agents or an explosion of the bomb may result in environmental pollution, as a result, it is highly possible to cause serious health damage to the residents. There are still many abandoned or dumped warfare agents in Japan and China, therefore chemical agents containing arsenic are needed to be treated with alkaline for decomposition or to decompose with oxidizing agent. Presently, a large quantity of chemical agents and the contaminated soil are processed by combustion, and industrial waste is treated with sulfur compounds as the insoluble sulfur arsenic complex. This report describes the methods for the disposal of these organic arsenic agents that have been implemented until present and examines the future prospects. PMID:19122436

Kaise, Toshikazu; Kinoshita, Kenji

2009-01-01

471

Miniaturized low-cost ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a well-known method for detecting hazardous compounds in air. Typical applications are the detection of chemical warfare agents, highly toxic industrial compounds, explosives, and drugs of abuse. Detection limits in the low part per billion range, fast response times, and simple instrumentation make this technique more and more popular. In particular, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized low-cost IMS for hand-held devices and air monitoring of public areas by sensor networks. In this paper, we present a miniaturized aspiration condenser type ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents. The device is easy to manufacture and allows single substance identification down to low part per billion-level concentrations within seconds. The improved separation power results from ion focusing by means of geometric constraints and fluid dynamics. A simple pattern recognition algorithm is used for the identification of trained substances in air. The device was tested at the German Armed Forces Scientific Institute for Protection Technologies-NBC-Protection. Different chemical warfare agents, such as sarin, tabun, soman, US-VX, sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard, and lewisite were tested. The results are presented here. PMID:18665610

Zimmermann, Stefan; Barth, Sebastian; Baether, Wolfgang K M; Ringer, Joachim

2008-07-30

472

Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial demonstration of this technology in a 'stand alone' environment was undertaken at the NIFC in November 2011 using a data set comprised of 140,000 documents. Recently the system has been modified to include a secure authentication mechanism based on a Kerberos ticketing framework and this has now been integrated onto the NIFC Battlefield Information, Collection, and Exploitation System (BICES) network. In summary, the paper discusses the CWP project; the two key technologies (i.e., Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms) developed within the US UK ITA research program; how these have been integrated into the NIFC BICES; and future plans for the program.

Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

2013-05-01

473

Development of electrochemical sensors for trace detection of explosives and for the detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A huge number of chemical sensors are based on electrochemical measurement methods. Particularly amperometric sensorsystems are employed for the fast detection of pollutants in industry and environment as well as for analytic systems in the medical diagnosis. The large number of different applications of electrochemical sensors is based on the high sensitivity of electrochemical methods and on the wide of possibilities to enhance the selectivity by variation of electrochemical and chemical parameters. Besides this, electrochemical sensorsystems are frequently simple to operate, transportable and cheap. Up to now the electrochemical method of cyclic voltammetry is used only seldom for sensors. Clearly the efficiency of cyclic voltammetry can be seen at the sensorsystem for the detection of nitro- and aminotoluenes in solids and waters as presented here. The potentiodynamic sensors system can be employed for the fast and easy risk estimation of contaminated areas. Because of the high sensitivity of electrochemical methods the detection of chemical substances with a low vapor pressure is possible also. The vapor pressure of TNT at room temperature is 7 ppb for instances. With a special electrochemical set-up we were able to measure TNT approximately 10 cm above a TNT-sample. In addition we were able to estimate TNT in the gaseous phase approximately 10 cm above a real plastic mine. Therefore it seems to be possible to develop an electrochemical mien detection. Moreover, we present that the electrochemical detection of RDX, HMX and chemical warfare agents is also possible.

Berger, T.; Ziegler, H.; Krausa, Michael

2000-08-01

474

The multifunctional FUS, EWS and TAF15 proto-oncoproteins show cell type-specific expression patterns and involvement in cell spreading and stress response  

PubMed Central

Background FUS, EWS and TAF15 are structurally similar multifunctional proteins that were first discovered upon characterization of fusion oncogenes in human sarcomas and leukemias. The proteins belong to the FET (previously TET) family of RNA-binding proteins and are implicated in central cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression, maintenance of genomic integrity and mRNA/microRNA processing. In the present study, we investigated the expression and cellular localization of FET proteins in multiple human tissues and cell types. Results FUS, EWS and TAF15 were expressed in both distinct and overlapping patterns in human tissues. The three proteins showed almost ubiquitous nuclear expression and FUS and TAF15 were in addition present in the cytoplasm of most cell types. Cytoplasmic EWS was more rarely detected and seen mainly in secretory cell types. Furthermore, FET expression was downregulated in differentiating human embryonic stem cells, during induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and absent in terminally differentiated melanocytes and cardiac muscle cells. The FET proteins were targeted to stress granules induced by heat shock and oxidative stress and FUS required its RNA-binding domain for this translocation. Furthermore, FUS and TAF15 were detected in spreading initiation centers of adhering cells. Conclusion Our results point to cell-specific expression patterns and functions of the FET proteins rather than the housekeeping roles inferred from earlier studies. The localization of FET proteins to stress granules suggests activities in translational regulation during stress conditions. Roles in central processes such as stress response, translational control and adhesion may explain the FET proteins frequent involvement in human cancer.

Andersson, Mattias K; Stahlberg, Anders; Arvidsson, Yvonne; Olofsson, Anita; Semb, Henrik; Stenman, Goran; Nilsson, Ola; Aman, Pierre

2008-01-01

475

Facility monitoring of chemical warfare agent simulants in air using an automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Vapors of four chemical warfare agent (CWA) stimulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), diethyl malonate (DEM), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate (MeS), were detected, identified, and quantitated using a fully automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. Samples were ionized using a glow discharge electron ionization (GDEI) source, and ions were mass analyzed with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer. A dual-tube thermal desorption system was used to trap compounds on 50:50 Tenax TA/Carboxen 569 sorbent before their thermal release. The sample concentrations ranged from low parts per billion [ppb] to two parts per million [ppm]. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.26 to 5.0 ppb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented for each analyte. A sample of CEES at low ppb concentration was combined separately with two interferents, bleach (saturated vapor) and diesel fuel exhaust (1%), as a way to explore the capability of detecting the simulant in an environmental matrix. Also investigated was a mixture of the four CWA simulants (at concentrations in air ranging from 270 to 380 ppb). Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral data were used to identify and quantify the individual components. PMID:21504010

Smith, Jonell N; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

2011-05-30

476

Naval Special Warfare Command's Implementation of the CFO Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense and the Department of the Navy accounting and budgeting systems are often characterized by the classic problem of 'garbage in, garbage out'. Differences in definitions and classifications of finance categories, human error, and l...

M. J. Sabel

2001-01-01

477

Task Force on Electronic Warfare Test Evaluation Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1993, the House Armed Services Committee (HASC) expressed concerned over the development process for airborne electronic combat systems. The committee stated one reason for this concern was the 'lack of a comprehensive, integrated, and clearly def...

1994-01-01

478

Review of the MDF-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DSTO were given a sample of the Modec Decontamination Foam (MDF)-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System and two Force 1 Decon products (surfactant and sodium hypochlorite) to evaluate and determine their effectiveness against chemical warfare agents (CWAs)....

R. Sferopoulos

2011-01-01

479

Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications  

SciTech Connect

Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06

480

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

481

Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.  

PubMed

The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 ?L of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution. PMID:21535725

Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

482

CDMA Codeword optimization: Interference avoidance and convergence via class warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interference avoidance has been shown to reduce total square correlation (TSC) for givenensembles of user signature waveforms (codewords) in a synchronous CDMA system. In allexperiments we have conducted, sequential application of interference avoidance produces anoptimal codeword set when starting from randomly chosen initial codewords. Here we providethe rst formal proof of convergence to optimal codeword ensembles for greedy interferenceavoidance algorithms

Christopher Rose

2001-01-01

483

Interference Avoidance, Sum Capacity and Convergence Via Class Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interference avoidance has been shown to reduce total average interference (TS C) for given ensem- bles of user signature waveforms (codewords) in a synchronous CDMA system. In all experiments we have conducted, sequential application of interference avoidance produces an optimal codeword set when starting from randomly chosen initial codewords. Here we provide the first formal proof of convergence to optimal

Christopher Rose

2000-01-01

484

Smallpox and biological warfare: the case for abandoning vaccination of military personnel.  

PubMed Central

Smallpox was officially declared eradicated from the world in 1980. Earlier, in 1972, over 50 nations signed the Biological Weapons Convention renouncing this entire category of weapons. Despite this international agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union continue to vaccinate their military troops against smallpox, thus implying that each fears the other might still use it in biological warfare. Vaccination is not a harmless procedure, and vaccinia infections continue to be reported in troops and their contacts. Negotiating an end to the vaccination of troops would be a final step in ending the fear of smallpox.

Capps, L; Vermund, S H; Johnsen, C

1986-01-01

485

Medical defense against blistering chemical warfare agents. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

First used in World War I, chemical blistering agents present a serious medical threat that has stimulated renewed interest in the light of extensive use in recent conflicts. Current medical management cannot yet prevent or minimize injury from the principal agent of concern--sulfur mustard. Research directed at this goal depends on defining effective intervention in the metabolic alterations induced by exposure to sulfur mustard. Chemicals capable of inducing blisters, known as blistering or vesicating agents, have been widely known for more than 150 years. They were extensively used in chemical warfare during World War I, well before the development of the more deadly nerve agents 25 years later.

Smith, W.J.; Dunn, M.A.

1991-08-01

486

High-sensitivity, high-selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report high-sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agents (nerve gases) with very low probability of false positives (PFP). We demonstrate a detection threshold of 1.2 ppb (7.7 ?g/m3 equivalent of Sarin) with a PFP of <1:106 in the presence of many interfering gases present in an urban environment through the detection of diisopropyl methylphosphonate, an accepted relatively harmless surrogate for the nerve agents. For the current measurement time of ~60 s, a PFP of 1:106 corresponds to one false alarm approximately every 23 months. The demonstrated performance satisfies most current homeland and military security requirements.

Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Webber, Michael E.; MacDonald, Tyson; Patel, C. Kumar N.

2006-01-01

487

Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.  

PubMed

Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented. PMID:12188231

Kenar, Levent; Karayilano?lu, Turan; Kose, Songul

2002-08-01

488

Analytical methods for environmental sampling of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products  

SciTech Connect

This first technical conference promoted the standardization of analytical procotols to reliably detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in soil, water, and other complex environmental media. This supports the various chemical weapons disposal and emergency preparedness programs, Chemical Weapons Convention treaty compliance, installation restoration and base closure decisions. Five major topics were addressed: Implementation for treaty compliance, installation, restoration and stockpile disposal decisions, existing analytical methods, practical applications of existing analytical techniques, immunoassay technologies, environmental and biological fate of agents and their degradation products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Watson, A.P. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kistner, S. [ed.] [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

489

Laser mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents using ultrashort laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Fast relaxation processes in excited molecules such as IC, ISC, and fragmentation are observed in many environmentally and technically relevant substances. They cause severe problems to resonance ionization mass spectrometry because they reduce the ionization yield and lead to mass spectra which do not allow the identification of the compound. By the use of ultrashort laser pulses these problems can be overcome and the advantages of REMPI over conventional ionization techniques in mass spectrometry can be regained. This is demonstrated using soil samples contaminated with a chemical warfare agent.

Weickhardt, C.; Grun, C.; Grotemeyer, J. [Lehrstuhl Fuer Physikalische Chemie und Analytik, BTU Cottbus, Am Technologiepark 1, D-03099 Kolkwitz (Germany)

1998-12-16

490

Soil phytoremediation from the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent, yperite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant-based bioremediation (phytoremediation) strategy has been developed and shown to be effective for the clean-up of\\u000a soil contaminated by the breakdown products of the chemical warfare agent (CWA), yperite. The method involves exploiting the\\u000a plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to intensify the phytoremediation. For determination of the yperite breakdown\\u000a products, gas chromatography is used.\\u000a \\u000a Soil and plant samples

Elena A. Zakharova; Paul V. Kosterin; Vitaly V. Brudnik; Alexander A. Shcherbakov; Alexander A. Ponomaryov; Lubov F. Shcherbakova; Vladimir G. Mandich; Eugenii E. Fedorov; Vladimir V. Ignatov

2000-01-01

491

Wargame system modeling and CLIPS-based rule description method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with other large-scale warfare simulation systems, wargame, as a traditional type of warfare simulation, has the advantages of low cost, convenience, practicability, etc. This paper discusses the system structure and class model based on “Future: Korea War” which is a product of U.S. “One Small Step” company's Millennium Wars series strategic-level wargames, and designs wargame umpire rule description method

Xin Tan; Wei Wang; Maojun Zhang

2010-01-01

492

Chromogenic and fluorogenic reagents for chemical warfare nerve agents' detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ease of production, the extreme toxicity of organophosphorus-containing nerve agents, and their facile use in terrorism attacks underscores the need to develop accurate systems to detect these chemicals. Among different technologies we review here recent advances in the design of chromo-fluorogenic methods for the specific detection of nerve agents. Optical sensing (especially colorimetric detection) requires usually low-cost and widely

Santiago Royo; Ramon Martõ ´ nez-Manez; Ana M. Costero; Salvador Gilb; Camino de Vera

493

Strategies for the prevention of a successful biological warfare aerosol attack.  

PubMed

Biological warfare (BW) aerosol attacks are different from chemical attacks in that they may provide no warning/all clear signals that allow the soldier to put on or remove his M17/M40 protective mask. Methods are now being perfected to detect a BW aerosol cloud using an airborne (helicopter) pulsed laser system to scan the lower altitudes upwind from a troop concentration of corps size, and to sample and analyze the nature of the aerosol within a brief time interval. This system has certain limitations and vulnerabilities, since it is designed specifically to detect a line-type aerosol attack. Provision of, training with, and field use of a lightweight dust mist or HEPA filter respirator for each soldier is proposed for protection against undetected aerosol attacks. This particulate filter respirator would be issued in addition to the M17/M40 mask. Such a BW respirator will be able to purify the soldier's air by removing particles in the 0.3- to 15-micro m-diameter range with an efficiency of 98 to 100%. Particle size of BW aerosols is in the same range, with an optimum size for high-efficiency casualty production of 1 to 5 micro m mass median diameter. The proposed BW respirator will be lightweight; will require low inhalation pressures; will be comfortable to wear for prolonged periods; will not interfere with vision, hearing, and communication; and will not degrade overall effectiveness and performance to the degree observed with the M17/M40 masks. Such respirators would be worn as part of a contingency defense against an enemy likely to use BW agents. This respirator could be worn for prolonged periods when under threat of an undetectable BW attack during weather conditions favorable to the success of such an attack (i.e., low wind velocity and temperature inversion in the target area). In addition, tactically important assets such as command and control centers and missile batteries can also be protected continuously by air filtration systems powered by electricity (modular collective protection equipment). Vaccinations against anthrax, botulism, Q fever, plague, and tularemia are now available and immune protection against ricin and staphylococcal toxins appears feasible in the near future. Chemotherapy can also be provided for prophylaxis of infectious agents released on the battlefield. The vaccines and antibiotics can provide back-up protection against an unexpected BW attack during a period when the BW respirator is not in use or malfunctions due to a poor seal or filter leak. Enemy sites of biological weapon production, assembly, testing, and storage, and delivery vehicles can be targeted for destruction by bombs and/or missiles. An integrated, well-planned, BW defense with multiple components can decrease the likelihood of a successful enemy BW aerosol attack. PMID:8855053

Wiener, S L

1996-05-01

494

Detailed investigation of the radical-induced destruction of chemical warfare agent simulants in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The persistence of delivered chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in a variety of environmental matrices is of serious concern to both the military and civilian populations. Ultimately understanding all of the degradation pathways of the various CWAs in different environmental matrices is essential for determining whether native processes would offer sufficient decontamination of a particular material or if active chemical decontamination is required. Whereas much work on base-promoted chemical degradation has been reported, additional remediation strategies such as the use of advanced oxidation or reduction process free radical treatments may also be a viable option. We have examined here the primary kinetics and reaction mechanisms for an extensive library of chemical warfare agent simulants with the oxidizing hydroxyl radical and reducing hydrated electrons in water. From these values, it is seen that the reductive destruction occurs primarily through a single mechanism, consisting of hydrated electron capture at the phosphorus group with subsequent elimination, whereas hydroxyl radical oxidation shows two separate reaction mechanisms, dependent on the aqueous pK(a) of the leaving group. PMID:20469938

Abbott, Amberashley; Sierakowski, Tim; Kiddle, James J; Clark, Kristin K; Mezyk, Stephen P

2010-06-10

495

A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.  

PubMed

The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism. PMID:15605928

Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

2004-11-01

496

Paleoseismology of the southwestern Morelia-Acambay fault system, central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fr The Morelia-Acambay Fault System (MAFS) consists of a sequence of E-W and NNE-SSW trending normal faults within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The fault system is associated to the Chapala, Zacapu, Cuitzeo, Maravatio and Acambay lacustrine depressions. The E-W faults of MAFS appear to be 7-9 million yr old while the NNW-SSE faults are older and were reactivated producing stepped

V. H. Garduño-Monroy; R. Pérez-Lopez; I. Israde-Alcantara; M. A. Rodríguez-Pascua; E. Szynka; V. M. Hernández-Madrigal; M. L. García-Zepeda; P. Corona-Chávez; M. Ostroumov; V. H. Medina-Vega; G. García-Estrada; O. Carranza; E. Lopez-Granados; J. C. Mora Chaparro

2009-01-01

497

Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

2007-05-01

498

Reversal of Bcl-2-mediated resistance of the EW36 human B-cell lymphoma cell line to arsenite- and pesticide-induced apoptosis by PK11195, a ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed

Opening of the permeability transition (PT) pore is a central feature of apoptosis induction by chemical stress. One component of the PT pore, the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (mBzR), has recently received attention for its potential role in modulating PT pore function. Specifically, antagonistic ligands of the mBzR, such as 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline-carboxamide (PK11195), have been shown to sensitize Bcl-2 overexpressing cells to apoptosis induction by facilitating the opening of the PT pore and the subsequent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). We examined whether PK11195 can sensitize EW36, a human B-cell lymphoma cell line that over-expresses Bcl-2, to apoptosis induction and mitochondrial depolarization by environmental chemicals including mitochondrial toxicants. We found that, although EW36 cells are refractory to apoptosis induction by antimycin A, rotenone, pyridaben, alachlor, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (mClCCP), they are dramatically sensitized to induction of apoptosis by low concentrations of these same agents following pre-treatment with PK11195. The sensitization of EW36 cells is accompanied by a rapid and extensive loss of Deltapsim within a few hours following chemical exposure. Furthermore, using sodium arsenite, we examined the role of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and protein synthesis in apoptosis induction in EW36. We found that, unlike untreated cells, EW36 cells treated with PK11195 no longer show an association of JNK pathway activation with apoptosis induction. Importantly, PK11195 eliminates a requirement for protein synthesis in chemically induced apoptosis in EW36 cells. These results show significant drug-mediated alteration of cell sensitivity and JNK pathway activation to environmental chemicals and mitochondrial toxicants, following ligation of the mBzR. PMID:12730627

Muscarella, Donna E; O'Brien, Kerry A; Lemley, Ann T; Bloom, Stephen E

2003-05-02

499

Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study  

PubMed Central

Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P < 0.001). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that those who did not participate in sport activities suffer from a poorer physical health (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.36 to 6.30, P = 0.006). The analysis also showed that poor mental health was associated with longer time since exposure (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.39, P = 0.03) and lower education (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.21 to 7.56, P = 0.01). Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali

2009-01-01

500

Selfishness, warfare, and economics; or integration, cooperation, and biology.  

PubMed

The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. It is necessary to discuss the explaining power of the dominant paradigm. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. In addition to the discussion on the validity of natural selection, modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New hol